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Electronic J. of Plant Breeding     Open Access   (SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
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Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.146
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 0975-928X
Published by Indian Society of Plant Breeders Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Marker assisted pyramiding of major brown plant hopper resistance genes in
           an elite culture CBMAS14065

    • Authors: M. Vignesh, M. Valarmathi, P. Rakshana, A. Bharathi, Kambale Rohit Dilip, M. Sudha, S. Manonmani and, M. Raveendran
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Rice is an important source of energy and nutrition for half of the world's population. Various biotic stress factors severely affect rice production. Among the biotic stresses, brown plant hopper is an important destructive pest affecting rice yield around the world. Host Plant Resistance which involves the ‘R’ gene factors is considered the most effective strategy for controlling brown plant hopper infestation. Introgression of single ‘R’ genes doesn’t confer complete protection against BPH damage due to continuous evolution of new BPH biotypes and hence multiple ‘R’ gene pyramiding can be done for developing durable resistance. In our study, BPH resistance was established in a pre-release high yield culture CBMAS14065 through QTL/Gene pyramiding strategy. Advanced backcross inbred progenies (BC1F3) were developed in the background of CBMAS14065 by crossing with the donor IR71033-121-15B harbouring Bph20 and Bph21 genes. Foreground selection was carried out using SSR markers RM261 and RM3331 closely linked to the respective Bph20 and Bph21 resistant genes. The BILs of CBMAS14065 harboringBph20 and Bph21 were phenotypically screened for brown plant hopper resistance under greenhouse conditions. The developed BILs viz., 48-5-3 and 2-3-2 exhibited enhanced resistance against BPH infestation with decreased yield loss, in comparison with the susceptible parent CBMAS14065. The BILs developed through gene pyramiding in this study will serve as a novel donor source for developing durable BPH-resistance in rice cultivars. Keywords: Rice, Gene pyramiding, CBMAS14065, BPH resistance genes
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Association between molecular diversity and hybrid performance in
           sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    • Authors: R. Dhanalakshmi, N. Manivannan, PL. Viswanathan, R. Sasikala, L. Rajendran and, M. Senthivelu
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: The present study was aimed to assess the molecular genetic diversity in 14 parental lines (10 maintainers and 4 restorers) of sunflower crop using 51 SSR markers.  A total of 147 alleles were produced with the range of 1-6 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.12(ORS1198 in LG5) to 0.74(ORS384 in LG15) with an average PIC of 0.51.  A phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbour- joining method which grouped the parents into four clusters.  Among the maintainer and restorer combinations, the dissimilarity index was maximum between CMS 519B and CSFI 99 (0.67) which indicateed high divergence between them.  Lower dissimilarity value was observed between RCR CMS 38B and LTRR 341 (0.40) suggested less divergence between them.  Mahalanobis D2 analysis was also carried out among the parental lines.  The D2 analysis grouped the parental lines into six clusters.  Among them genotype pairs CMS104B vs RHA 1-1 and CSFI 99 vs LTRR341 had highest and lowest D2 values respectively. Dissimilarity and D2 values for parental combinations, mean performance, mid and better parental heterosis of 40 hybrids for yield and its component traits were subjected to simple correlation analysis.  The D2 analysis did not show any association with performance of hybrids.  However, the dissimilarity values showed association with hybrid performance and heterosis for plant height and volume weight. Hence, the present study indicated that the selection of parental genotypes with high molecular diversity could result in improved performance of plant height and volume weight in sunflower hybrids.  However further study is required with multi environment data sets. Keywords: Sunflower, molecular diversity, hybrid, association, heterosis.    
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Cross-species amplification and genetic variation among blackgram
           genotypes using SSR markers developed from mungbean DNA sequence scaffolds
           harbouring  putative resistance genes

    • Authors: Avi Raizada and, Souframanien Jegadeesan
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: The cross species amplification of 97 mungbean derived resistance gene-SSR markers were investigated for diversity analysis in a set of 44 blackgram genotypes. A total of 68(70%) SSR markers showed amplification in blackgram. Our of 68 markers, thirty randomly selected markers were used to study the genetic variation among 44 blackgram genotypes varying for yellow mosaic disease (YMD) and powdery mildew disease (PMD) reaction. Thirty SSR primers collectively amplified 90 alleles in blackgram with an average of three alleles/locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the SSR markers ranged from 0 to 0.86 with an average of 0.43. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA neighbour-joining method grouped the 44 genotypes into seven clusters. The genotypes NDU-1 and PU-19 were observed to be highly dissimilar with similarity coefficient of 0.27 in comparison to other genotypes. YMD and PMD resistant and susceptible genotypes could be differentiated by three (MRGSSR 12, MRGSSR 56, MRGSSR 77) and four SSR markers (MRGSSR12, MRGSSR 32, MRGSSR56 and MRGSSR65), respectively. Two of these markers viz.,  MRGSSR12 and MRGSSR56 were mutually effective in differentiating YMD and PMD resistant genotypes. These were located in mungbean scaffolds JJMO01002369 and  JJMO01001477 and exhibited homology with TMV resistance protein N and DNA damage-repair/toleration protein DRT100, respectively. Keywords: Blackgram, Cross species amplification, Resistance genes, Genomic-SSR, Polymerase chain reaction, Diversity analysis.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Optimization of in vitro culture system in tropical Japonica and Indica
           rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes

    • Authors: P. Sharmela, N. Meenakshi ganesan; R. Saraswathi, R. Gnanam C. N. Chandrasekhar
      Pages: 31 - 42
      Abstract: The plant growth regulator (PGR) effects on callus induction frequency (CIF) and plantlet regeneration were studied on four rice genotypes. Mature seeds were used as explant for callus induction in different combinations of 2, 4-D, Kn and NAA using MS and N6 medium. The maximum CIF recorded was 86.0% (Azucena) and 83.3% (Palwan) in N6 media augmented with 2,4-D, Kn and NAA at 2.5, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. In genotypes CB174R and CB87R, 66.7% and 71.6% CIF were obtained in N6 media supplemented with 2,4-D, Kn and NAA at 2.0, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. In MS medium a total plantlet regeneration of 70% was observed in Palwan and 10% in CB174R augmented with NAA (0.5 mg/L) + BAP (1.0 mg/L) + Kn (0.5 mg/L) and NAA (0.5, 1.0 mg/L) + BAP (0.5, 1.0 mg/L) + Kn (0.5, 2.0 mg/L), respectively. The efficiency of plantlet regeneration depended on genotype, media constituents and PGR. Keywords: Rice, Embryo culture, callus induction, regeneration, callogenesis, rhizogenesis
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of genetic variability and diversity analysis in maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: H. Fathima Sinana; R. Ravikesavan, K. Iyanar A. Senthil
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: The most comprehensive study was undertaken to investigate genetic variability, character association studies and diversity analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in sixty-five maize genotypes along with five checks raised in Augmented block design II and observations were recorded on fourteen morphological traits. For all the traits, the analysis of variance revealed significant variance. PCV and GCV was high for anthesis silking interval. High genetic advance as per cent of mean along with heritability was recorded for anthesis silking interval, number of tassel branches, cob length, plant height and tassel height. This showed the effectiveness of selection for these traits. Character association analysis confirmed that grain yield per plant had a positive significant association with number of kernel rows per cob, number of kernels per row, cob breadth, cob length, 100 seed weight, shelling percentage and plant height. This implies that by selecting for these traits, grain yield per plant can be improved significantly. Path analysis for the attributed traits showed the direct effect of shelling percentage and plant height on single plant yield. Consequently, an emphasis on these traits could lead to the successful identification of higher yielding genotypes. Based on agglomerative hierarchical clustering, genotypes UMI1113, UMI1153, UMI 653-2-3, UMI1131-5 and UMI1076-5-4-2 can be used as parental lines in the hybridization programme. PCA biplot showed that number of kernel rows per cob, number of kernels per row, cob placement height, plant height and single plant yield mostly contributed towards variability. Furthermore, these parental lines should be assessed for their general combining ability and specific combining ability to generate stable and superior hybrids for better yield performance. Keywords: Genetic variability, character association, diversity analysis
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Development of stable blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] genotypes by
           deciphering genotype × environment interaction using Eberhart-Russell and
           AMMI models

    • Authors: V. Sridhar; P. Jagan Mohan Rao, V. SAIKIRAN, N. Sandhya Kishore, M. Rajendar Reddy G. Praveen Kumar
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: The genotype and environment (G × E) interaction is a key area of research for creating stable cultivars as it has a major impact on crop yield performance. In this study, we examined the stability and adaptability of the seed yields of elite blackgram genotypes in four Agricultural Research Centers of PJTSAU consisting of diverse environments in Telangana, India during Rabi 2019-20 using Eberhart-Russell and Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) models. A combined analysis of variance showed significant differences between the varieties and the interactions between the varieties and locations for seed yield. Both Eberhart and Russell and AMMI1 model analyses of G×E interaction identified G1 (LBG-752) as the stable variety with respect to yielding ability suitable for cultivation under diverse conditions. Environments A, B, and C were found to be ideal environments for genotypes G7, G8, and G6, respectively, based on AMMI 2. The selected elite varieties based on different stability analyses could be used for further exploitation for cultivar release. Keywords: G × E interaction, Adaptability, AMMI l, Eberhart & Russell, Seed yield, Vigna mungo.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Marker assisted pyramiding of qDTY QTLs governing yield under drought
           stress into rice variety ADT(R) 45

    • Authors: P. Renuprasath; N. Meenakshi ganesan, K. Sathiya Bama, P. Boominathan R. Suresh
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Drought occurrence during reproductive stage of rice leads to significant yield loss. Rice production has to be doubled to feed the ever increasing human population. As the yield levels are stagnated under favourable production system, improvement of yield under unfavourable environment is key to attain the projected target. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to improve the drought tolerance of popular rice variety ADT(R)45 by introgressing major effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring yield under drought (qDTY1.1, qDTY3.1 and qDTY12.1) through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Through MABB, 117 BILs in the background of ADT(R)45 were developed with different combinations of qDTY QTLs.  The BILs were evaluated under rainfed target production environment and observations on nine biometrical and yield traits were recorded. Variability analysis revealed presence of additive gene action for the traits viz., total number of tillers per plant, number of productive tillers per plant, hundred grain weight, yield per hectare and single plant yield. Hence, selection based on these traits will be effective to improve yield under drought stress. Association analysis showed total number of tillers per plant, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, hundred grain weight and spikelet fertility percentage were highly correlated with yield per plant. Comparison of BILs with different QTL combinations showed that BILs with single QTL (qDTY12.1) was better for most of the traits studied. BILs with single or two QTL combinations were found to perform better under rainfed condition, when compared to BILs with all the three QTLs. Keywords: Reproductive stage drought, Rainfed, qDTYs, rice, BILs, MABB
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Analysis of variability and genetic divergence for seed yield in coriander
           (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    • Authors: Sourav Kumar Moharana, Madhu Bala, A. Chakote Ankita, V. Manasa, Y. K. V. Naveen and, A. V. Malaviya
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Thirty-seven genotypes of coriander including six check varieties were analyzed for variability, correlation, path coefficients, and genetic divergence. Genotypes were grown in RBD with three replications and observations were recorded for 13 different quantitative traits. Secondary branches per plant and total oil content confirmed high values of GCV and PCV. Seeds per umbel, test weight, and total oil content exhibited high heritability along with high GA (% of mean). Both genotypically and phenotypically, seed yield per plant exhibited a positive and significant association with umbels per plant, umbellates per umbel, test weight, and harvest index. On seed yield per plant, umbels per plant reported the highest positive direct effect. Genetic diversity analysis grouped the 37 coriander genotypes into 6 different clusters with the maximum inter-cluster distance seen between clusters III and VI. Among the thirteen traits, test weight contributed largely to the total genetic divergence. Keywords: Coriander, Heritability, Correlation, Path analysis, Diversity
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Identification of genomic regions linked to seed dormancy related traits
           using bulk segregant analysis in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: D. B. K. V. Mani; B. Krishna Veni, V. Roja
      Pages: 79 - 88
      Abstract: A total of 119 F6:7 RILs of a cross between BPT 2231 (non- seed dormant parent) and MTU 1001 (seed dormant parent) were analyzed to identify the markers associated with seed dormancy. Parental polymorphism survey with 188 SSR markers revealed 10 polymorphic markers between the parents. The bulk segregant analysis results with 10 polymorphic markers revealed that four markers showed polymorphism between the bulks. The association of putative markers viz., RM346, RM22565, RM7051 and RM10793 identified based on DNA pooling from selected segregants was analyzed by Single Marker Anaysis (SMA). The results of SMA revealed that RM22565 on chromosome 8 showed significant association with germination per cent  at five days after harvesting indicating that the chromosomal region linked to the marker RM 22565 on chromosome 8 may be associated with seed dormancy. Out of the four polymorphic markers used in the present study, RM346 was notified as a seed dormancy linked marker from previous studies. The other three markers viz., RM22565, RM7051 and RM10793 identified as seed dormancy linked markers in the present study, needs further validation on alternative set of population or a set of germplasm lines for their further utilization in the marker assisted breeding programme. Based on germination percentage, physiological parameters and genotyping studies, the RILs viz., SD 3, SD 12, SD 15 and SD 68 were identified as donors for the future breeding programme for the development of seed dormant varieties. Keywords: Rice, seed dormancy, SSR markers, BSA, Single Marker Analysis, RILs
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Combining ability effects and heterosis estimates in maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Kanhaiya Lal, Sarvendra Kumar, Shiv Prakash Shrivastav, Lokendra Singh and, Vishal Singh
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Maize is becoming a crop of huge demand day by day due to its multiple uses but its productivity in farmer’s fields is generally low due to lack of multiple resistant and wider adaptive improved maize hybrids. For development of improved maize hybrids, heterosis breeding has been recognized as most powerful breeding approach since long time. In this experiment, 54 single cross hybrids were evaluated along with their parental lines and two checks for combining ability and heterotic potential. Highly significant variations were observed within parents and hybrids which indicates a wide genetic variability for the studied characters and the possibility of genetic improvement through utilization of such genetic material of maize. The parents, L1 (D5-1), L6 (D49-2), L14 (D47-1), L17 (D36-1) and L18 (TSK92-3) exhibitted good GCA effects for grain yield and some of the yield contributing traits to emerge as valuable donor parents for further breeding programme. Based on SCA effect and standard heterosis, the hybrid combinations L5xT1 (D2-2xD47), L9xT3 (Azad UttamxTSK32-1-1-3) and L8xT3 (D48xTSK32-1-1-3) were identified as best for grain yield and some of the yield contributing traits. Keywords: Maize, GCA, SCA, heterotic potential, grain yield
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic studies on false smut disease resistance and yield components in
           rice (Oryza sativa. L)

    • Authors: N. Ramya Selvi; R. Saraswathi, S. Geetha C. Gopalakrishnan
      Pages: 96 - 106
      Abstract: The present investigation was performed to explain the genetic variability and association parameters of twenty traits in 30 F1s involving six parents differing in resistance against false smut in rice. Breeding materials were evaluated at hotspot location viz., HREC, Gudalur. The ANOVA revealed significant differences among the studied variables. Higher PCV over other coefficients of variation suggest the role of environment in trait expression. Disease related traits viz., NIP, NIT, NIGPa, PIT, PIGPa and agronomic traits viz., TNFPa, NCGPa, SSP, PH, HGW and SPY showed high magnitude of values for GCV, heritability and GAM indicating the role of additive gene action. Hence, selection of these traits may be effective.  Correlation studies indicated that HGW and SPW showed positive significant association with SPY . Path analysis revealed that NIT, NIGPa, NIGP and PIP had negative direct effect and DFF, NPT, TNFPa, SSP, NSRPa and SPW had positive direct effect towards single plant yield. Keywords: Rice, False smut resistance, Yield, Variability, Association analysis
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Crossability relationship between wild cotton Gossypium armourianum and
           Gossypium gossypoides with American cotton

    • Authors: Debadatta Panda; M. Kumar L. Mahalingam, M. Raveendran, K. Senguttuvan S. Manickam
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: The goal of the current study was to assess the possibility of interspecific hybridization for transfer of jassid-resistant genes from the two wild cotton species Gossypium armourianum (Kearney (2n=2x=26) D2A) and Gossypium gossypoides (Standley (2n=2x= 26) D6) into the genotypes of cultivated Gossypium hirsutum. The study demonstrated that seeds were successfully produced from crosses between G. hirsutum and G. armourianum using the cultivated tetraploid as a female parent. The reciprocal cross did not produce any seed. None of the crosses were successful in combination with G. gossypoides. Most of the boll shedding in reciprocal cross was between 2-6 days after pollination. MCU5 x G. armourianum had the highest germination percentage whereas; CO17x G. armourianum had highest survival percentage of the seedlings. With further backcrosses or chromosome doubling, the segregants can be further utilized for the introgression of different relevant traits like sucking pest resistance against leafhopper and whitefly along with resistance to other insect pests. Keywords Wide hybridization, Crossability, Gossypium armourianum, Gossypium hirsutum
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Heterosis breeding for yield and its attributes in brinjal (Solanum
           melongena L.)

    • Authors: J. Susmitha, R. Eswaran and, N. Senthil Kumar
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: A study on heterosis in brinjal was carried out during the year 2019-20 at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Annamalai University. Seven genotypes were hybridised in full diallel fashion and the resultant 42 hybrids were evaluated along with parents in RBD. The mean squares of the 11 traits revealed significant differences among the entries. The hybrid ICO-345590 x Arka Kusumkar recorded high heterobeltiosis for fruit yield per plant and its associated traits except for fruit grith, fruit length, plant height, and days to first harvest. High standard heterosis was recorded by the hybrid ICO-344674 x ICO-383119 for plant height, ICO-344674 x Arka Kusumkar for days to first harvest, Arka Kusumkar x ICO-345590 for fruit length and ICO-345590 x ICO-545862 for fruit girth. The application of heterosis in brinjal will aid in the production of superior cross combinations, which will help meet the expanding demand for brinjal due to its bioactive properties. Keywords: brinjal, heterosis, fruit yield, diallel.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Studies on colchicine induced changes in bajra napier hybrid (Pennisetum
           glaucum x P. purpureum)

    • Authors: B. Juby; N. Meenakshi ganesan, K. N. Ganesan, S. D. Sivakumar, C. N. Chandrasekhar V. P. Sobhakumari
      Pages: 121 - 128
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to estimate the lethal concentration of the polyploidy inducing chemical Colchicine in two genotypes of Bajra Napier hybrid CO 6 and TNCN 1534. Single nodded setts of the genotypes CO 6 and TNCN 1534 were treated with colchicine using two different methods viz., whole immersion with concentrations of 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% for 3 and 6 hours and the cotton swab method using the same five different concentrations. The LC50 values were observed based on growth reduction of seedlings after the planting of treated setts by the two methods. The sprouting percentage and survival percentage of both genotypes gradually reduced with increasing doses of colchicine and it also differed based on the method used. The LC50 values differed for both the methods used. The cotton swab method had the LC50 value of 0.21% for the genotype CO 6 and 0.19% for TNCN 1534. The whole immersion method had the LC50 value of 0.14% in case of CO 6 and 0.15% colchicine concentration was found to be optimum for TNCN 1534 indicating the differential response of genotypes for colchicine treatment. Correlation between different concentrations and stomatal parameters indicated positive correlation when the varieties were treated for 3 hours duration and a negative correlation was observed when they were treated for 6 hour duration in case of whole immersion method. As the duration of exposure increased, the parameters showed decreased growth. In case of cotton swab method, both the varieties showed positive correlation for stomatal width with the increasing concentration while stomatal length was seen having negative correlation when the concentrations were increased. Keywords: Pennisetum, colchicine, sprouting, survivability, Probit analysis, correlation  
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Development and evaluation of introgression lines with yield enhancing
           genes of the Indian mega-variety of rice, MTU1010

    • Authors: E. Punniakotti, MBVN. Koushik, K. Chaitra, G. Harika, T. Dilip Kumar, G. Vivek, SM. Balachandran, G. Rekha, D. Aleena, M. Anila, SK. Hajira, SK. Mastanbee, M. Ayyappadass, Pragya Sinha, Ravindra kale, K. Swapnil, B. Laxmi Prasanna, P. Senguttuvel, Abdul fiyaz, SR. Kim, KK. Jena and, RM. Sundaram
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: MTU 1010 is an early maturing and high-yielding mega rice variety widely grown in an area of 3 Mha. It is characterised by limited grain number and panicle branching. To improve the grain number in MTU 1010, an IRRI breeding line, IR121055-2-10-5 was utilized as donor to transfer yield-enhancing genes Gn1a and OsSPL14 (associated with increased grain number and better panicle branching, respectively) into MTU1010 by Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding (MABB). At each backcross generation, foreground selection was carried out with Gn1a and OsSPL14-specific molecular markers, whilst background selection was done with a set of SSR markers polymorphic between the IR121055-2-10-5 and MTU1010. With the use of a gene-specific marker, homozygous BC2F2 plants carrying the yield-enhancing gene were identified and advanced through pedigree-method of selection till BC2F6 and best performing ten lines were selected and evaluated in replicated station trials for yield contributing traits, where grain number and brancing per panicle exhibited high significant and positive correlation with single plant yield. Three promising lines namely RP6353-5-8-13-24, RP6353-26-13-39-5 and RP6353-32-12-8-16 with higher grain number and yield than MTU1010 were identified and nominated for evaluation in Initial Varietal Trial-Aerobic (IVT-Aerobic) of All India Crop Improvement Programme on Rice (AICRP), of which RP6353-26-13-39-5 (IET28674), was promoted for further testing.  Keywords: Rice, Yield enhancing genes. Gn1a, OsSPL14, MABC  
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic diversity of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relatives

    • Authors: P. Lintu; Raji Vasudevan Namboodiri
      Pages: 137 - 147
      Abstract: Genetic divergence analysis in brinjal genetic resources consisting of landraces, related cultivated species and wild relatives based on 22 morphological descriptors revealed distinct variation between cultivated and wild genotypes for the plant, flowering and fruiting characters. The multivariate D2 analysis grouped the 30 accessions into eight clusters revealing a clear separation of wild relatives and cultivated types. The characters fruit yield per plant, leaf size and fruit number had high contribution towards the genetic divergence. SM- 27 (cluster V), SM- 25 (cluster III) and  SM-23, SM-24,SM-20, SM-18, SM-10 and SM- 8 (cluster I) were the promising accessions identified based on superior performance for three yield attributes viz., fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant. The accessions SM- 25, SM- 27, SM- 28 (Solanum incanum) and SM-30 (Solanum insanum) of highly divergent clusters III, V and VIII respectively were identified as potential parents for future introgression breeding. Keywords: Genetic divergence, cluster analysis, wild relatives, Solanum melongena
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Identification of superior haplotypes for CCD8 regulating tiller number
           and grain yield in rice

    • Authors: Vrushali N Dhande, M. Williams, R. Veera Ranjani, A. R. Sakthi, M. Sudha and, M. Raveendran
      Pages: 148 - 153
      Abstract: Rice is one of the major food crops of the world. In the present day of increasing population there is an urgent need to increase the rice grain production. Yield is a complex trait and is mainly orchestrated by plant architecture. In the present study, a diverse set of 100 accessions from the 3K RG panel were evaluated for Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8) loci which plays a role in altering tiller number which ultimately governs the crop yield. A normal phenotypic distribution for total tiller numbers and number of productive tillers was observed for the set of 100 accessions used in the study. Five non synonymous SNPs were present for CCD8 loci for the 100 rice 3K accessions in this study. Haplotype analysis was carried out using five non synonymous SNPs to understand the genetic diversity of the population and of which two significant SNPs in the positions 31223371 and 31223383 grouped the accessions into two haplotype H1 and H2 with the allelic combination of GC and AT respectively. Haplotype group H1 with 89 accessions and H2 with 8 accessions were formed. Among the two haplotype groups, H2 had the maximum mean value for both tiller number and productive tiller number indicating the superiority of the H2 allelic combination over H1. Hence H2 is considered as a superior haplotype that can be potentially explored for allele mining and can be used in future crop improvement programs. Keywords: CCD8, tiller number, genetic diversity, haplotype.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic analysis of grain yield and its contributing traits in four bread
           wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crosses using six parameter model

    • Authors: Rubby Sandhu, Bikram Singh, I. R. Delvadiya, M. K. Pandey, S. K. Rai and, Meenakshi Attri
      Pages: 154 - 159
      Abstract: In order to create a successful and efficient breeding programme, it is highly helpful to analyse the gene action governing the expression of different traits. The objective of the present study was to use generation mean analysis to ascertain the kind and extent of gene action in bread wheat utilizing six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of the four crosses, cross I (HD 2967 x PBW 752), cross II (RSP 561 x PBW 779), cross III (RSP 561 x PBW 780), and cross IV (JAUW 584 x WH 1184). These crosses included elite stripe rust resistant wheat genotypes in addition to locally adapted cultivars. The results showed that all the traits in all crosses had highly significant estimated mean effects (m), showing the quantitative inheritance of the selected traits. For grain yield and most of the selected characters, it was found that additive gene effects was shown to be less significance than dominance type gene effects. Among the different characters studied in the four crosses, the degree of dominance x dominance was large and negatively significant, whereas additive x additive gene actions were high and positively significance. In wheat breeding, it was found that selection for the improvement of grain yield and its contributing traits must be postponed until later generations because additive x dominant gene effects was of lesser significance. Keywords:  wheat; grain yield; additive; dominance; epistatic gene effects
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Unravelling genetic diversity of South Indian rice landraces based on
           yield and its components

    • Authors: A. Shanmugam, R. Suresh, A. Ramanathan, P. Anandhi and, D. Sassikumar
      Pages: 160 - 169
      Abstract: Traditional varieties are considered as key natural resources necessary to maintain future food security in the current climate change era. Conserving these traditional varieties are the need of the hour as they harbour many valuable genes which could be exploited for crop breeding. Genetic diversity for morphological traits in a population can be assessed using a variety of techniques, including univariate and multivariate analysis. A diverse panel of 60 traditional landraces of rice was evaluated for 14 the pattern of genetic diversity and relationship based on morphological traits by multivariate analysis like Mahalanobis’ D2 and principal component analyses and correlation analysis was utilized to examine the association among morphological traits. The 60 genotypes were grouped in to eight clusters based on cluster analysis. Principal component analysis revealed that the cumulative variance of 74.41 % of total variation among 14 characters was explained by the first five axes. Study of association among traits indicated that direct selection based on the traits such as number of grains per panicle, flag leaf length, kernel length, length to breadth ratio and hundred seed weight would be the traits of top priority for yield improvement in rice. Keywords: Traditional landraces, Rice, Variability, Multivariate analysis
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Combining ability analysis for grain yield and quality characters in pearl
           millet [Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone]

    • Authors: Sunita Choudhary; B. S. Rajpurohit, Shubham Kumawat Vikas Khandelwal
      Pages: 170 - 176
      Abstract: The objective of the present study is to estimate the combining ability effects among parents and their crosses in pearl millet, to identify promising cross combinations for grain yield and its component traits. In combining ability analysis, the extent of sca variance was higher than gca variance for all of the characters demonstrating the predominance of non-additive gene action except for panicle length and 1000-grain weight. The estimates of general combining ability suggested that parents, RIB 17 S/109, RIB 16300, RIB 37-40 S/17, RIB 13-16 S/17, ICMA 96666 and ICMA 94111 were good general combiners for yield and its contributing characters. The best hybrid, ICMA 94111 x RIB 16296 involved low x low performing parents which exhibited high positive and significant SCA effect for grain yield and most of the yield contributing and quality traits like protein, iron and zinc. These good combiner lines may be exploited to develop iron and zinc rich hybrids along with grain yield to alleviate malnutrition in people of the country. Keywords: Pearl millet, combining ability, gene action, male sterile line, tester.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Comparison of variability in early segregating generations of Indian
           Mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] crosses

    • Authors: Avralima Sarkar, Suvendu Kumar Roy, S. Vishnupriya, Moumita Chakraborty, Lakshmi Hijam, Naderla Umamaheswar, Achyuta Basak, Sanghamitra Rout, Shivani Bharti and, Saikat Das
      Pages: 177 - 188
      Abstract: Eight parents and the 28 crosses of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.) in two segregating generations, viz., F2 and F3 were studied for their genetic variability during the rabi seasons of 2020-21 and 2021-22, respectively. Observations were recorded for six morphological characters such as plant height (cm), primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, siliquae per plant, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield per plant (g). The PCV was found to be greater than the GCV and the difference between them was high in all the characters in both F2 and F3 generations. Most of the characters revealed a medium range of GCV and PCV. Moderate heritability was expressed by all the characters except primary branches per plant in F3 generation. The Genetic Advance as a percentage of Mean (GAM) was higher in most characters except in plant height. The character plant height was found to be positively correlated with seed yield per plant in both F2 and F3 generations, with secondary branches per plant in the F3 generation and negatively correlated with primary branches per plant in F3 generation. A high direct effect on seed yield per plant was exhibited by plant height and 1000 seed weight in both F2 and F3 generations and by Secondary branches per plant in the F2 generation and Siliquae per plant in the F3 generation. Keywords: Mustard, Genetic variability, Heritability, Correlation, Path analysis, Box plot, Segregating generation
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genotype x Environment interaction and stability analysis in maize around
           Southern Aravalli Hilly Ranges of Rajasthan

    • Authors: Ravi Kumawat; Amit Dadheech Heera Lal Barupal
      Pages: 189 - 197
      Abstract: Crop production is the function of genotype, environment and their interaction (GEI) and evaluation of genotypes in multi environments helps in identifying their adaptation and stability. Forty five maize hybrids along with their 18 parents and two checks were evaluated in three environments viz., E1 (Kharif-2019, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur), E2 (Kharif-2019, Agriculture Research Sub-Station, Vallabhnagar, Udaipur) and E3 (Rabi-2019-2020, Instructional Farm, RCA, Udaipur) in randomized block design with three replications at each environment to assess the phenotypic stability of genotypes. The mean squares due to genotypes and environments were found significant for all the traits under study which indicated inherent genetic differences among the genotypes. The mean squares due to G x E (linear) interaction were found significant for most of the traits under study indicating differences among genotypes for linear response to varying environments. The MSS due to pooled deviation were found non-significant for all the traits which indicated major portion of the genotype x environment interaction was formed by predictable component. The majority of the hybrids depicted non-significant deviations from regression (S2di) for grain yield per plant. It indicated their predictable response across the environments. A great majority of genotypes revealed non-significant non-linear estimates (S2di) for different traits which suggested that the prediction of stability was more or less accurate and reliable. The top three hybrids suitable for all environments (bi≈1) were EI-2653 x EI-102, EI-2639 x EI-670 and EI-2505 x EI-102 with non-significant S2di values. The hybrids EI-2176-3 x EI-03, EI-2525-2 x EI-03 and EI-2159 x EI-670 out yielded the best check cultivar CC-1 for grain yield per plant. Thus, these combinations may be exploited commercially after further multi location yield testing. Keywords: Stability Analysis, Genotype x Environments, Southern Aravalli Ranges, Rajasthan, Maize
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic variability and diversity of grain nutritional and quality traits
           of unexplored traditional rice landraces for developing biofortified

    • Authors: M. Parikh, Sanjeeva Rao Durbha, Parmeshwar Kumar Sahu, Ritu R. Saxena, Bhawana Sharma and, Deepak Sharma
      Pages: 198 - 208
      Abstract: Characterization of grain nutritional and quality traits was done in a total of 192 exotic and indigenous rice genotypes were genetically characterized for 16 grain nutritional and quality traits. Substantial genetic variability was observed for all the traits. The coefficient of variation was maximum for flavonoid content (87.10%) and minimum for kernel breadth (11.90%). The estimated coefficient of skewness and kurtosis indicated the presence of genetic interaction among the traits. Based on grain shape 4, 37, 31, 65 and 55 rice genotypes were classified as short slender, short bold, medium slender, long slender and long bold respectively. Further, kernel length was negatively associated with zinc, iron, phenolics and flavonoid contents. Amylose content was positively associated with protein, phenolics and flavonoid contents suggesting that such relationship could serve as grain indices for indirect selection of genotypes. Four genotypes- Oryza officinalis, Oryza latifolia, IC435559 and IC135877 were identified as donors for zinc and iron contents. The genotypes- IC74637, IC301547, IC301589 and IC301625 were identified as potential donors for both phenolics and flavonoid. Five genotypes viz., IC379109, IC331668, Mancha (M:1028), Dubraj (D:1251) and Laxmibhog (L:708) were identified for grain yield, quality and nutritional traits. The identified donors will be useful to develop nutrient dense biofortified varieties. Keywords: Rice landraces, diversity, variability, grain nutritional and quality traits, photochemical
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic studies on yield and yield attributing traits in sesame (Sesamum
           indicum L.)

    • Authors: C. J. Gadhiya, S. S. Patil, R. K. Kalaria, T. A. Parsaniya, K. G. Baria, B. J. Bhoya and, H. D. Pandya
      Pages: 209 - 216
      Abstract: Six diverse parents were crossed in a half diallel fashion to study the heterosis and combining ability in sesame. Parents, 15 F1s with one check was planted in RBD design at College Farm, NAU, Campus Bharuch during kharif-2021. The mean sum of squares due to genotypes and hybrids were significant for all the traits while, due to parents were significant for most of the traits. The mean sum of squares due to parents vs. hybrids were found to be significant for some traits. The gca and sca ratio was less than unity indicated that non-additive components play a greater role in the inheritance of most of the traits. Parents, Ingorala 5 and DC 4 had high per se and also good general combiner for seed yield and its traits, while hybrids AT 476 x Ingorala 5 and AT 332 x Ingorala 5 had the highest standard heterosis and sca effects for seed yield and some of its traits. Keywords: Sesame, Heterosis, Combining ability, Gene action
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic variability and character association studies among seed yield and
           yield component traits in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes

    • Authors: N. Sathees; C. Vanniarajan, A. Yuvaraja, R. Renuka ML. Mini
      Pages: 217 - 225
      Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the genetic variability and association among yield attributing traits in 60 different safflower genotypes over six environments. The pooled analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that all attributes had a considerable degree of variation.The pooled analysis of variability parameters revealed that the phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV) was higher than the genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV)for all of the characteristics evaluated, indicating that experimental variance contributed to total variation.Petal yield/plant and seed yield/plant had the highest PCV and GCV followed by number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitula, height of insertion of first branch, hundred seed weight, number of primary branches/plant, length of longest primary branches, number of secondary branches and height up to main capitula.Number of capitula/plant, seed yield/plant, petal yield/plant, height of insertion of first branch, number of seeds per capitula, hundred seed weight, number of primary branches/plant, length of the longest primary branches, number of secondary branches, height upto main capitula, capitulum diameter and plant height all had high heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean. Seedyield/plant showed positive, significant and directcorrelation with number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitulum, height up to the main capitulum, plant height, number of primary branches/plant, capitulum diameter, and hundred seed weight.Number of capitula/planthad the maximum direct effect on grain yield/plant followed by number of seeds/capitulum, hundred seed weight and petal yield/plant. Hence selection of these traits would improve seed and petal yield in safflower breeding program. Keywords:Genetic variability, heritability, correlation, path analysis, pooled analysis and Safflower
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic analysis of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.) germplasms

    • Authors: A. Fahima Fathima; L. Pugalendhi, T. Saraswathi, N. Manivannan M. Raveendran
      Pages: 226 - 233
      Abstract: The present experiment was conducted with 16 germplasms and two varieties of snake gourd. The yield contributing traits such as node order of first male flower, node order of first female flower, days to first male flowering, days to first female flowering, internodal length, days to first harvest, single fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth, number of fruits per plant, were studied to assess the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance besides correlation and path coefficient analysis. The study of GCV and PCV in snake gourd germplasms exhibited variability for the traits viz., node order of first male flower, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight and fruit yield per plant including yield characteristics. Heritability and genetic advance as a percentage of mean indicated that the variation is due to a high degree of additive effect and hence the traits can be improved further through selection. Correlation and path analysis results showed that single fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and days to first harvest had a significant positive direct effect on number of fruits per plant. Hence these traits could be considered for yield improvement programmes in snake gourd. Keywords: Trichosanthes, snake gourd, correlation, heritability path analysis, variability
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Characterization of morpho-phenological traits in the traditional
           landraces of rice

    • Authors: V. Krishnan; V. Sivaranjani, M. Tamilzharasi T. Anandhan
      Pages: 234 - 245
      Abstract: The landraces of rice provide a wide range of genetic variations and environmental adaptation and act as excellent genetic resources for crop improvement. Natural germplasm that has been maintained through conservation is in desperate need of rigorous investigation in order to uncover new genes or alleles to introduce into rice breeding programmes. Given this context, an investigation was done to determine the degree of genetic divergence and variability across 31 rice landraces for various productivity, physiological, and grain quality traits. On evaluation of the mean performance of landraces and the influence of characters in genetic divergence resulted in the identification of better landraces viz., Vellaikuruvikar, Karupu Kavuni, Kichidi Samba and Athur Kichadi which are better for both grain yield and quality traits that can be used to create better recombinants, by hybridization. These gene pools could be used in selective breeding to significantly enhance the agronomic characters. Out of 20 traits that were investigated,15 traits viz., height of the plant, productive tillers per plant, length of panicle, spikelets per panicle, filled grains per panicle, grain yield per plant, seedling root to shoot ratio, harvest index, head rice recovery, length of the kernel, length to breadth ratio of kernel, breadth of kernel after cooking, length to breadth ratio of kernel after cooking, gelatinization temperature and aroma were noted for high heritability and genetic advancement suggesting that additive gene action predominates, there by opening up a wide range of opportunities for these traits to be improved through simple phenotypic selection. Keywords: Rice, landraces, GCV, PCV, heritability, PCA
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Perspectives in consumer-oriented breeding for potatoes in

    • Authors: R P. Kaur, S K. Luthra, Babita Chaudhary, Raj Kumar, Dalamu and, Vinay Bhardwaj
      Pages: 246 - 271
      Abstract: Potato has become an integral part of human diets world over and is consumed alone or with wide variety of other vegetables. Consumer preference of the regions varies and is dependent upon market specifications, variety; tuber appearance, size, shape, colour; absence of disease or tubers defects; texture and flavour of cooked potatoes. Breeding for consumer preference related traits is integral part of the varietal development efforts world over and thus helps to write the success story of a variety evolved. In recent years there has been a surge in the consumer awareness in India, with consumers becoming more conscious about the food, its nutritional value and its use. The desired products fetch higher premium prices in the market. A potato is not merely a potato anymore in recent times, but a commodity having varied uses, with each user having a specific requirement. In view of the above, it becomes pertinent to delineate the various consumer-oriented breeding objectives for potato, based on its use. Indian consumer-based profiles of potato have been proposed, based on recent overview and prevailing Indian scenario for orienting specific breeding programmes, guiding consumers and seed producers to breed, consume and multiply the variety of their choice and formulation of selection indices for genotype screening. Keywords: consumer preference, marketability, organoleptic attributes, acceptability, flavor, cooking, shelf life, nutritional quality, potatoes
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Correlation and path coefficient analyses in large seeded peanut (Arachis
           hypogaea L.) for kernel yield

    • Authors: Suresh Gali; DL. Reddy, A. Prasanna Rajesh, K. John, P. Sudhakar V. Srinivasa Rao
      Pages: 272 - 278
      Abstract: Expression of complex traits like yield is the result of interaction of several yield contributing features.  In the current research, association analysis and path analysis were conducted in an experiment involving 65 peanut genotypes to determine association of kernel yield and its component traits.  Plant height, number of secondary branches per plant, number of mature pods per plant, number of immature pods per plant, pod yield per plant, 100 seed weight and protein content recorded positive significant correlation with kernel yield per plant. The results of PCA and Ward dendrogram pattern jointly inferred that plant height, number of mature pods per plant, number of immature pods per plant, pod yield per plant, 100 seed weight, oleic acid content and oleic linoleic acid ratio were found to be closely associated with kernel yield per plant. Further, results of path analysis suggested that number of mature pods per plant, 100 seed weight, number of secondary branches per plant and sound mature kernel per cent were leading in determining the kernel yield of peanut through direct positive effects and indirect positive effects via different yield attributing traits. Keywords: Peanut, Correlation, Path Analysis, PCA, Kernel Yield
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Heterosis studies for grain yield and yield attributes in rice (Oryza
           sativa. L) hybrids

    • Authors: T. Ramakrishna, L. Krishna, Y. Chandra mohan; V. Gouri Shankar D. Saida Naik
      Pages: 279 - 295
      Abstract: In the current study, 20 elite rice genotypes were crossed with four CMS lines- CMS 23A, CMS 59A, CMS 64A and JMS 13A in a line x tester mating design and assessed alongside standard controls (JKRH 3333 and MTU 1001) to determine the best heterotic combinations in terms of grain yield and yield component characters at the Rice Research Centre, Rajendranagar. Eight restorer lines were found in Kharif 2018–19 based on pollen and spikelet fertility (MTU 1153, RNR 26015, RNR 28355, JGL 25960, MTU 1010, IET 27253, RNR 26085 and JAYA). The resulting 32 hybrids of 8 restorer lines and their corresponding CMS lines are studied for combing ability and heterosis. The degree of heterosis varied between traits. Three of the 32 hybrids under study had considerable standard heterosis for grain yield viz., JMS 13A x MTU 1153, CMS 59A x RNR 26015 and CMS 64A x MTU 1153, which outperformed the best checks JKRH 3333 and MTU 1001. The best experimental hybrid, JMS 13A x MTU 1153, yielded the most grain yield per plant, 62.89g (Table 1). Further testing of these three experimental hybrids will take place in areas conducive to extensive commercialization. Keywords: Rice, Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis, Standard heterosis, Grain yield, Line x Tester
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Biochemical and morphological diversity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L)

    • Authors: T. Harish Vikram; T. Haritha, H. N. Satyanarayana, M. Swapna V. Jayalakshmi
      Pages: 296 - 302
      Abstract: Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis are the best tools to measure the degree of divergence and to suggest the parents for future crop improvement programmes. A study was done using 64 chickpea genotypes including desi and kabuli types provided from RARS, Nandyal. Research was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during Rabi 2021-22 in 8×8 square lattice design. Data was collected for 13 quantitative traits from five randomly selected and six biochemical traits were also estimated. Windostat version 9.3 statistical software was used for analysis of the data. Principal component analysis identified first six principal components with eigen value more than one and they accounted for 76.54 % of cumulative variance. Using ward’s method, 64 genotypes were grouped into six clusters. Maximum inter cluster distance was found between cluster IV and cluster V followed by Cluster II and Cluster IV. Maximum intra cluster distance was observed within cluster IV followed by Cluster V. These studies revealed sufficient divergence among the genotypes for the traits studied. Keywords: Chickpea, Genetic diversity, Hierarchical cluster, PCA
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic diversity analysis in sesame (Sesamum indicum

    • Authors: K. Mukhthambica; R. Bisen K. T. Ramya
      Pages: 303 - 313
      Abstract: In the present investigation, 70 genotypes of sesame were characterized for 12 morphological and 14 quantitative characters and subjected to genetic divergence (UPGMA hierarchial clustering) analysis. It revealed that a considerable amount of genetic variability was exhibited for majority of the morphological traits except for locule number per capsule, capsule number per leaf axil and capsule shape. In divergence analysis for both morphological and quantitative characters, 70 genotypes were grouped into seven clusters at the genetic distance of 0.5 using Ward’s minimum variance method and Gower’s method of genetic distance. Selection of the genotypes present in different clusters having more genetic distance, preferably belonging to different geographical origin may result in more heterotic effects in the hybridization programme. Good recombinants can be obtained by mating between clusters I and VII for genotypes viz., GJT-5, RT-46 with TMV-3, VRI-3, Paiyur 1 as they have maximum genetic distance between them. Most of the characters recorded high mean values in cluster VII. Hence, for improvement of these traits, the genotypes present in cluster VII could be exploited as parents. Keywords: Sesame, Diversity, Cluster, UPGMA
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • DUS characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Authors: N. K. Gayathri; Y. Srujana N. C. Venkateswarlu
      Pages: 314 - 322
      Abstract: Thirty six traditional rice cultivars conserved in germplasm collection of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University were characterized for 23 qualitative and six quantitative characters following the Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) descriptors, as per PPV & FRA, 2007 during kharif 2020. Out of 29 characters studied five characteristics  were found monophormic, ten were dimorphic, five  were of trimorphic,  seven were tetramorphic and decorticated grain  shape recorded five states of expression. This study will be useful for farmers for identification of varieties and researchers for selecting desirable genotypes for breeding programmes and also to register varieties under PPV & FR Act of 2001. Hybridization between parents selected from  cluster III and cluster IV followed by cluster I and cluster IV  and  cluster II and cluster IV with the importance to traits like stem length, test weight and decorticated grain length in segregating populations can be suggested for development of better varieties from this 36 genotypes. Keywords : Rice germplasm, Characterization, DUS test , PPV & FR Act.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  •  Analysis of variability and correlations among different forage
           traits in guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.Taub.)

    • Authors: Devinder Pal Singh; R. S. Sohu, Meenakshi Goyal Pritpal Singh
      Pages: 323 - 328
      Abstract: The present study was conducted with 15 genotypes at experimental area of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during Kharif 2021 with an objective to assess the variability, correlations and path coefficients among different forage and quality traits. The traits like leaf stem ratio followed by number of branches per plant, stem girth, number of leaves per plant, dry matter yield and green fodder yield exhibited high PCVand GCVvalues. High heritability (> 90%) was observed for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, stem girth, days to flowering and leaf stem ratio while more than 85% heritability was observed for green fodder yield. Higher genetic advance was observed for leaf stem ratio (48.9%) followed by number of branches per plant (35.9%), stem girth (32.1%) and number of leaves per plant (25.3%). Traits like plant height (0.42), number of branches per plant (0.75), stem girth (0.61) had significant positive correlation with green fodder yield. High positive direct effects were observed for number of branches per plant (0.890), acid detergent fiber (0.620), Leaf stem ratio (0.514), dry matter yield (0.508) and number of leaves (0.419).The results revealed that traits like number of leaves per plant, leaf stem ratio and number of branches per plant are the main forage yield components which can be improved through selection. Keywords: Variability, Correlation, Path coefficients, Green fodder, Guar
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Assessment of genetic variability and diversity analysis in medium
           duration rice accessions

    • Authors: V. M. Gnaneswari, V. Krishnan, T. Anandhan, V. Vengadessan, S. Nadaradjan and, M. Tamilzharasi
      Pages: 329 - 335
      Abstract: A total of 64 medium duration rice accessions were evaluated for their genetic variability and genetic divergence during Rabi season 2020 at Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all the traits considered for the study. The traits spikelets per panicle and filled grains per panicle recorded high GCV as well as PCV thereby indicating that these traits would be improved effectively through selection. Other yield component traits viz., plant height, productive tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle, filled grains per panicle, fertility per cent, grain weight and single plant yield revealed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance, indicating that simple selection could be effective for improving these characters. The D2 values and hierarchical clustering analysis grouped the 64 germplasm into seven clusters. In both the clustering methods, the genotype Gold 44 was grouped under separate clusters indicating that, this is a diverse genotype among all the genotypes taken for study. Further, genotype AD 16124 was grouped under the same cluster in both the clustering methods with the highest cluster mean for grain yield per plant. Hence, this genotype could be efficiently utilized for the yield improvement programme in rice. Keywords: Variance, Heritability, Genetic advance, Diversity, Cluster and Rice
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic divergence study in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

    • Authors: B. Hima Bindu; N. Hari Satyanarayana, J. Dayal Prasad Babu D. Ramesh
      Pages: 336 - 342
      Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to obtain information on the nature and extent of genetic diversity among 60 greengram genotypes for yield related traits and quality traits by using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistics.  The genotypes were grouped into eleven clusters. Cluster I was found to be the largest  with 38 genotypes followed by cluster V with 13 genotypes and all the other clusters were found to be solitary, each containing a single genotype. Clusters VIII and XI had the maximum inter-cluster distance, followed by clusters IV and XI. Cluster XI had the highest mean values for yield and other yield attributing traits. Iron content contributed high towards total genetic diversity followed by protein content and test weight. Based on the mean performance and diversity studies, the genotypes COGG 18-17, LGG 460, Daftri vikas and IPM 1603-3 were found to be the best for further yield improvement in greengram. Utilizing the genotypes from the more divergent clusters as parents in breeding programmes will yield relatively good amount of heterosis in F1 and high frequency of transgressive segregants and genetic variability in subsequent generations can be acquired. Keywords: D2 statistic, Cluster analysis, Genetic Divergence, Greengram, Tocher’s method.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study on character association and path analysis in little millet (Panicum
           sumatrense L.)

    • Authors: Kinal Patel, Arna Das, Dhrumi Dalsaniya, Arvind D. Kalola, Ghanshyam B. Patil, Rumit Patel, Dipak A. Patel and, Harshal E. Patil
      Pages: 343 - 348
      Abstract: Little millet (Panicum sumatrense L.) is one of the neglected crops which is becoming popular as nutri-cereal. Development of high yielding stable cultivars may offer better economic return from this crop. Assessment of inter-relationship among important economic traits helps to identify major yield component traits which could be selected for overall yield improvement hence development of superior genotypes. In this context, 50 genotypes of little millet were evaluated during kharif 2021, to identify important yield component traits through correlation and path analysis of 16 quantitative traits. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients were found to be higher than the estimates of phenotypic correlation coefficients, indicating that association were majorly under genetic control. It was revealed that direct selection based on fodder yield per plant, plant height and 1000 seed weight may help in augmenting grain yield in the experimental material, whereas, harvest index came out as the most important character for indirect selection. Keywords: Little millet, Correlation, Path analysis, Yield components
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic variation and character association for grain yield and component
           traits in traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars of Assam

    • Authors: Kangkana Thakur, M. K. Sarma, Sofia Banu, Daizi Durba Saharia, Ishanee Borgohain and, Sobha Dutta Deka
      Pages: 349 - 353
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted with a view to obtain information of genetic parameters of variation and character association for 13 quantitative traits in a set of 64 rice cultivars of Assam. The study revealed significant differences for all the traits under study. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation was observed for the trait biological yield followed by harvest index and grain yield. More than 80% heritability was observed for all the traits except grain yield, effective tillers per plant and biological yield. Genetic advance as per cent of mean was highest for biological yield followed by harvest index, filled grains per panicle and grain yield. Higher magnitude of genetic advance along with considerably high heritability observed for harvest index, filled grains per panicle and biological yield indicated that these traits could be considered for selection to obtain high genetic gain. Character association studies indicated that direct selection of 100 - grain weight, grain length, grain breadth, biological yield and harvest index, would bring about improvement in grain yield. Non-significant association of grain yield with important yield attributes viz., filled grain per panicle, tillers per plant and panicle length were due to their strong association with duration of genotypes, which in turn was negatively associated with grain yield.  Recombination breeding and recurrent selection, therefore, could be suggested to break the negative linkage in order to achieve further genetic improvement. Keywords: Character association, genetic improvement, genetic variability, rice
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Genetic divergence studies in finger millet (Eluesine coracana L. Gaertn.)

    • Authors: G. Bharathi; K. Radhika, N. Anuradha, K. Jayalalitha V. Srinivasa Rao
      Pages: 354 - 359
      Abstract: The genetic divergence among 105 finger millet genotypes was estimated using Mahalanobis’ generalized distance using D2 statistics. All the genotypes were grouped into fourteen clusters using Tocher’s method. Cluster I was the largest comprising of maximum number of 30 genotypes followed by cluster II and VIII consisting of 22 genotypes each and cluster VI was aggregated with 21 genotypes. The remaining clusters III, IV, V, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII and XIV were found to be solitary clusters. Among the characters studied grain protein content (32.6 %) contributed maximum to total variation followed by days to 50 % flowering (12.38 %) and grain iron content (9.18 %). Hybridization between genotypes of cluster XIII (VR 1122) with those of either cluster XI (IC0476229) or cluster XIV (FM 1918) with maximum inter cluster distance will be useful to obtain good hybrid vigour and desirable segregants. Keywords: Finger millet, Genetic Divergence, D2 statistics.
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
  • Analyzing the variability parameters of the landraces and varieties of
           little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth ex Roem. & Schult.)

    • Authors: A. Nancy Mano Sneha, Sellakumar Selvaraj, J. Lydia Pramitha, K. Indira Petchiammal, D. Wilson, P. Dinesh Kumar, Neethu Francis and, P. Jenita Thinakaran
      Pages: 360 - 370
      Abstract: Little millet is one of the underutilized crops among the cereals, which is being cultivated by farmers of tribal  agriculture. The landraces under cultivation possess excellent variability presenting good opportunities for selection. In view of this, the current study was carried out with 17 little millet landraces for 10 quantitative and nine qualitative traits. The study revealed the preponderance of additive gene action for all the 10 traits and hence effective selection could be done for their improvement. Higher to moderate ranges for PCV and GCV with minimum ECV for genetic variability for all the traits were observed. Among the nine qualitative traits, there were significant variations observed for inflorescence shape and panicle compactness. Hence, these traits could be utilized as major DUS descriptors in differentiating the little millet landraces in future. Further the PCA analysis exhibited three reliable principal components contributing to an overall variation of 74.54%. The traits such as days to 50% flowering, peduncle length and flag leaf length were the major positive contributors for variability across all the eigen vectors. These traits were found to exhibit a higher variability among the population and thus a rewarding selection and hybridization for improving these traits could be effected in future breeding programs. Among all the landraces, chitta samai, perunsamai, ATL 1, CO 4 (samai), paakulam karunjamai and vellai samai could be further identified as desirable donors for improving the yield parameters in little millet breeding programs in future. Keywords: Little millet, landraces, GCV, PCV, heritability, genetic advance, PCA
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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