Publisher: Nova Southeastern University   (Total: 3 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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J. of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Peace and Conflict Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.129, CiteScore: 0)
The Qualitative Report     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, CiteScore: 1)
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Peace and Conflict Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.129
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1082-7307
Published by Nova Southeastern University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • An Artistic Response to Social Unrest in Hong Kong: Utilizing the Arts to
           Build Up and Sustain an Understanding and Respectful Community

    • Authors: Shue-Kei Joanna Mok
      Abstract: The 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, commenced in March 2019, were triggered by the introduction of The Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation Bill 2019 by the Hong Kong government. In June 2019, peaceful civil disobedience escalated into violence, signalling the emergence of polarization and antagonism in the city. As of December 2019, an estimated 300,000 excess probable depressive cases and 810,000 suspected PTSD cases were associated with the 2019–20 social unrest. Furthermore with the pandemic, the hopelessness manifested in the city and citizen’s mental wellbeing are of extreme concern. Given the holistic and therapeutic nature of the arts to enhance internal and external resources to achieve well-being and social cohesion, this study aims to stimulate a peaceful, candid social dialogue and explore the arts as a potential way to heal, build up, and sustain an understanding and respectful community. Specifically, through oral history interviews, this qualitative study collects narratives from 8 individuals with diverse artistic backgrounds in order to understand the social phenomenon from a grass-root perspective and explore the capacity of schools and communities to utilize the arts as a peace-building instrument in Hong Kong’s context.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:11:21 PDT
       
  • Creative Citizen Peacebuilding: How Japan Artists and Audiences Responded
           to the Vietnam-American War

    • Authors: Long T. Bui et al.
      Abstract: This article explores two case studies related to South Vietnam and Japan, relating them to the controversial history and legacy of the Second Indochina War. The first is the Japanese adoption and adaptation of South Vietnamese antiwar music. The second is a Japanese film, uncovered decades later after the war, exposing the role of Japan in South Vietnam. Cultural productions, from nations allied with the United States, sought to expose the popular struggle for peace against the rising tide of Cold War military violence and corporate capitalist exploitation. Through interviews, archival research, and textual analysis, the article argues for a deeper understanding of the transnational alliances and forms of what we call creative citizen peacebuilding forged among musicians, filmmakers, and audiences.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:11:13 PDT
       
  • Whose Peace' Grappling with Local Ownership in Sierra Leone

    • Authors: Oscar Mateos et al.
      Abstract: Local ownership has become a basic tenet of post-conflict peacebuilding strategies sponsored by the International Community. However, research on peacebuilding underlines a gap between policy discourse and actual practice. This paper illustrates the challenges and opportunities posed by the promotion of local ownership by assessing the case of Sierra Leone. This West African country is often labelled as one of the most successful peacebuilding interventions thus far. However, by analysing the interaction between insiders and outsiders during the initial post-conflict phase (1996-2007), this paper concludes that stakeholders perceived differently the meaning and policies associated with the concept of local ownership. In this regard, the country’s peacebuilding “success story” should be nuanced in light of the shortcomings and challenges identified. The Sierra Leonean case study provides us with an opportunity to revisit and reflect on the contradictions and limitations of the liberal peacebuilding project with a view to work towards sustainable peace and development.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:11:05 PDT
       
  • Learning with Peaceful, Heterogeneous Communities: Lessons on Sustaining
           Peace in Mauritius

    • Authors: Naseem Aumeerally et al.
      Abstract: Our scientific understanding of peaceful societies – and of the conditions and processes conducive to sustaining peace in multicultural societies in general – is fragmented at best. This paper addresses this gap, presenting a case study of a multicultural society often hailed for its high levels of peacefulness– Mauritius. Through a systematic review of the literature on Mauritius and qualitative interviews and focus groups with a wide range of Mauritian stakeholder groups, the study focused on gleaning insights from the lived experiences of a broad swath of Mauritian society around what it takes to maintain peace in a multicultural context. The study is one component of a comprehensive, multi-method project on sustaining peace, which combines theory development, empirical validation, complexity visualization and mathematical modeling with grounded insights of citizens living in peace in resilient communities and societies around the globe. Findings from this study provide support for the necessity of employing a complexity lens in understanding peace, and offers a nuanced understanding some of the contradictions evident in how everyday peace is often maintained in these societies.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:10:55 PDT
       
  • Positioning Women's Inclusion in Peace Negotiations: The Landmark
           Case of the Philippines

    • Authors: Josephine P. Perez et al.
      Abstract: Women have historically been excluded in formal peace processes. While structural changes have pushed for women’s participation in peace negotiations, we locate the shift from women’s exclusion to women’s inclusion as enacted in the discursive patterns of talk. Using positioning theory as a discursive lens, we looked at how women’s inclusion was facilitated in the peace negotiations between the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) that reached the landmark Philippine peace accord of 2014. Positioning theory argues that every utterance is a speech act that ascribes rights and duties, in this case, the right of women to be included in peace negotiations. Each act of positioning is comprised of storylines, identities, rights and duties, and social forces. From interviews with members of the GPH-MILF peace panels, we identified three patterns of positioning: (1) storylines of cultural and religious restrictions resisting women’s inclusion, (2) storylines of gender equality, compliance with important statutes, and political will facilitating women’s inclusion, and (3) storylines of women’s inclusion transforming women’s identities in peace negotiations from normative to agentic. Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and practical contributions of a discursive approach to women’s inclusion in peace processes.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:10:47 PDT
       
  • ‘Othering’ and Violence in School: A Barrier to Sustain Peace
           in Nepal

    • Authors: Raj Kumar Dhungana Dr.
      Abstract: This study explores the experiences of othering and violence in school. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in five schools located in the fragile setting of Nepal for over six months. Using the idea of othering, this study unveils that the academically low performers and culturally undervalued students are more likely to be labelled as Bhuskul, the ‘other’. This category is used to rationalize discrimination and use violence against the 'other'. With the cementing practices of ‘othering’ and violence, the schools are unable to foster values of peace and nonviolence but on the contrary, it will continue reinforcing structural violence and perpetuating direct violence. More research is required to understand and address the issue of inter-sectional othering process that normalize the discrimination and use of violence in school.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2022 07:10:39 PDT
       
  • Vertical Social Cohesion: Linking Concept to Practice

    • Authors: Valarie Vat Kamatsiko
      Abstract: This article addresses gaps in linking the conceptualization and practice of vertical social cohesion. Through a review of literature, examination of field-based case studies and focused discussions with academics, the article crystalizes the understanding of vertical social cohesion—often restricted to state-society relations—and offers four mutually reinforcing strands of the vertical dimension that are cognizant of the hybridity of state, non-state, formal and informal institutions that exist in most societies. Through a deeper reflection on practice, the article discusses two considerations for strengthening the practice of vertical social cohesion that should start with intentional consideration of the vertical dimension of social cohesion during the intervention design: leveraging governance programming based on its complementarities with social cohesion; and careful blending of interventions that promote horizontal and vertical social cohesion. It argues that, while the focus of community-level social cohesion interventions is often biased towards strengthening horizontal social relations, both the vertical and horizontal dimensions are important in shaping the nature and strength of a society’s cohesiveness. The article contends that social cohesiveness is determined by how vertical and horizontal social cohesion interact and proposes a tool—Social Cohesion’s Four-Quadrants Model—to harmonize and weigh programming choices in order to influence broader, sustainable societal change.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 18:28:17 PST
       
  • The rebels' credibility dilemma: A new approach to the search for
           credibility towards the international community and the population

    • Authors: Theò Bajon
      Abstract: By being part into the theory of the rebels' credibility dilemma, this research takes its framework in a historical analysis of relations between rebel groups and governments, in order to better understand the mechanisms of demands and negotiations between these two actors. In this paper, we propose to test the validity of the theory of the rebels' credibility dilemma in Latin America, and to provide specific precision to this geographical area. For that, our approach proposes an historical and political study on data going from 1945 to 2019. The study is characterized by the creation of specific classifications and a relative power indicator of the rebel groups, making it possible to highlight new specificities of the rebels' credibility dilemma. The results show that globally the theory seems valid on the studied area, but that new parameters can be implemented to the initial theory, namely the search for popular and international credibility, through a general model of the rebels’ credibility dilemma.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 18:28:09 PST
       
  • Civil Society Leaders’ Experiences of Peacebuilding in Londonderry/Derry
           City, Northern Ireland: Transforming Cultural and Psychological Barriers

    • Authors: Leonardo Luna et al.
      Abstract: This article reviews the empirical data the second author collected from 120 semi-structured interviews with the leaders of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and funding agency development officers conducted during the summer of 2010 in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The research explores 44 Derry City respondents' experiences and perceptions regarding external economic aid in the Northern Ireland peace process. To this end, this article explores the role of economic aid from the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) and the European Union (EU) Peace and Reconciliation or Peace 3 Fund in engaging with civil society in transforming psychological and cultural barriers towards building sustainable peace in Londonderry or Derry City. Themes emerged inductively from data. It includes the CSO leaders' and funding agency development officers' perspectives on building peace and both funds' impact on the Northern Ireland peacebuilding process. CSO leaders and funding agency development officers acknowledge the importance of external economic assistance support in development and forging cross-community contact projects. The interviewees also highlighted issues related to political participation, community competitiveness, and psychological barriers that emerge from CSOs working with both programs. Some of the conclusions are related to broadened peace process interventions to a multi-articulated approach that includes different areas of peacebuilding intervention.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 18:28:00 PST
       
  • Responding to violence from abroad: The Mexican diaspora mobilising from
           Brussels and Paris through art-based strategies

    • Authors: Larisa Lara-Guerrero
      Abstract: Over 150,000 people were intentionally killed in Mexico since 2006, after the Mexican government decided to openly combat organized crime. Against the backdrop of the security crisis, members of Mexican society have developed national and transnational strategies to contribute to the respond to the rampant violence in their homeland.By introducing a transdisciplinary approach and peacebuilding theories, this paper argues that Mexican migrants living in Brussels and Paris have been able to orchestrate transnational art-based strategies to contribute to the violence alleviation in their country of origin. In particular, this empirical paper argues that Mexican migrants living in these two European cities have deployed artistic bottom-up strategies to reduce direct violence, transform relationships and build capacity from overseas.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 18:27:53 PST
       
  • The Sound of the Sun: Religious understandings of peace and the role of
           religious leaders in peacebuilding―a qualitative study in Bosnia and
           Herzegovina

    • Authors: Stipe Odak
      Abstract: This article discusses the different roles of religious leaders in peacebuilding processes, and their specific understanding of peace. It is based on analysis of 75 in-depth interviews with Catholic, Orthodox, and Muslim religious leaders from Bosnia and Herzegovina, conducted in the period from 2015 to 2017. In the first part, peace is analyzed as a concept that contains elements of giftness, spirituality, and praxis. Arguing for the relevance of all three elements, the article warns against possible misunderstandings that can come when peace is assessed only through directly measurable indicators. In the second part, peacebuilding activities of religious leaders are divided into three groups: 1) before conflicts, 2) during conflicts, and 3) in post-conflict phases. In those scenarios, religious leaders play preventive, reactive, and transformative roles, respectively. The preventive role comprises all activities related to the development of moral character and social ethics that promote non-violence. The reactive role includes activities related to humanitarian assistance, spiritual and emotional accompaniment, denunciation of crimes, and promotion of alternative social visions to those of group-separation. Lastly, in the post-conflict phase (the transformative role), peacebuilding is inseparable from the challenges related to the legacy of past violence, especially those of forgiveness, reconciliation, and memory of conflicts.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Nov 2021 18:27:45 PST
       
  • Kiss of Love Campaign: Contesting Public Morality to Counter Collective
           Violence

    • Authors: Sonia Krishna Kurup Miss
      Abstract: The paper studies the immense opposition to a nonviolent campaign against the practice of moral policing in Kerala to understand the dominant spaces, collective identities, and discourses that give shape to the outrage of public morality in India. The campaign through its politics specifically targeted rightwing and political groups as well as socially embedded familial and institutional structures that exercise control over individuals through patriarchal regimes. The adverse reaction to the campaign revealed that collective aggression or violence can be used to impose majoritarian values and exert social control through the authority of public morality and everyday acts of moral policing in masculinized, politico-religious spaces that characterize the traditional public sphere in India. The contested ‘morals’ were gendered and communal notions particular to the middle classes and central to the maintenance of dominant structures of family, marriage, religious community, and the nation. The same informs notions of popular morality that give moral policing its ‘rational’ authority. The research employs online opinion pieces, reports and discussions, and two structured interviews to examine why the campaign became prominent in the public sphere. It gives coherence to the campaign’s agenda to counter the underlying violence of moral policing and suggests measures for peaceful resolution of public contestations.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 17:07:22 PDT
       
  • Avoiding the ‘Anthropocene’': An Assessment of the Extent and
           Nature of Engagement with Environmental Issues in Peace Research

    • Authors: Rhys Kelly Dr
      Abstract: This article critically examines the extent and nature of engagement with environmental issues within the field of peace research, and specifically with the unfolding ecological crisis (‘the Anthropocene’). A representative sample of journals and book series associated with peace research were analysed in order to a. quantify the extent of engagement with climate change and other environmental issues in peace research, and b. assess the range of discursive positions vis-a-vis the environment represented in the sample. The article finds that, in comparison to other ‘thematic niches’, environmental issues have received limited attention. It also finds that the dominant orientation of publications that do have an environmental focus can be considered ‘reformist’ - largely concerned with or assuming the possibility of significant continuity from the present. More ‘radical’ perspectives are present but in a much lower proportion. Whilst acknowledging the validity of and need for a plurality of perspectives and approaches, it is argued that the scientific evidence of an accelerating and increasingly dangerous ecological crisis does raise challenging questions for peace research. The article concludes with a call for renewed debate on the purpose(s) and assumptions of peace research, informed by a wider range of perspectives on environmental issues. It is a contribution to a tradition of critical reflection within the field but is the first to provide a systematic and grounded analysis of engagement with and perspectives on, the environment within peace research.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 17:07:16 PDT
       
  • Teaching peace by using nonviolent communication for difficult
           conversations in the college classroom

    • Authors: Sara Koopman et al.
      Abstract: Having empathy and respect for oneself and others when engaging in difficult dialogue is an essential part of peace education. Gandhi emphasized that involving emotions was more transformative than purely intellectual approaches to education. Nonviolent communication (NVC), as developed by Marshall Rosenberg, is a tool for fostering empathy and building connection across difference. Using NVC for difficult conversations in any college classroom is a way of mainstreaming peace education across the curriculum. Though there is literature on difficult conversations in the college classroom, and on the effectiveness of NVC in general and in K-12 classrooms, there is very little on NVC in college spaces, and none on NVC for difficult conversations. In this primarily qualitative study college students were asked to use NVC to discuss controversial nonviolent actions. We found that even when both professor and students were NVC beginners, students were able to use it to discuss polarizing protests in a class with a diversity of views and needs for respect were overwhelmingly met. NVC was also useful for deepening analysis of the effectiveness of nonviolent actions, and could serve as a tool of emotional regulation for nonviolent action, or a modern day sort of purification for satyagraha.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 17:07:10 PDT
       
  • Interracial Dialogues in Dixie: Expressing Emotions to Promote Racial
           Reconciliation

    • Authors: Jeneve R. Brooks PhD et al.
      Abstract: Given the legacy of racial injustice and mistrust that continues to plague race relations in the United States, it is important that citizens of different racial backgrounds come together to share their feelings and thoughts about race issues in order to advance racial reconciliation in their own communities. Saunders (1999) asserts that such dialogues can transform interracial relationships that could inspire the larger community to change itself. This study presents the results of nine interracial focus groups from two dialogues on race relations events held in Dothan, Alabama in 2015 and 2016. Our findings illustrate that many Black respondents displayed both anger and sadness as they provided stories of the institutionalized racism (e.g., racial profiling, educational inequality, residential segregation, etc.) as well as the more personalized racism that they had experienced. White respondents too demonstrated anger and sadness when relating their own experiences of strained race relations. This mixed-methods study also employed API analysis to further strengthen our original qualitative exploration of emotions. We argue that interracial dialogues can hold the potential for racial reconciliation as participants’ stories elucidate our most intransient race problems while also highlighting the emotions that connect discussants through the dialogic process.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Apr 2021 17:07:05 PDT
       
  • Rethinking Peace: Discourse, Memory, Translation, and Dialogue, edited by
           Alexander Laban Hinton, Giorgio Shani and Jeremiah Alberg. Reviewed by
           Mohammed Moussa.

    • Authors: Mohammed Moussa
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 13:22:29 PST
       
  • A Weapon of Legitimacy: China’s Integrative Power and its Impact on its
           Reactions on Domestic Conflicts

    • Authors: Kwok Chung Wong
      Abstract: The rise of China has provided a plethora of different powers it can use to its advantage, continues its rise, or punish noncompliance. Throughout the years of China's rising, it has been accumulating considerable hard power in its military and economic capabilities, while also trying to improve on its soft power of cultural values. However one often overlooked, and under-appreciated power of China is the integrative power of Chinese nationalism. This integrative power that comes from China’s acute usage of nationalism to support the legitimacy of its one-party system. This study argues that China has an excess of integrative power and that China has skillfully used it to turn unfavorable events and threats, such as the Hong Kong protests of 2019, back to their advantage; even if this would mean that China is a primary facilitator of conflict and also at times an inhibitor to the de-escalation of conflict.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 13:22:22 PST
       
  • Words and Power in Conflict: Rwanda Under MRND Rule

    • Authors: Allan T. Moore Ph.D.
      Abstract: Rwanda under the rule of President Juvenal Habyarimana and the MRND government was a de facto totalitarian governed society, and throughout Habyarimana’s twenty-one year rule, it has been established that there was clear propaganda and hatred directed toward those citizens identified as Tutsi through their national identification records. This article examines the effects of centralized power harbored by Habyarimana and the MRND during this time utilizing a theoretical framework based on the intersection of complementary theory from Foucault, Dahl and Weber. The methodology includes a novel critical discourse analysis (CDA) of transcribed speeches delivered by Habyarimana and Leon Mugesera, as well as a short ethnography of the author’s own experience of visiting memorial sites in Rwanda. Conclusions are reached that bring in analysis of Popper’s Paradox of Tolerance and argue that contrary to some opinion on the matter, it is not unreasonable to expect a degree of restriction of free speech under a limited set of circumstances when a society such as Rwanda’s has suffered previous mass extreme victimization as a result of past abuse of the power-knowledge-discourse relationship.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 13:22:16 PST
       
  • National Resilience to Protracted Violence in Ukraine

    • Authors: Karina V. Korostelina
      Abstract: This paper concentrates on the production of power of the Ukrainian nation, that not only deals with continuous violence within the nation, but also develops national strength to address this violence. This paper aims to explore how the Ukrainian nation develops resilience to protracted violence as a form of transformative power and what factors contribute or impede this process. The paper defines resilience as a form of power that enhances the capacity of a national community to heal from trauma, effectively resists perpetrators of violence, and positively transform intergroup relations to remove communities from contexts of chronic violence and war. Based on semi-structured interviews with twenty-six respondents and a phenomenological analysis of data, this paper shows that effective practices of resilience developed by the national community of Ukraine, including volunteerism, a critical approach to history, and dialogue, not only aid Ukrainians in the adaptation to the chronic violence but also in the transformation of the nature and the impact of the violence on the national community. At the same time, these practices not only utilize external and internal resources but shape the societal capacities and the international interventions. Finally, these practices also alter visions of the society and dynamics of relations between power agents.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 13:22:09 PST
       
  • Struggle and Martyrdom: Abusive Power and Root Narrative in the Aftermath
           of the Eritrean Revolution

    • Authors: Solon Simmons
      Abstract: In this paper I have applied root narrative theory to the case of conflict in Eritrea, a small African country along the Red Sea that has been embroiled in conflict with its neighbors and the international community on and off since at least 1961. Examining a small sample of representative texts from the government of Eritrea and from international critics of the regime, I demonstrate that these parties—different moral languages that make it almost impossible for each side to see the point of view of the other. Using the semiotic structure of the story system implied by root narrative theory I point out possible moves that both international actors and interested scholars and journalist could make to improve relationships with Eritrea, which has been erroneously maligned with the title, “the North Korea of Africa.” I’ve titled this paper struggle and martyrdom to signal the most efficient way to come to terms with the current leadership of Eritrea. Any policy proposal or technical solution that is not in some way compatible with the Liberation narrative implied by this imagery will be bitterly opposed, not only in the short term but also into the foreseeable future.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 13:22:03 PST
       
 
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