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Linguæ & - Rivista di lingue e culture moderne
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2281-8952 - ISSN (Online) 1724-8698
Published by LED Edizioni Universitarie Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Nota sugli Autori

    • Authors: AA. VV.
      Pages: 7 - 9
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Editoriale: Un saluto

    • Authors: Roberta Mullini
      Pages: 11 - 12
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Introduction: On Lying

    • Authors: Alessandra Molinari
      Pages: 13 - 24
      Abstract: What happens when we lie' What do we lie for' Are we always aware of it' Can we define its nature once and for all' Since the beginning of history, human beings have tried to define and interpret lying according to criteria provided to them by changing cultural environments and worldviews, so to give this phenomenon a definite place in their existence. All domains of human knowledge – from mythmaking to philosophy, from theology to neuroscience, from art to linguistics – have been involved. This special issue of Linguæ & aims to contribute to this multi- and interdisciplinary discourse by proposing a common core of insights on lying through contributions from the humanities and psychology.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-moli
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Dirk ex Machina: Douglas Adams’ Saga and Holistic Detection as
           Religious Satire

    • Authors: Emilio Gianotti
      Pages: 25 - 47
      Abstract: Douglas Adams, in his Dirk Gently series, presents his protagonist as a “holistic detective”. Following in the tradition of Sherlock Holmes, the detective bases his claims on scientific evidence and always succeeds in his enquiries. However, the mechanics of his comically random detecting behavior clash with the conclusiveness of the plot, casting doubt on the control of the protagonist over his method. A study of these mechanics as inherently computer-like elicits an interplay between the openness of a holistic postmodern pastiche and the reassuring closure granted by the appeal to science. An analysis of these core concepts, and of the influence of the New Atheist movement on the author, leads to an underlining of the satiric elements of the series. As satires of religion, these novels attack false systems of belief in favor of an enjoyment of uncertainty that waits for the answers of science.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-gian
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Lies from Outer Space: The Martians’ Famous Invasion of New Jersey

    • Authors: Alessandra Calanchi
      Pages: 49 - 62
      Abstract: Over the course of time, people have been told many lies concerning the Red Planet. Maybe the most renowned one dates back to the late 1880s, when, owing to an error in translation, scientists were led to believe in the existence of canals on its surface – canals instead of channels – which meant that Mars must be inhabited. More recently, in 1976, a lively discussion arose about the “face on Mars”, something that was spotted by the Viking 2 spacecraft in the region of Cydonia and was later dismissed as a mesa whose unusual shadows had cheated the eye. But the biggest lie of all was told in 1938, when a young actor (Orson Welles) decided to play a Halloween trick with the help of the then-rising medium – the radio. It was not really a lie in the strictest sense of the term. It was not a hoax or a fake, either – it was, in narratological terms, what is commonly called the suspension of disbelief pushed to its extreme. In this essay I am going to reconsider this event mainly in the light of two main conditions concerning lying, namely untruthfulness and the intention to deceive. Our specific case is further complicated by a third factor, that is the fact that somebody lies to someone who is believed to be listening in but who is not being addressed. I will also highlight the aftermath of this mass deception which, despite being followed by a number of disclaimers, actually overturned the utopian portrait of Martians, initiating a long literary and filmic theory of alien invasions.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-cala
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Tra virtuosismo e truffa: l’arte del falsario

    • Authors: Anna Cerboni Baiardi
      Pages: 63 - 77
      Abstract: The history of artistic forgery boasts rather old origins and numerous facets. On this occasion, some emblematic cases between the Cinquecento and the present day (from the Sleeping Cupid of Michelangelo to the ‘Modiglianis’ that hit the headlines only some decades ago) will be taken into account, along with the activity of some great forgers who lived between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Gifted with notable technical ability and virtuosic stylistic “mobility”, some of these realized true masterpieces in meeting the requests of a growing market of Italian and foreign collectors. Above all others, one should mention the names of Egisto Rossi (1824-1899), falsifier of Old Masters’ drawings, and that of Icilio Federico Joni (nicknamed Paicap; 1866-1946), who specialized in counterfeiting fondo oro paintings by the Sienese School and was the leader of the city’s forgers.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-cerb
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • “An Infinite and Endless Liar”: Paroles as a Case Study of the
           Pragmatics of Lying in Shakespeare

    • Authors: Aoife Beville
      Pages: 79 - 101
      Abstract: Lying is part of our life and part of our literary canon, the choice to lie, not lie or almost lie is both a moral and linguistic one. In the present paper lying, and related concepts such as deliberate obfuscation and deceptive implicatures, will be examined from a pragmatic, specifically neo-Gricean perspective. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of deception in the process of characterisation, with a particular focus on the form and function of the mendacious language of Paroles, the “infinite and endless liar” in All’s Well That Ends Well. Following the analysis of current pragmatic definitions of lying, this article proposes a distinction between Off-Record Verbal Deception (ORVD) and prototypical lies in the analysis of textual examples, in order to understand how these strategic linguistic choices affect the construction of character.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-bevi
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Attraverso la frode: la Commedia come conquista della verità della

    • Authors: Arianna Punzi
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: This article analyzes the structural relationship between falsehood and truth within Dante’s Comedy. The centrality of this relationship is also numerical: it recurs in all three parts of the work, and in each one of them it occupies the central section, with the ostensible purpose of placing Dante’s poetic voice at the very heart of everything, as a harbinger of truth.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-punz
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Riflesso della menzogna nella transgenerazionalità

    • Authors: Elena Acquarini
      Pages: 117 - 128
      Abstract: Truth and lies share an element of (in)authenticity that is the affect of associated cognition. Such elements can interfere with relationships and assist – or jeopardize – the individual development path. A lie often veils a reality made of horribly empty spaces which are only inhabited by conflicts caused by the imperfect functioning of that very reality. Identity development may be affected by compliance with ancient masks that are not accessible to subjects – as these masks are not the subjects’ own, but are based on the experiences of the people who preceded them in their family history. These mechanisms often have a traumatic motivation, which apparently remains unprocessed because of a lack of mobilization of the necessary psychic resources. In the transgenerational transmission of family histories, the characteristics of unthinkability and untoldness of the historical-narrative foundations that have come to constitute a lie can generate reflections which are impermeable to historical objectivity. This could be the basis of existential possibilities and psychopathological vulnerabilities.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-acqu
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Pinocchio, metafora della politica italiana

    • Authors: Stefano Pivato
      Pages: 129 - 142
      Abstract: “Telling fables” has never ceased to exert a fascination on the world of Italian politics. On the pages of Il manifesto, Luigi Pintor repeatedly nicknamed Massimo D’Alema “Maximum Fox”. Others have identified Giorgio Napolitano with Mastro Cherry (Mastro Ciliegia) and Renzi with Pinocchio himself. These parallels have their origin in the early decades of the twentieth century, when children’s literature and young adult fiction were assigned a primary role in the project of enrolling young people in the ranks of the nation. Since then, “telling fables” has become a synonym for “telling lies” – and in this context, Pinocchio’s name is generally used as a substitute for “liar”. The cat and the fox have found their real-life counterparts in various well-known pairs of Italian politicians, starting with Nenni and Togliatti. In more recent times, Andreotti was often identified as the foxiest of foxes, and was paired, in different periods, with the various cats he encountered in the course of his long political career.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-piva
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
  • Il paradosso del mentitore

    • Authors: Alessandro Di Caro
      Pages: 143 - 154
      Abstract: The liar paradox is an ancient logical paradox (revisited by modern thinkers) which links truth with falsehood and falsehood with truth, and is based on a self-referential mechanism. It has been discussed by a variety of authors, from Aristotle to Bateson. The solution to that paradox, however, can be found by having recourse to Ludwig Wittgenstein’s philosophy, and by, so to speak, getting out of language (because true and false are words which belong to our language) to attain reality. This can be expressed through Wittgenstein’s idea that no proposition can say of itself whether it is true or false. However, experience is also expressible in words – and one can think of propositions which cannot be confirmed or disproved according to experience. Studying the paradox, therefore, leads one to Gödel’s theorem which offers a mathematical demonstration of the existence of undecidable propositions.
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.7358/ling-2021-002-dica
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2021)
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Heriot-Watt University
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