Publisher: Geological Society of America   (Total: 4 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Bulletin of the Geological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.329, CiteScore: 4)
Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.114, CiteScore: 4)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.752, CiteScore: 3)
Lithosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.892, CiteScore: 3)
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Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.752
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-040X - ISSN (Online) 1553-040X
Published by Geological Society of America Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Seismic attenuation tomography of the Sn phase beneath the Turkish-Iranian
           Plateau and the Zagros mountain belt

    • Abstract: AbstractThe Turkish-Iranian Plateau and the Zagros highlands are among the most prominent physiographic features in the Middle East and were formed as a result of continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. To better understand the nature of the lithospheric mantle and the origin of the observed seismic anomalies in this region, we investigated seismic attenuation of the uppermost mantle by detailed measurements of the quality factor of the Sn seismic phase (Sn Q). To that end, we collected a large data set consisting of 30 years (1990–2020) of waveforms recorded by 1266 permanent and temporary seismic stations, applying both the two-station method (TSM) and reverse two-station method (RTM) to measure path-averaged Sn Q. Finally, we performed a tomographic inversion on the path-averaged Sn Q to map the lateral variations of the upper-mantle attenuation across the northern Middle East. Our Sn attenuation maps show moderately low Q (<250) values beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and high Q values (>350) beneath the Zagros and northern edge of the Arabian plate. Furthermore, our Sn Q model is broadly consistent with seismic velocity models in the region suggesting that most of the seismic anomalies are the result of thermal rather than compositional effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Mafic magma-driven magmatic processes and compositional variation in
           granitic pluton construction: The Buya intrusion of West Kunlun,
           Northwestern China

    • Abstract: AbstractTo investigate the direct evidence for a number of physico-chemical processes related to pluton construction and growth, we examine the Buya pluton of West Kunlun in Northwestern China, which emplaced within the 455–460 Ma time frame. Field observations, geochemical data, and thermodynamic modeling show that mafic dikes of the Buya pluton were conduits for magma chamber replenishment during pluton construction. These mafic inputs, and the enclaves that resulted from them, induced compaction of the semi-consolidated, crystal-rich, felsic mushes below them. The accumulation of highly silicic, fine-grained granite at the top of the Buya pluton is the result of episodic melt segregation events from these mushes. This sequence of events may reflect a common process that promotes compositional variation in granite suites. Combined geochemical and Hf- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that parental magmas of the mafic sheet and enclave are similar to sanukitoid, which is potentially consistent with a mantle peridotitic source metasomatized by slab melts. These mafic magmas intruded the lower crust where the original magma was modified by mafic lower-crust melt. Following emplacement at shallow crustal levels of the mafic inputs (~3.7 kbar, ~5.3 km, constrained by amphibole geobarometry), the felsic mush evolved through the extraction of interstitial melts driven by hybridization with episodic inputs of mafic magmas as well as crystal consequent accumulation and fractional crystallization of plagioclase, hornblende, and accessory phases such as allanite, apatite, and zircon. This fractional crystallization process may also provide an explanation for the apparently high Sr/Y features in some silicic high-K, calc-alkaline magmas.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Multi-stage construction of the Little Cotton wood stock, Utah, USA:
           Origin, intrusion, venting, mineralization, and mass movement

    • Abstract: AbstractMany porphyry molybdenum deposits are hosted in multi-phase plutons, but it is unclear in some deposits how these magmas originated and whether the pluton intruded as it fractionated or was intruded by new batches of magma. New mapping has clarified field relationships between units in the White Pine porphyry Mo system hosted in the Little Cottonwood stock, Utah (western United States), including the White Pine intrusion, the Red Pine porphyry, rhyolite dikes, and phreatomagmatic pebble dikes. Geologic relations and geochemistry show the system formed in a continental arc setting during rollback of the subducting Farallon slab rather than during extension related to orogenic collapse. Whole-rock geochemistry shows distinct fractionation trends for each of the major intrusive units in the composite pluton, suggesting they formed separately, which is supported by new U-Pb zircon laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) ages of ca. 30 Ma for the Little Cottonwood stock, 27 Ma for the White Pine intrusion, and 26 Ma for the previously undated Red Pine porphyry. Mineral textures, cross-cutting relationships, and alteration mineralogy indicate that intrusion of the youngest phase led to a fluid-saturated magmatic system and triggered venting, including emplacement of pebble dikes. In the adjacent east Traverse Mountains, pebble dikes contain clasts that have similar mineral assemblages, textures, and ages as the major igneous units in the White Pine deposit. This indicates that the pebble dikes in east Traverse Mountains and in the pluton are the upper and lower parts of the same magmatic-hydrothermal system, which was decapitated by a mega-landslide that was likely facilitated by alteration in the Oligocene hydrothermal system and by later Basin and Range faulting.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Seismostratigraphic analysis of Lake Cahuilla sedimentation cycles and
           fault displacement history beneath the Salton Sea, California, USA

    • Abstract: AbstractThe Salton Trough (southeastern California, USA) is the northernmost transtensional stepover of the Gulf of California oblique-divergent plate boundary and is also where the southern terminus of the San Andreas fault occurs. Until recently, the distribution of active faults in and around the Salton Sea and their displacement histories were largely unknown. Subbottom CHIRP (compressed high-intensity radar pulse) surveys in the Salton Sea are used to develop a seismic facies model for ancient Lake Cahuilla deposits, a detailed map of submerged active faults, and reconstructed fault displacement histories during the late Holocene. We observe as many as fourteen Lake Cahuilla sequences in the Salton Sea (last ~3 k.y.) and develop a chronostratigraphic framework for the last six sequences (last ~1200 yr) by integrating CHIRP data and cone penetrometer logs with radiocarbon-dated stratigraphy at an onshore paleoseismic site. The Salton Sea contains northern and southern subbasins that appear to be separated by a tectonic hinge zone, and a subsidence signal across hinge-zone faults of 6–9 mm/yr (since ca. A.D. 940) increases toward the south to >15 mm/yr. The faults mapped to the south of the hinge zone appear to accommodate transtension within the San Andreas–Imperial fault stepover. We identify 8–15 distinct growth events across hinge-zone faults, meaning growth occurred at least once every 100 yr since Lake Cahuilla sedimentation began. Several faults offset the top of the most recent Lake Cahuilla highstand deposits, and at least two faults have offset the Salton Sea flood deposits. Active faults and folds were also mapped to a limited extent within the northern subbasin and display growth, but their kinematics and rupture histories require further study. The broad distribution of active faulting suggests that strain between the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Imperial faults is highly distributed, thus discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip-rate estimates from these major fault systems are to be expected.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • U-Pb and fission-track data from zircon and apatite resolve latest- and
           post-Alleghanian thermal histories along the Fall Line of the Atlantic
           margin of the southeastern United States

    • Abstract: AbstractAlthough the Atlantic continental margin of the eastern United States is an archetypal passive margin, episodes of rejuvenation following continental breakup are increasingly well documented. To better constrain this history of rejuvenation along the southern portion of this continental margin, we present zircon U-Pb (ZUPb) age, zircon fission-track (ZFT) age, apatite U-Pb (AUPb) age, and apatite fission-track (AFT) age and length data from six bedrock samples. The samples were collected along the boundary between the exposed Appalachian hinterland (Piedmont province) and the updip limit of passive margin strata (Coastal Plain province). The samples were collected from central Virginia southward to the South Carolina–Georgia border. ZUPb age distributions are generally consistent with geologic mapping in each of the sample areas. The AUPb data are highly discordant owing to high common-Pb abundances, but for two plutons at the northern and southern ends of the sample area, they define a discordia regression line that indicates substantial Permo-Triassic exhumation-driven cooling. ZFT age distributions are highly dispersed but define central values ranging from Permian to Jurassic. AFT data mostly appear to define a singular underlying cooling age, generally approximately Jurassic or Early Cretaceous. Apatite fission tracks are moderately long (mean lengths in the range of ~13.5 µm), however track lengths for one sample in central North Carolina are shorter (~12.5 µm). To interpret the post-breakup thermal history, we present inverse models of time-temperature history for the five plutonic samples. The models show a history of (1) rapid cooling (>10 °C/m.y.) from deep-crustal to near-surface temperatures by the Triassic, (2) hundreds of degrees of Triassic reheating, (3) Jurassic–Early Cretaceous cooling (at rates of 1–10 °C/m.y.), and (4) slow Late Cretaceous–Cenozoic cooling (~1 °C/m.y.). An additional suite of forward models is presented to further evaluate the magnitude of maximum Triassic reheating at one sample site that is particularly well constrained by thermal maturity data. The model results and geologic reasoning suggest that the inverse models may overestimate Triassic paleotemperatures but that other aspects of the inverse modeling are robust. Overall, this thermal history can be reconciled with several aspects of the lithostratigraphy of distal parts of the continental margin, including the lack of Jurassic–earliest Cretaceous strata beneath the southern Atlantic coastal plain and Cretaceous–Cenozoic grain-size trends.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evidence for a more extensive Greenland Ice Sheet in southwestern
           Greenland during the Last Glacial Maximum

    • Abstract: AbstractThe maximum extent and elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet in southwestern Greenland during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26–19.5 ka) is poorly constrained. Yet, the size of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the LGM helps to inform estimates of past ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change and provides benchmarks for ice-sheet modeling. Reconstructions of LGM ice extents vary between an inner continental shelf minimum, a mid-shelf position, and a maximum extent at the shelf break. We use three approaches to resolve LGM ice extent in the Sisimiut sector of southwestern Greenland. First, we explore the likelihood of minimum versus maximum Greenland Ice Sheet reconstructions using existing relative sea-level data. We use an empirical relationship between marine limit elevation and distance to LGM terminus established from other Northern Hemisphere Pleistocene ice sheets as context for interpreting marine limit data in southwestern Greenland. Our analysis supports a maximum regional Greenland Ice Sheet extent to the shelf break during the LGM. Second, we apply a simple 1-D crustal rebound model to simulate relative sea-level curves for contrasting ice-sheet sizes and compare these simulated curves with existing relative sea-level data. The only realistic ice-sheet configuration resulting in relative sea-level model-data fit suggests that the Greenland Ice Sheet terminated at the shelf break during the LGM. Lastly, we constrain the LGM ice-sheet thickness using cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, and 14C exposure dating from two summit areas, one at 381 m above sea level at the coast, and another at 798 m asl 32 km inland. Twenty-four cosmogenic radionuclide measurements, combined with results of our first two approaches, reveal that our targeted summits were likely ice-covered during the LGM and became deglaciated at ca. 11.6 ka. Inventories of in situ 14C in bedrock at one summit point to a small degree of inherited 14C and suggest that the Greenland Ice Sheet advanced to its maximum late Pleistocene extent at 17.1 ± 2.5 ka. Our results point to a configuration where the southwestern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet reached its maximum LGM extent at the continental shelf break.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The low-angle breakaway system for the Northern Snake Range d├ęcollement
           in the Schell Creek and Duck Creek Ranges, eastern Nevada, USA:
           Implications for displacement magnitude

    • Abstract: AbstractDocumenting the kinematics of detachment faults can provide fundamental insights into the ways in which the lithosphere evolves during high-magnitude extension. Although it has been investigated for 70 yr, the displacement magnitude on the Northern Snake Range décollement in eastern Nevada remains vigorously debated, with published estimates ranging between <10 and 60 km. To provide constraints on displacement on the Northern Snake Range décollement, we present retrodeformed cross sections across the west-adjacent Schell Creek and Duck Creek Ranges, which expose a system of low-angle faults that have previously been mapped as thrust faults. We reinterpret this fault system as the extensional Schell Creek Range detachment system, which is a stacked series of top-down-to-the-ESE brittle normal faults with 5°–10° stratigraphic cutoff angles that carry 0.1–0.5-km-thick sheets that are up to 8–13 km long. The western portion of the Schell Creek Range detachment system accomplished ~5 km of structural attenuation and is folded across an antiformal culmination that progressively grew during extension. Restoration using an Eocene unconformity as a paleohorizontal marker indicates that faults of the Schell Creek Range detachment system were active at ~5°–10°E dips. The Schell Creek Range detachment system accommodated 36 km of displacement via repeated excision, which is bracketed between ca. 36.5 and 26.1 Ma by published geochronology. Based on their spatial proximity, compatible displacement sense, overlapping deformation timing, and the similar stratigraphic levels to which these faults root, we propose that the Schell Creek Range detachment system represents the western breakaway system for the Northern Snake Range décollement. Debates over the pre-extensional geometry of the Northern Snake Range décollement hinder an accurate cumulative extension estimate, but our reconstruction shows that the Schell Creek Range detachment system fed at least 36 km of displacement eastward into the Northern Snake Range décollement.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • A juvenile Paleozoic ocean floor origin for eastern Stikinia, Canadian

    • Abstract: AbstractThe Cordillera of Canada and Alaska is a type example of an accretionary orogen, but the origin of some terranes remains contentious (e.g., Stikinia of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada). Presented herein are igneous and detrital zircon U/Pb-Hf and trace-element data, as well as the first radio larian ages from the Asitka Group, the basement to eastern Stikinia. The data are used to evaluate the role of juvenile and ancient crust in the evolution of Stikinia and the tectonic environment of magmatism. Two rhyolites are dated by U-Pb zircon at 288.64 ± 0.21 Ma and 293.89 ± 0.31 Ma, with εHf(t) = +10. Red chert contains radiolarians that are correlated with P. scalprata m. rhombothoracata + Ruzhencevispongus uralicus assemblages (Artinskian–Kungurian). Detrital zircon U/Pb-Hf from a rare Asitka Group sandstone have a mode at ca. 320 Ma and εHf(t) +10 to +16; the detrital zircon suite includes five Paleoproterozoic zircons (~5% of the population). Detrital zircons from a stratigraphically over lying Hazelton Group (Telkwa Formation) volcanic sandstone indicate deposition at ca. 196 Ma with zircon εHf(t) that are on a crustal evolution line anchored from the Asitka Group.Zircon trace-element data indicate that the Carboniferous detrital zircons formed in an ocean arc environment. The Proterozoic detrital zircons were derived from a peripheral landmass, but there is no zircon εHf(t) evidence that such a land-mass played any role in the magmatic evolution of eastern Stikinia. The data support that eastern Stikinia formed on Paleozoic ocean floor during the Carboniferous to early Permian. Consistent with previous fossil modeling, zircon statistical comparisons demonstrate that Stikinia and Wrangellia were related terranes during the Carboniferous to Permian, and they evolved separately from Yukon-Tanana terrane and cratonic North America.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Post-Laramide, Eocene epeirogeny in central Colorado—The result of a
           mantle drip'

    • Abstract: AbstractThe Southern Rocky Mountains first rose during the Laramide Orogeny (ca. 75–45 Ma), but today's mountains and adjacent Great Plains owe their current height to later epeirogenic surface uplift. When and why epeirogeny affected the region are controversial. Sedimentation histories in two central Colorado basins, the South Park–High Park and Denver basins, shifted at 56–54 Ma from an orogenic to an epeirogenic pattern, suggesting central Colorado experienced epeirogeny at that time. To interrogate that hypothesis, we analyzed thermal histories for seven samples from central Colorado's Arkansas Hills and High Park using thermochronometers with closure temperatures below ~180 °C, enabling us to track sample exhumation from ~5–7 km depth.Three samples are from the Cretaceous Whitehorn pluton, and four are Precambrian granitoids. All zircon and titanite (U-Th)/He dates (ZHe and THe) and one apatite fission-track (AFT) date are similar to the 67 Ma pluton emplacement age. Whitehorn dates using the lower-temperature apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronometer are 55–41 Ma. These data require two exhumation episodes, one ca. 67–60 Ma, the second beginning at 54–46 Ma. The pluton reached the surface by 37 Ma, based on the age of volcanic tuff filling a pluton-cutting paleovalley. The Precambrian samples do not further refine this thermal history owing to the comparatively higher He closure temperature of their more radiation-damaged apatite.Laramide crustal shortening caused 67–60 Ma exhumation. Arkansas Hills shortening ended before 67 Ma, so shortening could not have caused the exhumation event that began 54–46 Ma; thermochronology supports the Eocene epeirogeny hypothesis. Epeirogeny affected >2.0 × 104 km2, from the Sawatch Range to the Denver Basin. We attribute epeirogeny to an Eocene mantle drip that likely triggered subsequent drips, causing younger exhumation events in adjacent areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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