Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • The Influence of Depression and Anxiety on Neurological Disability in
           Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting mostly young-aged people. As a chronic incurable disease, in most cases, it can lead to progressive neurological impairment and severe disability. Depression and anxiety are major distress factors for MS patients, being considerably aggravating elements for their functional capacity. In this study, we analysed the mood disorder distribution and the possible correlations between depression, anxiety, automatic negative thoughts, and MS disability. We took into consideration 146 MS patients, who completed a series of questionnaires: Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales-State (EMAS-S), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was used to measure the neurological disability. Of all patients, 30.1% had symptoms for depression and 11% presented suicidal thoughts. After analysing the correlation index between each variable, we found that there is a mild positive correlation between depression and the EDSS score and between anxiety and the EDSS score. A difference is found in the test scores according to the type of the MS disease. Also, automatic negative thoughts are strongly correlated with depression and anxiety, but do not mediate the path between psychological comorbidities and neurological impairment. Sociodemographic features and interferon-beta treatment were not related to the intensity of the mood disorders. The study suggests that depression and anxiety are frequently encountered among MS patients and these mental disfunctions have an impact on their disability. A proper identification of these risk factors may improve the quality of life for these patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jul 2020 07:50:00 +000
  • Identifying the Symptom Severity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder for
           Classification and Prediction: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    • Abstract: The present study is aimed at identifying the most prominent determinants of OCD along with their strength to classify the OCD patients from healthy controls. The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 200 diagnosed OCD patients and 400 healthy controls. The respondents were selected through purposive sampling and interviewed by using the Y-BOCS scale with the addition of a factor, worth of an individual in his family. The validity and reliability of data were assessed through Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling was adopted to determine threatening determinants along with their strength to predict OCD in an individual. The results of ANN modeling depicted 98% accurate classification of OCD patients from healthy controls. The most contributing factors in determining the OCD patients according to normalized importance were the contamination and cleaning (100%); symmetric and perfection (72.5%); worth of an individual in the family (71.1%); aggressive, religious, and sexual obsession (50.5%); high-risk assessment (46.0%); and somatic obsessions and checking (24.0%).
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Rutin via Increase in the CA3 Diameter of the Hippocampus Exerted
           Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mouse Model of Maternal Separation Stress:
           Possible Involvement of NMDA Receptors

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. Rutin is a flavonol with neuroprotective activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the glutamatergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of rutin in a mouse model of maternal separation (MS) stress focusing on histological changes in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Methods. Mouse neonates were exposed to MS paradigm 3 hours daily from postnatal days (PND) 2 to 14. The control and MS mice were divided separately into 16 groups () (8 groups for each set) including mice that received normal saline, mice that received rutin at doses of 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, mice that received NMDA at a dose of 150 mg/kg, mice that received ketamine (NMDA antagonist) at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, mice that received NMDA antagonist plus a subeffective dose of rutin, and mice that received NMDA plus an effective dose of rutin. Forced swimming test (FST) was performed. Afterwards, the hippocampus was evaluated in cases of histopathological changes as well as expression of NR2A and NR2B genes. Results. Rutin significantly reduced immobility time in the FST. The expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor in MS mice was significantly higher than that in the control group. Rutin significantly decreased the expression of NR2B and NR2A subunits in the hippocampus. The CA3 diameter and percentage of dark neurons in the hippocampus of MS mice significantly decreased and increased, respectively, which partially reversed following rutin administration. Conclusion. Rutin, partially, through a neuroprotective effect on the hippocampus exerted antidepressant-like effect. We concluded that NMDA receptors, at least in part, mediated the beneficial effect of rutin.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Jun 2020 05:20:01 +000
  • A Novel PRRT2 Variant in Chinese Patients Suffering from Paroxysmal
           Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsion

    • Abstract: PRRT2 mutations are the major causative agent of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsion (PKD/IC). The study is aimed at screening PRRT2 gene mutations in patients who suffered from PKD/IC in Chinese population. Thirteen Chinese patients with PKD/IC were screened randomly for coding exons of the PRRT2 gene mutation along with 50 ethnically coordinated control people. Nine (2 unaffected) and 4 of the patients showed familial PKD/IC and apparently sporadic cases, respectively. We identified 5 different PRRT2 mutations in 10 individuals, including 8 familial and 2 apparently sporadic cases. However, no mutations were found in the 50 ethnically matched controls. Unknown (novel) NM_145239.2:c.686G>A and previously reported NM_145239.2:c.743G>C variants were identified in two familial and sporadic patients. All affected members of family A showed mutation NM_145239.2:c.650_670delinsCAATGGTGCCACCACTGGGTTA. The previously identified NM_145239.2:c.412 C>G and NM_145239.2:c.709G>A variants are seen in two individuals assessed in family B. Other than the previously identified variants, some of the patients with PRRT2-PKD/IC showed a new PRRT2 substitution variant. Thus, the spectrum of PRRT2 variants is expanded. The possible role and probability of PRRT2 variants involved in PKD/IC are highlighted.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 08:05:00 +000
  • Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Diabetes,
           Hypertension, and Heart Failure Patients at Dessie Referral Hospital,
           Northeast Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. However, they are usually unrecognized and untreated especially in developing countries. Identifying factors associated with anxiety and depression is helpful for early screening and management. Objective. This study is aimed at assessing factors associated with anxiety and depression among diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dessie Referral Hospital from February 22, 2019 to April 6, 2019. A total of 404 diabetic, hypertension, and heart failure patients were included through systematic sampling technique. The data were collected by face-to-face interview. After data collection, the data were cleaned and presented with text, graphs, and tables. Multivariable binary logistic regression was deployed to identify factors at a value of < 0.05. Result. A total of 384 patients participated with a 94.8% response rate. Among these, 32% and 5.73% of them had anxiety and depression, respectively. Patients who did not read and write develop anxiety 7.89 times more likely compared with those whose educational status is diploma and above (AOR: 7.89; 95% CI: 3.08-20.26; ). Patients who took substances like chat, cigarette, shisha, hashish, and alcohol develop anxiety 2.56 times more likely compared with their counterparts (AOR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.05–6.23; ). Patients whose level of physical activity is inactive develop depression 24 times more likely than patients who did a health-enhancing physical activity. Patients who are widowed develop depression 5 times more likely compared with married patients. Conclusion and Recommendations. Low educational level, being single and widowed, substance use, poor perception towards prognosis of illness, and monthly income were factors associated with anxiety. On the other hand, being single and unable to do physical activity were statistically associated with depression. Patients with low educational level and monthly income should be screened and supported for anxiety. Health care providers should provide advice to patients about the importance of physical activity to prevent depression.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 May 2020 06:05:01 +000
  • Changes in the Rhythm of Speech Difference between People with
           Nondegenerative Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Preclinical Dementia

    • Abstract: This study explores several speech parameters related to mild cognitive impairment, as well as those that might be flagging the presence of an underlying neurodegenerative process. Speech is an excellent biomarker because it is not invasive and, what is more, its analysis is rapid and economical. Our aim has been to ascertain whether the typical speech patterns of people with Alzheimer’s disease are also present during the disorder’s preclinical stages. To do so, we shall be using a task that involves reading out aloud. This is followed by an analysis of the recordings, looking for the possible parameters differentiating between those older people with MCI and a high probability of developing dementia and those with MCI that will not do so. We found that the disease’s most differentiating parameters prior to its onset involve changes in speech duration and an alteration in rhythm rate and intensity. These parameters seem to be related to the first difficulties in lexical access among older people with AD.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 13:20:01 +000
  • Primary Cognitive Factors Impaired after Glioma Surgery and Associated
           Brain Regions

    • Abstract: Previous studies have shown that cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors are not severe. However, to preserve the postsurgical QOL of patients with brain tumors, it is important to identify “primary” cognitive functions and associated brain regions that are more vulnerable to cognitive impairments following surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate primary cognitive factors affecting not only simple cognitive tasks but also several other cognitive tasks and associated brain regions. Patients with glioma in the left () and the right () hemisphere participated in the study. Seven neuropsychological tasks from five cognitive domains were conducted pre- and 6 months postoperation. Factor analyses were conducted to identify “primary” common cognitive functions affecting the task performance in left and right glioma groups. Next, lesion analyses were performed using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify critical brain regions related to impairments of the primary cognitive functions. Factor analysis revealed two primary cognitive components in each glioma group. The first cognitive component in the left glioma group affected the digit span forward and backward tasks and concept shifting and the letter-digit substitution tasks. VLSM analysis revealed significant regions from the posterior middle temporal gyri to the supramarginal gyrus. The second cognitive component affected verbal memory, and verbal fluency tasks and VLSM analysis indicated two different significant regions, the medial temporal regions and the middle temporal gyrus to the posterior parietal lobes. The first cognitive component in the right glioma group affected positive and negative factor loadings on the task, such that the positive cognitive component affected only the Stroop color-word task. VLSM related to deficits of the Stroop task revealed significant regions in the anterior medial frontal cortex. On the other hand, the negative component affected concept shifting, word fluency, and digit span forward tasks, and VLSM revealed significant regions in the right inferior frontal cortex. It is suggested that primary cognitive functions related to specific brain regions were possibly affected by glioma resection.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 07:35:01 +000
  • Neurocognitive Complications after Ventricular Neuroendoscopy: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: In recent years, neuroendoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus and various ventricular pathologies has become increasingly popular. It is considered by many as the first-choice treatment for the majority of these cases. However, neurocognitive complications following ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures may occur leading mostly to amnesia, which might have a grave effect on the patient’s quality of life. Studies assessing neurocognitive complications after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures are sparse. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review assessing the available literature of neurocognitive complications and outcome after ventricular neuroendoscopy. Of 1216 articles screened, 46 were included in this systematic review. Transient and permanent neurocognitive complications in 2804 ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures occurred in 2.0% () and 1.04% () of the patients, respectively. Most complications described are memory impairment, followed by psychiatric symptoms (psychosyndrome), cognitive impairment not further specified, declined executive function, and confusion. However, only in 20% of the series describing neurocognitive complications or outcome () was neurocognition assessed by a trained neuropsychologist in a systematic manner. While in most of these series only a part of the included patients underwent neuropsychological testing, neurocognitive assessment was seldom done pre- and postoperatively, long-term follow up was rare, and patient’s cohorts were small. A paucity of studies analyzing neurocognitive complications and outcome, through systematic neuropsychological testing, and the correlation with intraoperative lesions of neuronal structures (e.g., fornix) exists in the literature. Therefore, the neurocognitive and emotional morbidity after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures might be underestimated and warrants further research.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 07:35:00 +000
  • Chronic Pain Hurts the Brain: The Pain Physician’s Perspective

    • PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Too Real to Be Virtual: Autonomic and EEG Responses to Extreme Stress
           Scenarios in Virtual Reality

    • Abstract: The evolution of virtual reality (VR) technologies requires setting boundaries of its use. In this study, 3 female participants were experiencing VR scenarios with stressful content and their activity of the autonomic nervous system and EEG were recorded. It has been discovered that virtual reality can evoke acute stress reactions accompanied by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. The high-stress response is accompanied by a decrease in the power of the EEG, and, on the contrary, the activation of the avoidance reaction is accompanied by an increase in the power of the EEG alpha waves. Therefore, the use of stressful VR content can cause high emotional stress to a user and restrictions should be considered.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 03:50:01 +000
  • Changes in Physiological and Pathological Behaviours Produced by Deep
           Microelectrode Implantation Surgery in Rats: A Temporal Analysis

    • Abstract: Physiological behaviours such as the sleep-wake cycle and exploratory behaviours are important parameters in intact and sham-operated animals and are usually thought to be unaffected by experimental protocols in which neurosurgery is performed. However, there is insufficient evidence in the literature on the behavioural and cognitive effects observed after deep microelectrode implantation surgery in animal models of neurological diseases. Similarly, in studies that utilize animal models of neurological diseases, the impact of surgery on the pathological phenomena being studied is often minimized. Based on these considerations, we performed a temporal analysis of the effects of deep microelectrode implantation surgery in the hippocampus of rats on quiet wakefulness, sleep, and exploratory activity and the pathological behaviours such as convulsive seizures according to the Racine scale. Male Wistar rats (210-300 g) were used and grouped in sham and epileptic animals. Single doses of pilocarpine hydrochloride (2.4 mg/2 μl; i.c.v.) were administered to the animals to generate spontaneous and recurrent seizures. Deep microelectrode implantation surgeries in both groups and analysis of Fast ripples were performed. Physiological and pathological behaviours were recorded through direct video monitoring of animals (24/7). Our principal findings showed that in epileptic animals, one of the main behaviours affected by surgery is sleep; as a consequence of this behavioural change, a decrease in exploratory activity was also found as well as the mean time spent daily in seizures of scale 4 and the number of seizure events of scales 4 and 5 was increased after surgery. No significant correlations between the occurrence of FR and seizure events of scale 4 (rho 0.63, value 0.25) or 5 (rho -0.7, value 0.18) were observed. In conclusion, microelectrode implantation surgeries modified some physiological and pathological behaviours; therefore, it is important to consider this fact when it is working with animal models.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2020 10:35:00 +000
  • Maternal Separation Early in Life Alters the Expression of Genes Npas4 and
           Nr1d1 in Adult Female Mice: Correlation with Social Behavior

    • Abstract: Early-life stress affects neuronal plasticity of the brain regions participating in the implementation of social behavior. Our previous studies have shown that brief and prolonged separation of pups from their mothers leads to enhanced social behavior in adult female mice. The goal of the present study was to characterize the expression of genes (which are engaged in synaptic plasticity) Egr1, Npas4, Arc, and Homer1 in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of adult female mice with a history of early-life stress. In addition, we evaluated the expression of stress-related genes: glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2) and Nr1d1, which encodes a transcription factor (also known as REVERBα) modulating sociability and anxiety-related behavior. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day) or handling (HD, 15 min once a day) on postnatal days 2 through 14. In adulthood, the behavior of female mice was analyzed by some behavioral tests, and on the day after the testing of social behavior, we measured the gene expression. We found increased Npas4 expression only in the prefrontal cortex and higher Nr1d1 expression in both the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of adult female mice with a history of MS. The expression of the studied genes did not change in HD female mice. The expression of stress-related genes Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 was unaltered in both groups. We propose that the upregulation of Npas4 and Nr1d1 in females with a history of early-life stress and the corresponding enhancement of social behavior may be regarded as an adaptation mechanism reversing possible aberrations caused by early-life stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Propofol Causes Consciousness Loss by Affecting GABA-A Receptor in the
           Nucleus Basalis of Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. Propofol is a classical anesthetic and induces consciousness loss, and gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-A (GABA-A) receptor is its target. Righting reflex is associated with conscious response. The nucleus basalis (NB) acts as a major relay between the reticular activating system and the frontal cortex (FC). Propofol may mediate righting reflex by affecting GABA-A receptor in NB. Methods. Fifty male SD rats (250-350 g) were divided into parts I and II. In part I, 20 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (CG) and NB-lesion group (NG, ibotenic acid-induced NB lesion). In part II, 30 male SD rats were treated with saline (0.9% NaCl, SG group), muscimol (a GABA-A receptor agonist, MG group), and gabazine (a GABA-A receptor antagonist, GG group) in NB, respectively. Two weeks later, the activity of the rats was measured between CG and NG groups. The rats were intravenously injected with propofol (50 mg/kg/h) to test the time of loss of righting reflex (LORR) in all rats. When LORR occurred, the rats received single administration of propofol (12 mg/kg) to measure the time of return of righting reflex (RORR). Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity of the frontal cortex (FC) was recorded. Results. The numbers of NB neurons were reduced by 44% in the NG group compared to the CG group () whereas the activity of rats was reduced a little in the NG group when compared with the CG group, but the statistical difference was insignificant (). The dose-response curve of propofol shifted to the left in the NG group, and the statistical difference for the time of LORR was insignificant between the two groups (). However, the time of RORR and FC delta power increased in the NG group compared with the CG group (). In part II, the time of RORR and FC powder increased in the MG group when compared to the SG group while reverse results were observed in the GG group (). There was no significant influence on the time of LORR and ED50 among the three groups ().Conclusions. The unilateral NB lesion increased the recovery time and FC delta power, and the NB region might be involved in the emergence after propofol administration. Propofol plays a crucial role for causing conscious loss by affecting GABA-A receptor in NB.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • False Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Abstract: Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) not only are suffering from amnesia but also are prone to memory distortions, such as experiencing detailed and vivid recollections of episodic events that have never been encountered (i.e., false memories). To describe and explain these distortions, we offer a review to synthesize current knowledge on false memory in AD into a framework allowing for better understanding of the taxonomy and phenomenology of false memories and of the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie false memory formation in AD. According to this review, certain phenomenological characteristics of memories (e.g., high emotional load, high vividness, or high familiarity) result in misattributions in AD. More specifically, this review proposes that generalized decline in cognitive control and inhibition in AD may result in difficulties in suppressing irrelevant information during memory monitoring, especially when irrelevant (i.e., false) information is characterized by high emotion, vividness, or familiarity. This review also proposes that binding deficits in AD decrease the ability to retrieve relevant contextual details, leading to source monitoring errors and false memories. In short, this review depicts how phenomenological characteristics of memories and failures of monitoring during retrieval contribute to the occurrence of false memory in AD.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 13:20:00 +000
  • Personality Factors and Subjective Cognitive Decline: The FACEHBI Cohort

    • Abstract: Individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have the perception of memory problems without showing impairment on standardized cognitive tests. SCD has been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuroticism and openness personality dimensions have also been associated with SCD and AD. From the aforementioned, we aimed to ascertain whether the dimensions and traits defined by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) differentiate between individuals with SCD and the general population (GP). A total of 187 participants with SCD and mild affective symptomatology recruited from the Fundació ACE Health Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) project completed the ZKPQ. Each SCD participant was matched by sex and age to an individual from the GP. Both samples included 71 men and 116 women with a mean age of 65.9 years. Results indicated that the SCD group scored significantly lower in Neuroticism-Anxiety and Activity than the GP group. Only Activity remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that individuals with SCD have a low energy level and a dislike for an active and busy life. From the obtained results and knowing additional physical activities may delay the conversion from normal aging to cognitive impairment, we encourage promoting this lifestyle in daily routine. The assessment of personality may result in an SCD plus feature, which may serve as an upgrading strategy for future research.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 04:05:01 +000
  • Potential Benefits of Physical Activity in MCI and Dementia

    • Abstract: Physical activity improves overall health and reduces the risk of many negative health outcomes and may be effective in improving cognition, independent functioning, and psychological health in older adults. Given the evidence linking physical activity with improvements in various aspects of health and functioning, interventions exploring pathways for decreasing risk of dementia in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and improving outcomes for those with dementia are of critical importance. The present review highlights the work examining physical activity interventions in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits of physical activity for individuals experiencing cognitive decline. The primary focus is on aerobic exercise as this is the main intervention in the literature. Our review supports the thesis that physical activity can promote healthy aging in terms of cognition, independent functioning, and psychological health for individuals experiencing cognitive decline. Specifically, physical activity improves cognition, especially executive functioning and memory in MCI, independent functioning in MCI and dementia, and psychological health in dementia. Given that benefits of physical activity have been observed across these domains, such interventions provide an avenue for preventing decline and/or mitigating impairment across several domains of functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia and may be recommended (and adjusted) for patients across a range of settings, including medical and mental health settings. Further implications for clinical intervention and future directions for research are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Feb 2020 05:50:00 +000
  • Associations between Age-Related Changes in the Core Vestibular Projection
           Pathway and Balance Ability: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    • Abstract: Objective. We investigated the changes of the vestibulospinal tract (VST) and parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and relation to balance between old and young healthy adults. Methods. This study recruited eleven old adults (6 males, 5 females; mean age years) and 12 young adults (7 males, 5 females; mean age years). The lateral and medial VST and PIVC were reconstructed using DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume were measured. The six-minute walk test (6-MWT), the timed up and go test (TUG), and the Berg balance scale (BBS) were conducted. Spatiotemporal parameters during tandem gait and values of sway during one-leg standing using the wearable sensors were measured. All parameters between two groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and independent -test. Results. Statistically significant decrease in old adults was detected in the tract volume of lateral () and medial VST () and PIVC (). A significant decrease in FA of lateral VST () and MD of medial VST () was seen in old adults. Stride length () and velocity () during tandem gait in old adults were significantly decreased. 6MWT () showed significant decrease, while TUG () showed significant increase in old adults. However, mean BSS () was nonsignificantly different. In eyes-open condition during one-leg standing, all parameters except for reciprocal compensatory index (RCI) values were significantly decreased in old adults. The RCI in the anteroposterior (AP) direction () was increased in old adults; however, the mediolateral direction () was nonsignificantly different between the two groups. In eye-closed condition, the changes of ankle () and hip () sway and the center of mass in the AP direction () showed to be significantly higher in old adults than in young adults. Conclusion. The results suggested that there was a relationship between DTI parameters in the vestibular neural pathway and balance according to aging.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 06:35:03 +000
  • Framingham Risk Stratification of Middle-Aged Migraineurs

    • Abstract: Introduction. Migraine is a common primary headache disorder involving about 10-15% of the whole population. Several epidemiological and prospective studies showed a link between migraine (especially migraine with aura) and cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Objectives. We prospectively analyzed the data of vascular event-free middle-aged patients with migraine who were referred to our Headache Clinic between 01/2014 and 01/2018. Framingham 10-year risk were calculated; covariates included in the analysis were age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, current smoking, and diabetes status. Results. Total of 1037 patients were screened and 221 were selected, 161 were women (mean age years) and 60 were men (mean age years). 25 patients (11.3%) were labelled as having low risk, 162 patients (73.3%) had moderate risk, and 34 patients (15.4%) had high or very high risk. Blood pressure and lipid targets were reached in 73% and in 49% in the moderate risk and in 53% and 12% in the high risk/very high risk groups, respectively. Migraine with aura (MA) was associated significantly higher cardiovascular risk profile compared with migraine without aura (MO). About one-third of our nondiabetic patients had fasting blood glucose above the normal levels. 24 patients (mean age years) were diabetic. Mean blood pressure was 149/85 Hgmm, mean choleterol was 5.11 mmol/l, and mean LDL was 2.93 mmol/l in this subgroup, respectively, which do not fall within the recommended targets. Conclusion. Our article draws attention to the higher cardiovascular risk profile of middle-aged migraineurs and highlights the deficiency of primary prevention. Pain physicians must be aware of the cardiovascular aspects of migraine and holistic approach is required instead of focusing only on pain and pain relief.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Feb 2020 14:50:00 +000
  • Associations of Alpha and Beta Interhemispheric EEG Coherences with
           Indices of Attentional Control and Academic Performance

    • Abstract: Introduction. Heretofore, research on optimizing academic performance has suffered from an inability to translate what is known about an individual’s learning behaviors to how effectively they are able to use the critical nodes and hubs in their cerebral cortex for learning. A previous study from our laboratory suggests that lower theta-beta ratios (TBRs) measured by EEG may be associated with higher academic performance in a medical school curriculum. Methods. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TBR and academic performance may be correlated with EEG coherence, a measure of brain connectivity. We analyzed the interhemispheric coherences of the subjects involved in our prior study. TBR and coherence measurements were made at 19 scalp electrode recording sites and 171 electrode combinations with eyes open and closed (EO, EC). Control data were acquired during a session of acclimation to the research protocol 3 d before an initial examination in anatomy-physiology (control exam) and were repeated five weeks later, 3 d before a second exam covering different anatomy-physiology topics (comparison exam). Results. Between the control and comparison exams, beta coherences increased significantly at the frontal pole, frontal, parietal, midtemporal, posterior temporal, and occipital recording sites under the EO condition and at the inferior frontal, central, midtemporal, and posterior temporal sites under the EC condition. Alpha coherences increased significantly at the same sites and under the same EO/EC conditions as found for the beta coherences. The beta coherences were negatively correlated with the TBR and were positively correlated with the comparison exam score at the midfrontal electrode site (F3-F4) but only under the EO condition. Beta and alpha coherences at the midfrontal, inferior frontal midtemporal, posterior temporal, and occipital sites were also negatively correlated with the average TBR under the EO condition. Conclusions. Lower TBR, an indicator of attentional control, was associated with higher alpha and beta interhemispheric coherences measured with eyes open at sites overlying the frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices. Changes in EEG coherences and TBRs might be useful as neurophysiological measures of neuroplasticity and the efficacy of strategies for preventing academic underachievement and treatments for improving academic performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Feb 2020 14:05:00 +000
  • MST4 Kinase Inhibitor Hesperadin Attenuates Autophagy and Behavioral
           Disorder via the MST4/AKT Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mice

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to explore the role of hesperadin in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mice, with the involvement of the mammalian ste20-like kinase 4 (MST4)/AKT signaling pathway. Methods. All mice were divided into four groups: sham group, sham+hesperidin group, ICH group, and ICH+hesperadin group. The effects of hesperadin were assessed on the basis of brain edema and neurobehavioral function. Furthermore, we observed MST4, AKT, phosphorylation of AKT (pAKT), and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) by western blotting. Protein localization of MST4 and LC3 was determined by immunofluorescence. Results. The expression of MST4 was upregulated at 12 h and 24 h after ICH. Brain edema was significantly decreased and neurological function was improved in the hesperadin treatment group compared to the ICH group (). Hesperadin decreases the expressions of MST and increases pAKT after ICH. Autophagy significantly increased in the ICH group, while hesperadin reduced this increase. Conclusion. Hesperadin provides neuroprotection against ICH by inhibiting the MST4/AKT signaling pathway.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Feb 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Behavioural Changes in Mice after Getting Accustomed to the Mirror

    • Abstract: Patients with brain function disorders due to stroke or dementia may show inability to recognize themselves in the mirror. Although the cognitive ability to recognize mirror images has been investigated in many animal species, the animal species that can be used for experimentation and the mechanisms involved in recognition remain unclear. We investigated whether mice have the ability to recognize their mirror images. Demonstrating evidence of this in mice would be useful for researching the psychological and biological mechanisms underlying this ability. We examined whether mice preferred mirrors, whether plastic tapes on their heads increased their interest, and whether mice accustomed to mirrors learnt its physical phenomenon. Mice were significantly more interested in live stranger mice than mirrors. Mice with tape on their heads spent more time before mirrors. Becoming accustomed to mirrors did not change their behaviour. Mice accustomed to mirrors had significantly increased interest in photos of themselves over those of strangers and cage-mates. These results indicated that mice visually recognized plastic tape adherent to reflected individuals. Mice accustomed to mirrors were able to discriminate between their images, cage-mates, and stranger mice. However, it is still unknown whether mice recognize that the reflected images are of themselves.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Feb 2020 12:20:01 +000
  • Word Processing Is Faster than Picture Processing in Alzheimer’s

    • Abstract: Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a slow progressive impairment of episodic memory. Many studies have shown that AD exhibits deterioration of semantic memory during the course of disease progression. We previously reported that AD patients exhibited severe access disorders in the semantic memory system, using the Momentary Presentation Task (20 or 300 ms). In this study, we studied access disorder in patients with AD by the use of object difference (pictures vs words) methods. Methods. 56 patients with probable AD (NINCDS-ADRDA, mean age 79.0 years) and 11 healthy controls (HC) (mean age 67.0 years) were studied. Ten pictures and 10 corresponding Japanese Hiragana words were presented arbitrarily for 20 and 300 ms on the monitor screen which were correctly named at the usual confrontation setting (i.e., semantic memory preserved). They were asked to name the pictures or to read the words or nonsense syllables aloud. Results. The AD group showed significantly lower scores than the HC group, especially for the 20 ms condition. For the type of stimuli, the AD patients had better performances for words > pictures > nonsense syllables, although no differences for the HC group. The effect of AD severity was noted, moderate > severe stage. Conclusions. Our results suggested that the processing speed in AD patients may have reduced, even if the semantic memory were preserved. These data indicated that the difference in the processing speeds by the type of stimuli (pictures, words, and nonsense syllables) may be a character of AD patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 11:15:25 +000
  • The Main Determinants for Suicidal Ideation in a Romanian Cohort of
           Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of suicidal concerns (SC) in a large multiple sclerosis (MS) patient group and to assess the major determinants that are implicated in their occurrence. Methods. A total of 349 patients were included in the study. They completed a survey about their demographic characteristics, psycho-socio-economic data, and disease-related information. Their disability level was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) based on the neurological examination performed by the same doctor for every patient and the SC were documented with the Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire. Results. The study included 112 men and 237 women, with a mean age around 42 years old. Suicidal thoughts were more frequent in men, while suicidal intentions in women. Positive correlations were found between SC and depression, EDSS, total number of relapses, disease duration, and level of education. From the EDSS functional scores, only the pyramidal score and the cerebellar score presented a significant correlation with SC. None of the patients with clinically isolated syndrome had SC. The type of disease-modifying therapy, marital and occupational status, and the presence of children did not influence the presence of SC. Conclusions. The prevalence of SC is higher in patients with MS compared to the general population. Their occurrence is mostly influenced by the disease itself (duration, relapses, acquired disability) and also by depression and lack of education.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 12:50:07 +000
  • Neuropsychological Changes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)

    • Abstract: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition of multifactorial origin. CRPS involves sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms primarily affecting one extremity. Patients can also present with neuropsychological changes such as reduced attention to the CRPS-affected extremity, reminiscent of hemispatial neglect, yet in the absence of any brain lesions. However, this “neglect-like” framework is not sufficient to characterise the range of higher cognitive functions that can be altered in CRPS. This comprehensive literature review synthesises evidence of neuropsychological changes in CRPS in the context of potential central mechanisms of the disorder. The affected neuropsychological functions constitute three distinct but not independent groups: distorted body representation, deficits in lateralised spatial cognition, and impairment of non-spatially-lateralised higher cognitive functions. We suggest that many of these symptoms appear to be consistent with a broader disruption to parietal function beyond merely what could be considered “neglect-like.” Moreover, the extent of neuropsychological symptoms might be related to the clinical signs of CRPS, and rehabilitation methods that target the neuropsychological changes can improve clinical outcomes in CRPS and other chronic pain conditions. Based on the limitations and gaps in the reviewed literature, we provide several suggestions to improve further research on neuropsychological changes in chronic pain.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jan 2020 12:05:01 +000
  • Social Cognition in Rehabilitation Context: Different Evolution of
           Affective and Cognitive Theory of Mind in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    • Abstract: Maintaining social skills such as Theory of Mind (ToM) competences is important to counteract the conversion into dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Multidimensional nonpharmacological interventions demonstrated their potential in improving cognitive and behavioral abilities; however, little is known about the long-term effect of such interventions on social skills in people with MCI. The aim of this longitudinal study was to monitor ToM competences considering both cognitive and affective domains in an amnestic MCI (aMCI) sample involved in a home-based multistimulation treatment (MST@H). 30 aMCI subjects (;) were enrolled, and three steps of evaluation with neuropsychological tests and ToM tasks have been implemented. 21 healthy controls (HC) were also included (;) to characterize the aMCI sample regarding differences in ToM performance compared to HC at the baseline evaluation. Our results show that the aMCI group statistically significantly underperformed the HC group only in the advanced ToM tasks, confirming an initial decline of high-level ToM competences in this population. The longitudinal evaluation revealed time changes not only in some subcognitive domains of MoCA (memory and executive functions) but also in cognitive and affective ToM dimensions in aMCI subjects. Our findings suggest that cognitive and affective ToM can be considered useful outcome measures to test the long-term effect of treatment over time.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jan 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Treatment Effects of Upper Limb Action Observation Therapy and Mirror
           Therapy on Rehabilitation Outcomes after Subacute Stroke: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Action observation therapy and mirror therapy, two promising rehabilitation strategies, are aimed at enhancing the motor learning and functional improvement of stroke patients through different patterns of visual feedback and observation. Objective. This study investigated and compared the treatment effects of the action observation therapy, mirror therapy, and active control intervention on motor and functional outcomes of stroke patients. Methods. Twenty-one patients with subacute stroke were recruited in this study. All patients were randomly assigned to the action observation therapy, mirror therapy, or active control intervention for 3 weeks. Outcome measures were conducted at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and secondary outcomes included the Box and Block Test, Functional Independence Measure, and Stroke Impact Scale. Descriptive analyses and the number of patients whose change score achieved minimal clinically important difference were reported. Results. Both the action observation therapy and active control intervention showed similar improvements on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box and Block Test, and Stroke Impact Scale. Moreover, the action observation therapy had a greater improvement on the Functional Independence Measure than the other 2 groups did. However, the mirror therapy group gained the least improvements on the outcomes. Conclusion. The preliminary results found that the patients in the action observation therapy and active control intervention groups had comparable benefits, suggesting that the 2 treatments might be used as an alternative to each other. A further large-scale study with at least 20 patients in each group to validate the study findings is needed. This trial is registered with NCT02871700.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jan 2020 14:20:03 +000
  • Small Fiber Neuropathy: Clinicopathological Correlations

    • Abstract: Small fiber neuropathy develops due to the selective damage of the thin fibers of peripheral nerves. Many common diseases can cause this condition, including diabetes, infections, autoimmune and endocrine disorders, but it can occur due to genetic alterations, as well. Eighty-five skin biopsy-proven small-fiber neuropathy cases were analyzed. Forty-one (48%) cases were idiopathic; among secondary types, hypothyreosis (9.4%), diabetes mellitus (7%), cryoglobulinemia (7%), monoclonal gammopathy with unproved significance (4.7%), Sjögren’s disease (3%), and paraneoplastic neuropathy (3%) were the most common causes. Two-thirds (68%) of the patients were female, and the secondary type started 8 years later than the idiopathic one. In a vast majority of the cases (85%), the distribution followed a length-dependent pattern. Intraepidermal fiber density was comparable in idiopathic and secondary forms. Of note, we found significantly more severe pathology in men and in diabetes. Weak correlation was found between patient-reported measures and pathology, as well as with neuropathic pain-related scores. Our study confirmed the significance of small fiber damage-caused neuropathic symptoms in many clinical conditions, the gender differences in clinical settings, and pathological alterations, as well as the presence of severe small fiber pathology in diabetes mellitus, one of the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jan 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • “Olfactory Three-Needle” Enhances Spatial Learning and
           Memory Ability in SAMP8 Mice

    • Abstract: As one of the most important therapies in complementary and alternative medicine, acupuncture has been used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Acupuncture of “olfactory three-needle” manipulation can improve the cognitive ability of AD patients. However, the mechanism of “olfactory three-needle” in AD remains largely unknown. Here, we identified that the “olfactory three-needle” therapy and eugenol olfactory stimulation both reduced the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein and increased the expression of synaptophysin (SYP), but only the “olfactory three-needle” enhanced the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8. Remarkably, the “olfactory three-needle” inhibited the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and the excessive activation of microglia (MG) in the hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that the “olfactory three-needle” enhances spatial learning and memory ability by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and the excessive activation of MG to reduce the neuroinflammatory response and neurotoxicity of Aβ and promote synaptic regeneration, but it was not completely consistent with the stimulation of the olfactory system.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jan 2020 13:50:01 +000
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