Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 227)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.285
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 22  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8760 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8779
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Incense Smoke from
           Agarwood Determined by GC-MS

    • Abstract: Agarwood is generally used to make incense sticks in China and Southeast Asia. It emits smoke with a pleasant odor when burned. There are few reports on the chemical components of smoke generated by burning or heating agarwood. The agarwoods were produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (AWIT), agarwood induced by axe wounds (AAW), burning-chisel-drilling agarwood (BCDA), wood of Aquilaria sinensis trees (AS), respectively. Herein, we used GC-MS to analyze the chemical constituents of incense smoke generated from AWIT, AAW, BCDA, AS, and the extracts of sticks from agarwood produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (EAWIT), and 484 compounds were identified. A total of 61 chemical constituents were shared among AWIT, AAW, and BCDA. The experimental data showed that aromatic compounds were the main chemical constituents in agarwood smoke and that some chromone derivatives could be cracked into low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds (LACs) at high temperature. Furthermore, agarwood incense smoke showed anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced TNF-α and IL-1α release in RAW264.7 cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 03:20:11 +000
  • Comparative Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Nucleosides in Different
           Varieties of Mume Fructus Based on Simultaneous Determination and
           Multivariate Statistical Analyses

    • Abstract: Mume Fructus (MF) contains a variety of organic acids, free amino acids, and nucleoside components, and studies have not yet analyzed the relationship between the components of free amino acids and nucleosides with the varieties of MF. A rapid and sensitive method was established for simultaneous determination of 21 free amino acids and 9 nucleosides in MF by ultrafast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analysis was carried out on a Waters XBridge Amide column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) with elution by the mobile phase of 0.2% aqueous formic acid (A) and 0.2% formic acid acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min with 1 μL per injection. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. The target compounds were analyzed by the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The comprehensive evaluation of the samples was carried out by principal component analysis (PCA) and technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) analysis. Results showed the method could simultaneously determine 30 components in MF. The content of total analytes in six mainstream varieties was different, exhibited the order Nangao > Daqingmei > Zhaoshuimei > Yanmei > Shishengme > Baimei, and aspartic acid and adenosine were the most abundant amino acid and nucleoside. PCA and OPLS-DA could easily distinguish the samples, and 11 components could be chemical markers of sample classification. TOPSIS implied that the quality of Nangao and Daqingmei was superior to the other varieties. The results could provide a reliable basis for quality evaluation and utilisation of medicinal and edible MF.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 02:50:13 +000
  • Evaluation of Salt-Induced Damage to Aged Wood of Historical Wooden

    • Abstract: Salt is a common cause of damage to building materials used in cultural and historical buildings. The damage to aged wood in historical wooden buildings has not been extensively studied, resulting in the need for a more detailed analysis. In this work, Yingxian Wooden Pagoda, a typical historical wooden structure, was taken as the research object. Multichemical analyses were conducted to evaluate and understand the salt-induced damage to the aged wood using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, sulphur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and attenuated total reflectance fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed the presence of invasive salt crystallisations and ions in the aged samples. The source of these invasive elements was deduced by identifying the type, amount, and valency of the elements; they were found to be derived from environmental factors such as acid rain and atmospheric pollutant. The unique damage mechanism and route induced by salt in historical buildings made of wood were summarised; the damage was attributed to the accumulation of sulphate salt causing hydrolysis of the carbohydrates and salt crystallisation resulting in mechanical damage. This interdisciplinary study is significant for decision making in studies related to the preservation and evaluation of historical wooden buildings.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 02:20:12 +000
  • Highly Sensitive Amperometric α-Ketoglutarate Biosensor Based on Reduced
           Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanocomposites

    • Abstract: Herein, a rapid and highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for the detection of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) was constructed via an electrochemical approach, in which the glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was modified on the surface of reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle composite (rGO-Aunano composite). The rGO-Aunano composite was one-step electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. In addition, the rGO-Aunano/GCE was also found to electrocatalyze the oxidation of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at the peak potential of 0.3 V, which was negatively shifted compared with that at bare GCE or Aunano/GCE, illustrating better catalytic performance of rGO-Aunano. After the modification of GLUD, the GLUD/rGO-Aunano/GCE led to effective amperometric detection of α-KG through monitoring the NADH consumption and displayed a linear response in the range of 66.7 and 494.5 μM, with the detection limit of 9.2 μM. Moreover, the prepared GLUD/rGO-Aunano/GCE was further evaluated to be highly selective and used to test α-KG in human serum samples. The recovery and the RSD values were calculated in the range of 97.9–102.4% and 3.8–4.5%, respectively, showing a great prospect for its real application.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 02:05:14 +000
  • Rapid SERS Detection of Thiol-Containing Natural Products in Culturing

    • Abstract: Thiol-containing natural products possess a wide range of bioactivities. The burst of synthetic biology technology facilitates the discovery of new thiol-containing active ingredients. Herein, we report a sensitive, quick, and robust surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology for specific and multiplex detection of thiol-containing compounds without purification requirements and also indicating the thiols with different chemical environments. Using this platform, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous detection of thiol-containing compounds from as low as 1 μM of analytes spiked in complex culture matrices.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:50:16 +000
  • Derivatization of Levoglucosan for Compound-Specific δ13C Analysis by Gas
           Chromatography/Combustion/Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Levoglucosan is a thermal decomposition product of cellulose in particulate matter. δ13C value of levoglucosan could be used in studying the combustion mechanisms and chemical pathways. In order to introduce a minimum number of carbon atoms, based on the stereostructure of levoglucosan, a two-step derivatization method with methylboronic acid and MSTFA was developed and carefully optimized. The recommended reaction temperature is 70°C; the reaction time is 60 min for MBA and 120 min for MSTFA derivatization; and the molar ratio of levoglucosan : MBA : MSTFA is 1 : 1: 100 and 1 : 1: 120 and the reagent volume ratio of MSTFA : pyridine is between 1 : 3 and 1 : 4. The developed method achieved excellent reproducibility and high accuracy. The differences in the carbon isotopic compositions of the target boronate trimethysilylated derivative between the measured and calculated ranged from 0.09 to 0.36‰. The standard deviation of measured δ13C value of levoglucosan was between 0.22 and 0.48‰. The method was applied to particle samples collected from the combustion of cellulose at four different temperatures. δ13C values of levoglucosan in particle samples generated from a self-made combustion setup suggesting that combustion temperature play a little role on isotope fractionation of levoglucosan, although 13C enriched in levoglucosan during the combustion process.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Jul 2020 12:05:05 +000
  • A Versatile SERS Sensor for Multiple Determinations of Polycyclic Aromatic
           Hydrocarbons and Its Application Potential in Analysis of Fried Foods

    • Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to their high hydrophobicity, have low affinity for metallic SERS-active surfaces, which leads to their low SERS detection sensitivity. Various functional groups have been used to improve the affinity of metallic substrates towards the target PAHs. However, a large portion of the signals generated from the “first-layer effect” of the functionalized substrates may complicate the spectrum, leading to a distortion in the assignment of the intrinsic SERS fingerprints of PAHs. In this study, a SERS sensor composed of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and reoxidized graphene oxide (rGO) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 EPA priority PAHs. The synthesis of the rGO/AuNP substrate can be realized without a complicated modification process. All the 16 PAHs could be identified based on their characteristic peaks in the presence of the composited substrate, with estimated LOD as low as 0.2–2 ng·mL−1. The binary linear regression was optimized as the fitting model for all PAHs except for benzo(k)fluoranthene, with the linear correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9889 to 0.9997. Based on the developed SERS substrates and sample pretreatment, the characteristic SERS peaks of four PAHs in Chinese traditional fried food (youtiao) were identified without any background interference. The whole detection process only takes approximately 15 minutes. The results demonstrate the potential of the multicomponent on-field detection of PAHs.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jul 2020 14:20:07 +000
  • Simultaneous Quantification of γ-Hydroxybutyrate, γ-Butyrolactone, and
           1,4-Butanediol in Four Kinds of Beverages

    • Abstract: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a neurotransmitter, which exhibits a strong central nervous system depressant effect. The abuse of GHB or its precursor substances (γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)) may cause serious problems. This study developed a fast and effective UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD in four popular beverages, including carbonated drinks, tea, apple cider vinegar, and coffee. The established method overcomes the influence of the in-source collision-induced dissociation of unstable compounds during quantification. The limits of detection were 0.2 μg/mL for GBL and 0.5 μg/mL for GHB and 1,4-BD with excellent linearity in the range of 0.2–50 μg/mL. The recoveries of the three compounds at three spiked levels (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/mL) in the four kinds of beverages studied were between 90 and 110%, while the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were all
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jul 2020 09:35:04 +000
  • Prevalidation of an ELISA for Detection of a New Clinical Entity:
           Leishmania donovani-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    • Abstract: Human leishmaniasis which is considered a neglected tropical parasitic disease presents in three main clinical forms (i.e., cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)) that are mainly determined by its causative species. Leishmania donovani, the most virulent and visceralizing parasite, is increasingly reported to cause CL in many countries in the world. Although CL is generally not considered to evoke a humoral immune response except for a nonrobust and a variable response in minority of cases, VL is associated with a clear strong humoral response. However, humoral response in L. donovani-induced CL has not been well evaluated before. A suitable serology-based assay is an essential primary step in such a study. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on Leishmania promastigote crude antigen (Ag) was designed and optimized in order to utilize in further serological studies on this new clinical entity. Optimization included quantification of crude Ag, checkerboard titration method for determination of optimal concentrations for coating Ag, human sera and secondary antibody (Ab) with suitable coating buffer, blocking buffer, and incubating temperatures. The selected coating buffer was 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, and the blocking buffer was 2% fetal bovine serum with 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline. At least 1 μg of crude Ag was required for coating the ELISA plate, while 1 : 1000 serum was used as primary Ab. The optimized concentration of secondary Ab was 1 : 64000 which might be altered according to manufacturer recommendations. The assay specificity was pre-evaluated using sera (n = 20 from each category) from confirmed CL patients and controls (other skin diseases which mimic CL, other systemic diseases that mimic VL, nonendemic healthy controls, and endemic healthy controls). This procedure described an optimization procedure of an ELISA technique for detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in patients with L. donovani caused CL.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jul 2020 09:35:04 +000
  • Evaluation of Volatile Compounds during the Fermentation Process of
           Yogurts by Streptococcus thermophilus Based on Odor Activity Value and
           Heat Map Analysis

    • Abstract: The volatile composition of yogurt produced by Streptococcus thermophilus fermentation at different time points was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with simultaneous distillation and extraction. A total of 53 volatile compounds including 11 aldehydes, 10 ketones, 8 acids, 7 benzene derivatives, 13 hydrocarbons, and 4 other compounds were identified in all of the samples. Ketones and hydrocarbons were the predominant volatile components in the early stage, whereas acids were the predominant volatiles in the late stage. The importance of each volatile was evaluated based on odor, threshold, and odor activity values (OAVs). Twenty-nine volatiles were found to be odor-active compounds (OAV > 1), among which (E, E)-2,4-decadienal had the highest OAV (14623–22278). Other aldehydes and ketones such as octanal, dodecanal, 2-nonen-4-one, and 2-undecanone also showed high odor intensity during fermentation. Heat map analysis was employed to evaluate the differences during fermentation. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the content and OAVs of volatile compounds enables the good differentiation of yogurt during fermentation.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jul 2020 13:05:02 +000
  • Rapid Detection of Kaempferol Using Surface Molecularly Imprinted
           Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Embedded with Carbon Dots

    • Abstract: This work demonstrates rapid sensing of kaempferol using active sensing material synthesized using the one-pot surface-imprinting synthesis method. This sensor consisted of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) consisting of mesoporous molecular sieves (SBA-15) loaded with carbon dots (CDs). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed successful incorporation of CDs onto the surface of imprinted mesoporous molecular sieves. Ordered hexagonal arrays of CDs@SBA-15@MIP mesopore structure were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy. Fluorescence intensity of CDs@SBA-15@MIP composites linearly correlated with kaempferol content in the 0.05–2 mg/L range. Detection limit was 14 μg/L. MIPs were used for efficient detection of kaempferol in fruit and vegetable samples with recovery values from 80% to 112%. The method has high sensitivity, low cost, good selectivity, and many application potentials useful for research and development of flavonoid monomer presence in food.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 13:20:02 +000
  • Evaluation of the Effects of Paclobutrazol and Cultivation Years on
           Saponins in Ophiopogon japonicus Using UPLC-ELSD

    • Abstract: Nowadays, there is a growing concern about the quality of herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of paclobutrazol and cultivation period on steroid saponins in Ophiopogon japonicus. A rapid method to simultaneously determine three principle steroid saponins (ophiopogonins B, D, and D′) using ultraperformance liquid chromatography combined with an evaporative light-scattering detector was developed. The contents of three saponins in paclobutrazol-treated and nontreated Sichuan O. japonicus and those in the 2-year and 3-year Zhejiang O. japonicus were analyzed. The results showed that the saponin contents were sharply reduced in paclobutrazol-treated O. japonicus as compared to the control, whereas the concentrations of the three targeted saponins in Zhejiang O. japonicus varied with the increase in cultivation years, reflecting varied effects on saponins. Our study provided chemical evidences for further quality control and agricultural practices of O. japonicus.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Synthesized Codrug in
           Combination with Indomethacin, Paracetamol, and Famotidine

    • Abstract: Background. Indomethacin is considered a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that could be combined with Paracetamol to have superior and synergist activity to manage pain and inflammation. To reduce the gastric side effect, they could be combined with Famotidine. Methodology. A codrug of Indomethacin and Paracetamol was synthesized and combined in solution with Famotidine. The quantification of the pharmaceutically active ingredients is pivotal in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. Therefore, a novel reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated according to the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) Q2R1 guidelines. A reverse phase C18 column with a mobile phase acetonitrile: sodium acetate buffer 60 : 40 at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min and pH 5 was utilized. Results. The developed method showed good separation of the four tested drugs with a linear range of 0.01–0.1 mg/mL (R2 > 0.99). The LODs for FAM, PAR, IND, and codrug were 3.076 × 10−9, 3.868 × 10−10, 1.066 × 10−9, and 4.402 × 10−9 mg/mL respectively. While the LOQs were 9.322 × 10−9, 1.172 × 10−10, 3.232 × 10−9, and 1.334 × 10−8 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the method was precise, accurate, selective, and robust with values of relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 2%. Moreover, the developed method was applied to study the in vitro hydrolysis and conversion of codrug into Indomethacin and Paracetamol. Conclusion. The codrug of Indomethacin and Paracetamol was successfully synthesized for the first time. Moreover, the developed analytical method, to our knowledge, is the first of its kind to simultaneously quantify four solutions containing the following active ingredients of codrug, Indomethacin, Paracetamol, and Famotidine mixture with added pharmaceutical inactive ingredients in one HPLC run.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:05:05 +000
  • Comprehensive Screening and Identification of Phillyrin Metabolites in
           Rats Based on UHPLC-Q-Exactive Mass Spectrometry Combined with
           Multi-Channel Data Mining

    • Abstract: Phillyrin, a well-known bisepoxylignan, has been shown to have many critical pharmacological activities. In this study, a novel strategy for the extensive acquisition and use of data was established based on UHPLC-Q-Exactive mass spectrometry to analyze and identify the in vivo metabolites of phillyrin and to elucidate the in vivo metabolic pathways of phillyrin. Among them, the generation of data sets was mainly due to multichannel data mining methods, such as high extracted ion chromatogram (HEIC), diagnostic product ion (DPI), and neutral loss filtering (NLF). A total of 60 metabolites (including the prototype compound) were identified in positive and negative ion modes based on intuitive and useful data such as the standard’s cleavage rule, accurate molecular mass, and chromatographic retention time. The results showed that a series of biological reactions of phillyrin in vivo mainly included methylation, hydroxylation, hydrogenation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, demethylation, and dehydrogenation and their composite reactions. In summary, this study not only comprehensively explained the in vivo metabolism of phillyrin, but also proposed an effective strategy to quickly analyze and identify the metabolites of natural pharmaceutical ingredients in nature.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 10:05:02 +000
  • Relationship between the Molecular Coil Dimension and the Energy Storage
           Modulus of Polymer Solution Configured with Oilfield-Produced Sewage

    • Abstract: Polymer viscoelastic solution is the non-Newtonian fluid and widely used in oil production. In the process of seepage, the mechanism of the polymer solution with different molecular coil dimensions (Dh) flooding on remaining oil is unknown. By using the dynamic light scattering instrument, the molecular coil dimension of the polymer solution is tested. By using the HAAKE rheometer, the creep recovery test data of the polymer solution under the same creep time condition are obtained. The effects of polymer solutions with different Dh on residual oil are observed, by using the visible pore model. The results show that the higher the molecular weight (Mw) of the polymer, the larger the size of the molecular coil dimension. The elasticity characteristics of the polymer solution are sensitive to the molecular coil dimension. As Dh of polymer molecules becomes larger, the contribution of the elastic portion to the viscosity of the polymer solution increases. The higher the Mw of polymer is, the longer the molecular chain is and the size of Dh is larger. On the condition of the polymer solution with different Mw with 2.5 g/L, when Dh is between 320.0 nm and 327.8 nm, the ratio of the elastic part in the apparent viscosity exceeds the proportion of the viscous part, and the polymer solution composition after these data can be used as a comparative study of elasticity for residual oil use. In the visible pore model, the pore-throat ratio is 3.5, the ER of water flooding is 54.26%, the ER of the polymer solution with Dh = 159.7 nm is 75.28%, and the increase of ER is 21.02% than that of water flooding. With the increase of Dh to 327.8 nm, the final ER of the experimental polymer solution is 97.82%, and the increase of ER of the polymer solution than that of water flooding is 43.56%. However, in the model with a pore-throat ratio of 7.0 and the same polymer solution with Dh = 327.8 nm, the increase of ER of the polymer solution is only 10.44% higher than that of water flooding. The effect of the polymer solution with the same Dh is deteriorated with the increase of the pore-throat ratio.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 14:20:04 +000
  • Colorimetric Sensor Based on β-Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Silver
           Nanoparticles for Zidovudine Sensitive Determination

    • Abstract: Zidovudine (ZDV) is an antiviral drug against HIV that was approved by the FDA on March, 1987. It is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This type of drug stops the reproduction of DNA and decreases the amount of the virus in the patients’ blood. Due to the ability of forming various molecular bonds, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used for the detection of large range of agents, including drugs. In this study, we synthesized AgNP-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) using green synthesis for the sensitive and selective zidovudine (ZDV) determination. Characterization of nanoparticles was done using different methods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The AgNP λ-max peak was at approximately 405 nm. In the presence of ZDV, yellow solution was turned to red color, and surface plasmon absorption band was dramatically centered at 560 nm. ZDV was determined in the range of 50–500 μM, and the detection limit value was obtained as 42 μM. The sensor was used to determine ZDV in tablets with good recovery.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jun 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Development of the High Sensitivity and Selectivity Method for the
           Determination of Histamine in Fish and Fish Sauce from Vietnam by

    • Abstract: A selective, sensitive, and rapid method by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of histamine in fish and fish sauce was developed. The optimal conditions of liquid chromatographic separation and mass spectroscopy of histamine have also been investigated. The linear ranges of the method were 20.0 ÷ 1000 ng/mL, and the corresponding correlation coefficient was 0.9993. Mean recoveries of the analyte at three spike levels (low, medium, and high) were within the range of 98.5% ÷ 102.5% (n = 7). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 3.83 and 11.50 ng/mL for the fish sauce sample and 4.71 and 14.12 ng/mL for the fish sample, respectively. The influence of the matrix effect on the accuracy, repeatability, and recovery of the method was negligible. The recommended method was applied to determine the content of this substance in 21 fish sauce samples and 4 kinds of fish samples, which were collected from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in 2019.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jun 2020 08:50:03 +000
  • Pharmacokinetics of Lusutrombopag, a Novel Thrombopoietin Receptor
           Agonist, in Rats by UPLC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Lusutrombopag is a second oral thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist that selectively acts on human TPO receptors. In the study, UPLC-MS/MS was used to establish a selective and sensitive method to determine lusutrombopag with poziotinib as IS (internal standard) in rat plasma. Samples were prepared by precipitating protein with acetonitrile as a precipitant. Separation of lusutrombopag and poziotinib was performed on a CORTECS UPLC C18 column (2.1 ∗ 50 mm, 1.6 μm). The mobile phase (acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution was set at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The mass spectrometric measurement was conducted under positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of m/z 592.97 ⟶ 491.02 for lusutrombopag and m/z for poziotinib (IS) 492.06 ⟶ 354.55. The linear calibration curve of the concentration range was 2–2000 ng/ml for lusutrombopag, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 2 ng/ml. RSD of interday and intraday precision were both no more than 9.66% with the accuracy ranging from 105.82% to 108.27%. The extraction recovery of lusutrombopag was between 82.15% and 90.34%. The developed and validated method was perfectly used in the pharmacokinetic study of lusutrombopag after oral administration in rats.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 May 2020 13:35:04 +000
  • Analysis of Acrylamide in Dried Blood Spots of Lung Cancer Patients by
           Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Acrylamide (AA) is a carcinogenic substance found in food, cigarette smoke and in an environment exposed to acrylamide. This study aims to analyze AA levels in dried blood spot (DBS) samples of lung cancer patients with smoking record, without smoking record, and also in the negative blank. Analysis of AA levels was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and DBS extraction using protein precipitation techniques. Mass detection was done using positive electron spray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) type with m/z values of 71.99 > 55.23 for acrylamide and m/z 260.16 > 116.04 for propranolol as the internal standard. AA levels in lung cancer patients with smoking record is in the range of 4.670 μg/mL to 11.986 μg/mL. AA levels in lung cancer patients without smoking record is in the range of 2.041 μg/mL to 12.702 μg/mL. Data on AA levels on negative blanks is in the range of 2.72 μg/mL to 3.51 μg/mL. The results of the independent sample t-test () showed that AA levels in patients with smoking record and those without smoking record did not differ significantly. Then, the Mann-Whitney test was performed between the lung cancer group and the negative blank group and a significant difference was found between the two groups ().
      PubDate: Tue, 19 May 2020 04:20:02 +000
  • A Validated RP-HPLC Stability Method for the Estimation of Chlorthalidone
           and Its Process-Related Impurities in an API and Tablet Formulation

    • Abstract: Low-dose thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics are widely used as first-line therapy for hypertension. Chlorthalidone, a monosulfamyl diuretic, is frequently prescribed in cases of hypertension and congestive heart failure. In this research paper, an improved reverse-phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of pharmacopoeia-listed and in-house process- and degradation-related impurities of chlorthalidone in bulk drug and formulations. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C8 column (250 × 4.6 mm; ‘5 μm particle size) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min with a 220 nm detection wavelength. Mobile phase A consisted of buffer solution (diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate (10 mM, pH 5.5)) and methanol at a 65 : 35 ratio (v/v), and mobile phase B consisted of buffer solution and methanol at a 50 : 50 ratio (v/v). The API and formulation were subjected to stress conditions such as acid, alkali, oxidation, thermal, and photolytic conditions. Validation studies for the in-house process impurities were performed for specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. Thus, an improved RP-HPLC method capable of good separation of all known and unknown impurities with acceptable resolution and tailing factor was developed.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Apr 2020 11:35:02 +000
  • Formulation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Lab-Based Aloe adigratana
           Reynolds Shampoos

    • Abstract: Aloe L. species (Aloaceae) are ethnobotanically very valuable plants in many communities and civilizations. Nonetheless, very few species are extensively studied to explore their applications in the pharmaceutical and medical, cosmetic and personal care, food and beverage, and detergent industries. This study evaluated the characteristics and quality of lab-based shampoos formulated from the gel of Aloe adigratana Reynolds. Five shampoo formulations, 20 mL each, were prepared from A. adigratana gel in combination with one to two drops of coconut oil, jojoba oil, olive oil, pure glycerin oil, lemon juice, and vitamin E. Gel mass is prepared from mature, healthy leaves collected from the natural stand. The phytochemistry of the gel of the plant was also studied using phytochemical screening, proximate composition, and GC-MS analysis studies. Shampoo formulations with higher proportion (40 to 50% v/v) of A. adigratana gel were found to have comparable characteristics and qualities with a marketed shampoo. They fall within the range of acceptable quality parameters of commercial shampoos. The phytochemical studies of A. adigratana gel showed that the plant is the source of highly valued compounds for the preparation of shampoos. The gel was found to be rich in saponins as well as dodecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and phytol. Future works should focus in the development of refined protocol towards formulating A. adigratana-based shampoos.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Apr 2020 06:05:03 +000
  • Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Content of Five
           Lonicera Flowers by HPLC-DAD/MS-DPPH and Chemometrics

    • Abstract: The Lonicera plants (family Caprifoliaceae) with strong antioxidant activity are used as potential health-supporting phytochemicals. Studying the detailed relationships between bioactive compounds and their antioxidant activity is important for further comprehensive development and application of them. In this paper, the antioxidant capacities and compositions of five species of Lonicera flowers were investigated by using the online HPLC-DAD/MS-DPPH method. Results indicated that the samples contained higher amounts of phenols had better antioxidant activity. Furthermore, principal component analysis and linear regression were further used to analyze the correlations between antioxidant capacity and compounds and find the compounds having higher contribution to antioxidant activity. 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, methyl-5-O-caffeoylquinate, 1,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid were screened as stronger antioxidant candidates. In this study, HPLC-DAD/MS and antioxidant activity methods were combined together to analyze the compounds’ information and activity assays of Lonicera, which might provide more evidence for its quality control.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:50:08 +000
  • Extraction-Free, Direct Determination of Caffeine in Microliter Volumes of
           Beverages by Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: An extraction-free method requiring microliter (μL) volumes has been developed for the determination of caffeine in beverages. Using a pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry system, the conditions required for the direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) determination of caffeine were optimised. A 5 μL aliquot was introduced to the thermal desorption unit, dried, and thermally desorbed to the GC/MS. The response was linear over the range 10 to 500 μg/mL (R2 = 0.996). The theoretical limit of detection (3 σ) was 0.456 μg/mL. No interferences were recorded from endogenous beverage components or from commonly occurring drugs, such as nicotine, ibuprofen, and paracetamol. Replicate caffeine determinations on fortified latte style white coffee and Pepsi Max® gave mean recoveries of 93.4% (%CV = 4.1%) and 95.0% (%CV = 0.98%), respectively. Good agreement was also obtained with the stated values of caffeine for an energy drink and for Coca-Cola®. These data suggest that the method holds promise for the determination of caffeine in such samples.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:35:03 +000
  • Development and Validation of UPLC-MS/MS Method for Determination of
           Enasidenib in Rat Plasma and Its Pharmacokinetic Application

    • Abstract: In our research, a straightforward UPLC-MS/MS method, with diazepam as the internal standard (IS), was proposed and acknowledged to determine the concentrations of enasidenib in rat plasma. When preparing the sample, we used acetonitrile for protein precipitation. The gradient elution method was used, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. Diazepam was used as the IS. We used the Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column to separate enasidenib and IS. Under the positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) source conditions, the mass transfer pairs of enasidenib were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to be m/z 474.2 ⟶ 456.1 and m/z 474.2 ⟶ 267.0, and the IS mass transfer pairs were m/z 285.0 ⟶ 154.0. Enasidenib had good linearity (r2 = 0.9985) in the concentration range of 1.0–1000 ng/mL. Besides, the values of intraday and interday precision were 2.25–8.40% and 3.94–5.46%, respectively, and the range of the accuracy values varied from −1.44 to 2.34%. Matrix effect, extraction recovery, and stability were compliant with FDA approval guidelines in terms of bioanalytical method validation. We had established a new method that had been applied to the pharmacokinetic study of enasidenib in rats.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 16:35:11 +000
  • Experimental and Theoretical Study on the False Positive of Monomethyltin
           Determination in Toys Based on Gastric Juice Migration

    • Abstract: Background. Organic tin compounds (OTCs), a group of high-risk hazardous substances, are highly concerned in safety regulation of consumer products especially for toys because they can cause serious damage to organs after prolonged or repeated exposure. Gastric juice migration is nowadays widely implemented to assess organic tin intake from toys or food-contact materials; however, the followed up detection method using sodium tetraethylborate [NaB(Et4)] as a derivatization agent may directly lead to false positive of monomethyltins (MMT). Objective. In order to avoid the phenomena of false positive of MMT in the course of laboratory testing of toys, it is necessary and important to perform relative experimental and theoretical studies to reveal the cause of false positive of MMT. Method. With metal tin powder as a representative of inorganic tin which existed in real samples, it was treated with artificial gastric juice (0.07 mol/L·HCl), followed by ethyl derivatization using sodium tetraethylborate [NaB(Et)4] and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) according to the procedure specified in the standard of EN 71-3:2013+A3:2018 issued by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Results. Without any OTCs in the starting materials, MMT false positive can be reproduced by detecting 0.56 mg/L of triethylmethyltin (TEMT) together with approximately 1000 mg/L of tetraethyltin (TeET), which is similar to real samples. Further, it is demonstrated that the detected amount of TEMT is linearly related with the added amount of NaB(Et)4, and that the formation of TEMT (methyl derivative) is easier than TeET (ethyl derivative) even though the ethyl group is present in a larger amount than the methyl group. Conclusions. The phenomena of MMT false positive which occurred in the laboratory testing of toys is mainly because that TEMT is highly likely to be obtained from the reaction of inorganic tin and trace level of methylation agent impurities contained in the derivatization reagent—NaB(Et)4. To avoid MMT false positive, it is concluded that the maximum acceptable mole ratio of methylation agent impurities contained in NaB(Et)4 is approximately 0.028%. This research is helpful to be aware of methylation impurities and is favorable to avoid false judgment caused by MMT false positive in routine analysis of toys.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 11:20:07 +000
  • A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Glyoxylic Acid in
           Its Synthesis Mixture

    • Abstract: A new simple and reliable spectrophotometric method is described to determine glyoxylic acid in its synthesis reaction mixture containing oxalic acid, glycolic acid, acetic acid, glyoxal, and ethylene glycol by means of a modified Hopkins–Cole reaction between glyoxylic acid and tryptophan in presence of ferric chloride and concentrated sulphuric acid. The linear range of glyoxylic acid concentration is 0–0.028 M. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) are 0.0019 M and 0.00577 M, respectively. The LOD, LOQ, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, and recovery ratio of the proposed method are comparable with a selected HPLC reference method. Both methods displayed same precision and credibility. Reaction stoichiometry between tryptophan and glyoxylic acid is assumed to be 2 : 3. Reaction mechanism has been postulated based on identified molar ratios of reactants. Glyoxal gave a negative test with tryptophan although it is a dialdehyde.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 09:35:02 +000
  • Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds in
           Blumea balsamifera (Ai-Na-Xiang, Sembung) by High-Performance Liquid
           Chromatography with Photodiode Array Detector

    • Abstract: A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 18 polyphenolic compounds from the leaves of Blumea balsamifera, including 17 flavonoids and 1 phenylethanone. The B. balsamifera extraction was separated by a Kromasil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a binary gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.2% aqueous acetic acid. A photodiode array detector (PDA) was used to record the signals of investigated constituents. The linearity, sensitivity, stability, precision, and accuracy of the established assay methods were assessed to meet the requirements of quantitative determination. Samples extracted by reflux in 25 mL of 80% methanol for 30 minutes were selected for the extraction method. The 18 compounds were accurately identified by comparing with the reference compounds. The purity of each peak was confirmed by the base peak in the mass spectrum. The contents of 18 compounds in Blumea samples from four different regions were successfully determined. The results also showed that 3,3′,5,7-tetrahydroxy-4′-methoxyflavanone was the most abundant constituent, which could be used as a potential chemical marker for quality control of B. balsamifera and Chinese patent medications containing B. balsamifera herb.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Mar 2020 08:50:04 +000
  • Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for the
           Detection of Rhein in Rheum officinale

    • Abstract: Rhein is an important quality-control marker of Rheum officinale. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for rhein detection, which acts as a powerful tool for quality control and proper usage of Rheum officinale. First, a specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) against rhein was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line, 1F8, generated by the fusion of mouse myeloma sp2/0 with spleen cells obtained from a Bal b/c mouse immunized with rhein-BSA. Then, an icELISA method was developed with an IC50 value and working range of 0.05 μg L−1 and 0.02–0.11 μg L−1, respectively. The icELISA revealed high assay specificity, since it only had a relatively high cross reactivity with aloe-emodin (27%) and almost no cross reactivity with any other anthraquinones (
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 14:35:04 +000
  • Quantification of Soluble or Insoluble Fractions of Leishmania Parasite
           Proteins in Microvolume Applications: A Simplification to Standard Lowry

    • Abstract: Protein quantification is often an essential step in any research field that involves proteins. Although the standard Lowry assay and its modifications are most abundantly used in protein quantification, the existing methods are rigid or often demonstrate nonlinearity between protein concentration and color intensity. A method for fast and accurate qualitative and/or quantitative determination of total soluble/insoluble proteins or micro-well plate immobilized proteins isolated from Leishmania parasites in microvolumes was described in the current study. Improvements in cost-effective techniques are necessary to increase the research outputs in resource-limited settings. This method is a modification to the established Lowry assay for protein quantification. Concentrations of unknown samples were calculated using a standard curve prepared using a standard series of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The optimized reagents were 2 N NaOH (sodium hydroxide), 2% Na2CO3 (sodium carbonate), 1% CuSO4 (copper sulfate), 2% KNaC4H4O6 (potassium sodium tartrate), and 2 N Folin and Ciocalteu’s phenol. This modified protein assay was sensitive for quantifying Leishmania proteins in a total crude extract or in a soluble fraction within the approximate range of 10–500 μg/ml (1–50 μg/assay) and showed a linearity between color intensity and concentration of the protein. This is an easier, fast, and accurate method for quantifying proteins with microvolumes in a cost-effective manner for routine use in research laboratories in resource-limited settings.
      PubDate: Fri, 13 Mar 2020 04:35:02 +000
  • Simultaneous Determination of 13 Constituents of Radix Polygoni Multiflori
           in Rat Plasma and Its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

    • Abstract: Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) has been widely used to treat various diseases in Asian countries for many centuries. Although, stilbenes and anthraquinones, two major components of RPM, show various bioactive effects, it has been speculated that the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity induced by RPM may be related to these constituents. However, information on the pharmacokinetics of stilbenes and anthraquinones at a subtoxic dose of RPM is limited. A simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of 13 ingredients of RPM, including chrysophanol, emodin, aloe-emodin, rhein, physcion, questin, citreorosein, questinol, 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, torachrysone-8-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside, in rat plasma was established. Acetonitrile was employed to precipitate the plasma with appropriate sensitivity and acceptable matrix effects. Chromatographic separation was performed using a waters HSS C18 column with a gradient elution using water and acetonitrile both containing 0.025% formic acid within a run time of 9 min. The constituents were detected in negative ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effects, and stability. The lower limit of quantitation of the analytes was 0.1–1 ng/mL. The intrabatch and interbatch accuracies were 87.1–109%, and the precision was within the acceptable limits. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of RPM extract to rats at a subtoxic dose of 36 g/kg.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 10:20:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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