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Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
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ISSN (Print) 2347-8659 - ISSN (Online) 2349-6142
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  • Takayasu’s arteritis - aphasia as an initial presentation

    • Abstract: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an uncommon disease of young women, characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of medium and large arteries. Neurological involvement is reported in only a minority of patients and occurrence of neurological syndromes as the first manifestation of disease has been rarely reported. We present clinical, laboratory and imaging findings of a 40 years old lady with TA, who ini...
      PubDate: 31 Aug 2016
  • Inhibition and reversal of growth cone collapse in adult sensory neurons
           by enteric glia-induced neurotrophic factors

    • Abstract: Aim: Previous studies show enteric glia (EG)-conditioned medium promotes neurite outgrowth in adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neurons. This EG-conditioned medium contains various neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). This study attempts to det...
      PubDate: 31 Aug 2016
  • Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem

    • Abstract: Emerging roles of microglia cells in the regulation of adult neural stem cells...
      PubDate: 30 Jun 2016
  • Cerebral venous thrombosis in patient of relapse of ulcerative colitis:
           report of a case

    • Abstract: Amongst the various systemic complications of ulcerative colitis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon and serious neurological complication mainly associated during episodes of relapse of ulcerative colitis. CVT is suspected to be a consequence of hypercoagulable state occurring during the disease in genetic predisposed persons. Most patients present with rapid neurological deteriorati...
      PubDate: 29 Mar 2016
  • Population of inflammatory cells in intracranial aneurysm with the special

    • Abstract: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) can cause a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. The prevalence of IA is high in the general public; however, the annual risk for the rupture of an incidentally found lesion is relatively low. Therefore, it is crucial to selectively diagnose rupture-prone IAs among many diagnosed IAs, and properly treat such IAs before rupture. Recent studies using human IA sp...
      PubDate: 29 Feb 2016
  • Treatment guidelines of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
           in China

    • Abstract: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder at the peripheral nervous system, in which the progression is chronic and also remission relapse. In most cases, it is also associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein-cell separation. Electrophysiologically, the periphera...
      PubDate: 28 Mar 2016
  • Encephalitis associated with autoantibodies binding to γ-aminobutyric
           acid-A, γ-aminobutyric acid-B and glycine receptors: immunopathogenic
           mechanisms and clinical characteristics

    • Abstract: Recent, discoveries of neural antibodies have facilitated the diagnosis of immune-mediated, immunotherapy-responsive neurologic disorders. Antibodies that target inhibitory central nervous system receptors, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-B, γ-aminobutyric acid-A, and glycine receptors, disrupt inhibitory regulatory synaptic functions, and lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. The myriad of neurologic...
      PubDate: 28 Mar 2016
  • Encephalitis associated with autoantibody binding to the
           anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: immunopathogenesis, mechanisms, and
           clinical characteristics

    • Abstract: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been increasingly recognized in recent years. This condition may be the most common cause of antibody-mediated encephalitis worldwide. The majority of patients are young at the time of onset, female, and present with an acute-to-subacute onset of behavioral changes followed by seizure, abnormal movement, autonomic dysfunction, and finally...
      PubDate: 28 Mar 2016
  • Neurological diseases associated with autoantibodies targeting the
           voltage-gated potassium channel complex: immunobiology and clinical

    • Abstract: Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) represent a group of tetrameric signaling proteins with several functions, including modulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. Moreover, VGKCs give a key contribution to the generation of the action potential. VGKCs are complexed with other neuronal proteins, and it is now widely known that serum autoantibodies directed against VGKCs...
      PubDate: 28 Mar 2016
  • Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid

    • Abstract: Interleukin-1beta: a common thread between inflammation, pain and opioid tolerance...
      PubDate: 28 Jul 2016
  • Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas

    • Abstract: Serum immuno-biomarkers in gliomas...
      PubDate: 28 Aug 2016
  • Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome: single photon emission
           computerized tomography observations

    • Abstract: The authors report clinical correlations of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) findings in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPL). These are observations that have not received wide attention in literature. A 31-year-old hypertensive gentleman, on discontinuing antihypertensive medications, presented with vomiting, headache, focal motor to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure...
      PubDate: 28 Apr 2016
  • The expanding spectrum of pediatric anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase
           antibody mediated CNS disease - a chance association?

    • Abstract: Central nervous system autoimmunity in the pediatric age group represents an evolving constellation of various syndromes distinct from the adult age group. One of the rarely described pathogenic auto-antibodies (ab) is the one directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). While its pathogenic role is controversial, literature concerning adult patients abounds with heterogeneous presentations...
      PubDate: 28 Apr 2016
  • Necropotosis: a new link between cell death and inflammation

    • Abstract: Necroptosis is a type of newly identified cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Studies over the past 10 years have revealed the molecular mechanism of necroptosis and challenged the old conception that necrosis is un-programmed. Recently, more and more data have emerged suggesting a close association between necroptosis and inflammation. ...
      PubDate: 28 Apr 2016
  • Current and emerging therapies for neuromyelitis optica

    • Abstract: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that mainly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord, potentially resulting in blindness and paralysis. Once thought to be a clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, NMO is currently considered as a different disease with its own features due to the identification of a specific autoantibody against aquaporin 4. Given the high risk of ...
      PubDate: 28 Apr 2016
  • Neurological manifestations in Fabry disease

    • Abstract: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, progressive, multisystem and highly debilitating disease. FD is an X-linked lysosome storage disorder that results in α-galactosidase A deficiency. The subsequent accumulation of glycosphingolipids is more evident in vascular endothelium and smooth-muscle cells. The resulting effect of the deposition is generalized inflammation and vasculopathy, which can also affect...
      PubDate: 27 Jul 2016
  • A case report of acute pediatric bacterial meningitis due to the rare
           isolate, Pseudomonas putida

    • Abstract: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is the medical emergency which warrants an early diagnosis and an aggressive therapy. Despite the availability of the potent newer antibiotics, the mortality caused by ABM and its complications remain high in India, ranging from 16% to 32%. The aim of this case report is to present the rare isolation of Pseudomonas putida from cerebrospinal fluid sample. Besides th...
      PubDate: 27 Apr 2016
  • Progressive muscle cramps with pain as atypical initial presentations of
           amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report

    • Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease and is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons. Muscle cramps, which are characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscles, are not rare in ALS patients. However, muscle cramps do not normally present early in ALS and therefore not...
      PubDate: 27 Apr 2016
  • Huge supratentorial cortical ependymoma in a young child: case report and
           literature review

    • Abstract: Supratentorial cortical ependymomas are uncommon in the pediatric population and extremely rare in very young children. Histologically, tumors of the anaplastic type are also less common in children. The authors report one case of anaplastic cortical ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl who presented with a 7-day history of left side weakness and rapid neurological deterioration. Brain imaging with c...
      PubDate: 27 Apr 2016
  • Statins in acute neurologic disease: which one, which dose, when to start,
           and when not to stop

    • Abstract: Statins could have physiologic properties that may benefit patients that have been diagnosed with various acute neurological diseases. This review aims tosummarize the literature pertaining to stain use in acute neurological disease such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral ischemia (CI), traumatic brain injury, status epilepticus and meningitis. The authors reviewe...
      PubDate: 27 Apr 2016
  • Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge

    • Abstract: Isolated unilateral chorea: a diagnostic challenge...
      PubDate: 26 Oct 2016
  • Possible role of microparticles in neuroimmune signaling of microglial

    • Abstract: Aim: Submicron fragments termed microparticles (MPs), derived from all major central nervous system cell types including neurons and glia (microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes), have emerged as novel intercellular signaling agents. This study tested the hypothesis that MPs derived from activated microglia, which represent the mononuclear phagocyte system in the brain, could induce pro-inflammat...
      PubDate: 26 May 2016
  • Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective
           against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    • Abstract: Aim: Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confe...
      PubDate: 26 Aug 2016
  • Parasellar extra-axial cavernoma mimicking meningioma: a case report

    • Abstract: Parasellar extra-axial cavernomas are rare lesions. The authors report a case of extra-axial cavernoma in a 50-year-old male patient, who presented with occipital headache and double vision. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhancing extra-axial dural-based mass in the left parasellar region invading cavernous sinus, hyper-intense on T2-weighted images, iso-intense on T1-weighted images an...
      PubDate: 24 Nov 2016
  • Screening of genetic loci predisposing to herpes simplex virus infection
           on mouse chromosome 17

    • Abstract: Aim: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), one of the most common viruses infecting humans, is featured by a high infection rate and usually causes complex disorders difficult to diagnose and treat. Disease progression is always combined with the specific interaction between organism and environment, but genetic factors play a decisive role in most pathogenic processes. Like most human disorders, indivi...
      PubDate: 24 Apr 2016
  • Low antioxidant status of patients with central nervous system infections

    • Abstract: Aim: The pathogenesis of central nervous system infections (CNSI) has not been fully understood; some studies indicated that reactive oxygen species may induce brain damage. The aim of our study was to investigate serum antioxidant status in patients with CNSI. Methods: The serum levels of uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin of 548 individuals were enrolled in our study, comprising of 114 health...
      PubDate: 22 Apr 2016
  • Comments on “Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state
           functional connections with Alzheimer’s disease progression”

    • Abstract: Neuroimaging evidence of disconnection syndrome of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is extremely fascinating. In the study by Brier et al.,[1] they examined resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) in 5 functionally defined brain networks: default mode network (DMN), executive control network (CON), salience network (SAL), dorsal attention network (DAN), and sensory-mo...
      PubDate: 20 Jun 2016
  • Astrocyte, reactive astrocytes and self-regulative apoptosis in the

    • Abstract: Astrocyte, one of the most abundant glial cell types, actively functions in stabilizing neural circuits and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes not only provide metabolic and trophic supports to various CNS neurons and but also actively work in assisting synaptic transmission and plasticity. A line of growing evidences have documented that astrocytes present as an...
      PubDate: 20 Jun 2016
  • Central nervous system blastomycosis presenting as a year-long chronic

    • Abstract: This case describes a posterior fossa mass due to blastomycotic infection in a non-immunocompromised 41-year-old male presenting with a chronic headache for over one year. Given the risk of herniation, no lumbar puncture could be performed. A full work-up found no evidence of systemic infection. Surgical resection helped identify the mass as a blastomycotic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging char...
      PubDate: 20 Jan 2016
  • Artery of Percheron occlusion: role of diffusion-weighted imaging in the
           early diagnosis

    • Abstract: Bilateral thalamic infarcts have a low frequency among different subtypes of strokes. Since it does not involve a particular vascular territory, it therefore usually involves the occlusion of the artery of Percheron (AOP). Here we report a 79-year-old right-handed Parkinsonian female patient, who was found unresponsive in bed. On examination, the patient was drowsy with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ...
      PubDate: 20 Jan 2016
  • The conflict on posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome: a clinical mini

    • Abstract: Is Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for the persistence of symptoms after the standard successful course of antibiotics in Lyme disease patients' This highly controversial issue, concerning the underlying mechanism of posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), still seems to be a matter of intense conflict of opinion. PTLDS is the manifestation of nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, musculos...
      PubDate: 20 Jan 2016
  • China guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis

    • Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a typical autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies, immune cells and complement systems at the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. Over 80 % of MG patients have anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody. This guideline will describe the clinical manifestations and classification, laboratory examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment an...
      PubDate: 20 Jan 2016
  • Meningeal carcinomatosis: a retrospective analysis of seventy-seven cases

    • Abstract: Aim: Meningeal carcinomatosis is a special type of malignant tumor characterized by short survival and poor prognosis. In the present study, the authors aim to analyze the clinical, laboratory data and prognosis of meningeal carcinomatosis patients. Methods: The authors enrolled 77 cases of meningeal carcinomatosis from 2003 to 2013 in the First Hospital of Jilin University. The clinical data incl...
      PubDate: 19 May 2016
  • Status epilepticus in scleromyxedema

    • Abstract: Scleromyxedema is a rare dermatologic disorder, characterized by erythematous or yellowish lichenoid waxy papules. Neurological manifestations are rare but well-recognized. A 51-year-old woman, diagnosed with scleromyxedema, was admitted to the hospital with status epilepticus, caused by brain lesions, as disclosed in a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient was treated with anticonvu...
      PubDate: 19 May 2016
  • Good recovery of a patient with neurocysticercosis using two
           antihelminthic drugs combined with steroid

    • Abstract: Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. We present a case report of a neurocysticercosis patient with multiple cysts, who presented with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A 4-cycle treatment of 2 different antihelminthic drugs with dexamethasone and sodium valproate led to clinical improvement without any adverse reactions. The manifestat...
      PubDate: 19 May 2016
  • A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and
           cognitive impairment

    • Abstract: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis. An epileptic seizure is reported in association with HE. Here, the author reported an 18-year-old girl with a history of hyperthyroidism for one year. She was admitted to the hospital due to status epilepticus. Serum thyroid function test showed that the concentration of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroglobuli...
      PubDate: 19 May 2016
  • Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients
           suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    • Abstract: Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with depression were enrolled in this study. The beck depression Inventory-II, the positive and negative syn...
      PubDate: 19 May 2016
  • Spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated with cerebral venous
           thrombosis and subdural effusion: a case report

    • Abstract: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension treatment can be complicated by concomitant cerebral venous thrombosis and subdural hematoma. A 48 years old male, presenting orthostatic headache and neck pain for 1 month displayed sagittal sinus thrombosis and bilateral subdural effusions, as well as extradural fluid collection at T3-T8 level, upon magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pres...
      PubDate: 19 Apr 2016
  • Herpes zoster internuclear ophthalmoplegia

    • Abstract: Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) is caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Patients with INO are usually asymptomatic but may have diplopia and oscillopsia. The most common causes of INO are ischemia and demyelination. Occurrence of INO due to infectious etiologies like tuberculosis, AIDS, brucellosis, cysticercosis and syphilis is well known. However, clinical presentation of...
      PubDate: 19 Apr 2016
  • Thrombolysis lead to better long-term outcome in Chinese stroke patients

    • Abstract: Aim: The rate of thrombolysis in Chinese acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was low and little was known about the long-term outcome. We aimed to compare the prognosis between thrombolysis and ordinary anti-platelet strategies in AIS. Methods: Patients, who were consecutively registered in our hospital from January 2005 to June 2012, were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria: (1) primary diagnoses...
      PubDate: 19 Apr 2016
  • Diagnostic algorithms in autoimmune encephalitis

    • Abstract: Over the past decade the discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with neuronal surface antibodies had changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously mischaracterized. Recognition of clinical syndromes, consistent methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favorable outcome in diseases that may be associated with significant di...
      PubDate: 19 Apr 2016
  • Immune-to-brain signaling and substrates of altered behavior during

    • Abstract: During the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection, and when in a safe environment, endothermic mammals typically display reduced activity and food intake, increased sleep, and the adoption of a curled-up position. These changes in behavior, in concert with fever, are adaptive in that they contribute to host survival. The present review addresses the immune-to-brain signaling pathways as...
      PubDate: 18 Apr 2016
  • Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders

    • Abstract: Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders...
      PubDate: 17 Sep 2016
  • D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR

    • Abstract: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its specific mechanism. The authors used D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA-agonist in a refractory case with prolonged inte...
      PubDate: 15 Jun 2016
  • Infective endocarditis with brain lesions misdiagnosed as viral

    • Abstract: Infective endocarditis (IE) is caused by infection of the endocardial surface of heart. It typically affects one or more heart valves, the mural endocardium, or a septal defect. In recent years, many IE patients suffered from atypical initial symptoms. Here, in this case report, a 12-year-old patient was initially diagnosed as encephalitis. However, it was later noticed that this was a misdiagnosi...
      PubDate: 15 Feb 2016
  • Morphological and behavioural variation in CNS innate defence cell
           microglia is development and age sensitive

    • Abstract: Aim: Microglia, the innate defence cells in central nervous system (CNS), alters their shapes and function with age. We observed and identified these morphological changes and functional association throughout the developmental gradient until adulthood in rat brain. Methods: Early and late embryonic stages, neonates and adult brains of albino rats were sectioned for routine Haematoxylin Eosin (HE)...
      PubDate: 15 Feb 2016
  • Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson's disease,
           Alzheimer's disease and stroke

    • Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system important for the initiation of proper immune responses towards microorganisms. Neuronal TLRs are considered to be part of the interactions between the immune system and the nervous system, the major sensing systems in mammals. The review entitled “Neuronal toll-like receptors and neuro-immunity in Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’...
      PubDate: 15 Feb 2016
  • Neuro-oncogenesis and the adult human sub-ventricular zone in high grade

    • Abstract: The review focuses on the role of the sub-ventricular zone, the most well characterized germinal region of adult brain, in the commonest and most aggressive brain tumor in adults, i.e. high grade glioma (HGG). Recent findings from animal models and samples isolated from HGG patients are reviewed here with a focus on the cancer stem cell hypothesis and evolutionary trajectories o...
      PubDate: 15 Feb 2016
  • Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases

    • Abstract: Endocannabinoid metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases...
      PubDate: 14 Nov 2016
  • Disc herniation or ependymoma recurrence'

    • Abstract: We present a 41-year-old female with previous history of ependymoma who underwent gross-total resection of the tumor and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, followed by radiotherapy. Three years later a small enhancing area was noted in the left anterolateral spinal cord at the level of the C1-C2 vertebrae and a left posterior-lateral herniated disk in the C5-C6 level which was not present in t...
      PubDate: 14 Mar 2016
  • Bilateral facial weakness following dengue fever

    • Abstract: Dengue is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection are widespread and may involve almost all parts of nervous system through various pathogenic mechanisms. It may be related to neurotropism, systemic complications or post-infectious. We report a case of a 30-year-old male who developed bilateral facial weakness after dengue ...
      PubDate: 14 Mar 2016
  • Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple
           sclerosis living in the Fars province of Iran

    • Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in the Fars province of Iran. Methods: A total of 100 patients with clinically definite MS who were referred to a clinic affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were eligible to participate in this study. The HRQoL was evaluated using a Persian vers...
      PubDate: 14 Mar 2016
  • Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioma treatment

    • Abstract: Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor. Despite intensive clinical investigation and several novel therapeutic approaches, the median survival continues to remain poor and it is usually in the range of fifteen months. Immunotherapy is a beacon of hope for cancer treatment and offers a different approach against glioma. Various approaches have been used, such as dendritic...
      PubDate: 14 Mar 2016
  • A review with comments on herpes simplex encephalitis in adults

    • Abstract: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can cause permanent injury to the brain parenchyma. As such, it is usually treated as a medical emergency for which correct immediate diagnosis and introduction of specific therapies are critical for survival and prognosis. Here, the authors review the current status of diagnosis and treatments and discuss unsolved issues surrounding therapeutic interventions. The...
      PubDate: 11 Jul 2016
  • On the need to unify neuroscience and physics

    • Abstract: On the need to unify neuroscience and physics...
      PubDate: 11 Dec 2016
  • Autoimmune encephalopathies in children: diagnostic clues and therapeutic

    • Abstract: Neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) encompass a variety of disorders associated with “neuronal surface antibodies”. These share clinical and neuroradiological features that pose challenges related to their recognition and treatment. Recent epidemiological studies show a clear predominance for the glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in both adults and pediatric populatio...
      PubDate: 06 Mar 2016
  • A case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with ADEM-like clinical/MR

    • Abstract: In recent years, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis overlapping with demyelinating disorders has attracted more and more attention. The case is about a 52-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like clinical/magnetic resonance (MR) findings. Here, the authors report this case and briefly review her MR evolution and th...
      PubDate: 05 Jun 2016
  • Auto-reactive B cells in MuSK myasthenia gravis

    • Abstract: Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is a protoypical autoimmune disease caused by a dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic part. Patients experience fluctuating muscle weakness that increases with exertion. It is typically classified into clinical subtypes depending on distribution of involved muscles, onset age, thymic pathology, and auto-antibodies. While the most common auto-...
      PubDate: 04 Jul 2016
  • Meningeal inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation in MS is characterized by infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the CNS, especially in the meninges. The infiltration into meninges, which has been referred to as tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), is a likely first step preceding infiltration into the CNS parenchyma. The...
      PubDate: 03 May 2016
  • Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without
           acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    • Abstract: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of...
      PubDate: 01 Mar 2016
  • Differentiation of radiation necrosis from glioblastoma recurrence after

    • Abstract: The standard treatment of glioblastoma, the most common type of primary-brain-tumor, involves radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. A patient with glioblastoma, post radiotherapy developed magnatic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with either radiation-induced tumor necrosis or tumor recurrence. Perfusion MRI was suggestive of radiation necrosis, but magnetic resonance...
      PubDate: 01 Mar 2016
  • Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease

    • Abstract: Recently, Koran et al.[1] published an article, named “Sex differences in the association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive decline” in Brain Imaging and Behavior. The result proved that there were sex-specific associations between biomarkers of AD. This article added evidence to the theory of sex differences in AD....
      PubDate: 01 Jun 2016
  • Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by
           interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN) beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures in a patient recently diagnosed with MS....
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Multiple autoimmune antibody limbic encephalitis: a case in a pregnant

    • Abstract: Autoimmune limbic encephalitis is most commonly associated with antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), among other neuronal cell surface receptors. Here, a case of a pregnant female with limbic encephalitis in the presence of multiple additional autoimmune antibodies is described. The patient was a 36-year-old female who presented with 4 days of confusion, hallucinations, hy...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Influence of chlorpyrifos oxon on the development and progression of
           Alzheimer's disease in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    • Abstract: Aim: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurological disorder and the most common form of dementia. Until date, the cause of AD eludes us, but a number of hypotheses have been put forward to try and understand the mechanisms involved. A series of studies have indicated that environmental factors, such as pesticides, heavy metals, and others can contribute to the development and progression ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Cardiac autonomic function in patients with myasthenia gravis: analysis of
           the heart-rate variability in the time-domain

    • Abstract: Aim: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Cardiac autonomic dysfunctions were rarely reported in patients with MG. Functional cardiac abnormalities were variable and reported in patients at severe stages of the disease and with thymoma. We investigated cardiac functions in patients with MG using Ambulatory 24-h electrocard...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated
           plasma level of homocysteine

    • Abstract: Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy) is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked potential studies including somatosensory (SSEP), visual (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BA...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • The influence of postoperative infection in survival of patients with
           high-grade gliomas

    • Abstract: High-grade gliomas are the most common type of brain tumors. Of these, glioblastoma account for 60-70% and despite treatment carries a dismal prognosis. Postoperative surgical site infection has been associated with prolonged survival. Herewith, we present a case of glioblastoma and a case of anaplastic oligoastrocytoma that developed postoperative infection of the surgical site and had prolonged ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • A potential role of karyopherin a2 in the impaired maturation of dendritic
           cells observed in glioblastoma patients

    • Abstract: Aim: Patients with glioblastomas demonstrate well-documented immunological impairments including decreased numbers of mature dendritic cells (DCs). Recent data identified karyopherin a2 (KPNA2), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptor, as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gliomas. The aim of this ongoing study is to correlate parameters of immunity and nucleocytoplasmic transport in glioblast...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Serum IgE levels in patients with intracranial tumors

    • Abstract: Aim: Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between allergy and brain cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum IgE levels between patients with gliomas and nonglial tumors and their possible prognostic role. Methods: A total of 84 patients with intracranial tumors were included in this study. At clinical presentation, estimation of serum IgE levels was ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Targeting glioblastoma with oncolytic adenovirus delta 24

    • Abstract: Targeting glioblastoma with oncolytic adenovirus delta 24...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Integrins and focal adhesion kinase in the malignant behavior of gliomas

    • Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of glioma and is associated with a very poor prognosis. The standard treatment includes radiotherapy concurrent with temozolomide, however recently the Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab for use in patients with progressive glioblastoma following prior therapy. The limited number of treatment options points to the need for novel ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Systemic non-albicans infections presented as meningitis in chronic
           hepatitis B patient: a case report

    • Abstract: Non-albicans candida meningitis is a relatively rare disease, with nonspecific clinical manifestation, which makes the misdiagnosis occur sometimes, especially in the early stage of the disease. Abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids, central vein cannulas, senility, big operation, malignancy, and total parenteral alimentation were all the susceptible factors of non-albicans candida ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Increased circulating rather than spinal cytokines accompany chronic pain
           behaviors in experimental bone cancer and arthritis

    • Abstract: Aim: Peripheral cytokines contribute to arthritis and bone cancer pain through sensory nerve actions. However, increased spinal cytokine and glial filament expression, coined neuroinflammation, has also been proposed to play a part in chronic pain. Therefore, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and circulating cytokines were compared in murine arthritis and bone cancer models in relationship to behav...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Distinctive distribution of lymphocytes in unruptured and previously
           untreated brain arteriovenous malformation

    • Abstract: Aim: To test the hypothesis that lymphocyte infiltration in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is not associated with iron deposition (indicator of micro-hemorrhage). Methods: Sections of unruptured, previously untreated bAVM specimens (n = 19) were stained immunohistochemically for T-lymphocytes (CD3+), B-lymphocytes (CD20+), plasma cells (CD138+) and macrophages (CD68+). Iron deposition was...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    • Abstract: Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG), neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG....
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 is upregulated in the
           endothelium and tumor cells in melanoma brain metastasis

    • Abstract: Aim: The cytokine receptor tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) is mainly considered to be a co-stimulatory activation marker in hematopoietic cells. Several preclinical models have shown a dramatic beneficial effect of treatment approaches targeting TNFRSF9 with agonistic antibodies. However, preliminary clinical phase I/II studies were stopped after the occurrence of sev...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has prognostic value in patients with a variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of NLR in patients with glioblastoma. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patients receiving surgery for glioblastoma. Preoperative NLR was recorded and correlated with other prognostic factors and survival. Results: F...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Clinicogenetics of Parkinson's disease: a drawing but not completed

    • Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the population over the age of 60 years. The past decade has seen rapidly emerging data supporting a major importance of genetic factors in the development of PD. Increasing number of large-scale and replicating association studies has facilitated the confirmation of the possible predisposing factors to PD and the ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Current overview of myasthenia gravis and experience in China

    • Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired autoimmune disease affecting synaptic transmission via the neuromuscular junction mainly due to the presence of auto-antibodies targeting acetylcholine receptors. Ocular or generalized MG is clinically diagnosed when the extra-ocular muscles or other muscle groups beyond the extra-ocular muscles are involved. MG occurs in both sexes at any ages from all races ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Positron emission tomography imaging in gliomas

    • Abstract: Glioma, the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, is a highly infiltrative tumor exhibiting resistance to most treatments and associated with short survival of patients. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using various tracers takes advantage of the increased metabolic rate of neoplastic cells, in order to detect tumors and validate the treatment response. The most frequently used P...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Role of the neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal
           motor neuropathy

    • Abstract: Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is the one of the most common acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis is based on the distribution pattern of the neurological semiology and the pathological changes of nerve conduction studies (NCS) in classical cases. However, in cases with subtle clinical presentation, an extended diagnostic workup may be ...
      PubDate: 18 Mar 2015
  • Malignant middle-cerebral artery territory infarction in tuberculous

    • Abstract: Intracranial large vessel involvement is an unusual complication of tuberculous meningitis. The authors report a 39-year-old female presenting with an episode of seizure, followed by rapid decline in sensorium without prominent systemic features. An initial cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed tuberculomata and patchy infarcts. Despite antituberculous therapy, she progressively worsened. A ...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Primary diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault

    • Abstract: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cranial vault with extra and intracranial extension in a nonimmunocompromised patient is extremely uncommon. Until date, only limited number of such cases has been reported in the literature and none was the lesion located as a diffuse swelling in the forehead. Imaging of the present case showed in a homogenous contrast enhancement mass involving the scalp of bi...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with characteristic magnetic resonance
           imaging findings

    • Abstract: Toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy is a frequently seen medical condition worldwide; however the lack of specific clinical manifestations and laboratory tests makes it difficult to diagnose. Neuroimaging and medical history are often crucial to diagnosis of this disorder. In this report, a case is presented of a patient suffering from toluene-induced leukoencephalopathy with deteriorating cogniti...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • A novel method for evaluating microglial activation using ionized
           calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 staining: cell body to cell size ratio

    • Abstract: Aim: The aim was to validate a newly developed methodology of semi-automatic image analysis to analyze microglial morphology as marker for microglial activation in ionized calcium-binding adaptor protein-1 (IBA-1) stained brain sections. Methods: The novel method was compared to currently used analysis methods, visual characterization of activation stage and optical density measurement, in brain s...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome due to seronegative systemic
           lupus erythematosus

    • Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state coupled with a unique computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance. Recognized in the setting of a number of complex conditions (preeclampsia/eclampsia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, organ transplantation, autoimmune disease and high-dose chemotherapy) in the imaging, clinical and laboratory f...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Chronic inflammation drives glioma growth: cellular and molecular factors
           responsible for an immunosuppressive microenvironment

    • Abstract: This review examines glioma disease initiation, promotion, and progression with a focus on the cell types present within the tumor mass and the molecules responsible for the immunosuppressive microenvironment that are present at each step of the disease. The cell types and molecules present also correlate with the grade of malignancy. An overall "type 2" chronic inflammatory microenvironment devel...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Effect of conduction block in classification and prognosis of
           Guillain-Barre syndrome

    • Abstract: Aim: The aim was to investigate the electro-physiological characteristics in disease progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and observe the effect of conduction block (CB) in classification and severity of the disease. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with GBS were divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating poly-neuropathy (AIDP) group, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) gr...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Pyroptosis and neurological diseases

    • Abstract: Pyroptosis is a new process of programmed cell death, which has been discovered and confirmed in recent years. Its cardinal features include activation of caspase-1 and a massive release of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18), etc. The morphological characteristics, occurrence and regulatory mechanisms of the pyroptosis greatly, differ from other cell death mechanisms such as apop...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Targeting glioma stem cells via the Hedgehog signaling pathway

    • Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Gliomas are among the most devastating tumor types, and current clinical therapies are unsatisfactory. Recent reports revealed the importance of glioma-propagating cells in the malignancy of gliomas. These cells, also referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs), share similarities with neural stem cells (NSCs). The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Human leukocyte antigens-immunogenetics of neuromyelitis optica or Devic's
           disease and the impact on the immunopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment:
           a critical review

    • Abstract: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis, transverse myelitis and the high level of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Researches trying to correlate NMO with specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles took place in a limited extend in the last few years. Nevertheless, it has becom...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain
           development differently influences depression-related behaviors in
           adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    • Abstract: Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study a...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • POEMS syndrome associated with Castleman disease: a case report and
           literature review

    • Abstract: Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a multisystemic disorder that clinically manifests as paraneoplastic and monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Its acronym is derived from its principal characteristics: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M proteins, and skin changes. Here, the authors reported a case of POEMS syndrome that was al...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Imaging and cytological analysis of 92 patients with Japanese encephalitis

    • Abstract: Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus and demonstrates high mortality and serious sequelae. Imaging and cytological examinations are important for the diagnosis of JE. We performed this study to analyze the imaging and cytological characteristics of JE. Methods: This study enrolled 92 JE patients with 108 cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples. Diagnosis was based o...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in China

    • Abstract: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are mainly distributed in the central nervous system, and play important roles in the mechanisms of learning and memory. A newly discovered disease caused by autoantibody to NMDAR has been described, and is called anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Patients with this disease often suffer from mental disorders, seizures and other encephalitis-like symptoms. Accumulated...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with
           multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    • Abstract: Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND) were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid antigen (EBV-CA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG affinity for anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBV-CA immunoglobulin M (Ig...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential
           cerebral blood flow dynamics

    • Abstract: Differences in stroke damage in aged mice may not be due to differential cerebral blood flow dynamics...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations

    • Abstract: The expanding phenotype of stroke-induced immune alterations...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in

    • Abstract: Pitfalls in clinical diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis in China...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer'

    • Abstract: The M1/M2 immune polarization concept in microglia: a fair transfer'...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections

    • Abstract: Diagnosis and therapy of rare central nervous system infections...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access
           journal for neuroscience

    • Abstract: Welcome to Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation: a new open access journal for neuroscience...
      PubDate: 17 Mar 2015
  • The endonuclease VIII-like proteins: new targets in the treatment of
           ischemic stroke'

    • Abstract: Oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage is one of the major causes of neuronal injury in ischemia. The endonuclease VIII-like (NEIL) DNA glycosylases have a specific role in recognition and removal of oxidative DNA damage. The NEIL family includes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3, that differ in substrate specificity, catalytic efficiency, and subcellular/tissue distribution. This opens for a situatio...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Isolated neurosarcoidosis presenting with recurrent hydrocephalus

    • Abstract: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory process that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. This protean disease may afflict nearly any organ system, including the central nervous system. Here, we present a case of isolated neurosarcoidosis that initially presented with hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. The patient’s hydrocephalus recurred multiple times...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Angioplasty and stenting for a young stroke patient diagnosed as
           cerebrovascular fibromuscular dysplasia

    • Abstract: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic, and multifocal vascular disease, commonly involving the cerebral and renal arteries. Cerebrovascular stenosis and spontaneous dissection resulting from cerebrovascular FMD (cFMD) is one of the important causes of young stroke. Here, we reported the case of cFMD in a 28-year-old male patient with stroke. Digital subtraction ang...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    • Abstract: Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Neuroinflammatory modulators of oligodendrogenesis

    • Abstract: Oligodendrocytes are key neural cells that are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that wrap around neuronal axons in the central nervous system. Myelin is essential to insulate neurons and maintain a fast and saltatory propagation of action potentials along the axon. However, oligodendrocytes are very susceptible to damage, and thus demyelination may arise from a brain lesion or a neurodegen...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Progress in mechanisms of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine
           for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

    • Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Currently, only two classes of drugs, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine are approved. AChEIs ameliorate cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in AD patients through activation of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors by increased synaptic ACh levels and also have protective effects against glutamate neurotox...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Psychotic and nonpsychotic mood disorders in autoimmune encephalitis:
           diagnostic issues and research implications

    • Abstract: Recent research on autoimmune disorders suggests additional links between systemic and central nervous system (CNS) pathophysiology, among which the identification of antibody-induced limbic encephalitis provided the strongest evidence for the potential involvement of autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of severe mood and psychotic symptoms. In these illnesses, psychiatric symptoms predominate in the...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood

    • Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the de...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • The role of neuroinflammation in juvenile bipolar disorder

    • Abstract: A pathophysiological relationship has been reported between inflammatory processes, decreased levels of neurotrophins, increased oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders in both juvenile and adult ages. Moreover, this relationship remains unclear in juvenile bipolar disorder (BD). We performed a systematic literature review of studies reporting measurements of inflammatory markers, oxidative str...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Bipolar disorder preceding the onset of multiple sclerosis

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory demyelinating brain disease. The occurrence of psychiatric disorders, especially for major depression, in the course of MS is high. Reports concerning bipolar disorder (BD) remain rather scarce although early descriptions were found in the old neurological literature. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the epidemio...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Microstructural brain abnormalities, affective temperaments, and suicidal
           behavior in patients with major depression

    • Abstract: According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, brain white matter (WM) abnormalities have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and related suicidal behavior. However, MRI findings may be limited by low spatial resolution; therefore, an important contribution to the understanding of the role and significance of WM alterations derived ...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Neuroinflammation and excitatory symptoms in bipolar disorder

    • Abstract: Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a strong biological factor underlying the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. A role for dysregulation of the immune system was initially suggested in depressive disorders and subsequently extended to other illnesses, including bipolar disorder (BD). Indeed, there is growing evidence confirming the presence of a generalized pro‑inflammatory state in B...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood

    • Abstract: Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory mechanisms associated with mood disorders...
      PubDate: 16 Dec 2015
  • Decompressive craniectomy in herpes simplex encephalitis

    • Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is a common cause of morbidity in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis. Hereby we report a case of HSE in which decompressive craniectomy was performed to treat refractory intracranial hypertension. A 32-year-old male presented with headache, vomiting, fever, and focal seizures involving the right upper limb. Cerebrosp...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with
           small cell lung cancer

    • Abstract: Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B) is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to imm...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Isolated palatal palsy: a clinical rarity

    • Abstract: Acquired isolated palatal palsy is a rare disease. It is commonly seen in children. It usually presents with acute onset nasal regurgitation of fluids, rhinolalia, and palatal asymmetry. Many causes of this disease, such as infections, trauma, tumor, and brainstem lesions, etc., have been reported. However, the most plausible explanation is immunological/ischemic damage to the affected nerve. Afte...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • A case report on subarachnoid and intraventricular neurocysticercosis

    • Abstract: Neurocysticercosis is the most common central nervous system helminthic infection in humans. We hereby present a case combining two rare manifestations of neurocysticercosis: the subarachnoid and intraventricular forms. The patient presented with hydrocephalus and neurologic deficits and although endoscopic removal of the cysts and two cycles of postoperative cysticidal drugs resulted in resolutio...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    • Abstract: The report explores a unique and treatable “butterfly”-glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a “butterfly” lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosi...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Complete recovery from paraplegia following total spondylectomy for a
           primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the lumbar spine

    • Abstract: Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the spine is very rare and occurs mostly in adults with strong male predominance. Here, we present the case of a 24-year-old girl harboring a primary diffuse B-cell lymphoma of L2 vertebral body, who was admitted in an emergency with cauda equina syndrome and completely recovered after total spondylectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Such findings have never been prev...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate treatment of neoplastic
           meningitis from solid tumors

    • Abstract: Aim: Neoplastic meningitis (NM) from solid tumors is an advanced malignancy with poor prognosis. Intrathecal chemotherapy is a reliable treatment, and we have obtained some experiences in the treatment of NM with intrathecal dexamethasone and methotrexate (IT DXM and MTX). Methods: Retrospective study of 23 patients with NM from lung cancer (n = 11), breast cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 1...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    • Abstract: Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/ magnetic resonance imaging (CT/M...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Neuroinflammation and neurological alterations in chronic liver diseases

    • Abstract: Several million people with chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis) show neurological alterations, named hepatic encephalopathy (HE) with cognitive and motor alterations that impair quality of life and reduces life span. Inflammation acts synergistically with hyperammonemia to induce cognitive and motor alterations in patients with chronic liver disease and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MH...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new
           clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia'

    • Abstract: Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS‑induced change i...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    • Abstract: Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical manage...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression
           and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells

    • Abstract: The role of glutamate excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in depression and suicidal behavior: focus on microglia cells...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Microglia and astroglia: the role of neuroinflammation in lead toxicity
           and neuronal injury in the brain

    • Abstract: Lead (Pb2+), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, may widely affect the function of many organs or systems of human beings, especially the brain. Although lead is believed to transport into the brain through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause direct neuronal injury, growing data have shown that lead exposure could induce brain dysfunction by triggering microglial and astroglial activation, pr...
      PubDate: 15 Dec 2015
  • Primary supratentorial intracerebral malignant paraganglioma

    • Abstract: Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors that derive from neural crest. In general, they are benign tumors but few cases had shown a tendency to metastasize. Malignant forms have been reported previously with intracranial metastasis from duodenal origin, but primary intracranial origin represents a rare and unusual location for such tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 48-year-ol...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Concurrent occurrence of both intracranial and intramedullary tuberculomas

    • Abstract: Tuberculosis involving spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is uncommon, and the concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare. We report a case of disseminated tuberculoma involving brain and spinal cord with miliary tuberculosis in a 32-year-old male presenting with fever, cerebellar signs and motor weakness of both upper and lower extremitie...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • The role of leukocytes in the formation and rupture of intracranial

    • Abstract: Ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect a small proportion of the population; however, the morbidity and mortality is disproportionally high. Although little is known about IA formation, progression, and rupture, mounting evidence suggests that inflammation may play an important role in IA pathogenesis. There is emerging evidence to suggest that leukocytes play a key role in generating and ma...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Astrocytes: everything but the glue

    • Abstract: Astrocytes: everything but the glue...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    • Abstract: The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage, a potentially devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. An emerging body of literatur...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Role of the complement cascade in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth, and

    • Abstract: Rupture of intracranial aneurysms is the most common cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the intricate neuroinflammatory processes which contribute to aneurysm pathophysiology are not well-understood. Mounting evidence has implicated the complement cascade in the progression of aneurysms from their formation to rupture. In this article, we identify and review studies that have sough...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Inflammation in human cerebral aneurysms: pathogenesis, diagnostic
           imaging, genetics, and therapeutics

    • Abstract: Intracranial aneurysms are a life-threatening cerebrovascular pathology with a probability of spontaneous rupture. Current intervention techniques carry inherent risk. Recent investigation has reinforced inflammation’s role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral aneurysms. These data suggest alternative diagnostic and noninvasive therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, novel characteristics ...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Inflammation mediates the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm and becomes
           therapeutic target

    • Abstract: The treatment of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) is of social importance, because poor outcomes result in subarachnoid hemorrhages after rupture. However, there is currently no medical treatment available to prevent the progression and rupture of CAs, which results in a large number of patients without receiving treatment. Recent studies using human samples have revealed the presence of inflammatory resp...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth,
           and rupture

    • Abstract: Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient ev...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Hemodynamics, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and the development and
           rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a review

    • Abstract: The central nervous system is an immunologically active environment where several components of the immune and inflammatory response interact among them and with the constituents of nervous tissue and vasculature in a critically orchestrated manner, influencing physiologic and pathologic processes. In particular, inflammation takes a central role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs)...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Cerebral aneurysms and inflammation

    • Abstract: Multiple inflammatory factors, playing a crucial role in cerebral aneurysm formation, have been identified. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been revealed to have a close connection with several risk factors that affect aneurysm formation. Remarkable expression in aneurysm walls of mRNA for TNF-α has been observed in humans. Possible therapeutic interventions to reduce the formation of ce...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    • Abstract: Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneury...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
  • Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the
           pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms

    • Abstract: Inflammation of the cerebral arteries: lifting the veil on the pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms...
      PubDate: 14 May 2015
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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