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Mütefekkir     Open Access  
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Mütefekkir
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2148-5631 - ISSN (Online) 2148-8134
Published by Aksaray Üniversitesi Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Evaluation of the Provincial Power Struggle in the Hamidian Period Through
           a Reputation Assassination Intended for Kufravi Lodge

    • Authors: Fatih ÖZTOP; Yakup KARATAŞ
      Abstract: In the Ottoman Empire, which tried to centralize and increase its control upon the provinces throughout the 19th century, the elimination of powerful notables and emirs, especially by Sultan II Mahmud, had led to new power centers emerging in the east and southeast of Anatolia. While the tribal leaders who replaced the Kurdish Emirs had a semi-autonomous administration by dominating smaller lands compared to the emirs, some sheiks began to gain influence over time, as in the example of the Naqshbandiyya sect. The influence gained by different power centers in the same region has turned into a rivalry. In this study, it is explained how Sheiks Abdulhadi and Abdulbaki brothers from the Küfrevi dynasty, whose center is Bitlis and who wanted to influence the Bayezid sanjak, were accused by the tribal leaders in the region and how they were treated by the Palace. In this study, guided by the correspondence between the capital and the provinces, it is seen that the two sheiks brothers faced accusations such as “claiming divinity, causing mischief among the Kurds, starting an uprising by bringing weapons from Russia”, which attracted the palace’s direct attention in the political conjuncture of the period. The allegations in question show how the power struggle can turn into a reputation assassination. It is important to define the reflex of the Hamidiye regime in the face of such heavy allegations.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • The Taʿdil Language Terms Used by al-Bukhārī In The Context of The
           Justice of The Narrator

    • Authors: Mustafa KARABACAK
      Abstract: The strength of the Ḥadīth comes from its analysis of the narration chain and text. As can be seen in the definition of the Sahih Hadith, the muḥaddith investigated whether the chain of narration was not broken and that the narration was not suspicious in any way right after they made sure the narrator was just and his memory was immaculate. In other words, the muḥaddith gives priority to the situation of the narrators in determining the credibility of the hadith. The status of the narrators in the narration chain of the hadith was identified by the words of Jarh and Taʿdīl developed by the Muhaddith. In the development process of jarh and taʿdīl words, al-Bukhārī’s importance is also undeniable. Bukharî is a hadith scholar who lived in the third century, which is described as the golden age of the period of the classification and the hadith. He became famous with his knowledge of rical and history during his period and later with his book al-Jāmiu’s-Sahīh. In his hadith and rical books, he used many jarh-taʿdīl terms. Considering that the first independent hadith book was written about a century later, the hadith terms used by al-Bukhārī are of great importance. Since all the terms used by al-Bukhārī will exceed the size of this article, only the ta’dil words used in his works were considered in this study.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • ʿIzz al-Dīn Ibn Abd al-Salām and the Authority-Ulamā
           Relationships

    • Authors: Aygül DÜZENLİ
      Abstract: ʿIzz al-Dîn Ibn Abd al-Salâm, who lived in the Ayyûbid period and witnessed the foundation of the Mamluk State, was one of the great scholars who had many important duties such as the Umayyad Mosque orator and kâdî of Damascus as well as being the mudarris at the big madrasahs. Because of these duties, he always had a close relationship with the public and received great attention and respect from the Sultans and the members of the government. This position and his personal character brought him to have some positive and negative relations with the members of the government. This work emphasizes chronologically the relations of ʿIzz al-Dîn Ibn Abd al-Salâm with the sultan and other statesmen regarding the political, social and religious events that occurred during the period of the Ayyûbid and the Mamluks who took the power after them. Thus, I aimed to reveal the role of ʿIzz al-Dîn Ibn Abd al-Salâm, who stood up among others with both his personal reputation and Shafi’i identity in the transition of the ulama’s influence over the authority during the Ayyûbids to the Mamluks. As a result of the study, it was determined that he was an example with both his scientific authority and his uncompromising attitude. He also served as a bridge between the two states in terms of scholarly heritage and the understanding of the ulama. It is also understood that during these two periods of government, which benefited from the influence of the ulama due to their differences with the society they ruled, he mainly directed the authority and did not allow the authority to do the same thing through him.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • An Analysis of The Poems on The Meccan-Medinan Sūrahs

    • Authors: Muhammed Şerif KAHRAMAN
      Abstract: In the education process of Islamic sciences, the style of poetry and its methodology have appeared since the first periods. This method has been preferred in the field of Ulûmu’l-Qur’an because it facilitates learning and memorization. Many poem-style works have been written for the practical teaching of the issues such as the number, classification, and order of sūrahs with regards to their place of revelation (Meccan-Medinan). Some of this written text takes place as separate odes, the other part of them take place as a chapter in comprehensive poetic works. While some of these works are based on previous studies in the determination of the Meccan-Medinan sūrahs, some of them were converted into poetry from prose works. It’s been reported that even a narration about a list of surahs according to their chronological order of revelation in poetic style could be found. These poems which are written down about Meccan-Medinan sūrahs, are mostly aimed at the same things but there are some issues that they differ from each other. In this study we shall work on the issues mentioned above and provide some texts that belong to this genre as examples. The importance of these poems, which are considered as didactic poetry, the purpose of writing, their analysis in terms of method and content will be discussed within the study.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Prophet Muhammad’s character in Omar Abu Risha’s poetry

    • Authors: Mohamad TURKEY
      Abstract: Modern-era poets rely on the heritage of all its forms as a fertile source that contains enormous potentials of inspiration and a multitude of means of influence, stemming from ardent human thought, eternal artistic values through the ages, and from vivid and renewed human principles. The elements of this heritage have a great capacity to generate a lot of endless feelings. They have great influence in the purposeful influence on the hearts and emotions of the recipients, and we can say: It is one of the most influential means of poets; As this heritage, data live in the depths of people, and they hardly leave them because they are considered the basic roots of their intellectual, emotional and psychological formation. The poet Omar Abu Risha is one of those poets who resorted to the heritage and evoked religious personalities, so his literary work gained cultural richness. His poems were distinguished by the ingenuity of composition and the power of writing. According to this, this study will reveal the aesthetics of this evocation and how the poet uses it in his poems. In this study, the character is defined in the terms of language and idiom because of their close relationship with the subject of the research, and the importance of employing the heritage in poetry is illustrated. The factors of evoking heritage personalities are also highlighted. The study concentrates on the most important religious characters in Omar Abi Risha’s poetry. There is an expanded discussion on his poems in which he invoked the character of the Prophet Muhammad and the ways of employing the literary image.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Zamakhshari’s Criticisms the Case of al-Kashshāf

    • Authors: Veysel GENGİL
      Abstract: Criticism is defined as an action taken by a critic with the aim of revealing the truth/realness by detecting the mistake in an event, person or work. Criticism has an important place in Islamic thought, too. Many scholars have criticized people with different thoughts and their ways of understanding for various reasons, and they have revealed the points that they think are wrong. However, sometimes the dose of criticism has increased and the focus has been on names rather than ideas, and criticism has turned into a tool to bind opposing thoughts. One of the prominent personalities in terms of criticism in tafsir is Al-Zamakhshari. He was criticized by many scholars, especially those with a Sunni understanding, because of his comments on the views of the Muʿtazilah sect of which he was a member. However, when his exegesis named Al-Kashshaaf is examined, it is seen that he also criticizes various people and understandings, especially the Sunni tradition. Known for the criticisms directed at him, Zamakhshari’s criticisms against other people and ideas have not been examined in an independent research until today. Therefore, this study deals with the criticisms of Zamakhshari against different people and perspectives. To do this, his work named Al-Kashshaaf has been examined with a holistic approach and it has been seen that the issues that he criticizes are mainly concentrated on three issues: exegesis, sect and society.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • İbn Acībe’s Qiraat in The Context of The Text Titled
           Ed-Dürerü’n-Nāsire Fī Tevcīhi’l-Kirāāti’l-Mütevātire

    • Authors: Kadir TAŞPINAR
      Abstract: Ibn Acībe’s (d. 1224/1809) work named ed-Dureru’n-nāsire fī tavcīhi’l-kırāāti’l-mütevātire is one of the most important examples of the studies on the substantiating of the recitations in the 18th century. It is Ibn Acībe’s only work he wrote in the field of recitation. As it’s understood from its name, it contains the analysis of ensured recitations. In the three introductions of his work, he deals with some of the issues about the recitation of the Qur’ān and the science of recitation in general, exhibiting his knowledge and mastery in the field. Especially in the third introductory part, the issue of seven letters as the origin of varied Qur’ānic readings is discussed. While analyzing the reliable recitations, the words selected from each surah are evaluated in terms of iʿrab, isnad, meaning, and preference. The work also draws attention in terms of referring to the sources of guidance written in the historical process and the scholars whose views are used as reference. The fact that no academic study has been conducted on Ibn Acībe’s recitation has intrigued us to study this issue. In the study, Ibn Acībe’s views on the history of the discipline of recitation and substantiating of varied Qur’ānic readings will be evaluated. The author’s recitation aspect will be revealed in the context of the aforementioned work.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Ali KUŞCALI
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Circumcision in Christianity

    • Authors: Mustafa KIRANATLIOĞLU
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Origins of Value Conflict: Babies Do Not Agree to Disagree

    • Authors: Karen WYNN
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Feto’s Cultural Actıvıtıes Wıthın The Frame of Antonıo
           Gramscı’s Hegemony Concept

    • Authors: Fatih BAŞ
      Abstract: This article, within the frame of Gramsci’s hegemony concept, focuses on activities of Feto, which was mostly in cultural field, for establishing complete domination on state and society in Turkey. Gramsci’s hegemony comes true over civil society and creates itself by cultural and ideological tools. Moreover, hegemony is a model that endures to persuade rather than oppressing and insisting. Acvities of Feto, which is defined as a terrorist group by the Turkish state, and several organizations are destitute to be analyzed through the hegemony concept. Thus, primarily Gramsci’s hegemony and civil society concepts are discussed. Then Feto’s organizational history is explained in general terms. Feto’s cultural activities are put forward under several titles with sociological perspective. A short literature review takes place in the study and the articles with similar topics to ours are examined briefly. Emphasizing the relationship of Gulenist movement with more political, economic and bureaucratic institutions causes the work in the field of civil society and culture to be overlooked. Analyzing the organization in the cultural context through the concept of hegemony brings a unique perspective to the study.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • al-Ghazali’s Methodology of Kalam in al-İktisād
           fi’l-iʿtikād

    • Authors: Hüseyin KAHRAMAN
      Abstract: al-Iktisād fi’l-iʿtikād is a rare work that Ghazali devoted exclusively to the discipline of kalam. The most important feature of the work in terms of the discipline is that it contains important information about the transition process from the period of mutaqaddimîn to the era of mutaahhirīn. Ghazali wrote al-Iktisād, considering the criticisms made before to early methodology of kalam. Al-Iktisād, which has the distinction of being the first work in which the weak methods of the mutakaddimīn period which are not based on proof, are abandoned. It is also of great importance in terms of representing the process that led to the adaptation of logic by Islāmic thought. This work represents the methodological change in proofing the way in which the descriptive attributes are found in the divine essence. With it, the method of proofing by establishing a similarity between our world of experience for descriptive attributes have been abandoned. Instead, it is seen that the proof is made by considering the act-actor relationship between God and the universe, which is consistent with the conception of God and again, is one of the most basic claims of the discipline of kalam. In addition, with the realization of the methodological power of philosophy by theologians, the flaws of the methods of the mutaqaddimīn became apparent, and especially the methods incompatible with logic were eliminated. The way to the acceptance of logic in the science of kalam has been cleared by reforming those who are compatible. This article briefly discusses the role of al-Iktisād in the transition to theological proof method instead of the dialectical methods of the previous period.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • A Meaning and Content Analysis for Understanding the Qur’ān:
           Teysīru’l-Qur’ān

    • Authors: İsa KANİK
      Abstract: The Qur’ān states in some of its verses that it is a clear and understandable book. It is a natural situation that people’s levels of understanding the Qur’ān are different from each other. It is reported that Prophet Muhammad, the first and foremost addressee of the Qur’ān, conveyed the whole Qur’ān and interpreted some of its verses. Political, social, scientific, and cultural changes especially after the period of Prophet Muhammad brought up the problem of understanding the Qur’ān correctly. From the second and third centuries, A.H. tafsir books have been written to understand the Qur’ān. The subject that is underlined over and over in the Qur’ān is that it is a clear and easily understandable book. It is made easy for people to understand. However, it is a fact that there are different understanding and interpretation efforts in terms of the approach and methods from the revelation of the Qur’ān to the present day. The tafsir literature has gradually expanded over time in direct proportion to the scientific knowledge, abilities, intelligence, and experience of people. First of all, the tafsir studies which started for only a part of the book reached the point where all of the verses of the Qur’ān were commented on by using approaches such as linguistic, sectarian, mystical, chronological, etc. Thus, a study on the concept of “تيسير القران/taysīru’l-Qur’ān” is required. For this reason, within the scope of our study, the meaning and nature of this concept, its context, epistemology, possibility, and its relationship with understanding are examined. From this point of view, how the subject, which is also related to the understanding of the Qur’ān, is interpreted by the commentators is analyzed.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
  • Bakkār Ibn Qutayba: A Hanafī Fakīh and A Just
           Qāḍī

    • Authors: Mehterhan FURKANİ
      Abstract: Bakkār Ibn Qutayba (d. 270/884) was a judge who was famous for his justice, asceticism and knowledge. This person, who was a Hanafi jurist and a muhaddith (traditionist), was engaged in the education of fiqh and hadith, authored many works and assumed the duty of judge for a long time. He did not make any distinction between the ruler and ordinary citizens and fulfilled his duty properly. His only principle was to rule with justice and fairness, he became one of the judges whom about the Prophet gave the good news of heaven. He took his share from the political turmoil, as in one period he was a judge and lectured the ruler about justice, and in another, he was sentenced to imprisonment by the same ruler, and spent the rest of his life in prison. The reason for all of this was that he did not give up what his principles, he stood upright against all kinds of cruelty and injustice, did not fear anyone and did not expect anything from anyone other than Allah. Bakkār’s attitude in his life is also important in terms of the attitude of fiqh scholars towards politicians. In this study, the life of Bakkār Ibn Qutayba, his fiqh personality, his status and his stance against politicians will be discussed and evaluated.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +030
       
 
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