Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 23  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Comparison of Weibull Estimation Methods for Diverse Winds

    • Abstract: Wind farm siting relies on in situ measurements and statistical analysis of the wind distribution. The current statistical methods include distribution functions. The one that is known to provide the best fit to the nature of the wind is the Weibull distribution function. It is relatively straightforward to parameterize wind resources with the Weibull function if the distribution fits what the function represents but the estimation process gets complicated if the distribution of the wind is diverse in terms of speed and direction. In this study, data from a 101 m meteorological mast were used to test several estimation methods. The available data display seasonal variations, with low wind speeds in different seasons and effects of a moderately complex surrounding. The results show that the maximum likelihood method is much more successful than industry standard WAsP method when the diverse winds with high percentile of low wind speed occur.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 12:50:02 +000
  • Contribution of Spatial Heterogeneity and Temporal-Spatial Change of
           Ecosystems to the Thermal Environment of Tourist Destinations: A Case
           Study of Sichuan-Chongqing Region, China

    • Abstract: Tourism development activities affect the structure and functions of ecosystems directly triggering changes in the thermal environment of tourism destinations and raising a need for sustainable development of the tourism industry. Using the 2005–2015 moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data on the land surface temperature combined with the land use data, the urban thermal environment contribution index (CI) of prefecture-level cities and ecosystem types corresponding to the study area in Sichuan-Chongqing region were quantitatively calculated under various seasonal and diurnal conditions in terms of the scales of administrative divisions and ecosystem types. The characteristics of the roles played by different cities and ecosystem types to contribute to the thermal environment of the metropolitan region were summarized, and the differences and changes in the corresponding contribution intensity of various ecosystem types were measured. The results indicate the following: (1) Different cities play different roles as the sources and sinks with respect to the thermal environment in the daytime and nighttime. Based on the diurnal differences of the contribution indices, cities can be divided into three types: the day-night heat source type, the day-sink and night-source type, and the day-night heat sink type. (2) The farmland and the grassland ecosystems are the most important source and sink landscapes in the thermal environment of the Sichuan-Chongqing Region, respectively. (3) The region is affected by the spatial arrangement of the internal ecosystems and its own development conditions, and, consequently, there are significant temporal-spatial variations and role transitions between heat source and heat sink regarding the contribution of different ecosystem types to the thermal environment of individual cities. It is important to scientifically regulate the thermal environment effect on tourism destinations and maintain the comfort and sustainable development through identifying the source and sink ecosystems of the thermal environment, controlling the quantity and spatial arrangement of the heat source ecosystems, and fully enabling the cooling effect of the heat sink ecosystems.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 07:35:02 +000
  • Impacts of Climatic Change on Reference Crop Evapotranspiration across
           Different Climatic Zones of Ningxia at Multi-Time Scales from 1957 to 2018

    • Abstract: The impact of global climate change on agroecosystems is growing, affecting reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and subsequent agricultural water management. In this study, the climate factors temporal trends, the spatiotemporal variation, and the climate driving factors of ET0 at different time scales were evaluated across the Northern Yellow River Irrigation Area (NYR), Central Arid Zone (CAZ), and Southern Mountain Area (SMA) of Ningxia based on 20 climatic stations’ daily data from 1957 to 2018. The results showed that the Tmean (daily mean air temperature), Tmax (daily maximum air temperature), and Tmin (daily minimum air temperature) all had increased significantly over the past 62 years, whilst RH (relative humidity), U2 (wind speed at 2 m height), and SD (sunshine duration) had significantly decreasing trends across all climatic zones. At monthly scale, the ET0 was mainly concentrated from April to September. And at annual and seasonal scales, the overall increasing trends were more pronounced in NX, NYR, and SMA, while CAZ was the opposite. For the spatial distribution, ET0 presented a trend of rising first and then falling at all time scales. The abrupt change point for climatic factors and ET0 series was obtained at approximately 1990 across all climatic zones, and the ET0 had a long period of 25a and a short period of 10a at annual scale, while it was 15a and 5a at seasonal scale. RH and Tmax were the most sensitive climatic factors at the annual and seasonal scales, while the largest contribution rates were Tmax and SD. This study not only is important for the understanding of ET0 changes but also provides the preliminary and elementary reference for agriculture water management in Ningxia.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 15:35:02 +000
  • Evaluation of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance Model for
           Pastureland Evapotranspiration Mapping and Drought Monitoring in North
           Central Kentucky

    • Abstract: The use of remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) for field applications in drought monitoring and assessment is gaining momentum, but meeting this need has been hampered by the absence of extensive ground-based measurement stations for ground validation across agricultural zones and natural landscapes. This is particularly crucial for regions more prone to recurring droughts with limited ground monitoring stations. A three-year (2016–2018) flux ET dataset from a pastureland in north central Kentucky was used to validate the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at monthly and annual scales. Flux and SSEBop ET track each other in a consistent manner in response to seasonal changes. The mean bias error (MBE), root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and coefficient of determination (R2) were 5.47, 21.49 mm mon−1, 30.94%, and 0.87, respectively. The model consistently underestimated ET values during winter months and overestimated them during summer months. SSEBop’s monthly ET anomaly maps show spatial ET distribution and its accurate representation. This is particularly important in areas where detailed surface meteorological and hydrological data are limited. Overall, the model estimated monthly ET magnitude satisfactorily and captured it seasonally. The SSEBop’s functionality for remote ET estimation and anomaly detection, if properly coupled with ground measurements, can significantly enhance SSEBop’s ability to monitor drought occurrence and prevalence quickly and accurately.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 15:35:03 +000
  • Effectof Unit Hydrographs and Rainfall Hyetographs on Critical Rainfall
           Estimates of Flash Flood

    • Abstract: To obtain critical rainfall (CR) estimates similar to the rainfall value that causes minor basin outlet flooding, and to reduce the flash flood warning missed/false alarm rate, the effect of unit hydrographs (UHs) and rainfall hyetographs on computed threshold rainfall (TR) values was investigated. The Tanjia River basin which is a headwater subbasin of the Greater Huai River basin in China was selected as study basin. Xin’anjiang Model, with subbasins as computation units, was constructed, and time-variant distributed unit hydrographs (TVUHs) were used to route the channel network concentration. Calibrated Xin’anjiang Model was employed to derive the TVUHs and to obtain the maximum critical rainfall duration (Dmax) of the study basin. Initial soil moisture condition was represented by the antecedent precipitation index (Pa). Rainfall hyetographs characterized by linearly increasing, linearly decreasing, and uniform hyetographs were used. Different combinations of the three hyetographs and UHs including TVUHs and time-invariant unit hydrographs (TIVUHs) were utilized as input to the calibrated Xin’anjiang Model to compute the relationships between TR and Pa (TR-Pa curves) by using trial and error methodology. The computed TR-Pa curves reveal that, for given Pa and UH, the TR corresponding to linearly increasing hyetograph is the minimum one. So, the linearly increasing hyetograph is the optimum hyetograph type for estimating CR. In the linearly increasing hyetograph context, a comparison was performed between TR-Pa curves computed from different UHs. The results show that TR values for different TIVUHs are significantly different and the TR-Pa curve gradient of TVUHs is lower than that of TIVUHs. It is observed that CR corresponds to the combination of linearly increasing hyetograph and TVUHs. The relationship between CR and Pa (CR-Pa curves) and that between CR and duration (D) (CR-D curves) were computed. Warnings for 12 historical flood events were performed. Warning results show that the success rate was 91.67% and that the critical success index (CSI) was 0.91. It is concluded that the combination of linearly increasing hyetograph and TVUHs can provide the CR estimate similar to the minimum rainfall value necessary to cause flash flooding.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jun 2020 13:05:01 +000
  • Effects of Climate Variability on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
           (NDVI) in the Gojeb River Catchment, Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Vegetation dynamics have been visibly influenced by climate variability. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been the most commonly used index in vegetation dynamics. The study was conducted to examine the effects of climatic variability (rainfall) on NDVI for the periods 1982–2015 in the Gojeb River Catchment (GRC), Omo-Gibe Basin, Ethiopia. The spatiotemporal trend in NDVI and rainfall time series was assessed using a Theil–Sen (Sen) slope and Mann–Kendall (MK) statistical significance test at a 95% confidence interval. Moreover, the residual trend analysis (RESTREND) method was used to investigate the effect of rainfall and human induction on vegetation degradation. The Sen’s slope trend analysis and MK significant test indicated that the magnitude of annual NDVI and rainfall showed significant decrement and/or increment in various portions of the GRC. The concurrent decrement and/or increment of annual NDVI and rainfall distributions both spatially and temporarily could be attributed to the significant positive correlation of the monthly (RNDVI-RF = 0.189, ) and annual (RNDVI-RF = 0.637, ) NDVI with rainfall in almost all portions of the catchment. In the GRC, a strongly negative decrement and strong positive increment of NDVI could be derived by human-induced and rainfall variability, respectively. Accordingly, the significant NDVI decrement in the downstream portion and significant increment in the northern portion of the catchment could be attributed to human-induced vegetation degradation and the variability of rainfall, respectively. The dominance of a decreasing trend in the residuals at the pixel level for the NDVI from 1982, 1984, 2000, 2008 to 2012 indicates vegetation degradation. The strong upward trend in the residuals evident from 1983, 1991, 1998 to 2007 was indicative of vegetation improvements. In the GRC, the residuals may be derived from climatic variations (mainly rainfall) and human activities. The time lag between NDVI and climate factors (rainfall) varied mainly from two to three months. In the study catchment, since vegetation degradations are mainly caused by human induction and rainfall variability, integrated and sustainable landscape management and climate-smart agricultural practices could have paramount importance in reversing the degradation processes.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jun 2020 04:05:01 +000
  • Monitoring LST-NDVI Relationship Using Premonsoon Landsat Datasets

    • Abstract: The present study monitors the interrelationship of land surface temperature (LST) with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in Raipur City of India using premonsoon Landsat satellite sensor for the season of 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018. The results describe that the mean LST of Raipur City is gradually increased with time. The value of mean NDVI is higher in the area below mean LST compared to the area above mean LST. The value of mean NDVI is also higher in Landsat 8 data than Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 data. A strong negative LST-NDVI correlation is observed throughout the period. The correlation coefficient is higher in the area above mean LST and lower in the area below mean LST. The value of the correlation coefficient is decreased with time. The mixed urban landscape of the city is closely related to the changes of LST-NDVI relationship. These results provide systematic planning of the urban environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jun 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Meteorological Drought, Hydrological Drought, and NDVI in the Heihe River
           Basin, Northwest China: Evolution and Propagation

    • Abstract: Understanding the evolution and propagation of different drought types is crucial to reduce drought hazards in arid and semiarid regions. Here, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Streamflow Drought Index (SDI), and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of different drought types and correlations between Pre (Pre-R)/post (Pos-R)-reservoir. Results showed that the average peak/intensity/duration/severity of meteorological droughts (MD) were greater in the Pre-R than in the Pos-R period in the upstream Heihe River Basin (UHRB), while there was little change between the Pre-R and Pos-R periods in the midstream Heihe River Basin (MHRB). The average peak/intensity/duration/severity of hydrological drought (HD) decreased in the mainstream for Yingluoxia (Ylx) but increased for Zhengyixia (Zyx) station in the Pos-R period. Propagation time decreased by 3 months (negative effect) in Ylx and increased by 8 months (positive effect) in Zyx compared with the Pre-R period. In the Pos-R period, propagation time increased (1–3 months) for tributaries (positive effect). Propagation times for the mainstream and tributaries varied for different seasons and time periods. Pearson’s correlation coefficient values were lower at short timescales (1–3 months) but higher at long timescales for the Pos-R period in Ylx and Zyx for SDI-1 with different timescales of SPI. The SDI and SPI had no lag in the UHRB and MHRB. However, VCI with SPI had a significant lag correlation at short timescales in the UHRB (lag 6 months) and MHRB (lag 4 months), and the VCI with SDI had a significant lag correlation for 1 month in the MHRB. The propagation time from MD to HD has been reduced for Pos-R in the UHRB. There was a positive effect (prolonged MD propagation HD time) in Pos-R but still faces serious drought stress in the MHRB.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jun 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Prediction of Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Based on Neural Network

    • Abstract: Aerosol plays a very important role in affecting the earth-atmosphere radiation budget, and particle size distribution is an important aerosol property parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the particle size distribution. However, the particle size distribution determined by the particle extinction efficiency factor according to the Mie scattering theory is an ill-conditioned integral equation, namely, the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind, which is very difficult to solve. To avoid solving such an integral equation, the BP neural network prediction model was established. In the model, the aerosol optical depth obtained by sun photometer CE-318 and kernel functions obtained by Mie scattering theory were used as the inputs of the neural network, particle size distributions collected by the aerodynamic particle sizer APS 3321 were used as the output, and the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm with the fastest descending speed was adopted to train the model. For verifying the feasibility of the prediction model, some experiments were carried out. The results show that BP neural network has a better prediction effect than that of the RBF neural network and is an effective method to obtain the aerosol particle size distribution of the whole atmosphere column using the data of CE-318 and APS 3321.
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jun 2020 10:50:00 +000
  • Surface Albedo Assimilation and Its Impact on Surface Radiation Budget in

    • Abstract: Surface albedo is a crucial parameter in land surface radiation budget. As bias exists between the model simulated and observed surface albedo, data assimilation is an important method to improve the simulation results. Moreover, surface albedo is associated with the wavelength of the sunlight. So, solar radiation partitioning is important to parameterize the surface albedo. In this paper, the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer- (MODIS-) retrieved direct visible, direct near-infrared, diffuse visible, and diffuse near-infrared surface albedos were assimilated into the integrated urban land model (IUM). The solar radiation partitioning method was introduced to parameterize the surface albedo. Based on the albedo data from MODIS and the solar radiation partitioning method, the surface albedo data set for the Beijing municipal area was generated. Based on the surface albedo data set and the IUM, the impacts of the surface albedo on the surface radiation budget were discussed quantitatively. Surface albedo is inversely proportional to the net radiation. For urban areas, after assimilation, the annual average net radiation decreases about 5.6%. For cropland, grassland, and forest areas, after assimilation, the annual average net radiations increase about 20.2%, 24.3%, and 18.7%, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Jun 2020 09:35:01 +000
  • Historical Rainfall and Evapotranspiration Changes over Mpologoma
           Catchment in Uganda

    • Abstract: Changes in the long-term (1948–2016) rainfall and evapotranspiration over Mpologoma catchment were analysed using gridded (0.25° × 0.25°) Princeton Global Forcing data. Trend and variability were assessed using a nonparametric approach based on the cumulative sum of the difference between exceedance and nonexceedance counts of data. Annual and March-May (MAM) rainfall displayed a positive trend (), whereas October-December (OND) and June-September rainfall exhibited negative trends with and , respectively. Positive subtrends in rainfall occurred in the 1950s and from the mid-2000s till 2016; however, negative subtrends existed between 1960 till around 2005. Seasonal evapotranspiration exhibited a positive trend (). For the entire period (1948–2016), there was no negative subtrend in the OND and MAM evapotranspiration. Rainfall and evapotranspiration trends and oscillatory variation in subtrends over multidecadal time scales indicate the need for careful planning of predictive adaptation to the impacts of climate variability on environmental applications which depend on water balance in the Mpologoma catchment. It is recommended that future studies quantify possible contributions of human factors on the variability of rainfall and evapotranspiration. Furthermore, climate change impacts on rainfall and evapotranspiration across the study area should be investigated.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2020 15:50:04 +000
  • Projected Changes in Precipitation Extremes over Shaanxi Province, China,
           in the 21st Century

    • Abstract: Extreme precipitation events, which have intensified with global warming, will have a pernicious influence on society. It would be desirable to understand how they will evolve in the future as global warming becomes more serious with time. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the changing characteristics of the precipitation extremes in the 21st century over Shaanxi Province, a climate-sensitive and environmentally fragile area located in the east of northwestern China, based on a consecutive simulation of the 21st century conducted by the regional climate model RegCM4 forced by the global climate model HadGEM2-ES at high resolution under middle emission scenario of the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). Basic validation of the model performance was carried out, and six extreme precipitation indices (EPIs) were used to assess the intensity and frequency of the extreme precipitation events over Shaanxi Province. The results show that RegCM4 reproduces the observed characteristics of extreme precipitation events over Shaanxi Province well. Overall for the domain, the EPIs excluding consecutive dry days (CDD) have a growing tendency during 1980–2098 although they exhibit spatial variability over Shaanxi Province. Some areas in the arid northern Shaanxi may have more heavy rainfalls by the middle of the 21st century but less wet extreme events by the end of the 21st century. And the humid central and southern regions would suffer more precipitation-related natural hazards in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • ResNet15: Weather Recognition on Traffic Road with Deep Convolutional
           Neural Network

    • Abstract: Severe weather conditions will have a great impact on urban traffic. Automatic recognition of weather condition has important application value in traffic condition warning, automobile auxiliary driving, intelligent transportation system, and other aspects. With the rapid development of deep learning, deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) are used to recognize weather conditions on traffic road. A new simplified model named ResNet15 is proposed based on the residual network ResNet50 in this paper. The convolutional layers of ResNet15 are utilized to extract weather characteristics, and then the characteristics extracted at the previous layer are shortcut to the next layer through four groups of residual modules. Finally, the weather images are classified and recognized through the fully connected layer and Softmax classifier. In addition, we build a medium-scale dataset of weather images on traffic road, called “WeatherDataset-4,” which consists of 4 categories and contains 4983 weather images covering most of the severe weather. In this paper, ResNet15 is used to train and test on the “WeatherDataset-4,” and desirable recognition results are obtained. The evaluation of a large number of experiments demonstrates that the proposed ResNet15 is superior to traditional network models such as ResNet50 in recognition accuracy, recognition speed, and model size.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 14:05:02 +000
  • Multidimensional Meteorological Variables for Wind Speed Forecasting in
           Qinghai Region of China: A Novel Approach

    • Abstract: The accurate, efficient, and reliable forecasting of wind speed is a hot research topic in wind power generation and integration. However, available forecasting models focus on forecasting the wind speed using historical wind speed data and ignore multidimensional meteorological variables. The objective is to develop a hybrid model with multidimensional meteorological variables for forecasting the wind speed accurately. The complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) is applied to handle the nonlinearity of the wind speed. Then, the original wind speed will be decomposed into a series of intrinsic model functions with specified numbers of frequencies. A quadratic model that considers the two-way interactions between factors is used to pursue accurate forecasting. To reduce the model complexity, Gram–Schmidt-based feature selection (GSFS) is applied to extract the important meteorological factors. Finally, all the forecasting values of IMFs will be summed by assigning weights that are carefully determined by the whale optimization algorithm (WOA). The proposed forecasting approach has been applied on six datasets that were collected in Qinghai province and is compared with several state-of-the-art wind speed forecasting models. The forecasting results demonstrate that the proposed model can represent the nonlinearity of the wind speed and deliver better results than the competitors.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Variability in the Hydrometeorological Time-Series over
           Upper Indus River Basin of Pakistan

    • Abstract: This paper investigates the spatiotemporal variability in hydrometeorological time-series to evaluate the current and future scenarios of water resources availability from upper Indus basin (UIB). Mann–Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator tests were used to analyze the variability in the temperature, precipitation, and streamflow time-series data at 27 meteorological stations and 34 hydrological stations for the period of 1963 to 2014. The time-series data of entire study period were divided into two equal subseries of 26 years each (1963–1988 and 1989–2014) to assess the overlapping aspect of climate change acceleration over UIB. The results showed a warming pattern at low altitude stations, while a cooling tendency was detected at high-altitude stations. An increase in streamflow was detected during winter and spring seasons at all hydrological stations, whereas the streamflow in summer and autumn seasons exhibited decreasing trends. The annual precipitation showed a significant decreasing trend at ten stations, while a significant increasing trend was observed at Kohat station during second subseries of the study period. The most significant winter drying trends were observed at Gupis, Chitral, Garidopatta, and Naran stations of magnitude of 47%, 13%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, during the second subseries. The annual runoff exhibited significant deceasing trends over Jhelum subbasin at Azad Pattan, Chinari, Domel Kohala, Muzaffarabad, and Palote, while within Indus basin at Chahan, Gurriala, Khairabad, Karora, and Kalam in the second time-series. It is believed that the results of this study will be helpful for the decision-makers to develop strategies for planning and development of future water resources projects.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 09:35:03 +000
  • Sensitivity of Summer Precipitation over Korea to Convective
           Parameterizations in the RegCM4: An Updated Assessment

    • Abstract: This study investigates the performance of the latest version of RegCM4 in simulating summer precipitation over South Korea, comparing nine sensitivity experiments with different combinations of convective parameterization schemes (CPSs) between land and ocean. In addition to the gross pattern of seasonal and monthly mean precipitation, the northward propagation of the intense precipitation band and statistics from extreme daily precipitation are thoroughly evaluated against gridded and in situ station observations. The comparative analysis of 10-year simulations demonstrates that no CPS shows superiority in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Furthermore, a nontrivial discrepancy among the different observation datasets makes a robust assessment of model performance difficult. Regardless of the CPS over the ocean, the simulations with the Kain–Fritsch scheme over land show a severe dry bias, whereas the simulations with the Tiedtke scheme over land suffer from a limited accuracy in reproducing spatial distributions due to the excessive orographic precipitation. In general, the simulations with the Emanuel scheme over land are better at capturing the major characteristics of summer precipitation over South Korea, despite not all statistical metrics showing the best performance. When applying the Emanuel scheme to both land and the ocean, precipitation tends to be slightly overestimated. This deficiency can be alleviated by using either the Tiedtke or Kain–Fritsch schemes over the ocean instead. As few studies have applied and evaluated the Tiedtke and Kain–Fritsch schemes to the Korean region within the RegCM framework, and this study introduces the potential of these new CPSs compared with the more frequently selected Emanuel scheme, which is particularly beneficial to RegCM users.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 15:20:02 +000
  • Ten Years of Aerosol Effects on Single-Layer Overcast Clouds over the US
           Southern Great Plains and the China Loess Plateau

    • Abstract: Using almost 10 years of observations of clouds and aerosols from the US Southern Great Plains (SGP) atmospheric observatory and the Semi-Arid Climate and Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL) in China, the impact of aerosols on single-layer overcast clouds over continental land for different regimes were investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the two sites were first compared in an attempt to isolate the influence of aerosols on cloud properties from dynamic and thermodynamic influences. Cloud types and amounts are similar at the two sites. The dominant aerosol types at the SGP and SACOL sites are sulphate and dust, respectively, with greater aerosol optical depths (AODs) and absorption at the SACOL site. Aerosol first indirect effect (FIE) ranges from 0.021 to 0.152 and from −0.078 to 0.047 at the SGP and SACOL sites, respectively, when using the AOD below cloud base as CCN proxy. Although differences exist, the influence of meteorological conditions on the FIE at the two sites is consistent. FIEs are easily detected under descending motion and dry condition. The FIE at the SGP site is larger than that at the SACOL site, which suggests that the cloud albedo effect is more sensitive under relatively cleaner atmospheric conditions and the dominating aerosol at the SACOL site has less hygroscopicity. The radiative forcing of the FIE over the SGP site is −3.2 W m−2 for each 0.05 increment in FIE. Cloud durations generally prolong as aerosol loading increases, which is consistent with the hypothesis of the aerosol second indirect effect. The negative relationship between cloud duration time and aerosol loading when aerosol loading reaches a large value further might suggest a semidirect effect.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 10:20:02 +000
  • Evaluation of ERA-Interim Air Temperature Data over the Qilian Mountains
           of China

    • Abstract: In this study, 2 m air temperature data from 24 meteorological stations in the Qilian Mountains (QLM) are examined to evaluate ERA-Interim reanalysis temperature data derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for the period of 1979–2017. ERA-Interim generally captures the monthly, seasonal, and annual variation very well. High daily correlations ranging from 0.956 to 0.996 indicate that ERA-Interim captures the daily temperature observations very well. However, an average root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ±2.7°C of all stations reveals that ERA-Interim should not be directly applied at individual sites. The biases are mainly attributed to the altitude differences between ERA-Interim grid points and stations. The positive trend (0.457°C/decade) is significant over the Qilian Mountains based on the 1979–2017 observations. ERA-Interim captures the warming trend very well with an increase rate of 0.384°C/decade. The observations and ERA-Interim both show the largest positive trends in summer with the values of 0.552°C/decade and 0.481°C/decade, respectively. We conclude that in general ERA-Interim captures the trend very well for observed 2 m air temperatures and ERA-Interim is generally reliable for climate change research over the Qilian Mountains.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Apr 2020 15:50:05 +000
  • Temporal Description of Annual Temperature and Rainfall in the Bawku Area
           of Ghana

    • Abstract: With varied implications, Ghana’s temperature and rainfall are projected to rise and decline, respectively. A study exposing specific areas of concern for appropriate responses in this regard is a welcome one. This study sought to describe the temporal variations in temperature and rainfall in the Bawku Area of Ghana. A forty-year (1976–2015) daily climate data was collected on three meteorological stations from the Ghana Meteorological Agency. Normality test, homogeneity test, Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) analysis, Mann–Kendall trend test, and One-way post hoc ANOVA were performed using XLSTAT and DrinC. Over the period under study, the mean annual rainfall pattern was generally erratic, fluctuating between 669.8 mm and 1339.4.6 mm with an annual average of 935.3 mm. The long-term (40-year period) average temperature of the three stations, on the other hand, was 28.7°C, varying between 26.9°C and 29.9°C annually. Whereas the SPI value of 2006 was ≥2.0, indicating extremely wet year with 2.3% probability of recurring once every 50 years, 1988 was the hottest year with temperature anomaly value of 1.2°C, while coolest years were 1979 (−1.8°C) and 1976 (−1.0°C). The Mann–Kendall trend test showed a rise in rainfall in Binduri, Garu-Tempane, and Manga, yet none of the rainfall changes were statistically significant (). Mean temperature on the other hand experienced a significant rise (). With an R-square of 34.7%, the rise in temperature in Manga witnessed the most significant change in annual temperature changes. There were statistically significant () differences in the interdecadal temperature over the 40-year period. Generally, it can be stated that both temperature and rainfall vary in the study area with various degrees of disparities, but temperature assumes an upward trend at a faster rate. We therefore recommend that stakeholders resort to the construction of dams and boreholes to ensure regular availability of water for both domestic and agricultural uses.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:50:04 +000
  • Meteorological Analysis of Floods in Ghana

    • Abstract: The first episodes of floods caused by heavy rainfall during the major rainy season in 2018 occurred in Accra (5.6°N and 0.17°W), a coastal town, and Kumasi (6.72°N and 1.6°W) in the forest region on the 18th and 28th of June, respectively. We applied the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate and examine the meteorological dynamics, which resulted in the extreme rainfall and floods that caused 14 deaths, 34076 people being displaced with damaged properties, and economic loss estimated at $168,289 for the two cities according to the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO). The slow-moving thunderstorms lasted for about 8 hours due to the weak African Easterly Wave (AEW) and Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ). Results from the analysis showed that surface pressures were low with significant amount of moisture influx aiding the thunderstorms intensification, which produced 90.1 mm and 114.6 mm of rainfall over Accra and Kumasi, respectively. We compared the rainfall amount from this event to the historical rainfall data to investigate possible changes in rainfall intensities over time. A time series of annual daily maximum rainfall (ADMR) showed an increasing trend with a slope of 0.45 over Accra and a decreasing trend and a slope of –0.07 over Kumasi. The 95th percentile frequencies of extreme rainfall with thresholds of 45.10 mm and 42.16 mm were analyzed for Accra and Kumasi, respectively, based on the normal distribution of rainfall. Accra showed fewer days with more heavy rainfall, while Kumasi showed more days with less heavy rainfalls.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Mar 2020 17:35:01 +000
  • Intercomparison and Validation of MIRS, MSPPS, and IMS Snow Cover Products

    • Abstract: We evaluate the agreement between automated snow products generated from satellite observations in the microwave bands within NESDIS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) and Microwave Surface and Precipitation Products System (MSPPS), on the one hand, and snow cover maps produced with manual input by the NOAA’s Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS), on the other. MIRS uses physically based retrievals of atmospheric and surface state parameters to provide daily global maps of snow cover and snow water equivalent at 50 km resolution. The older MSPPS delivers daily global maps at the spatial resolution of 45 km and utilizes mostly simple empirical algorithms to retrieve information. IMS daily maps of snow and sea ice cover for the Northern Hemisphere are produced interactively through the analysis of satellite imagery in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral bands. We compare the performances of these products across the Northern Hemisphere for 2014–2017, using IMS as the standard. In this intercomparison, the daily overall agreement of the automated snow products with IMS ranges between 88% and 99% for MIRS and 87% and 99% for MSPPS. However, daily snow sensitivity is lower, ranging between 36% and 90% for MIRS and 26% and 91% for MSPPS. We analyze this disagreement rate as a function of terrain and land cover type, finding that, relative to IMS, MIRS shows fewer false positives but more false negatives than MSPPS over high elevation and grassland areas.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Mar 2020 09:20:01 +000
  • Impact of the Westerly Jet on Rainfall/Runoff in the Source Region of the
           Yangtze River during the Flood Season

    • Abstract: Based on runoff data collected at the Zhimenda station, reanalysis data from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction/National Centers of Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), and observation data from ground stations in China, this study analyzes the characteristics of changes in runoff in the source region of the Yangtze River (SRYR) during the flood season (from July to September), the relationship between runoff and antecedent rainfall, and the impact of the westerly jet (WJ) on rainfall in the coastal zone of the SRYR. The results show the following. The runoff in the SRYR displays a significant interannual and interdecadal variability. The runoff in the SRYR during the flood season is most closely related to 15-day (June 16 to September 15) antecedent rainfall in the coastal zone of the SRYR. In turn, the antecedent rainfall in the coastal zone of the SRYR is mainly affected by the intensity of the simultaneous WJ over a key region (55–85°E, 45–55°N). When the intensity of the WJ over the key region is greater (less) than normal, the jet position moves northward (southward), and the easterly (westerly) wind anomalies over the region to the west of the SRYR become unfavorable (favorable) to the transport of water vapor from high-latitude regions to the SRYR. In addition, the southerly wind over the equatorial region cannot (can) easily advance northward, which is unfavorable (favorable) to the northward transport of water vapor from the low-latitude ocean. Hence, these conditions result in a decrease (increase) in the water vapor content in the SRYR. Furthermore, the convergence (divergence) anomalies in the upper level and the divergence (convergence) anomalies in the lower level result in the descending (ascending) motion over the SRYR. These factors decrease (increase) the rainfall, thereby decreasing (increasing) the runoff in the SRYR during the flood season.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 09:05:04 +000
  • Monthly Mean Meteorological Temperature Prediction Based on VMD-DSE and
           Volterra Adaptive Model

    • Abstract: Climate is a complex and chaotic system, and temperature prediction is a challenging problem. Accurate temperature prediction is also concerned in the fields of energy, environment, industry, and agriculture. In order to improve the accuracy of monthly mean temperature prediction and reduce the calculation scale of hybrid prediction process, a combined prediction model based on variational mode decomposition-differential symbolic entropy (VMD-DSE) and Volterra is proposed. Firstly, the original monthly mean meteorological temperature sequence is decomposed into finite mode components by VMD. The DSE is used to analyze the complexity and reconstruct the sequences. Then, the new sequence is reconstructed in phase space. The delay time and embedding dimension are determined by the mutual information method and G-P method, respectively. On this basis, the Volterra adaptive prediction model is established to modeling and predicting each component. Finally, the final predicted values are obtained by superimposing the predicted results. The monthly mean temperature data of Xianyang and Yan’an are used to verify the prediction performance of the proposed model. The experimental results show that the VMD-DSE-Volterra model shows better performance in the prediction of monthly mean temperature compared with other benchmark models in this paper. In addition, the combined forecasting model proposed in this paper can reduce the modeling time and improve the forecasting accuracy, so it is an effective forecasting model.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 07:05:03 +000
  • Estimating Rice Panicle Temperature with Three-Layer Model

    • Abstract: Rice panicle temperature (Tp) is a key factor for studying high temperature impacts on spikelet sterility. Comparing with measuring Tp by hand, a Tp simulation model could obtain Tp data readily. The two-layer energy budget model which divides the soil layer and canopy layer was widely used to predict rice canopy temperature (Tc), but panicle existed mostly in the upper layer canopy, and we have proved that Tc was different from the upper layer canopy temperature (Tc1), and the upper layer must be separated from the whole canopy for the purpose of estimating Tp. Thus, we developed the three-layer model, contained upper canopy layer with panicle (50–100 cm), lower rice canopy layer (10–40 cm), and water surface layer (≤10 cm) to estimate Tp with general meteorological and vegetation growth data. There were two steps to estimate Tp. The first step was calculating Tc1 and lower layer canopy temperature (Tc2) by solving heat balance equations with canopy resistances. And the second step was estimating Tp with following parameters: (a) the inclination factors of leaves and panicles (F1, F2, and Fp) which were decided by fitting the calculated transmissivity of downward solar radiation (TDSR) to the measured TDSR, (b) the aerodynamic resistance between the panicle and atmosphere (rap) denoted by wind speed, (c) the panicle resistance for transpiration (rp) denoted by days after heading, and (d) air temperature and humidity at the panicle’s height (Tac1 and eac1) calculated from the resistances of the pathways of sensible and latent heat fluxes in accordance with Ohm’s law. The model simulated fairly well the Tc1, Tc2, and Tp with root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.76°C, 0.75°C, and 0.81°C, respectively, where RMSE of measured Tp and predicted Tp by integrated micrometeorology model for panicle and canopy temperature (IM2PACT) including two-layer model was 1.27°C. This model was validated well by two other rice cultivars, and thus, it demonstrated the three-layer model was a new feasible way to estimate Tp.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Mar 2020 15:35:02 +000
  • Synergy Effects of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the Tibetan Plateau
           Heating on Summer Rainfall over North China

    • Abstract: An analysis based on July-August precipitation reveals that there is a tripole pattern of the precipitation distribution, that is, significantly increased rainfall over North China (NC) is related to the increased rainfall over the Indian subcontinent (IS) and the decreased rainfall over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and vice versa, that corresponds to the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and TP heating pattern, which are interactive. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effect of NC rainfall-related atmospheric circulation and the physical linkage with the two thermal forcings together. The linear baroclinic model (LBM) is applied to determine the dynamics of the process. The results show that an enhanced ISM is accompanied by reduced TP heating, favors convection and easterly anomaly over the IS, and produces a Gill-type Rossby wave that affects the vorticity over North Africa. Meanwhile, there is another Rossby wave originating in North Africa and moving eastward to the Pacific Ocean, which interferes with circulation at mid- to high-latitudes, i.e., it strengthens the cyclone over the Baikal region and stretches the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) northward to northeastern Asia, and results in abundant water vapor transported to NC. Furthermore, the strong convection over the IS excites the Kelvin waves over the equatorial region, which moves eastward and generates anticyclones over Philippines, consequently leading to the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern. The PJ pattern cooperates with the wave train at midlatitudes, resulting in abundant water vapor being transported to NC. The summer rainfall over NC is therefore modulated by synergistic effect of both the ISM and TP heating.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Mar 2020 08:05:03 +000
  • Evaluation and Error Correction of the ECMWF Subseasonal Precipitation
           Forecast over Eastern China during Summer

    • Abstract: Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction is a highly regarded skill around the world. To improve the S2S forecast skill, an S2S prediction project and an extensive database have been established. In this study, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model hindcast, which participates in the S2S prediction project, is systematically assessed by focusing on the hindcast quality for the summer accumulated ten-day precipitation at lead times of 0–30 days during 1995–2014 in eastern China. Additionally, the hindcast error is corrected by utilizing the preceding sea surface temperature (SST). The metrics employed to measure the ECMWF hindcast performance indicate that the ECMWF model performance drops as the lead time increases and exhibits strong interannual differences among the five subregions of eastern China. In addition, the precipitation forecast skill of the ECMWF hindcast is best at approximately 15 days in some areas of Southeast China; after correcting the forecast error, the forecast skill is increased to 30 days. At lead times of 0–30 days, regardless of whether the forecast error is corrected, the root mean square errors are lowest in Northeast China. After correcting the forecast error, the performance of the ECMWF hindcast shows better improvement in depicting the quantity and temporal and spatial variation of precipitation at lead times of 0–30 days in eastern China. The false alarm ratio (FAR), probability of detection (POD), and equitable threat score (ETS) reveal that the ECMWF model has a preferable performance at forecasting accumulated ten-day precipitation rates of approximately 20∼50 mm and indicates an improved hindcast quality after the forecast error correction. In short, adopting the preceding SST to correct the summer subseasonal precipitation of the ECMWF hindcast is preferable.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 03:35:01 +000
  • Potential Evapotranspiration Reduction and Its Influence on Crop Yield in
           the North China Plain in 1961–2014

    • Abstract: Climate change has caused uneven changes in hydrological processes (precipitation and evapotranspiration) on a space-temporal scale, which would influence climate types, eventually impact agricultural production. Based on data from 61 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2014 in the North China Plain (NCP), the spatiotemporal characteristics of climate variables, such as humidity index, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration (ET0), were analyzed. The sensitivity coefficients and contribution rates were applied to ET0. The NCP has experienced a semiarid to humid climate from north to south due to the significant decline of ET0 (−13.8 mm decade−1). In the study region, 71.0% of the sites showed a “pan evaporation paradox” phenomenon. Relative humidity had the most negative influence on ET0, while wind speed, sunshine hours, and air temperature had a positive effect on ET0. Wind speed and sunshine hours contributed the most to the spatiotemporal variation of ET0, followed by relative humidity and air temperature. Overall, the key climate factor impacting ET0 was wind speed decline in the NCP, particularly in Beijing and Tianjin. The crop yield in Shandong and Henan provinces was higher than that in the other regions with a higher humidity index. The lower the humidity index in Hebei province, the lower the crop yield. Therefore, potential water shortages and water conflict should be considered in the future because of spatiotemporal humidity variations in the NCP.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 03:05:02 +000
  • Long-Term Rainfall Trends and Future Projections over Xijiang River Basin,

    • Abstract: Precipitation trend detection is vital for water resources development and decision support systems. This study predicts the climate change impacts on long-term precipitation trends. It deals with the analysis of observed historical (1960–2010) and arithmetic mean method in assembling precipitation from CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCMs) datasets for a future period (2020–2099) under four emission scenarios. Daily precipitation data of 32 weather stations in the Xijiang River Basin were provided by National Meteorological Information Centre (NMIC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and Global Climate Models (GCMs) with all four emission scenarios statistically downscaled using Bias Correction Special Disaggregation (BCSD) and applied for bias correction via Climate Change Toolkit (CCT). Nonparametric Mann–Kendall test was applied for statistical significance trend analysis while the magnitude of the trends was determined by nonparametric Sen’s estimator method on a monthly scale to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal precipitation time series. The results showed a declined trend was observed for the past 50 years over the basin with negative values of MK test (Z) and Sen’s slope Q. Historical GCMs precipitation detected decreasing trends except for NoerESM1-M which observed slightly increasing trends. The results are further validated by historical precipitation recorded by the Climate Research Unit (CRU-TS-3.1). The future scenarios will likely be positive trends for annual rainfall. Significant positive trends were observed in monsoon and winter seasons while premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons will likely be slightly downward trends. The 2040s will likely observe the lowest increase of 6.6% while the 2050s will observe the highest increase of 11.5% over the 21st century under future scenarios. However, due to the uncertainties in CMIP5, the future precipitation projections should be interpreted with caution. Thus, it could be concluded that the trend of change in precipitation around the Xijiang River Basin is on the increase under future scenarios. The results can be valuable to water resources and agriculture management policies, as well as the approach for managing floods and droughts under the perspective of global climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Estimation of Groundwater Evapotranspiration Using Diurnal Groundwater
           Level Fluctuations under Three Vegetation Covers at the Hinterland of the
           Badain Jaran Desert

    • Abstract: Accurate estimation of groundwater evapotranspiration (ETG) is the key for regional water budget balance and ecosystem restoration research in hyper-arid regions. Methods that use diurnal groundwater level (GWL) fluctuations have been applied to various ecosystems, especially in arid or semi-arid environments. In this study, groundwater monitoring devices were deployed in ten lake basins at the hinterland of the Badain Jaran Desert, and the White method was used to estimate the ETG of these sites under three main vegetation covers. The results showed that regular diurnal fluctuations in GWL occurred only at sites with vegetation coverage and that vegetation types and their growth status were the direct causes of this phenomenon. On a seasonal scale, the amplitudes of diurnal GWL fluctuations are related to vegetation phenology, and air temperature is an important factor controlling phenological amplitude differences. The estimation results using the White method revealed that the ETG rates varied among the observation sites with different vegetation types, and the months with the highest ETG rates were also different among the sites. Overall, ETG was 600∼900 mm at observation sites with Phragmites australis during a growing season (roughly early May to late October), 600∼650 mm in areas with Achnatherum splendens, and 500∼650 mm in areas with Nitraria tangutorum and Achnatherum splendens. Depth to water table and potential evapotranspiration jointly control the ETG rates, while the influence of these two factors varied, depending on the specific vegetation conditions of each site. This study elucidated the relationship between diurnal GWL fluctuations and vegetation in desert groundwater-recharged lake basins and expanded the application of the White method, providing a new basis for the calculation and simulation of regional water balance.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2020 09:50:01 +000
  • Assessing the Effects of Microphysical Scheme on Convective and Stratiform
           Characteristics in a Mei-Yu Rainfall Combining WRF Simulation and Field
           Campaign Observations

    • Abstract: Microphysics parameterization becomes increasingly important as the model grid spacing increases toward convection-resolving scales. Using observations from a field campaign for Mei-Yu rainfall in China, four bulk cloud microphysics schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were evaluated with respect to their ability to simulate precipitation, structure, and cloud microphysical properties over convective and stratiform regimes. These are the Thompson (THOM), Morrison graupel/hail (MOR_G/H), Stony Brook University (SBU_YLIN), and WRF double-moment six-class microphysics graupel/hail (WDM6_G/H). All schemes were able to predict the rain band but underestimated the total precipitation by 23%–35%. This is mainly attributed to the underestimation of stratiform precipitation and overestimation of convective rain. For the vertical distribution of radar reflectivity, many problems remain, such as lower reflectivity values aloft in both convective and stratiform regions and higher reflectivity values at middle level. Each bulk scheme has its advantages and shortcomings for different cloud regimes. Overall, the discrepancies between model output and observations mostly exist in the midlevel to upper level, which results from the inability of the model to accurately represent the particle size distribution, ice processes, and storm dynamics. Further observations from major field campaigns and more detailed evaluation are still necessary.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2020 07:05:07 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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