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Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Theologia Orthodoxa
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1224-0869
Published by Babes-Bolyai University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Frederick Lauritzen
      Pages: 5 - 6
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHAEL PSELLOS AND IOANE PETRITSI ON INTELLECT

    • Authors: Alexidze Lela
      Pages: 7 - 38
      Abstract: Michael Psellos exposed his theory on intellect in two major texts: De omnifaria doctrina and Philosophica minora. Psellos’ theory is based on different philosophical sources, including, first and foremost, Proclus’ texts. The younger contemporary of Psellos, Georgian philosopher Ioane Petritsi, who was trained in Byzantine philosophical school and was well acquainted with ancient Greek philosophical tradition, also commented on Proclus and his theory of intellect. For Proclus, Psellos and Petritsi intellect is an important entity because it embraces Forms and is, therefore, a basis for all kinds of beings. The aim of this paper is to analyze Psellos’ and Petritsi’s theories of intellect and their interrelationship taking into consideration their dependence on the common philosophical sources, mainly Proclus’ Elements of theology.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.01
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • REMARKS ON PSELLOS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PATRISTIC EXEGETICAL
           TRADITION IN HIS THEOLOGICA

    • Authors: Georgios Diamantopoulos
      Pages: 39 - 80
      Abstract: In this paper I explore Psellos’ attitude towards the Church Fathers’ exegesis with the focus on Theol. 1. 1 Gautier. Relative Theologica are also examined. His critical arguments and his enthusiasm for Proclus’ hermeneutics are analyzed systematic comparative and are contextualized through historical-comparative methods in the eleventh century’s conflict between philosophers and mystics.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.02
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHAEL PSELLUS ON PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY

    • Authors: Mark Edwards
      Pages: 81 - 100
      Abstract: This paper explores the use of the terms theologia and philosophia in the philosophic opuscula of Michael Psellus, especially those which are dedicated to the Chaldaean Oracles. It begins with a review of previous pagan and Christian usage, the conclusion of which is that Christians rejected the pagan distinction between theologoi, as inspired conduits of divine truth, from philosophers who interpreted such revelations under the rubric of theologia. For Christians Greek theologoi were mere purveyors of myth; theologia was not a branch of philosophy but the exposition of truths revealed in scripture. Since the revealers were already theologians, and the interpreters were theologoi in their own right, the terms became synonymous when applied to Christian practice. Psellus is on the whole faithful to this tradition, reserving the term theologia for Christian teaching in contrast to philosophy, except in one passage that speaks of the "philosophy and theology" of the Chaldaeans. The purpose of this phrase, in which the latter term seems to be epexegetic to the former, is to intimate that even the best theology of the pagans, being ignorant of the biblical revelation, can rise no higher than philosophy.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.03
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • THE TEACHING OF THE ENERGIES IN DE OMNIFARIA DOCTRINA OF MICHAEL PSELLOS

    • Authors: Georgi Kapriev
      Pages: 101 - 116
      Abstract: The paper gives an answer to the question if and in what way the doctrine of energies is present in De omnifaria doctrina of Michael Psellos, and compared to the background of self-evidence and even simplification of the doctrine in the twelfth century (using the example of Nicetas from Maroneia). It is mainly represented in the form of a valid element of conventional philosophy and theology. It is pointed out that the only model of this doctrine usually considered is the version promoted by Gregorius Palamas in a systematic form, forming the basic axis of his system of thought, which is to serve as the basis for the explanation of all phenomena that can be an object of philosophical and theological reflection. Psellos’ version shows some differences in comparison with this model. It is proven (using the example of Prochorus Kydones) that even in the course of the Hesychast controversy most of Palamas’ opponents do not question the doctrine. The theory of energy proves to be a philosophical instrument that is valid for all philosophers in Byzantium, regardless of the line of thought they represent. It is a specific feature of philosophy in Byzantium, which characterizes its peculiarity in a comparison with the western medieval philosophical paradigms. It is decidedly emphasized that the theory of energy does not have a clearly defined, “essential” constitution, but rather demonstrates a variety of forms of appropriation and use, so that each philosopher applies it according to the peculiarity of his own philosophy program.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.04
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • PSELLOS’ COMMENTARY ON THE JESUS PRAYER

    • Authors: Frederick Lauritzen
      Pages: 117 - 134
      Abstract: The commentary on the Jesus Prayer published by Sinkiewicz in 1987 is a genuine work by Psellos. It is ascribed to him in a number of manuscripts and is not eccentric in relation to his interests. Indeed, he wrote a commentary on the ‘Kyrie Eleison’. Moreover, the theological points in the commentary echo those he described in Poem 4 Westerink. The commentary contains a previously unidentified verse which contains eleventh century expressions. Psellos’ commentary was used by Markos Eugenikos when he wrote his own commentary on the same prayer which was published in the Philocalia. Psellos’ commentary was transmitted in a number of manuscripts preserved today on Mt. Athos also under his name.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.05
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • ARISTOTELIAN AND NEOPLATONIC ETHICS IN MICHAEL PSELLOS AND JOHN ITALOS

    • Authors: Dominic O'Meara
      Pages: 135 - 146
      Abstract: This paper examines the use made by Michael Psellos and John Italos of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics together with Neoplatonic sources (in particular Porphyry’s Sentences) on the subject of virtue. Examining chapters 66-81 of Psellos’ De omnifaria doctrina and Essays 81 and 63 of Italos’ Problems and Solutions, I argue that both philosophers have a coherent theory of virtue which integrates Aristotelian ethical virtue in the Neoplatonic hierarchy of the virtues.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.06
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHAEL PSELLOS’ THEOLOGICA I.30 AND THE BYZANTINE INTERPRETATIONS OF
           SCALA PARADISI XXVII/2.13

    • Authors: Oleg rodionov
      Pages: 147 - 164
      Abstract: The article2 examines the exegesis of Michael Psellos on the most mysterious of the “difficult places” of the Ladder by John of Sinai — Step XXVІІ/2.13. This interpretation is one of the so-called Theologica treatises (Theol. I.30). It differs significantly from the rest of the Byzantine explanations of this “difficult place”. Michael Psellos decisively rejects the Christological interpretation of the “vision” and the questions of St. John. He also develops the doctrine of the accessibility to a human in present life of the vision of God in “symbols” and “forms” only. Higher contemplations are linked to the degree of detachment of the soul from the body. Unlike Michael Psellos, other interpreters, firstly, pay more attention to the context in which the chapter of the Ladder in question is located, secondly, they mostly prefer a Christological interpretation of St. John’s questions to the unknown interlocutor, thirdly, they ask themselves who this interlocutor was, an angel or Christ Himself. One of the anonymous Byzantine commentaries convincingly defends the point of view according to which John Climacus talked with Christ. This paper analyses all the extensive interpretations of the difficult passage, and on the basis of the handwritten tradition, draws the conclusion that the exegesis of Michael Psellos had much circulation in Byzantium along with other conceptions of the mysterious chapter. In addition, there has been noted the reception of Psellos’s interpretation in the first Slavic edition of the Ladder in 1647. Appendices I and II contain the edition of the Greek text of an anonymous Scholium and a fragment from the commentary by Elias of Crete respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.07
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • INCORPOREALS IN THE ONTOLOGY OF CREATED BEINGS IN THE BYZANTINE PHILOSOPHY
           OF MICHAEL PSELLOS

    • Authors: Denis Walter
      Pages: 165 - 178
      Abstract: In this contribution I tried to show that Psellos has a complex understanding of the ontology of the being of incorporeal entities that is shaped mainly from a Christian position but also supplemented by the methodological use of positions from ancient philosophy. There is surely a lot more to say about this problem, but I think the classical notions of soul or forms cannot be very easily included into Psellos philosophical framework. His discussion with the pagan philosophy is not only complex but depends also on the circumstance and context of the problems he is discussing in specific texts. Regarding incorporeal beings, he seems to advocate the existence of angels and souls while forms do not seem to have an own ontological realm between God and sensible cosmos. The question of Platonic forms as the thoughts of gods is tricky. On the one side Psellos points to God as direct cause of creation, on the other side he holds back on characterizing God’s thoughts.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.08
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHEL PSELLOS, ADMINISTRATEUR PUBLIC ET GESTIONNAIRE DE SES BIENS

    • Authors: Jean-Claude Cheynet
      Pages: 179 - 192
      Abstract: Michel Psellos, Public Administrator and Manager of His Own Fortune. Michael Psellos had a brilliant career as a bureaucrat and advisor for numerous emperors. Thanks to the positions he occupied, he established a network. His activities increased considerably, but it seems that he was not satisfied with the administration of his personal fortune and that he did not leave a considerable inheritance. He lost a considerable sum because of a court case and because of a theft due to his negligence. His fortune consisted mainly of lifetime possessions and depended on imperial fortune which he did not retain until the end of his life. This weakness explains why he did not manage to establish an enduring fortune and why his successors were impoverished.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.09
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • NEW CONSIDERATIONS ON THE HISTORIA SYNTOMOS OF MICHAEL PSELLOS

    • Authors: Dejan Dželebdžić
      Pages: 193 - 206
      Abstract: Chapter 1 of this paper investigates the main themes in the research of Michael Psellos’ Historia Syntomos. Chapter 2 puts forward the question of possible interrelations between the Historia Syntomos and one type of the short imperial chronicles, the so-called Kaiserlisten. Chapter 3 reexamines the possible relation between the Historia Syntomos and a short Psellos’ work entitled Περὶ τῆς κατὰ Χριστὸν γενεαλογίας.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.10
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • PSELLOS’ HAGIOGRAPHICAL WRITINGS: RESOURCES AND NEW DIRECTIONS

    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Fisher
      Pages: 207 - 216
      Abstract: Resources available for Byzantine scholarship in general and for studying Psellos in particular have improved greatly in recent years. Electronic databases assist editors of texts in isolating an author’s stylistic habits and in identifying parallel and source texts, while increasingly sensitive search engines provide wide access to scholarly articles, online manuscript catalogues, online publications of texts and translations and great potential for further expansion. Teubner has published Psellos’ extensive writings in genre-defined volumes such as poetry, philosophy, forensic orations and hagiographic orations that represent modern categories of literature but do not capture Byzantine conceptualizations. Two examples illustrate this observation. (1) Although the oration on the Miracle at Blachernae is among Psellos’ hagiographic writings, it contains a brief ecphrasis of a “living icon” prominent in art-historical discussions; however, the oration chiefly focuses upon the Byzantine court system and Psellos’ suggestion for designating a miracle to resolve a vexed legal case. (2) Psellos’ Encomion on Symeon Metaphrastes resembles a saint’s vita and his hymn/canon for Metaphrastes represents a step towards honoring a “new” Byzantine saint. This process continued for 400 years. The 14th-century Hesychast movement used Metaphrastes’ writings to validate their own views and expedited his inclusion in the Synaxarion of Constantinople in the 15th Century.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.11
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHAEL PSELLOS ON RHETORIC

    • Authors: Corinne Jouanno
      Pages: 217 - 238
      Abstract: The present paper is focused on Psellos’ letters, which contain a number of remarks on his role as a teacher of rhetoric and as a rhetor active at the imperial court, as well as many comments on his correspondents’ and his own style – including considerations on kinds and levels of style, Atticism and sophistry, and judgements on the great rhetorical models of the past. The examination of all these passages makes it possible to highlight the way Psellos constructs his own image as an expert in rhetoric, familiar with Hermogenean theories, but also heavily influenced by Dionysios of Halikarnassos’ aesthetic conceptions. The great diversity of models with whom he identifies testifies to his stylistic versatility and his frequent adoption of a polemical stance can be read as a claim to independence of mind and originality.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.12
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • DIE CHRONOGRAPHIA DES MICHAEL PSELLOS ALS WERK MÜNDLICHER PROSA

    • Authors: Diether Roderich Reinsch
      Pages: 239 - 248
      Abstract: Michael Psellos’ Chronographia as Oral Prose. Until now only Herbert Hunger and Warren Treadgold had pointed out that Michael Psellos has his Chronographia not written by his own hand but dictated to a professional scribe. Therefore also the structure of this work clearly has an oral character: many references back and forward, transition formulas, dialogues instead of orations. All this corresponds to its almost entirely oral sources and its aural reception. Psellos thinks of the recipients of the Chronographia not als readers but as listeners, may it be in a public θε'ατρον or privately, of course always read out loudly.
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.24193/subbto.2021.1.13
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • MICHAEL PSELLOS

    • Authors: Frederick Lauritzen
      Pages: 249 - 268
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      Issue No: Vol. 66, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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