Publisher: Geological Society of America   (Total: 4 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Bulletin of the Geological Society of America     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.329, CiteScore: 4)
Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.114, CiteScore: 4)
Geosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.752, CiteScore: 3)
Lithosphere     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.892, CiteScore: 3)
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Bulletin of the Geological Society of America
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.329
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 34  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0016-7606 - ISSN (Online) 1943-2674
Published by Geological Society of America Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Authigenic berthierine and incipient chloritization in shallowly buried
           sandstone reservoirs: Key role of the source-to-sink context

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      Authors: Virolle M; Brigaud B, Beaufort D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractChlorite is recognized worldwide as a key mineral that inhibits the development of quartz cement in deeply buried sandstone reservoirs. Iron-rich chlorite is mainly formed by the transformation of a precursor clay mineral; however, few studies have focused on the early stages before the crystallization of chlorite. This study analyzed shallowly buried (400–1000 m) coastal sandstones from within the Wealden Group of the Paris Basin. Berthierine, a 7 Å trioctahedral clay mineral belonging to the serpentine group, approximatively with same chemistry as chlorite but a different crystal structure, has been identified in a 900-m-deep well but not in a 400–600-m-deep well. Berthierine has mainly been observed as clay coatings around detrital grains with a typical honeycomb texture. Nanopetrographic observations suggest that the honeycomb textural organization of the clay particles found in deeper buried sandstone reservoirs (>1500 m) is acquired from a berthierine precursor at shallow depths. However, small amounts of quartz overgrowths are observed on the surface of detrital grains at shallow depths and low temperature (below 40 °C), and it is believed that precursor berthierine coatings are primarily responsible for the inhibition of quartz overgrowths before Fe-rich chlorite is formed. This suggests that the key mineral primarily controlling the reservoir quality of deeply buried sandstone reservoirs is berthierine rather than iron-rich chlorite, which challenges the commonly accepted assertion that chlorite coating is the main process that inhibits quartz overgrowths. The source-to-sink context of the Paris Basin during the Early Cretaceous was decisive with respect to the supply of sands and berthierine clay precursors (in particular kaolinite and iron-rich, hydroxy-interlayered clay minerals) to the center of the basin.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • High-resolution late Paleozoic cyclostratigraphy and tectonic evolution of
           the Keeler Basin, California, southwest Laurentia

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      Authors: Gannon PJ; Smith M, Umhoefer PJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractCyclic strata exposed in the Inyo Mountains of eastern California contain a continuous 6 m.y. record of deep marine deposition that spans the Pennsylvanian–Permian boundary. To better understand the geologic evolution of southwest Laurentia and the role of glacially driven eustasy in upper Paleozoic stratigraphy, we measured two detailed ∼600 m composite stratigraphic sections of the Keeler Canyon Formation and collected a handheld spectral gamma ray log. Post-depositional deformation complicates field relationships, but 1:5000 scale mapping of faults and folds permits assembly of two continuous sections. Measured strata alternate at the 5–20 m scale between intervals of fine-grained laminated marlstone and intervals of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic turbidites and debrites. Based on facies characteristics and a prominent marker horizon, we reassign the Pennsylvanian-Permian age upper Salt Tram unit of the upper Keeler Canyon Formation to a new Estelle Member. We estimate sediment accumulation rates within the Keeler Canyon Formation using published conodont biostratigraphy and correlative U-Pb geochronology from Eastern Europe combined with spectral analysis and timescale optimization using the Astrochron R package. Evolutive harmonic analysis of gamma ray-derived element concentrations reveals prominent bundled periodicities that are consistent with both long and short eccentricity cycles. Average sediment accumulation rates calculated using the time scale optimization function of Astrochron suggest a gradual increase from 40–60 m/m.y. to ∼120 m/m.y. during the late Pennsylvanian and then a minima of ∼50 m/m.y. near the Pennsylvanian–Permian boundary, which is followed by an increase to ∼175 m/m.y. into the Early Permian. This trend in sediment accumulation rates and subsequent Permian contractile deformation are compatible with flexural subsidence in a SW-migrating foreland basin related to the southern part of the late Antler orogenic system.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Siberian Trap volcanism, global warming and the Permian Triassic mass
           extinction: New insights from Armenian Permian-Triassic sections: Reply

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      Authors: Joachimski MM; Alekseev AS, Grigoryan AA, et al.
      Abstract: Horacek et al. (2021) commented on our publication arguing that we used an incorrect biochronology to define the Permian-Triassic (PT) boundary and that this inaccurate definition resulted in an erroneous interpretation of the oxygen isotope record in the studied Chanakhchi (former Sovestashen) section. Their comment gives us the opportunity to discuss in depth the identification of the PT boundary and to address some of the flawed arguments of Horacek et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Siberian Trap volcanism, global warming and the Permian-Triassic mass
           

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      Authors: Horacek M; Krystyn L, Baud A.
      Abstract: AbstractJoachimski et al. carried out geochemical investigations to study seawater temperature changes and their potential triggers across the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB). Unfortunately, in our opinion, an incorrect biochronology was applied to define the PTB, and the existing alternative was not considered, nor the reasoning explained. As a consequence, Joachimski et al. report diachronous temperature changes for the investigated Chanakhchi section with respect to the global stratotype section and point (GSSP) in Meishan, China. This discrepancy disappears when the, in our view, correct position of the PTB is adopted by using the proper biochronology.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Laramide structure of southeastern Arizona: Role of basement-cored uplifts
           in shallow-angle subduction

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      Authors: Favorito DA; Seedorff E.
      Abstract: AbstractLaramide reverse faults in southeastern Arizona commonly are obscured by mid- to late Cenozoic extension and subsequent cover, resulting in debate about their configuration and origin. A new mid-Cenozoic paleogeologic map depicts the structural configuration before extension, and new structural reconstructions characterize Laramide shortening in terms of structural style, magnitude, evolution, and timing.Reverse faults restore to moderate to high angles, are associated with fault-propagation folds, and involve significant basement and thus constitute thick-skinned deformation. The paleogeologic map suggests several major basement-cored block uplifts, many of which are newly identified. The largest uplifts may measure 150 km along strike, similar to those in the classic Laramide province of Wyoming and Colorado. Estimated shortening across the central study area is 14% or 23 km, whereas it is only 5% (9 km) to the north and 11% (12 km) to the south. Shortening by this mechanism is inadequate to explain previous estimates of crustal thickening in the region (∼50–60 km). Therefore, magmatic underplating, lower-crustal flow, or underplating of trench sediments and lithospheric material also may have contributed to thickening. Shortening largely occurred from 86 Ma to 64 Ma and possibly as late as 53 Ma, with initiation being younger to the northeast or north. Integration with data from southwestern New Mexico implies complex geometry for the subducting flat slab. Finally, reverse faults generally do not appear to have reactivated older faults, as previously suggested, primarily because reverse faults have associated fault-propagation folds in rocks that predate supposed reactivated structures.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Rapid transition from oceanic subduction to postcollisional extension
           revealed by Carboniferous magmatism in East Junggar (NW China),
           southwestern Central Asian orogenic belt

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      Authors: Wang J; Su Y, Zheng J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractKnowledge of the subduction to postcollision tectonic transition in response to oceanic closure is crucial for tracking the final stage of orogenic evolution. Here, we report new geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic data for Carboniferous magmatism in East Junggar (NW China), southwestern Central Asian orogenic belt, which may record such processes following the closure of the Kalamaili Ocean (a branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean). The early Carboniferous calc-alkaline volcanic rocks (dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite) yielded zircon U-Pb ages of ca.340–330 Ma and are characterized by arc-like trace-element patterns showing enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Pb) but depletion of high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti). Combined with their variable Ba/Nb (9.80–454) and lowNb/La (0.21–0.54) and Sm/Yb (1.77–3.08) ratios as well as depleted mantle–like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf (whole-rock 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7037–0.7040; εNd[t] = +3.5 to +5.9; 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.728–17.996; zircon εHf[t] = +11.8 to +18.8) isotopic values, we suggest that they were produced by melting of a lithospheric mantle wedge fluxed by slab-derived fluids under spinel-facies conditions. With whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of ca. 320 Ma, the late Carboniferous mafic dikes have geochemical features and Sr-Nd-Pb (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7039–0.7041; εNd[t] = +6.6 to +6.8; 206Pb/204Pbi = 17.905–17.933) isotopic compositions similar to those of the early Carboniferous volcanics, but they show less pronounced Pb anomalies and negative Nb and Ta anomalies. They are interpreted to have formed by partial melting of a spinel-bearing lithospheric mantle metasomatized by limited influx of subduction-related fluids. The late Carboniferous felsic volcanic rocks (dacite and rhyolite) yielded zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 305 Ma and are geochemically equivalent to those of A2-type granites in East Junggar. They have juvenile isotopic compositions (εNd[t] = +4.5 to +6.8; εHf[t] = +13.3 to +18.7) and relatively young Nd and Hf model ages that roughly coincide with the ages of the ophiolites in the area, suggesting that they could have originated from melting of a juvenile basaltic lower crust. Whole-rock geochemistry, assimilation–fractional crystallization (AFC), and isotopic mixing modeling argue for insignificant crustal contamination for the Carboniferous magmatism. We suggest that the early Carboniferous lavas erupted in an island-arc setting related to the northward subduction of the Kalamaili oceanic crust, whereas the late Carboniferous magmatism formed in a postcollisional extensional regime in response to slab breakoff or lithospheric delamination. Combined with regional geological information, we propose that a rapid tectonic transition from oceanic subduction to postcollisional extension may have occurred in East Junggar during the Carboniferous, marking the final closure of the Kalamaili Ocean, which most likely took place ca. 330–320 Ma. This study provides overall geochronological and petrogeochemical evidence to better constrain the amalgamation of the southwestern Central Asian orogenic belt and may be of great importance for understanding the final stage of orogenic evolution elsewhere.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Formation of the crater suevite sequence from the Chicxulub peak ring: A
           petrographic, geochemical, and sedimentological characterization

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      Authors: Kaskes P; de Graaff SJ, Feignon J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThis study presents a new classification of a ∼100-m-thick crater suevite sequence in the recent International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP)-International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Expedition 364 Hole M0077A drill core to better understand the formation of suevite on top of the Chicxulub peak ring. We provide an extensive data set for this succession that consists of whole-rock major and trace element compositional data (n = 212) and petrographic data supported by digital image analysis. The suevite sequence is subdivided into three units that are distinct in their petrography, geochemistry, and sedimentology, from base to top: the ∼5.6-m-thick non-graded suevite unit, the ∼89-m-thick graded suevite unit, and the ∼3.5-m-thick bedded suevite unit. All of these suevite units have isolated Cretaceous planktic foraminifera within their clastic groundmass, which suggests that marine processes were responsible for the deposition of the entire M0077A suevite sequence. The most likely scenario describes that the first ocean water that reached the northern peak ring region entered through a N-NE gap in the Chicxulub outer rim. We estimate that this ocean water arrived at Site M0077 within 30 minutes after the impact and was relatively poor in rock debris. This water caused intense quench fragmentation when it interacted with the underlying hot impact melt rock, and this resulted in the emplacement of the ∼5.6-m-thick hyaloclastite-like, non-graded suevite unit. In the following hours, the impact structure was flooded by an ocean resurge rich in rock debris, which caused the phreatomagmatic processes to stop and the ∼89-m-thick graded suevite unit to be deposited. We interpret that after the energy of the resurge slowly dissipated, oscillating seiche waves took over the sedimentary regime and formed the ∼3.5-m-thick bedded suevite unit. The final stages of the formation of the impactite sequence (estimated to be <20 years after impact) were dominated by resuspension and slow atmospheric settling, including the final deposition of Chicxulub impactor debris. Cumulatively, the Site M0077 suevite sequence from the Chicxulub impact site preserved a high-resolution record that provides an unprecedented window for unravelling the dynamics and timing of proximal marine cratering processes in the direct aftermath of a large impact event.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Basement-decoupled hyperextension rifting: The tectono-stratigraphic
           record of the salt-rich Pyrenean necking zone (Arzacq Basin, SW France)

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      Authors: Ducoux MM; Masini EE, Tugend JJ, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHalf grabens and supra-detachment basins correspond to end-member basin types of magma-poor rift settings, each of them showing a characteristic stratigraphic architecture. The occurrence of a basement-cover décollement has been shown to drastically change the stratigraphic architecture of half graben basins, however, the effect of such basement-cover décollement remains to be documented in supra-detachment basins formed during hyper-extension. We investigate the tectono-stratigraphic record of the Arzacq Basin (SW France) recording the formation of a salt-rich Cretaceous hyperextended rift system. Combining 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection calibrated from well data, we show that this basin is an asymmetric syn-rift extensional syncline growing above a pre-kinematic salt layer. By mapping the sub-salt basement, we show that the formation of this syncline is controlled by the South-Arzacq Fault (SAF), soling in the sub-salt basement. Based on crosscutting relationships and the observed southward migration of syn-rift depocenters, this N110°-striking, 20°-dipping structure accommodates >10 km of thick-skinned extension. The overlying supra-salt cover coherently glided, following the basement geometry. The 3-D segmentation of the SAF and the sub-salt stratigraphic architecture of the Arzacq Basin suggest a roughly dip-slip kinematic. A post-kinematic kilometer-scale uplift is documented on the southern side of the Arzacq Basin. It may result from the increasing lithospheric thinning and thermal support at the end of asymmetric hyperextension. As salt commonly occurs in extensional settings, we believe that our description of the tectono-stratigraphic record of a basement-decoupled supra-detachment basin has global applicability to unleash the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of worldwide hyper-extended rifted margins.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Quantifying structural controls on submarine channel architecture and
           kinematics

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      Authors: Mitchell W; Whittaker AC, Mayall M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractOver the past two decades, the increased availability of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data and their integration with outcrop and numerical modeling studies have enabled the architectural evolution of submarine channels to be studied in detail. While tectonic activity is a recognized control on submarine channel morphology, the temporal and spatial complexity associated with these systems means submarine channel behavior over extended time periods, and the ways in which processes scale and translate into time-integrated sedimentary architecture, remain poorly understood. For example, tectonically driven changes in slope morphology may locally enhance or diminish a channel's ability to incise, aggrade, and migrate laterally, changing channel kinematics and the distribution of composite architectures. Here, we combined seismic techniques with the concept of stratigraphic mobility to quantify how gravity-driven deformation influenced the stratigraphic architecture of two submarine channels, from the fundamental architectural unit, a channel element, to channel complex scale, on the Niger Delta slope.From a 3-D, time-migrated, seismic-reflection volume, we evaluated the evolution of widths, depths, sinuosities, curvatures, and stratigraphic mobilities at fixed intervals downslope as the channel complexes interacted with a range of gravity-driven structures. At channel element scale, sinuosity and bend amplitude were consistently elevated over structured reaches of the slope, displaying a nonlinear increase in length, perpendicular to flow direction. At channel complex scale, the same locations, updip of structure, correlated to an increase in channel complex width and aspect ratio. Normalized complex dimensions and complex-averaged stratigraphic mobilities showed lateral migration to be the dominant form of stratigraphic preservation in these locations. Our results explain the intricate relationship between the planform characteristics of channel elements and the cross-sectional dimensions of the channel complex. We show how channel element processes and kinematics translate to form higher-order stratigraphic bodies, and we demonstrate how tectonically driven changes in slope develop channel complexes with distinct cross-sectional and planform architectures.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A crucial geologic test of Late Jurassic exotic collision versus endemic
           re-accretion in the Klamath Mountains Province, western United States,
           with implications for the assembly of western North America

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      Authors: LaMaskin TA, Rivas JA, Barbeau DL, , Jr; et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDiffering interpretations of geophysical and geologic data have led to debate regarding continent-scale plate configuration, subduction polarity, and timing of collisional events on the western North American plate margin in pre–mid-Cretaceous time. One set of models involves collision and accretion of far-traveled “exotic” terranes against the continental margin along a west-dipping subduction zone, whereas a second set of models involves long-lived, east-dipping subduction under the continental margin and a fringing or “endemic” origin for many Mesozoic terranes on the western North American plate margin. Here, we present new detrital zircon U-Pb ages from clastic rocks of the Rattlesnake Creek and Western Klamath terranes in the Klamath Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon that provide a test of these contrasting models. Our data show that portions of the Rattlesnake Creek terrane cover sequence (Salt Creek assemblage) are no older than ca. 170–161 Ma (Middle–early Late Jurassic) and contain 62–83% Precambrian detrital zircon grains. Turbidite sandstone samples of the Galice Formation are no older than ca. 158–153 Ma (middle Late Jurassic) and contain 15–55% Precambrian detrital zircon grains. Based on a comparison of our data to published magmatic and detrital ages representing provenance scenarios predicted by the exotic and endemic models (a crucial geologic test), we show that our samples were likely sourced from the previously accreted, older terranes of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada, as well as active-arc sources, with some degree of contribution from recycled sources in the continental interior. Our observations are inconsistent with paleogeographic reconstructions that are based on exotic, intra-oceanic arcs formed far offshore of North America. In contrast, the incorporation of recycled detritus from older terranes of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada, as well as North America, into the Rattlesnake Creek and Western Klamath terranes prior to Late Jurassic deformation adds substantial support to endemic models. Our results suggest that during long-lived, east-dipping subduction, the opening and subsequent closing of the marginal Galice/Josephine basin occurred as a result of in situ extension and subsequent contraction. Our results show that tectonic models invoking exotic, intra-oceanic archipelagos composed of Cordilleran arc terranes fail a crucial geologic test of the terranes’ proposed exotic origin and support the occurrence of east-dipping, pre–mid-Cretaceous subduction beneath the North American continental margin.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Early Pleistocene–to–present paleoclimate archive for the American
           Southwest from Stoneman Lake, Arizona, USA

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      Authors: Staley S; Fawcett PJ, Anderson R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractLong, continuous records of terrestrial paleoclimate offer insights into natural climate variability and provide context for geomorphological studies, climate model reconstructions, and predictions of future climate change. STL14 is an 80 m lacustrine sediment core that archives paleoenvironmental changes at Stoneman Lake, Coconino County, Arizona, from the early Pleistocene (ca. 1.3 Ma) to present. Full-core sedimentology was analyzed using smear slides and core face observations. Lithofacies strongly correlate with wet bulk density and bulk magnetic susceptibility (MS), and these data resemble a sawtooth pattern characteristic of glacial-interglacial climate cycles. A linkage between deep to shallow lake depth transitions and glacial terminations is supported by an age model that incorporates accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates and tephrochronology of ashes from the Lava Creek B and multiple Long Valley, California, volcanic eruptions. We correlated middle and late Pleistocene glacial maxima to deep lake deposits defined by well-preserved bedding, increased biosilica, boreal pollen taxa (i.e., Picea), and lower density and MS. Interglacial periods are associated with shallow-water deposits characterized by banded-to-massive siliciclastic material, some authigenic calcite, the alga Phacotus, and higher density and MS. Prior to the marine isotope stage (MIS) 24–22 interval, smaller-amplitude changes in the lake environment suggest milder glacial conditions compared to those of the middle and late Pleistocene. Thus, abrupt intensification of glacial conditions may have occurred ca. 900 ka in the American Southwest, mirroring a global characteristic of the mid-Pleistocene transition. The STL14 record suggests that lake environments throughout the history of this small (3.5 km2), internally drained, basaltic catchment are sensitive to the regional hydrologic balance, which, at orbital time scales, is largely influenced by the northern cryosphere and associated changes in atmospheric circulation. The predominance of quartz in sediment throughout the record indicates significant eolian inputs. Few paleoclimate records from this region extend beyond the last glacial cycle, let alone the middle Pleistocene, making STL14 a valuable resource for studying environmental responses to a range of natural climate states and transitions throughout much of the Quaternary.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Metamorphism and geochronology of high-pressure mafic granulites
           (retrograded eclogites') in East Cathaysia terrane of South China:
           Implications for Mesozoic tectonic evolution

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      Authors: Xia Y; Yin C, Lin S, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractHigh-pressure mafic granulites (retrograded eclogites') were discovered as minor lenses enclosed in garnet-kyanite-cordierite gneiss from the Badu Complex of the East Cathaysia terrane in South China. These rocks consist mainly of garnet, clinopyroxene, hornblende, quartz, and rutile/ilmenite with or without omphacite pseudomorphs that are indicated by clinopyroxene + sodic plagioclase symplectic intergrowths. Mineral textures and reaction relationships suggest three metamorphic stages: (1) an eclogite-facies stage (M1) characterized by the mineral assemblage of garnet + clinopyroxene (omphacite) + hornblende + rutile + quartz; (2) a high-pressure granulite-facies (M2) stage mainly represented by garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + hornblende + rutile + quartz in the matrix; and (3) an amphibolite retrograde stage (M3) defined by hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz symplectites surrounding garnet porphyroblasts. Conventional geothermometers and geobarometers in combination with phase equilibria modeling constrain metamorphic P–T conditions of 15.8–18.2 kbar/625–690 °C (M1), 11.8–14.5 kbar/788–806 °C (M2), and 5.4–6.4 kbar/613–668 °C (M3), respectively. Two-staged decompression processes are defined after the peak pressure, which suggests a two-staged exhumation of these deeply buried rocks. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating and trace element analysis show that the high-pressure metamorphism occurred at 240–244 Ma. Complete early Mesozoic orogenic processes characterized by initial subduction and/or crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation followed by rapid uplift are reconstructed for this part of the East Cathaysia terrane, South China.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluating the role of topographic inversion in the formation of the
           Stanislaus Table Mountains in the Sierra Nevada (California, USA)

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      Authors: Gabet E.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Table Mountains, a flat-topped series of ridges capped by a 10.4 Ma latite flow in the Stanislaus River watershed, are considered to be evidence for late Cenozoic uplift-driven landscape rejuvenation in the northern Sierra Nevada range (California, USA). The commonly accepted theory for the formation of these mesas posits that the latite flowed and cooled within a bedrock paleovalley and, since then, the surrounding landscape has eroded away, leaving behind the volcanic deposit as a ridge. Although this theory is accepted by many, it has not been thoroughly tested. In this study, I examine a series of geological cross-sections extracted along the length of the latite deposit to determine whether the evidence supports the existence of bedrock valley walls on both sides of the 10.4 Ma flow. I find that the presence of older Cenozoic deposits adjacent to the latite flow precludes the possibility that the flow would have been constrained within a bedrock valley. Moreover, the cross-section from an 1865 report that has been offered as evidence of topographic inversion (and subsequently reproduced in numerous publications) does not accurately represent the topography at that site. I conclude that there is no evidence that the bedrock topography has been inverted and that instead, the latite flowed within a channel cut into underlying Cenozoic deposits, which have since mostly eroded away. This study, therefore, refutes the hypothesis that the Stanislaus River watershed was rejuvenated in the late Cenozoic and challenges the claim for recent significant uplift of the region.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Oligocene-Neogene lithospheric-scale reactivation of Mesozoic terrane
           accretionary structures in the Alaska Range suture zone, southern Alaska,
           USA: Reply

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      Authors: Waldien TS; Roeske SM, Benowitz JA, et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Forced subduction initiation within the Neotethys: An example from the
           mid-Cretaceous Wuntho-Popa arc in Myanmar

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      Authors: Zhang L; Fan W, Ding L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDespite decades of research, the mechanisms and processes of subduction initiation remain obscure, including the tectonic settings where subduction initiation begins and how magmatism responds. The Cretaceous Mawgyi Volcanics represent the earliest volcanic succession in the Wuntho-Popa arc of western Myanmar. This volcanic unit consists of an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously magmatic compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Our new geochemical data show that the Mawgyi Volcanics comprise massive mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-like lavas and dikes, and subordinate island arc tholeiite and calc-alkaline lavas. The Mawgyi MORB-like rocks exhibit flat rare earth elements (REEs) patterns and are depleted in REEs, high field strength elements (except for Th) and TiO2 concentrations relative to those of MORBs, resembling the Izu-Bonin-Mariana protoarc basalts. Our geochronological results indicate that the Mawgyi Volcanics formed between 105 and 93 Ma, coincident with formation of many Neotethyan supra-subduction zone ophiolites and intraoceanic arcs along orogenic strike in the eastern Mediterranean, Middle East, Pakistan, and Southeast Asia. Combined with its near-equatorial paleo-latitudes constrained by previous paleomagnetic data, the Wuntho-Popa arc is interpreted as a segment of the north-dipping trans-Neotethyan subduction system during the mid-Cretaceous. Importantly, our restoration with available data provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis of a mid-Cretaceous initiation of this >8000-km-long subduction system formed by inversion of the ∼E-W–trending Neotethyan oceanic spreading ridges, and that this was contemporaneous with the final breakup of Gondwana and an abrupt global plate reorganization.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Oligocene-Neogene lithospheric-scale reactivation of Mesozoic terrane
           accretionary structures in the Alaska Range suture zone, southern Alaska,
           USA: Comment

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      Authors: Grant L.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sr isotopes in the Tortonian-Messinian Lake Bira and Gesher marshes,
           Northern Valleys of Israel: Implications for hydroclimate changes in East
           Mediterranean–Levant margins

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      Authors: Rozenbaum AG; Stein MM, Zilberman EE, et al.
      Abstract: Abstract87Sr/86Sr isotope and Sr/Ca ratios in lacustrine carbonates were used to reconstruct the hydroclimate conditions in the watershed of Lake Bira that filled during the Tortonian-Messinian the tectonic depressions of the Northern Valleys of Israel in the East Mediterranean-Levant region. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Tortonian (ca. 10–8 Ma) carbonates of ∼0.7075 and the great expansion of the lake indicate wet conditions and enhanced supply of freshwater from the regional Mesozoic aquifers. Upon the transition to the Messinian period (ca. 7–6 Ma), the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the carbonates rose to ∼0.7080–0.7085, reflecting the contribution of Sr from Sahara Desert dusts that came to comprise the regional surface cover. This contribution is also reflected in the silicate fraction of the lacustrine formations that show “granitic-crustal” 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.711. During the Messinian salinity crisis (5.9–5.6 Ma), the region became arid and Lake Bira possibly dried. Later, during the Lago Mare stage (ca. 5.5–5.3 Ma), the rainfall increased and paludal waterbodies scattered the area of the larger Lake Bira.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Vein topology, structures, and distribution during the prograde formation
           of an Archean gold stockwork

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      Authors: Turlin F; De Souza S, Jébrak M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Archean Cheechoo stockwork gold deposit is hosted by a felsic intrusion of tonalitic-granodioritic composition and crosscutting pegmatite dikes in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay area of Quebec, Canada (Archean Superior craton). The evolution of the stockwork is characterized herein using field relationships, vein density, and connectivity measurements on drill core and outcrop zones. The statistical distribution of gold is used to highlight mechanisms of stockwork emplacement and gold mineralization and remobilization.Two statistical populations of gold concentration are present. Population A is represented by gold grades below 1 g/t with a lognormal cumulative frequency. It is widespread in the hydrothermally altered (albite and quartz) and mineralized facies of the pluton. It is controlled by the development of quartz-feldspar-diopside veins as shown by the similar lognormal distribution of grades and vein density and by the correspondence of grades with network connectivity. Diopside and actinolite porphyroblasts in deformed veins within sodic and calcsilicate alteration zones are evidence for auriferous vein emplacement prior to the amphibolite facies peak of metamorphism.Population B (>1 g/t) is erratic and exhibits a strong nugget effect. It is present throughout the mineralized portion of the pluton and in pegmatites. This population is interpreted as the result of gold remobilization during prograde metamorphism and pegmatite emplacement following the metamorphic peak. The pegmatites are interpreted to have scavenged gold emplaced prior to peak metamorphism.These results show the isotropic behavior of the investigated stockwork during regional deformation and its development during the early stages of regional prograde metamorphism.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Quaternary chronology and rock uplift recorded by marine terraces, Gaviota
           coast, Santa Barbara County, California, USA

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      Authors: Morel DL; Morell KD, Keller EA, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Transverse Ranges of southern California are a region of active transpression on the western margin of North America that hosts some of the world's highest uplift rates at the Ventura anticline. Yet, the manner in which rock uplift rates change along strike from Ventura to the westernmost Transverse Ranges and the structures that may be responsible for this uplift remain unclear. Here, we quantified rock uplift rates within the westernmost 60 km of the Transverse Ranges by obtaining new age constraints from raised beach and shoreface deposits from marine terraces along the Gaviota coast. Twelve radiocarbon (seven sites) and eight luminescence (six sites) ages, ranging from ca. 50 to 40 k.y. B.P. and ca. 56 to 43 ka, respectively, consistently suggest that the first emergent terrace dates to marine isotope stage (MIS) 3, rather than MIS 5a as previously reported for the western Gaviota coast. These younger ages yield rock uplift rates between 0.8 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 m/k.y., i.e., over five times higher than previous estimates for this region. The spatial distribution of rock uplift rates and the abrupt along-strike changes in marine terrace elevations favor a regional tectonic model with a step-wise change in rock uplift across the south branch of the Santa Ynez fault. The south branch of the Santa Ynez fault appears to separate two regional tectonic blocks, characterized by rock uplift rates of ∼1.3–1.6 m/k.y. to the east and slightly lower rates to the west (∼0.8–1.4 m/k.y.). Our observations suggest that coastal rock uplift is primarily accommodated by deeply rooted far-field structures such as the offshore Pitas Point–North Channel fault system and the Santa Ynez fault, and that smaller through-going structures impart second-order controls and locally accommodate short-wavelength (<10-km-long strike length) deformation. These results imply that although the rates of rock uplift decline westward along strike, the westernmost portion of the western Transverse Ranges nonetheless accommodates relatively high (>1 m/k.y.) rock uplift rates at a significant distance (>50 km) from the rapidly uplifting (6–7 m/k.y.) Ventura anticline, and >100 km from the prominent restraining bend (“Big Bend”) in the San Andreas fault. The new constraints on the geometry of Quaternary-active structures and regional rates of fault-related deformation have implications for regional earthquake source models and seismic hazard assessment in the highly populated southern California coast region.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Refining the Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal history of the Penokean
           Orogen: New U-Pb age constraints from the Pembine-Wausau terrane,
           Wisconsin, USA

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      Authors: Zi J; Sheppard S, Muhling JR, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAn enduring problem in the assembly of Laurentia is uncertainty about the nature and timing of magmatism, deformation, and metamorphism in the Paleoproterozoic Wisconsin magmatic terranes, which have been variously interpreted as an intra-oceanic arc, foredeep or continental back-arc. Resolving these competing models is difficult due in part to a lack of a robust time-frame for magmatism in the terranes. The northeast part of the terranes in northern Wisconsin (USA) comprise mafic and felsic volcanic rocks and syn-volcanic granites thought to have been emplaced and metamorphosed during the 1890–1830 Ma Penokean orogeny. New in situ U-Pb geochronology of igneous zircon from the volcanic rocks (Beecher Formation), and from two tonalitic plutons (the Dunbar Gneiss and Newingham Tonalite) intruding the volcanic rocks, yielded crystallization ages ranging from 1847 ± 10 Ma to 1842 ± 7 Ma (95% confidence). Thus, these rocks record a magmatic episode that is synchronous with bimodal volcanism in the Wausau domain and Marshfield terrane farther south. Our results, integrated with published data into a time-space diagram, highlight two bimodal magmatic cycles, the first at 1890–1860 Ma and the second at 1845–1830 Ma, developed on extended crust of the Superior Craton. The magmatic episodes are broadly synchronous with volcanogenic massive sulfide mineralization and deposition of Lake Superior banded iron formations. Our data and interpretation are consistent with the Penokean orogeny marking west Pacific-style accretionary orogenesis involving lithospheric extension of the continental margin, punctuated by transient crustal shortening that was accommodated by folding and thrusting of the arc-back-arc system. The model explains the shared magmatic history of the Pembine-Wausau and Marshfield terranes. Our study also reveals an overprinting metamorphic event recorded by reset zircon and new monazite growth dated at 1775 ± 10 Ma suggesting that the main metamorphic event in the terranes is related to the Yavapai-interval accretion rather than the Penokean orogeny.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Subduction initiation-induced rapid emplacement of garnet-bearing
           peridotites at a nascent forearc: Petrological and Os-Li isotopic evidence
           from the Purang ophiolite, Tibet

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      Authors: Gong X; Xu J, Shi R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractGarnet-bearing peridotites commonly occur in the deeper parts of mature or thickened oceanic lithosphere, and are rarely exhumed and emplaced onto the seafloor. The Purang ophiolitic peridotites in south Tibet contain rare symplectite pseudomorphs after garnet, offering a unique window into the still poorly understood evolution of the deep oceanic lithosphere. Here, integrated petrologic and Os-Li isotopic data are used to constrain the evolution and dynamics of emplacement for these garnet peridotite protoliths. The Purang peridotites show wide variations of chemical compositions (spinel Cr#: 0.2–0.8) and Os model ages (up to 2.0 Ga), thus representing a piece of heterogeneous oceanic mantle lithosphere. Dunite channels show two distinctive groups of Cr# of spinels and Os-isotope compositions, with the low- to medium-Cr# (0.2–0.6) and high-Cr# (0.7–0.8) dunites reflecting the reaction of host lherzolites/harzburgites with percolating mid-ocean ridge basalt–like and boninitic melts, respectively. This confirms recent subduction initiation-related melt percolation in the Purang peridotites. Coexisting olivines and pyroxenes in the peridotites show systematic Li elemental and isotopic disequilibrium, suggesting fast cooling of the peridotites to Li closure temperature shortly after the melt percolations, likely during exhumation of the peridotites onto the seafloor. This supports a close link between subduction initiation and tectonic emplacement of the Purang peridotites. Combined with other geological evidence, we suggest the Purang peridotites may originate from the deep part of old, thick oceanic lithosphere of the Neo-Tethys. This thick oceanic lithosphere was progressively weakened and thinned likely during widespread plume-lithosphere interaction, triggering the transformation of garnet peridotite protoliths to spinel peridotites. Subsequently, initiation of a new subduction zone along the lithospheric weakness caused rapid ascent and emplacement of the Purang peridotites at a nascent forearc.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • A tale of two Tweefonteins: What physical correlation, geochronology,
           magnetic polarity stratigraphy, and palynology reveal about the
           end-Permian terrestrial extinction paradigm in South Africa

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      Authors: Gastaldo RA; Neveling J, Geissman JW, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe contact between the Daptocephalus to Lystrosaurus declivis (previously Lystrosaurus) Assemblage Zones (AZs) described from continental deposits of the Karoo Basin was commonly interpreted to represent an extinction crisis associated with the end-Permian mass-extinction event at ca. 251.901 ± 0.024 Ma. This terrestrial extinction model is based on several sections in the Eastern Cape and Free State Provinces of South Africa. Here, new stratigraphic and paleontologic data are presented for the Eastern Cape Province, in geochronologic and magnetostratigraphic context, wherein lithologic and biologic changes are assessed over a physically correlated stratigraphy exceeding 4.5 km in distance. Spatial variation in lithofacies demonstrates the gradational nature of lithostratigraphic boundaries and depositional trends. This pattern is mimicked by the distribution of vertebrates assigned to the Daptocephalus and L. declivis AZs where diagnostic taxa of each co-occur as lateral equivalents in landscapes dominated by a Glossopteris flora. High-precision U-Pb zircon (chemical abrasion-isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry) age results indicate maximum Changhsingian depositional dates that can be used as approximate tie points in our stratigraphic framework, which is supported by a magnetic polarity stratigraphy. The coeval nature of diagnostic pre- and post-extinction vertebrate taxa demonstrates that the L. declivis AZ did not replace the Daptocephalus AZ stratigraphically, that a biotic crisis and turnover likely is absent, and a reevaluation is required for the utilization of these biozones here and globally. Based on our data set, we propose a multidisciplinary approach to correlate the classic Upper Permian localities of the Eastern Cape Province with the Free State Province localities, which demonstrates their time-transgressive nature.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Unraveling the link between mantle upwelling and formation of Sn-bearing
           granitic rocks in the world-class Dachang tin district, South China

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      Authors: Guo J; Wu K, Seltmann R, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractIncreasing evidence shows that the mantle contributes (directly or indirectly) to Sn-bearing granites worldwide. However, the specific role of mantle in the formation of tin granites and related mineralization remains poorly understood. In the world-class Dachang district, South China, tin mineralization is related to the Longxianggai equigranular/porphyritic biotite granites and tin orebodies are cut by granite porphyry dykes hosting mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs). A combination of zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotopes, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions—for granitic rocks and MMEs, is employed to constrain the petrogenesis and to unravel the link between tin fertility and mantle upwelling. Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the biotite granites were emplaced at ca. 93 Ma, and the granite porphyry dykes and MMEs were formed at ca. 86 Ma. The biotite granites are silica- and alkali-enriched with A/CNK ratios of 1.04–1.36, and exhibit elevated concentrations of Li, F, P, Rb, Cs, Ta, Sn, W, and U, showing affinities with highly fractionated S-type granites. Whole-rock geochemical and Nd isotopic (εNd(t) = −10.0 to −7.8) data, and in situ zircon Hf-O (εHf(t) = −9.9 to −3.9, δ18O = 6.2–8.9‰) isotopes indicate that the biotite granites were formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks at relatively high temperatures (≥782 °C), possibly with minor input of mantle material. Likewise, the post-ore granite porphyry dykes have similar chemical and mineralogical characteristics as fractionated S-type granites. Zircon Hf-O isotopes (εHf(t) = −9.0 to −4.9, δ18O = 6.5–8.2‰) and whole-rock geochemical data suggest they were derived from a similar source as the biotite granites, whereas elevated εNd(t) values of −5.0 to −3.3 for granite porphyry dykes relative to biotite granites reveal an increasing mantle input. Distinct εNd(t) (−0.4 and −0.3) and zircon Hf-O (εHf(t) = 1.5–5.0, δ18O = 6.5–7.2‰) isotopes of the MMEs, suggest that the mafic melt could be sourced from the asthenospheric mantle, contaminated by subcontinental lithospheric mantle/continental crust during magma ascent, and hybridized by felsic melt at emplacement-level. The magmatic sequence in the Dachang district is indicative of an extensional tectonic setting where mantle-derived magmas are predicted to migrate to shallower crustal levels as the crust progressively becomes thinner and hotter. High-temperature partial melting of mature metasedimentary crust triggered by heat input from the upwelled mantle, may contribute to biotite breakdown, which is important for concentrating tin in melts. Fractional crystallization of initially Sn-rich felsic melts under reduced conditions makes further tin enrichment and produces Sn-bearing granites (the Longxianggai pluton). Prolonged mantle upwelling results in distinct magma mixing and the formation of granite porphyry dykes and MMEs. These dykes are highly fractionated with elevated Sn and W contents, which show great potential to form hydrothermal Sn-W mineralization.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The timeline of prolonged accretionary processes in eastern Central Asian
           Orogenic Belt: Insights from episodic Paleozoic intrusions in central
           Inner Mongolia, North China

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      Authors: Yuan L; Zhang X, Yang Z.
      Abstract: AbstractUpdating magmatic profile in crucial constituent terranes across the Central Asian Orogenic Belt presents a key to chronicling the timeline of prolonged accretionary processes and termination of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the northern China–southern Mongolia tract. Here we performed a systematic geochronological and geochemical study on a spectrum of Paleozoic intrusions from the Erenhot region in central Inner Mongolia, North China, within the hinterland of the tract, with four distinct magmatic episodes unraveled. Combining these episodes with the previously documented events from contiguous regions defines two major tectono-magmatic cycles. The early Paleozoic cycle (500–450 Ma) evolved from initial fluid-fluxed tholeiitic and calc-alkaline granitoids to melt-fertilized mafic-intermediate magmatism. It appears to experience the initiation and maturation of a Western Pacific-type intra-oceanic arc system that culminated in ridge subduction. The late Paleozoic cycle expanded in magmatic expression from sporadic Late Devonian (373–365 Ma) calc-alkaline intermediate-felsic pulses through Early-Middle Carboniferous (356–320 Ma) medium to high-K calc-alkaline flare-up to a Late Carboniferous–Early Permian (310–277 Ma) province of diverse lithologies. These magmatic episodes seem to encompass a complete active continental arc–back-arc system that spanned from resuming oceanic plate subduction through slab rollback and backarc rifting to ridge-trench collision and backarc basin closure. Featuring a Rodinia-aged terrane affinity and a representative Paleozoic magmatic profile, the Erenhot region provides an optimal site for correlating the evolution of mosaic terranes in southern Mongolia and northern China, and for evaluating the coupled evolution of shifting tectonic regimes and plural crustal generation mechanisms within a retreating accretionary orogen.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The impact of a tear in the subducted Indian plate on the Miocene geology
           of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen

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      Authors: Wang R; Weinberg RF, Zhu D, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Yadong-Gulu Rift, cutting across the Gangdese belt and Himalayan terranes, is currently associated with a thermal anomaly in the mantle and crustal melting at 15–20 km depth. The rift follows the trace of a tear in the underthrusted Indian continental lithospheric slab recognized by high resolution geophysical methods. The Miocene evolution of a 400-km-wide band following the trace of the tear and the rift, records differences interpreted as indicative of a higher heat flow than its surroundings. In the Gangdese belt, this band is characterized by high-Sr/Y granitic magmatism that lasted 5 m.y. longer than elsewhere and by the highest values of εHf(i) and association with the largest porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the Gangdese belt. Anomalously young magmatic rocks continue south along the rift in the Tethyan and Higher Himalayas. Here, a 300-km-wide belt includes some of the youngest Miocene Himalayan leucogranites; the only occurrence of mantle-derived mafic enclaves in a leucogranite; young mantle-derived lamprophyre dikes; and the youngest and hottest migmatites in the Higher Himalayas. These migmatites record a history of rapid exhumation contemporaneous with the exhumation of Miocene mafic eclogite blocks, which are unique to this region and which were both heated to >800 °C at ca. 15–13 Ma, followed by isothermal decompression. We suggest that the prominent tear in the Indian lithosphere, sub-parallel to the rift, is the most likely source for these tectono-thermal anomalies since the Miocene.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Migmatite and leucogranite in a continental-scale exhumed strike-slip
           shear zone: Implications for tectonic evolution and initiation of shearing
           

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      Authors: Li J; Cao S, Cheng X, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractPlutons within continental strike-slip shear zones bear important geological processes on late-stage plate transpression and continent-continent collision and associated lateral block extrusion. Where, when, and how intrusions and shearing along transpressional strike-slip shear zones respond to plate interactions, however, are often debated. In this study, we investigated migmatite associated leucogranite and pegmatite from the exhumed >1000-km-long Ailao Shan-Red River left-lateral strike-slip shear zone in Southeast Asia that was active during India-Eurasia plate convergence. Most zircons from the migmatites and leucogranitic intrusions present inherited core-rim structure. The depletion of rare earth element patterns and positive Eu anomalies suggest that leucosomes and leucogranites are the result of crustal anatexis. Zircon rims from the foliated migmatites and leucogranites record U-Pb ages of 41–28 Ma, revealing the timing of the Cenozoic crustal anatexis event along this strike-slip shear zone. Ages of the magmatic zircons from the unfoliated pegmatites provide the timing of the termination of a high-temperature tectono-thermal event and ductile left-lateral shearing at 26–23 Ma. The Cenozoic crustal anatexis along the Ailao Shan-Red River strike-slip shear zone indicates that thickened crust underneath the shear zone involved previously subducted crust. We propose that the Cenozoic thermal state has an important effect on the crustal anatexis and thus on the rheological behavior of the lithosphere by thermal weakening, which plays an essential role in localizing the initiation of the deep-seated lower-crustal shear zone.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Paleomagnetic dating of prehistoric lava flows from the urban district of
           Catania (Etna volcano, Italy)

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      Authors: Magli A; Branca S, Speranza F, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractDetermining the ages of past eruptions of active volcanoes whose slopes were historically inhabited is vitally important for investigating the relationships between eruptive phenomena and human settlements. During its almost three-millennia-long history, Catania—the biggest city lying at the toe of Etna volcano—was directly impacted only once by the huge lava flow emplaced during the A.D. 1669 Etna flank eruption. However, other lava flows reached the present-day Catania urban district in prehistoric ages before the founding of the city in Greek times (729/728 B.C., i.e., 2679/2678 yr B.P.). In this work, the Holocene lava flows of Barriera del Bosco, Larmisi, and San Giovanni Galermo, which are exposed in the Catania urban district, were paleomagnetically investigated at 12 sites (120 oriented cores). Paleomagnetic dating was obtained by comparing flow-mean paleomagnetic directions to updated geomagnetic reference models for the Holocene. The Barriera del Bosco flow turns out to represent the oldest eruptive event and is paleomagnetically dated to the 11,234–10,941 yr B.P. and 8395–8236 yr B.P. age intervals. The mean paleomagnetic directions from the San Giovanni Galermo and Larmisi flows overlap when statistical uncertainties are considered. This datum, along with geologic, geochemical, and petrologic evidence, implies that the two lava flows can be considered as parts of a single lava field that erupted in a narrow time window between 5494 yr B.P. and 5387 yr B.P. The emplacement of such a huge lava flow field may have buried several Neolithic settlements, which would thus explain the scarce occurrence of archaeological sites of that age found below the town of Catania.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Origin of syn-collisional granitoids in the Gangdese orogen: Reworking of
           the juvenile arc crust and the ancient continental crust

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      Authors: Tang Y; Chen L, Zhao Z, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractGranitoids at convergent plate boundaries can be produced either by partial melting of crustal rocks (either continental or oceanic) or by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas. Whereas granitoid formation through partial melting of the continental crust results in reworking of the pre-existing continental crust, granitoid formation through either partial melting of the oceanic crust or fractional crystallization of the mafic magmas leads to growth of the continental crust. This category is primarily based on the radiogenic Nd isotope compositions of crustal rocks; positive εNd(t) values indicate juvenile crust whereas negative εNd(t) values indicate ancient crust. Positive εNd(t) values are common for syn-collisional granitoids in southern Tibet, which leads to the hypothesis that continental collision zones are important sites for the net growth of continental crust. This hypothesis is examined through an integrated study of in situ zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes, whole-rock major trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes as well as mineral O isotopes for felsic igneous rocks of Eocene ages from the Gangdese orogen in southern Tibet. The results show that these rocks can be divided into two groups according to their emplacement ages and geochemical features. The first group is less granitic with lower SiO2 contents of 59.82–64.41 wt%, and it was emplaced at 50–48 Ma in the early Eocene. The second group is more granitic with higher SiO2 contents of 63.93–68.81 wt%, and it was emplaced at 42 Ma in the late Eocene. The early Eocene granitoids exhibit relatively depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions with low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7044−0.7048, positive εNd(t) values of 0.6−3.9, εHf(t) values of 6.5−10.5, zircon εHf(t) values of 1.6−12.1, and zircon δ18O values of 5.28–6.26‰. These isotopic characteristics are quite similar to those of Late Cretaceous mafic arc igneous rocks in the Gangdese orogen, which indicates their derivation from partial melting of the juvenile mafic arc crust. In comparison, the late Eocene granitoids have relatively lower MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, and heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents but higher K2O, Rb, Sr, Th, U, Pb contents, Sr/Y, and (La/Yb)N ratios. They also exhibit more enriched whole-rock Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions with high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7070−0.7085, negative εNd(t) values of −5.2 to −3.9 and neutral εHf(t) values of 0.9−2.3, and relatively lower zircon εHf(t) values of −2.8–8.0 and slightly higher zircon δ18O values of 6.25–6.68‰. An integrated interpretation of these geochemical features is that both the juvenile arc crust and the ancient continental crust partially melted to produce the late Eocene granitoids. In this regard, the compositional evolution of syn-collisional granitoids from the early to late Eocene indicates a temporal change of their magma sources from the complete juvenile arc crust to a mixture of the juvenile and ancient crust. In either case, the syn-collisional granitoids in the Gangdese orogen are the reworking products of the pre-existing continental crust. Therefore, they do not contribute to crustal growth in the continental collision zone.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Thermotectonic events recorded by U-Pb geochronology and Zr-in-rutile
           thermometry of Ti oxides in basement rocks along the P2 fault, eastern
           Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

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      Authors: Adlakha EE; Hattori KK.
      Abstract: AbstractBasement rocks below the Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, have been intensely altered through paleoweathering and multiple hydrothermal events, including the formation of world-class unconformity-type uranium deposits. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Ti-oxide thermochronology for identifying thermotectonic events in these altered rocks leading to uranium mineralization along basement structures. Rutile grains along the P2 fault, a major fault in the eastern Athabasca Basin, exhibit 207Pb/206Pb ages of ca. 1850–1700 Ma, with a weighted mean of 1757 ± 6 Ma (mean square of weighted deviation [MSWD] = 1.4, n = 116). The older ages (>1770 Ma) record regional metamorphism reaching a temperature of 875 °C during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. Pb diffusion modeling indicates that metamorphic rutile should exhibit cooling ages of 1760–1750 Ma. Rutile grains showing young ages, <1750 Ma, reflect isotopic resetting during regional asthenospheric upwelling between 1770 and 1730 Ma related to the emplacement of the Kivalliq igneous suite to the north. This thermotectonic event (temperature > 550 °C) promoted hydrothermal activity to produce silicified rocks, i.e., “quartzite,” along the P2 fault, which later focused mineralizing fluids for unconformity-type uranium deposits. The young rutile ages also indicate that the basement rocks remained hot until 1700 Ma, providing the maximum age for the deposition of the Athabasca sediments. Anatase yields a concordia age of 1569 ± 31 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, n = 5), which is within uncertainty of the oldest ages for uraninite of the McArthur River deposit. This age corresponds to the incursion of basinal fluids in the basement along the P2 fault during uranium mineralization.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Faulty foundations: Early breakup of the southern Utah Cordilleran
           foreland basin

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      Authors: Enriquez St. Pierre GA; Johnson CL.
      Abstract: AbstractAnomalous features of Upper Cretaceous strata in southern Utah challenge existing tectonic and depositional models of the Cordilleran foreland basin. Extreme thickness variations, net to gross changes, and facies distributions of nonmarine to marginal marine strata of the Turonian–early Campanian Straight Cliffs Formation are documented across the Southwestern High Plateaus. Contrary to most traditional models of foreland basin architecture, regional correlations demonstrate abrupt stepwise thickening, with a punctuated increase in average grain size of key intervals from west to east, i.e., proximal to distal relative to the fold-thrust belt. Except in the most proximal sections, fluvial drainage systems were oriented predominantly subparallel to the fold-thrust belt. Combined, these results suggest that modern plateau-bounding faults may have had topographic expressions as early as Cenomanian time, and influenced the position of the main axial river system by creating northeast-trending paleotopography and sub-basins. Laramide-style tectonism (e.g., basement-involved faults) is already cited as a driver for sub-basin development in latest Cretaceous–Cenozoic time, but new data presented here suggest that this part of the foredeep was “broken” into distinct sub-basins from its earliest stages. We suggest that flexural foundering of the lithosphere may have caused early stage normal faulting in the foredeep. Regional implications of these new data indicate that both detachment-style and basement-involved structures were simultaneously active in southern Utah earlier than previously recognized. These structures were likely influenced by inherited Proterozoic basement heterogeneities along the edge of the Colorado Plateau. This interpretation suggests that tectonic models for the region should be reevaluated and has broader implications for understanding variability and geodynamics of foreland basin evolution.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Pure sediment-derived granites in a subduction zone

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      Authors: Xu J; Xia X, Wang Q, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe Earth is unique in the Solar System due to significant volumes of granite in the lithosphere. However, the origins of granites are still highly debated, especially sediment-derived granites, which are often treated as a geochemical end-member of the continental crust. In the Yunnan region of South China, we identify the occurrence of pure sediment-derived granite in a subduction system. The suite of strongly peraluminous granite reported herein is interpreted to represent pure metasedimentary melts based on their whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd-B and zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions. These Late Permian–Early Triassic (ca. 254–248 Ma) granites are characterized by radiogenically enriched Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic signatures. They show δ11B and δ18O signatures akin to those of continental shales. Geochemical modeling indicates no contributions from the mantle that can be detected. Considering the regional tectonic evolution, these granites are suggested to be formed in a subduction zone by decompression melting of rapidly exhumed back-arc sediments. We posit that decompression melting was triggered by widespread extension and thinning of the crust prompted by rollback of the subducting oceanic crust. These granites thus provide evidence that granite formation in subduction zones does not necessarily contribute to crustal growth. These subduction-related pure sediment-derived granites have different elemental ratios and contents (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2 and Yb) from the Himalayan leucogranites. Considering their source compositions (e.g., pelitic rocks), which are similar to those of the Himalayan leucogranites, these differences are likely due to their higher formation temperature and lower pressure despite a great similarity in isotopic compositions. Identification of pure sediment-derived, strongly peraluminous granites (SPGs) in subduction systems provides an important geodynamic mechanism for crustal anatexis, which can both geochemically and tectonically complement their collisional counterparts identified in the Himalayas.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Feb 2021 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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