Publisher: V.M. Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute   (Total: 1 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Theory and Practice of Meat Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Theory and Practice of Meat Processing
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2414-438X - ISSN (Online) 2414-441X
Published by V.M. Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Water-holding and water-holding capacity of meat and methods of its

    • Authors: L. S. Kudryashov, O. A. Kudryashova
      Abstract: The considered topic is of great interest for researchers and practitioners engaged in the development of technology and the production of meat food. In the review, the authors focus on theoretical aspects of the meat capacity to bind and hold water. The characteristic of the forms and strength of the water-to-meat bonds is given. The influence of the structural elements of muscle tissue on the meat capacity to bind and hold water is shown. The different opinions of the specialists are given in regard to the terms “water-binding” (WBC) and “water-holding” (WHC) capacity of meat, and the authors of this research expressed their own opinion. Basing on the analysis of publications, a characteristic is given to forms of water-to-meat bonds strength from the point of view of technological practice: there is tightly bound water, loosely bound available water (immobilized), and loosely bound excessive water (free). The article summarizes the material on the methods of determination of water-holding (water-binding) capacity of meat. It is shown that up to date there is no unequivocal answer about the choice of WHC determination method. To define WHC, it is recommended to subtract the WBC value obtained by one of the gravimetric methods from the value of the indicator obtained by one of the methods of external pressure. This problem requires further research, discussion of issues and methods for determination of water-holding capacity.
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • The effect of long skin soaking in the calcium solution on the quality of
           rambak crackers from buffalo skin

    • Authors: A. Chairil, . Irhami, H. A. Umar, . Irmayanti
      Abstract: Buffalo skin is an underutilized by-product of buffalo slaughter. It is perishable and if it is not processed immediately, it will rot. One of the applications of buffalo skin is processing into skin crackers. The present research was aimed at determining the best duration of buffalo skin soaking in the lime solution with regard to its effect on quality of rambak from buffalo skin. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with a factor of treatment time, which consisted of four levels, i.e. A=76 hours, B=86 hours, C=96 hours, D=106 hours. Each treatment was performed with five replicates, so that 20 samples were obtained. The data were analyzed using the statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Parameters observed were the water content, yield, volume expansion, and organoleptic characteristics such as taste, aroma, color, and texture. The results show that different soaking duration (76 hours, 86 hours, 96 hours, and 106 hours) did not have a significant effect on yield, taste, aroma, color, and texture, but significantly affected the volume expansion and water content in rambak from buffalo skin. The best result was achieved with soaking duration of 106 hours; the rambak was characterized by the following parameters: water content 10.83%, yield 57.87%, volume expansion 76.66%, color score 3.51, taste score 3.61, aroma score 3.63 and texture score 3.30.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Nile perch fish nuggets: Partial replacement of fish flesh with sesame
           hulls and sunroot — Quality assessment and storage stability

    • Authors: T. G. Abedelmaksoud, A. S. A. Shehata, M. A. M. Fahmy, M. E. Abdel-aziz, A. A. Baioumy
      Abstract: This study aimed to produce Nile perch fish nuggets by replacing a part of fish flesh with different concentrations of sesame hulls and sunroot to reach the optimal recipe. Chemical, microbiological, and sensory characteristics of nuggets were evaluated during 3 months of frozen storage at –18 °C. According to the obtained data on the chemical composition of raw materials, Nile perch flesh had the highest content of protein (20.21%), sesame hulls contained the highest amount of fat (13.54%), fiber (17.24%) and ash (16.11%), while sunroot tubers had the highest amount of carbohydrates (15.76%). Based on the sensory score, the acceptable replacement ratio for fish nuggets prepared with sunroot (T1) and sesame hulls (T2) was 10% and 7.5%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) analysis at zero time shows that the T1 samples had the minimum value compared to the T2 and control samples. During storage, the TBA levels increased slightly in all samples, but after three months T1 also showed the lowest value. The total plate count (TPC) and psychrophilic bacterial (PSY) count in the samples were affected by the period of frozen storage at –18 °C. The initial TPC and PSY loads were 2.32 and 2.02 log cfu/g for control; 2.24 and 1.72 log cfu/g for T1; 2.30 and 1.47 log cfu/g for T2, respectively. During storage, the values of TPC and Psy slightly decreased. In conclusion, this study succeeded in the replacement of Nile perch fish with sesame hulls and sunroot as new sources to improve the nutritional value and quality characteristics of fish nuggets.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Effect of organically bound iodine in cattle feed on health indicators

    • Authors: D. E. Lukin, D. A. Utyanov, R. K. Milushev, N. L. Vostrikova, A. S. Knyazeva
      Abstract: Currently, the problem of iodine deficiency is actual in the world, which may cause a large number of diseases and disorders. The problem of iodine deficiency for humans may be partly solved by enriching agricultural products with iodine, i.e. by providing animals with an increased intake of iodine during their growth. Theoretically, the most effective way to use iodine is the form bound to tyrosine, since diiodotyrosine has been proven to be a thyroxine precursor. Taking it into account, a supplement was developed containing iodine organically bound to tyrosine and histidine. In this work, we studied the effect of this supplement introduced into the diets of cattle on biochemical parameters of animal blood. In the test group, which received the supplement with organically bound iodine, an improvement in nitrogen metabolism was noted compared to the control group. This was most clearly demonstrated by the content of urea, since in the test group, its content decreased by ≈15 percentage points, and by the content of creatinine, since its increase in the test group was more than 20 percentage points. Differences in the parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism between treatments were also noted, as in the blood of animals from the test group, the content of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and malondialdehyde was lower than in the control group. In mineral metabolism and morphological parameters, there was no significant difference between treatments. Among the indicators of pigment and hormone metabolism, it is important to note the reduced content of cortisol in the blood of animals from the test group. Its level was lower by ≈17.23 percentage points compared to the control group. A decrease in cortisol levels indicated a lower stress load in the test group. In general, studies have shown that the use of a feed supplement containing organically bound iodine has a positive effect on the metabolism of animals.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Hydrolysate of ovalbumin: production and evaluation of the functional
           properties of peptides

    • Authors: S. D. Zhamsaranova, S. N. Lebedeva, B. A. Bolkhonov, D. V. Sokolov, B. A. Bazhenova
      Abstract: Chicken eggs proteins and their derivatives, like protein hydrolysates, peptides and amino acids, possess high nutritional value and provide a wide range of biological activity. They serve as sources for development of functional ingredients that draw the attention of specialists in the food production and biomedical industries, as well as the livestock feed industry. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins is a popular process for obtaining bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties. The purpose of this study is to obtain a hydrolysate of ovalbumin with a high degree of hydrolysis and to determine its functional and technological parameters. The research presents a two-stage scheme of ovalbumin hydrolysis with the help of pepsin and trypsin which provide high degree of hydrolysis (82–83%). The fractional composition of the hydrolysate is determined. The fractional composition is represented by three main fractions (high, medium and low molecular weight). The summarized antioxidant activity (SAA) of the hydrolysate is considered within the dynamics of the hydrolysis process. The highest SAA value was noted after 2 hours, and it amounted to 170.23 mg/l; at the end of hydrolysis the SAA value was equal to 114.31 mg/l. When analyzing the SAA, it was found that the main contribution to the summarized antioxidant activity of the ovalbumin hydrolysate is made by peptides of the medium molecular fraction. The microfiltration process, used in the research, made it possible to separate high-molecular compounds, which led to an increase in the SAA of the hydrolysate to 189.9 mg/l. The main functional and technological parameters of the hydrolysate are determined in this research. The comprehensive study of the biological activity and functional characteristics of egg protein hydrolysates and their peptides provides a theoretical basis for expanding the range of functional ingredients obtained from food proteins and for replenishing the range of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Methodology of adipose tissue type detection in mammals

    • Authors: I. M. Chernukha, N. V. Kupaeva, J. A. Smirnova, A. G. Akhremko, V. A. Pchelkina, E. A. Kotenkova
      Abstract: Nowadays, an interest in studying the composition, properties and functions of adipose tissue (AT) is growing among researchers, which is conditioned by its important role in the normal functioning of the body. Due to different types of adipose tissue (AT) in mammals (white, beige, brown and pink) and different physiological tasks performed by each type of AT, rapid, correct and effective detection of an AT type is highly topical. Methods used today are labor consuming and in the case of NMR and CT expensive, which limits possibilities of scientists. In this connection, the aim of this research was to develop a methodological approach allowing rapid and effective detection of an adipose tissue type. A methodology was formed based on the concept, formalized requirements for the method, step-wise structure of investigations and interpretation of results. The concept is based on differences in the structure of the adipose cell (adipocyte) of different AT types. The method is based on extraction of heme containing proteins. To this end, solvents and parameters of extraction that facilitate their better extraction have been chosen. An AT type has been determined by the total content of iron contained in the cytochrome fragment. Our own modification was selected. This modification includes preliminary mincing of a sample with the ice-cold TES buffer (pH 8.5) in a ratio of 1:5 (g: mL), homogenization at 9,000 rpm for 2 min with the following centrifugation at 10,000 g and 4 °C for 15 min. Effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by the histological and electrophoretic analyses. Therefore, the new methodology of identification and differentiation of adipocytes was proposed for rapid and effective detection of an adipose tissue type.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Assessment of causes and consequences of food and agricultural raw
           material loss and opportunities for its reduction

    • Authors: I. V. Petrunina, N. A. Gorbunova, A. N. Zakharov
      Abstract: The article summarizes and systematizes the causes and consequences of food loss and waste. The uncontrolled accumulation and inefficient management of loss and waste is a serious problem of food security in many countries. Moreover, the world annually loses or wastes about a third of food produced while natural resources are inefficiently used. A significant number of definitions and terms in the field of food loss and waste cause international inconsistency in management systems. So, systematization of terms and research methods for food loss and waste has been carried out. The review analyzes the stages of food supply chain, i.e. the production of agricultural raw materials, their collection, processing, transportation and consumption, where the largest loss and waste occur. Furthermore, environmental, social and other problems associated with the accumulation of loss and waste are considered. Prevention of food loss and waste has been shown to be a potential strategy to improve the balance of food supply and demand and is essential for improving food security while reducing environmental impact and providing economic benefits to various participants in the food supply chain. Separately, the actions taken by the Russian Federation in the field of waste management and reduction of food loss are considered. Attention is drawn to the fact that the difficulties in solving these problems are associated with insufficient progress in legislation and low funding of relevant research projects. Possible approaches for simulation and optimization of actions to support specific strategies to reduce loss and waste are considered, taking into account the following factors: improving the management of various inventories; developing a clear strategy for planning and allocating resources; forming the supply chain based on variability (uncertainty) of customer demand and supply. Knowledge comparison and integration, as well as optimization of food supply chain management are essential for development of strategies and decisions about where and how to focus efforts to most effectively ensure the reduction of loss and waste at each stage of food supply chain. The main decisions and practices for FLW prevention and management have been systematized.
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
  • Pathological features of the lungs and liver of piglets under conditions
           of constant vaccination of livestock against circovirus infection

    • Authors: P. V. Burkov, P. N. Shcherbakov, M. A. Derkho, M. B. Rebezov, K. V. Stepanova, A. O. Derkho, A. N. M. Ansori
      Abstract: The pathogenicity of PCV 2 in the body of vaccinated piglets was studied based on the results of pathomorphological changes in the lungs and liver of animals. The work was carried out on commercial piglets vaccinated with the vaccine Ingelvak CircoFLEX (Germany) against circovirus. The work used clinical, zootechnical, enzyme immunoassay and pathomorphological research methods. It has been established that under the conditions of ongoing vaccination of piglets against PCV2, 30.3% of piglets still do not have virus-neutralizing antibodies. The main reason for the culling of animals are circovirus diseases that have respiratory clinical signs, as well as signs of multisystem wasting syndrome, determining the safety of the livestock at the level of 68.05%, the average live weight of 1 head at the moment of its transfer for fattening is 40.44±0.78 kg, and the average daily gain in live weight is 346.00±9.18 g. At autopsy, sick piglets reveal an increase in the lungs and liver, and the signs of inflammation in them, as a result of circulatory disorders, damage to the lymphoid tissue, the development of dystrophic and necrotic changes. The results of the research suggest that in order to increase the efficiency of the formation of post-vaccination immunity, specific medical preparations can be used to stimulate the immune response of the body, as well as to enhance the resistance of the lymphoid tissue of the lungs and liver in animals.
      PubDate: 2023-04-02
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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