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Lingue Culture Mediazioni - Languages Cultures Mediation
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2284-1881 - ISSN (Online) 2421-0293
Published by LED Edizioni Universitarie Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Which Arabic and Why' Policies, Politics, and Teaching

    • Authors: Marco Aurelio Golfetto, Letizia Osti, Brahim Chakrani
      Pages: 5 - 12
      Abstract: [One day, the famous grammarian] al-Farrā’ made several mistakes while speaking in the presence of Hārūn al-Rašīd. [The vizier] Ja‘far b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī pointed this out to the caliph, who said: “Al-Farrā’, are you speaking incorrectly'”. “Commander of the Faithful”, replied al-Farrā’, “while it is natural for the Beduins to inflect words correctly, for citydwellers [like me] it is not. When I prepare, I speak correctly; when I speak off the cuff, I make mistakes”. Al-Rašīd appreciated al-Farrā’’s words. (Ibn Ḫallikān, 1968-72, vol. 6, 147)
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-intr
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Language Tests in the Arabic-speaking World: Between Ideology and Language

    • Authors: Cristina Solimando
      Pages: 13 - 31
      Abstract: A system of language assessment may be used as a mechanism for affecting language policy. Language tests convey messages and ideologies that regard prestige, priorities and hierarchies, and they generally lead to the suppression of diversity (Shohamy 2007). The relationship between tests and language policy, based mainly on the criteria used for judging language quality through rating scales, guidelines and other frameworks, leads to a view of language as standardized and homogenous. From this perspective, language tests can serve as tools that negotiate and mediate between ideology and practice. In the Arabic-speaking world language tests have only recently been introduced, although very few Arab countries have shown an interest in developing the necessary means to evaluate language performance levels. In this paper the language tests developed by the Arab Academy, the UAE National Center for Assessment (Markaz al-Waṭanī li-l-Qiyās), the Mother Tongue Center (Markaz al-Lisān al-Umm), the Jordan al-Naǧāḥ National University (Ǧāmiʿat al-Naǧāḥ al-Waṭaniyya) and the King Saʿūd University will be taken into consideration in order to determine any ideological orientation in test objectives, content and rationale. Particular attention will be paid to communicative skills within a general framework of linguistic variation in the Arabic-speaking world.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-soli
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Arabic as a Language of Politics: A Case Study in Corpus-based Teaching

    • Authors: Marco Aurelio Golfetto
      Pages: 33 - 63
      Abstract: In Arabic studies, corpus linguistics is still a fledgling discipline, but it is bound to become an unavoidable tool for specialists who seek to ground their research in actual language use. This article presents the preliminary results of an on-going research on Arabic applied linguistics. It offers a first approach to the possibility of matching Arabic as a language of politics with corpus-based teaching. The paper briefly introduces the concept of corpus-based teaching, its advantages and potential limits. It then reviews the most important Arabic corpora currently available for the language of politics, by also describing their extension, features, and limitations. Finally, it suggests some classroom activities based on arabiCorpus.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-golf
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Language Ideologies and Policies at Work: Obstructing Arabic Instruction
           from the French Colonial Era to the Present

    • Authors: Brahim Chakrani
      Pages: 65 - 79
      Abstract: This article analyzes France’s language policies regarding Arabic instruction, considering the historical relationship with the Arabic language and its speakers, from colonial to postmodern eras. The polemic surrounding Arabic instruction in the schools of the republic is not a nascent political development regarding minority linguistic rights, but, rather, a byproduct of ideologically motivated educational policies that aim to marginalize the role of Arabic, both within the Arab world and the French diaspora. The debate demonstrates the centrality of language ideologies in shaping France’s identities, both nationally and abroad, and the maintenance of French as well as Arabic, the language of France’s largest minority. France has historically promoted the dominance of the French language, including Francophonie’s inception (Kasuya 2001; Vigouroux 2013) in the post-independence era and laïcité in modern-day France (Tetreault 2021). Analyzing current political debates in France shows that the circulating ideologies that characterizes teaching Arabic is not born in a vacuum, but, rather, it continues a legacy of contention that has characterized France’s relationship with the Arabic speaking world.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-chak
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Religion, Ideology, and Nation-building in Jordanian Textbooks and
           Curricula for the Teaching of Arabic Language

    • Authors: Nijmi Edres
      Pages: 81 - 100
      Abstract: This article looks at Jordan as a case study to investigate how the link between the national and Islamic identity is constructed through textbooks and curricula for the teaching of Arabic language. The first section of the article introduces the reader to the relevance of Arabic language in historical discourses on Islam, Islamism and Arabic nationalism. Then, the article looks at the specific case of Jordan, providing an historical overview on how nationalism, religion, and religious pluralism played a part in Jordanian educational and political strategies. The following section specifically focuses on the use of the Arabic language in the Islamic and national perspectives, providing a diachronic comparison between the 2013 Arabic Language Curriculum and the 2019 General Frame for Jordanian Curricula, integrated by references to textbook content materials. The article identifies pragmatic needs behind the highlighted teaching policies and contextualizes the analyses in the broader Jordanian historical and political frameworks, pointing at the relevance of the Arabic language for the construction of identities in the contemporary Middle East and at its enduring politicization. Comparison between the 2013 and the 2019 documents shows relevant changes between past and present formulations, namely in the reduced emphasis on the link between language and religion.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-edre
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Decolonising Arabic Language Teaching: A Case Study

    • Authors: Alessandro Columbu
      Pages: 101 - 118
      Abstract: Since the early 2000s Arabic has become an increasingly popular language at academic level across Europe and North America, with high numbers of students enrolling on a variety of programmes offering Modern Standard Arabic – as well as local varieties of Arabic, commonly known as ‘āmmiyya – as the target language (Dickins and Watson 2006, 108; Ryding 2006, 13; Mohamed 2021b, 59). The increasingly high demand for this language has resulted in unprecedented progress in the variety of learning materials available for both teachers and learners. Such developments have largely taken place in the United States, where most textbooks such as the Al-Kitaab series are designed and printed. This paper employs decolonisation and post-colonial theory to look at the ideological implications of the political agendas implicit in popular and widely adopted textbooks and their proposed content for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. Relevant examples from the Al-Kitaab series – one of the most successful and widely adopted textbooks at university level in the UK – show the role of Arabic language teaching materials in perpetuating patterns of European and North American cultural hegemony, making the case for rethinking Arabic language teaching at academic level.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-colu
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • News broadcasts between fuṣḥā and Lebanese: Language choice as an
           implicit comment on national identity in Lebanon

    • Authors: Helge Daniëls
      Pages: 119 - 144
      Abstract: This article presents an analysis of the news bulletins broadcasted by South Lebanese radio station Ṣawt al-Ğanūb (SaJ, Voice of the South). SaJ broadcasted its news bulletins in fuṣḥā (Standard Arabic), as well as in Lebanese. This is interesting because in most news bulletins tend to be broadcasted in the standard language, rather than in spoken varieties. This is definitely the case for so-called diglossic societies, such as Arabic-speaking societies, in which the linguistic metanorm for ‘serious programs’ is fuṣḥā. After presenting a brief linguistic description of a small corpus of news bulletins that were broadcasted in January 1998, this article focuses on how language (choice) functions symbolically in the extra-linguistic world. It argues that the choice to breach the metapragmatic norms, while framing the language use in the news bulletins explicitly as ‘the Lebanese language’ (al-luġa al-lubnānīye) can be interpreted as an implicit comment on Lebanese national identity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-dani
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language in Its Diglossic Situation: Is
           Formal Spoken Arabic an Ideal Solution'

    • Authors: Zainab Shahad Marzouk Al-Zaghir, Ghsoon Reda
      Pages: 145 - 161
      Abstract: Due to the complex diglossic situation in Arabic, the question of what variety of the language to teach has always occupied a central position in work on teaching Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). Basic Standard Arabic may have been the most supported answer to the above question, but the field is not short of proposals for teaching dialectal varieties. Moreover, in quest of a way to help learners achieve full “Functionally Native Proficiency” (Ryding 1991, 216), Formal Spoken Arabic (FSA) was proposed as a bridge between a standard variety and a dialectal one. The present study argues against such a proposal at beginner levels on the following grounds: (1) FSA is different from the standard and dialectal varieties of Arabic and (2) FSA users can always shift to their dialectal varieties and employ features lying beyond AFL learners’ scope of competence. The argument is supported by examining variation in the use of the Arabic relative clause induced by the tendency toward different relativisation strategies (i.e. the pronoun retention strategy or the gap strategy) in different Arabic varieties. Considering that the relative clause can be embedded into any construction to modify a head noun, variation in its use can affect learners’ ability to make sense of the language input. This variation is demonstrated by examples selected from texts written in Classical Arabic, Modern Classical Arabic, and Iraqi Arabic. The study has implications for AFL course writers.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-alre
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Literature in Dialect: The Great Absentee

    • Authors: Francesco De Angelis
      Pages: 163 - 176
      Abstract: Prose production in dialect is probably the big absentee in Arabic literature textbooks. While poetry in dialect has managed to carve its own small space in textbooks on the history of Arabic literature, the same does not go for novels or short stories written in ‘āmmiyya. Most critics, especially Arabs, do not acknowledge their literary dignity. However, scholars of contemporary Arabic literature can no longer avoid seriously analysing Egyptian literature in ‘āmmiyya. In fact, in the course of the last two decades, the number of novels and short stories in Egyptian dialect has significantly increased. Furthermore, writing in dialect is increasingly widespread thanks to personal blogs and websites. In light of this emerging panorama in Arabic literature, the question is whether something is changing in relation to the acceptance of dialect as a literary language and if the time has come for literature in dialect to find its own place in literary textbooks.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-dean
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • The Status and Future of Arabic Use amid Colonial Languages in the Arab
           World in Times of Globalization and Advanced Technology: A Political and
           Sociolinguistic Approach

    • Authors: Abdenbi Khalil Lachkar
      Pages: 177 - 209
      Abstract: This paper studies the languages and cultures that are commonly present in individual and collective practices of the Arab world, to understand the extent to which the identity and the linguistic approach in the region are affected by the historical and geographical context. It analyzes the status of Arabic and its future amid colonial languages, such as English and French, in the Arab world, specifically Morocco and Lebanon as case studies, in times of globalization and advanced technology. In a large and diversified arena, such as the Arab world, there is often a strong commitment and devotion to languages, such as Arabic, French, and English. Accordingly, this study further examines how Arabic can strengthen its practice and protect its status in an environment dominated by colonial languages. In this regard, the future of the Arabic language in the current ever-changing sociolinguistic context is subject to questioning and concerns for its official forthcoming evolution. Globalization, internet, social networks, digital technologies, and fast communication are no longer enabling linguistic authorities to provide a clear and accurate vision on the future of this language. Thus, addressing the question of languages in the future pushes researchers to consider and analyze the several linguistic strategies and policies implemented by the concerned authorities who are building and promoting an overall representation within and outside their original area.
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.7358/lcm-2021-002-lach
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Authors /Autori

    • Authors: AA. VV.
      Pages: 211 - 215
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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