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Forest@ : J. of Silviculture and Forest Ecology     Open Access  
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Forest@ : Journal of Silviculture and Forest Ecology
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ISSN (Online) 1824-0119
Published by SISEF Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Research Articles: Old-growth forests in the Pollino National Park
           (southern Italy): current status and future perspectives

    • Authors: Castellaneta M; Schettino A, Travascia D, Lapolla A, Colangelo M, Marchianò V, Bernardo L, Gargano D, Passalacqua N, Rivelli AR, Misano G, Regina L, Maradei V, Digilio S, Viggiano P, Ripullone F
      Abstract: Abstract: Old-growth forests have a primary environmental and ecological value, as they closely recall primeval forests and the natural forest landscape that was spread throughout Italy and Europe before man intervention heavily altered the functioning of most natural ecosystems. These ecosystems are more and more recognized as keystones of environmental policies (i.e., the EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030) aimed to preserve biodiversity and mitigate the impacts of climate change. A recent report highlights that Europe’s old-growth forests account for only 3 percent of the overall forest surface. The majority of italian old-growth forests are located along the Apennines, especially in the Pollino, Sila and Aspromonte National Parks, in remote montane areas characterized by irregular topographical conditions (i.e., high slopes and/or shallow soils) which hamper the access and exploitation of these less productive stands, thus allowing the survival of old-growth forests for many centuries. The ongoing climate change is a significant challenge to the conservation of old-growth forests, particularly in areas such as the Mediterranean basin, where an intensification of extreme climate events is expected. Heat waves can exacerbate drought’s negative impacts on tree growth and survival, leading to reduced woody carbon stocks and biodiversity in old-growth forests. To date, there is poor understanding of such highly valuable and extremely fragile natural ecosystems in Italy. Insights are available based on data gathered as part of two research programs, funded by the Italian Ministry of the Environment and Land and Sea Protection, with the purpose of creating a Network of Old Growth Forests in Italy’s National Parks. In this study, we aimed to highlight the role and importance of old-growth forests, focusing on those located within the Pollino National Park. A comprehensive overview of the key strengths and weaknesses, that mark these peculiar forest ecosystems, was followed by a discussion of the future outlook, grounded on strategies that will ensure not only the protection and conservation of these ecosystems, but also their development and promotion. Keywords:  Biodiversity, Natural Ecosystem, Forest Management, Old-growth Forests, Structural Heterogeneity Forest@ 20 (1): 22-29 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor4303-020'id=efor4303-020
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4303-020
  • Research Articles: The digitalization framework of the National Forest
           System at 2020

    • Authors: Carbone F; Alivernini A, Bascietto M, Oreti L, Barbarese F
      Abstract: Abstract: Digitization is a priority objective on the Italian government’s agenda, yet international indicators recognise a low level of implementation in Italy. The delegation of jurisdiction on forestry to the various Regions and Autonomous Provinces (R&PA), the involvement of numerous institutions with indirect authority and the absence of a national coordination structure may explain the backwardness that characterizes the Italian forestry system today. In this study, an initiative was undertaken to investigate the computerization and digitization in the forestry sector. Basic information was collected by conducting interviews and scrutinizing the websites of the R&PA, with the aim of defining the degree and level of digitization of each R&PA, and thus of the national forestry system. Few R&PAs have a high degree of digitization, while none reach an advanced level, with a decreasing gradient along the North-South axis. The national digital forestry system is characterized by a degree of 0.74 and a level of 2.24. Keywords:  Innovation and Communication Technologies, Index of Degree and Index of Level, Regional Forestry Platforms, Ri.Selv.Italia Project Forest@ 20 (1): 30-38 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor4265-020'id=efor4265-020
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4265-020
  • Editorials: Obituary: In memory of Prof. Giovanni Bernetti

    • Authors: La Marca O
      Abstract: Abstract: Giovanni Bernetti passed away on 21 December 2022. For several decades he taught forest mensuration, forest management and silviculture at the University of Firenze. Remembering him as a master, with whom I shared an entire professional life arouses emotions that are not easy to communicate. Giovanni Bernetti is to be considered among the great masters of Italian forest sciences. As a keen interpreter of forest dynamics and management, he disseminated his deep knowledge in several books and seminal papers of high scientific and professional influence as well. Thank you so much indeed, Prof. Bernetti, for your great cultural and scientific legacy. Keywords:  Silviculture, Forest management, Ecology, University of Florence, Italy Forest@ 20 (1): 20-21 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor0046-020'id=efor0046-020
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3832/efor0046-020
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: Soil, humipedon and forest management

    • Authors: Zampedri R; Zanella A, Giannini R
      Abstract: Abstract: Forest soil is a living and important part of the forest. It is essential for the development and reproduction of plants and for the evolution of the entire ecosystem. Proper management of the forest must also take into account the vitality and biodiversity of the soil. Due to an erroneous and non-biological conception of soil, and consequent difficulty in linking the physical aspect to the biological functioning of this complex ecosystem, the official soil classification of the last 30 years has abandoned the original link with climate, vegetation and the ecology of the environment in which soil evolves and coexists. In recent years the soil profile was divided into three sections (Humipedon, Copedon and Lithopedon), and it was then possible to link the first and most biological section of the soil to the characteristics of the environment and to its genesis. In particular, it is now possible to distinguish organic horizons generated essentially by arthropods and enchytraeids in cold and acidic or dry and arid environments, from organo-mineral horizons created by earthworms in more temperate and mesotrophic situations. Each set of horizons can be assigned to a system or form of humus, with important implications for forestry. For example, earthworms are more present in the early and late stages of sylvogenesis; by completely recycling the litter, they accelerate the provision of the organic and inorganic nutrients of the soil to the roots and the pedofauna. In general, it is now possible to associate a humus system with a given environment, with a spatial and temporal scale suitable for forest management. This paper promotes a more in-depth knowledge of the soil, to encourage foresters to take care of even half of the forest under their boots. Keywords:  Humus, Soil, Humipedon, Soil Dynamics, Forms of Humus, Spruce Forest Forest@ 20 (1): 13-19 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor4293-020'id=efor4293-020
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4293-020
  • Research Articles: Climate change in progress: observations on the impacts
           of drought events on Tuscan forests

    • Authors: Bussotti F; Bettini D, Carrari E, Selvi F, Pollastrini M
      Abstract: Abstract: The empirical observation of the impacts of drought and heat waves that occurred between 2017 and 2022 in several forest areas of Tuscany allowed to describe various processes and effects on forest trees and shrubs. The most severe impacts were observed on the evergreen Mediterranean tall woodlands and the aged coppices (on holm oak trees), causing defoliation and even mortality. In most cases, the attempts of resprouting from dormant buds (from the base of the tree trunk or in the crown), following the drought events, were not successful. Deciduous broad-leaved trees (beech, downy oak) suffered a strong summer defoliation, especially on steep slopes with shallow soils and south-facing aspect. These species were generally able to replenish the foliage the following year. In the most unfavorable conditions, however, we observed extensive attacks of opportunistic parasites, such as the fungi of the genus Biscogniauxia, which were favored by drought and were the ultimate cause of mortality. Turkey oak showed mortality in small groups or individual trees. Heat and drought also affected several minor tree species, with defoliation, desiccation and, in the most serious causes, death of the tree. Some meso-hygrophilous species that are restricted with relict populations to specific microclimatic sites within the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean habitats were also impacted, with consequences on biodiversity, regeneration, and production of fruits for wildlife. Increasing drought and heat will trigger regressive dynamic processes that will lead in many sites to the transformation of holm oak forests into bushy forms of scrub, and of scrublands into sparse garrigues or even steppes. A more intense natural thinning of aged coppice stands with especially Turkey oak is also occurring, due to the combined effect of drought and intra- or inter-specific competition. The implementation of a regional monitoring system is recommended, based on the integration of past and existing experiences with new initiatives, to quantify the dynamics, extent and severity of the impacts. A crucial point is the need to adapt forestry, and especially utilization of coppice woods, to the changed ecological conditions to avoid increasing the impact on them. Keywords:  Biodiversity Loss, Biotic Interactions, Defoliation, Heat Waves And Drought, Tree Mortality Forest@ 20 (1): 1-9 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor4224-019'id=efor4224-019
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4224-019
  • Research Articles: Vegetation, soil, DNA and natural evolution

    • Authors: Zanella A
      Abstract: Abstract: Dialogue with Sandro Pignatti on natural evolution, considering the soil as a living matrix in which the recycling of organic matter and DNA takes place. How vegetation interacts with the soil and how it is not the species that evolve but the ecosystem that contains them. The hypothesis of a still poorly understood genetic exchange in relation to the biodegradation process is raised. Recent research in soil microbiology and biodiversity highlights a functional and primordial collaboration between living beings in the exploitation of natural resources. Keywords:  Natural Evolution, DNA Recycling, Castelporziano, Soil, Biodiversity Forest@ 20 (1): 10-12 (2023) - doi: 10.3832/efor4285-019'id=efor4285-019
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4285-019
  • Research Articles: A challenging path for forest planning in Italy

    • Authors: Corona P; Cucca B, Alivernini A
      Abstract: Abstract: The recent forestry law in Italy (TUFF) provides that the forest planning system managed by the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces should be, to a certain extent, standardized on a national scale. In this perspective, in order to standardize also the forest planning documents, a specific implementing decree, issued at the end of 2021, provides for common minimum standards at national level. Both the TUFF and the implementing decree are the shared result of a broad and long consultation under both a technical and political profile. However, various regional administrative and technical bodies do not seem fully aware that these decrees do not only set a univocal vision at national level of forest planning tools from a terminological point of view, but also univocally define their technical contents, according to the logic of the minimum national criteria: the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces are now called upon to adapt their regulations and procedures with respect to such terminology and minimum technical contents. Keywords:  Forest Management Plan, Strategic Forest Plan, Forest Plan Elaboration, Forest Plan Mapping Forest@ 19 (4): 95-97 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4175-019'id=efor4175-019
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4175-019
  • Research Articles: The Italian forest nursery sector at the crossroads:
           challenges and strategies

    • Authors: Mariotti B; Mezzalira G, Allasia E, Fazio F, Fiorentin R, Maltoni A, Marchetti M, Matteucci G, Mori P, Motta R, Piotti A, Rositi A, Sabatti M, Tognetti R, Salbitano F
      Abstract: Abstract: The recognition of the key role of forests in contrasting the dramatic effects of climate change and biodiversity crisis is the pillar of many initiatives on a global, European, and national scale calling for afforestation campaigns. The Italian forest nursery sector is currently inadequate to meet the demand for tree seedlings for the national campaigns. Forest nursery production is characterized by regional or local companies that are remarkably different from each other in organization and efficiency. It is therefore urgent to develop a comprehensive restructuring of the entire sector to be able to respond to the specific needs of forestry projects in Italy and Europe. In this paper, we present a series of key principles and criteria aimed at guiding the renaissance of the sector. Strategic actions are proposed by integrating research, governance, public/private partnership, training, and communication. The strategic approach presented is based on a collaborative structure integrating various skills and responsibilities. The first step is an expert review of the Basic Materials (BM) included in the National Register thanks to the development of the genetic studies of forest stands and the inclusion of shrub and herbaceous species, essentials for ecosystem restoration projects counteracting the biodiversity crisis. A series of actions concerns the aspects of certification, voluntary or prescriptive, of the quality of BM, and the ultimate harmonization of national production to European standards. Particular importance needs to be devoted to the collection, evaluation, and conservation of seeds to develop innovative solutions both for the production of BM and for specific implementation phases of afforestation projects and ecosystem restoration. The governance phase might be implemented through the creation of interregional centers with the duty of collecting and conserving seeds, thus enhancing the existing experiences of outstanding regional and provincial tree nurseries with the support of the National Centers for the study and conservation of Forest Biodiversity. Furthermore, the promotion of partnerships between public and private companies and the creation of a shared and accessible national platform represent strategic actions of primary importance. A fundamental role is then assigned to the implementation of training programs and the construction of an open and incremental communication plan. Thanks to these actions it will be possible to place forest nurseries at the center of the relationships between tree planting and afforestation plans and programs, integrated forest design, implementation of new forests, and their adaptive management. Keywords:  Forest Nursery Stock Production, Basic Materials, Forest Genetic Resources, Forest Reproductive Material, Environmental Governance, Active Partnership Forest@ 19 (4): 85-94 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4193-019'id=efor4193-019
      PubDate: 2022-08-25
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4193-019
  • Editorials: All the fault of the Bourbons' The case of the 1826
           forestry act

    • Authors: Borghetti M
      Abstract: Abstract: We talk about the 1826 forestry act of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, under Francis I of Bourbon. Those who talk about it, speak ill of it. The so-called “clearcut with reserves”, prescribed by the Bourbon’s act, is thought to have caused the distruction of many southern forests. Here we reason about this act, and suggest the Bourbons took several faults that were not their own. For instance, many forest cuts carried out in southern regions after the unification of Italy (under a new forestry regulatory regime) were defined, officially, as “shelterwood cuts”. However, they were nothing but “clearcut with reserves”. Keywords:  Forest, Clearcut, Southern Italy, Naples, Kingdom Forest@ 19 (4): 82-84 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor0047-019'id=efor0047-019
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.3832/efor0047-019
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: Towards the establishment of the Italian
           network of old-growth forests: the understorey plant diversity perspective

    • Authors: Chelli S; Cervellini M
      Abstract: Abstract: The publication of the Decree that has established the Italian network of old-growth forests opens new opportunities for nature conservation and new challenges for scientists. A fundamental criterion for the identification of old-growth forests is related to a “characteristic biodiversity” due to the absence of disturbances for at least sixty years. In this contribution we mainly discuss shortcomings, potential interpretation and perspectives related to the application of this criterion for the vascular plants living in the understorey. We show that the understorey diversity (both taxonomic and functional) patterns with forest maturity are strongly context-dependent and stand structural features are fundamental drivers. As a consequence, considering the impressive heterogeneity of Italian forests, the strict threshold included in the Decree (sixty years since the last disturbance) can hardly be used to distinguish a “characteristic biodiversity”. Finally, we invite all the Italian scientists dealing with forest ecosystems to strongly collaborate in order to accept the challenge introduced by the Decree. Keywords:  Forest Policy, Forest Specialist Species, Functional Diversity, Plant Diversity, Species Richness Forest@ 19 (3): 63-66 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4142-019'id=efor4142-019
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4142-019
  • Research Articles: Assessment of the vulnerability factors for the Bosco
           Pantano nature reserve (Policoro, Southern Italy): the SWOT-AHP dynamic

    • Authors: Travascia D; Castellaneta M, Colucci A, Cirelli G, Lapolla A, Misano G, De Capua E, Rosito M, Ripullone F
      Abstract: Abstract: The Regional Oriented Reserve “Bosco Pantano”, in the Policoro territory, preserves the testimony of what was one of the most interesting lowland forest formations in Southern Italy, "a fossil" that survived to the uncontrolled land drainage and intensive agriculture occurred in the last century. Therefore, for several millennia, floodplain forests were indiscriminately exploited according to economical demands, even though the risks of biodiversity and habitat losses. The richness of species and ecosystems constitutes a major attribute of our planet, as well as an essential component of the stability of the Earth’ diverse environment. In this context, the aim of our work was to detect, on the basis of data collected through questionnaire, the most relevant factors that might impact on the ecosystem vulnerability of the reserve, either now or in the future, and thus undermine its survival. Once a brief overview of the historical, social and economic background, the hybrid method SWOT - AHP (A’WOT) was implemented. So, the implementation of such method, consisting of four analysis steps, allowed us to categorie the different SWOT factors. Our outcomes highlighted the stakeholders’ common interest in pointing to the unique traits of “Bosco Pantano” lowland forest, in order to ensure preservation and to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless, the findings revealed some critical points, i.e., the poor attention to the weaknesses factors, that may compromise the reserve’ survival. In addition, the results showed a general poor ability to appreciate and benefit from all the positive feedbacks, coming out of research and monitoring activities on the habitat. Hence, we were able to define measures and/or strategies geared to the preservation and valorization of the "Bosco Pantano" of Policoro. Specifically, the focus on multiple intervention lines could be encouranged, by exploiting the biotype’s peculiarity and uniqueness in order to promote the development of sustainable forms of tourism. It may also be advisable to implement projects aiming at the study of the the forest dynamics, as well as to institute control and monitoring organs. Lastly, we should also encourage all dissemination channels and tools in order to improve people’ s environmental awareness. Keywords:  SWOT-AHP Analysis, Biodiversity, Bosco Pantano, Climate Change, Forest Vulnerability, Management, Stakeholders Forest@ 19 (3): 67-73 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4133-019'id=efor4133-019
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4133-019
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: A new paradigm for sustainable forest
           management: closeR to nature forest management

    • Authors: Motta R; Larsen JB
      Abstract: Abstract: Closer-to-Nature Forest Management is a new concept proposed both in the EU Forest Strategy for 2030 and in the EU Biodiversity strategy for 2030. Closer-to-Nature Forest Management aims to improve the conservation values and climate resilience of multifunctional, managed forests in Europe. We present the concept based on a set of seven guiding principles and discuss main problems and opportunities of its application at continental scale and in Italy. Keywords:  Silviculture, Forest Management, Biodiversity, European Union, Strategy, Ecosystem Services Forest@ 19 (3): 52-62 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4124-019'id=efor4124-019
      PubDate: 2022-05-22
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4124-019
  • Research Articles: The current Italian research and its role in the
           establishment of an Italian network of “old-growth forests”

    • Authors: Motta R; Garbarino M, Lingua E, Lombardi F, Tognetti R
      Abstract: Abstract: With the publication of a Decree that has established a List of the Italian old-growth forests, we have analyzed, using text mining software, the state of the art of Italian research in this field. We have analyzed 188 ISI and 72 non-indexed papers or reports. The analysis has identified 165 locations of which more than 50% are on pure beech or mixed beech and silver fir stands. The analysis was focused mainly on structural characteristics and bio-indicators. The current knowledge represents reliable support for the establishment of an Italian network of old-growth forests and this green infrastructure offers important opportunities for research and collaboration between research, natural resource management, and local, regional, and state administrations. Keywords:  Forest Structure, Biodiversity Indicators, Monitoring, Climate Change Impacts, Resilience, Closer To Nature Forest Management Forest@ 19 (2): 36-48 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4110-019'id=efor4110-019
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4110-019
  • Commentaries & Perspectives: The National Forestry Strategy of Italy and
           the forest fire governance

    • Authors: Ascoli D; Ferlazzo S, Marchetti M, Motta R, Pompei E, Stefani A
      Abstract: Abstract: Since February 2022, the National Forestry Strategy (NFS) for the forest sector and its supply chains is public. The NFS addresses in an innovative and science-based way key issues related to forest fire governance such as the integrated fire risk management, the convergence of forest, agro-pastoral and nature conservation policies with fire governance strategies, the regulatory update and the roadmap to open-access wildfire data. Keywords:  Forest Policy, Wildfire Risk Management, Climate Change, Sustainability, Rural Development Forest@ 19 (2): 31-35 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4093-019'id=efor4093-019
      PubDate: 2022-03-20
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4093-019
  • Research Articles: A survey on public forest seedling production in Italy

    • Authors: Martini S; Maltoni A, Monteverdi MC, De Dato G, Salbitano F, Marchetti M, Mariotti B
      Abstract: Abstract: In the upcoming years, the challenge of the exponential growth in tree planting activities matching climate crisis, which requires the use of targeted and adapted plant material, calls for creating an updated framework of the Italian forest nursery sector, for both basic materials (BM) and for forest reproductive materials (FRM). The present paper aims at highlighting pros and cons of the public nursery system and, at the same time, characterizing the current organization and production capacity in quantitative and qualitative terms. Our effort was focused on recovering information, topic for the development of the sector, which has been gradually weakened in the last decades. The research was carried out in two steps: (a) analysis of the online available sources; (b) diagnostic analysis by questionnaire to the nursery sector managers. The specific objectives were: (i) describing the state of the art of the available MBs; (ii) qualifying and quantifying the seedlings production (active nurseries, management of nurseries in the regions, typology and types of FRM produced and species); (iii) understanding the real and potential users of BM and FRM; and (iv) assessing the usability of information related to the nursery chain. The picture at national scale is definitively fragmented from all points of view: availability of BM, usability of available information, production capacity of FRM, rationalization and innovation of growing systems, computerization. Although virtuous cases were found, the Italian forest nursery sector generally needs a profound revitalization to cope with the imminent increasing demand for target material. Keywords:  Forest Seedlings Production, Forest Reproductive Material, Basic Material, Public Forest Nurseries, Forest Nursery Stock Production Forest@ 19 (2): 18-30 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4083-019'id=efor4083-019
      PubDate: 2022-03-17
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4083-019
  • Research Articles: “Young Sentinels of the Coastal Pine Forest”: an
           education project to safeguard biodiversity and prevent forest fires

    • Authors: Agneta R; Greco M
      Abstract: Abstract: The vegetation of the coastal areas is closely linked to the back-dune habitat, generally occupied by coniferous forests of great naturalistic and landscape interest, where the floristic composition and vegetation are subject to deep transformations immediately after fire occurrence. School represents the ideal community for environmental and sustainability education projects aimed to raise the knowledge and awareness of the common cultural and natural heritage. This paper describes the work carried out by a third-year class of the Lower Secondary School of the I.C. “Q.O. Flacco” of Marconia (Matera, Italy) within the frame of the project “Young sentinels of the coastal pine forest”. The project aims to describe and safeguard the vegetation of the dune and back-dune habitat in the SIC area located in Marina di Pisticci, in order to prevent the occurrence of wildfires that can threaten the coastal pine forest. The results of this work can contribute to increase the knowledge of the local vegetation and to rise the awareness of new generations for the relevant role they should play in safeguarding the environment. Keywords:  Environmental Education, Biodiversity, School Scouting Activities, Coastal Pine Forest, Fire Prevention Forest@ 19 (2): 12-17 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor4061-019'id=efor4061-019
      PubDate: 2022-03-06
      DOI: 10.3832/efor4061-019
  • Book Reviews: Investing in forestry bears good fruit: lessons from the

    • Authors: Portoghesi L
      Abstract: Abstract: It is good that it remains a testimony of a job well done. This is useful for the younger generation and for those who face similar problems albeit in different times and contexts. For this reason the book on reforestation carried out in Calabria almost seventy years ago is important, not only for the numerous information it provides on the subject, but above all because it helps understanding that behind what we see today in the landscape of many areas of that region there are enlightened political choices, good science and technology, the hard work of many people; all in collaboration with nature. Keywords:  Reforestation, Southern Italy, Soil conservation, Book review Forest@ 19 (1): 10-11 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor0049-019'id=efor0049-019
      PubDate: 2022-02-06
      DOI: 10.3832/efor0049-019
  • Technical Reports: Forest management and biodiversity, a new qualitative
           indicator to assess the naturalness of forest environments

    • Authors: Casella Mariola G; Tagliaferri L
      Abstract: Abstract: In recent years, the loss of biodiversity occurred worldwide has called for the creation of various indicators aimed to assess the health status of the environment. Due to the increase of forest areas throughout Europe, different ecological indicators for the assessment of naturalness and health of forest ecosystems are being theorized and modelled, with relevant implications both for planning current and future management of forest ecosystems and to control their evolution over time. In this study, a new indicator of the ecological naturalness of forest habitats is proposed with the aim of providing an intuitive and straightforward tool for the harmonization and optimization of sampling efforts in similar projects (such as those proposed by Forest Europe). To this end, a limited number of variables concerning deadwood, climate, fauna, forest typology, and biotic and abiotic stress of trees have been combined into an indicator which reflects the overall health status and naturalness of forest ecosystems. Future studies and the collaboration between different research groups are desirable in order to validate the theorethical indicator proposed here and test its effectiveness and ease-of-use in projects focused on assessing the naturalness of forest ecosystems. Keywords:  Forests, Biodiversity, Wildlife, Insects, Saproxylic Fauna, Deadwood Forest@ 19 (1): 1-9 (2022) - doi: 10.3832/efor3933-018'id=efor3933-018
      PubDate: 2022-01-10
      DOI: 10.3832/efor3933-018
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