Publisher: Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta   (Total: 33 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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JRAMathEdu : J. of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Community Services and Engagement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Media Mesin : Majalah Teknik Mesin     Open Access  
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J. of Islamic Economic Laws     Open Access  
Indonesian J. on Learning and Advanced Education     Open Access  
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Pharmacon : Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1411-4283 - ISSN (Online) 2685-5062
Published by Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Homepage  [33 journals]
  • Front Matters Vol.19, No 1, 2022

    • Authors: Erindyah Retno Wikantyasning
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Front Matters Vol.19, No 1, 2022

    • Authors: Erindyah Retno Wikantyasning
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18988
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • In Silico Molecular Docking and Toxicity Studies of Bioactive Fucoidan
           Compound from Brown Seaweed as Potential of Antihypertensive

    • Authors: Agus Kurniawan, Siswandono Siswandono, Esti Mumpuni, Syamsudin Abdillah
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is an enzyme that can convert angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 peptide, which is a strong vasoconstrictor that causes hypertension. Fucoidan (4,5-dihydroxy-2,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl hydrogen sulfate) is one of the polysaccharide chemical compounds found in seaweed and is reported to have the ability to inhibit ACE activuty in vitro. The aim of this study is to predict of the binding interaction between fucoidan and amino acids in ACE and to use the native captopril ligand (MCO702) as the standard ligand. Analysis of the molecular docking of fucoidan and captopril compounds against ACE (1UZF) using Molegro 6.0 and Chemoffice Professional 17.1 Software and for toxicity analysis using pkCMS online tools. The results of the docking prediction showed that fucoidan had MolDock and Rerank Score values of -82.311 kcal/mol and -70.872 kcal/mol, respectively, which were not much different from captopril, namely -84.816 kcal/mol and -74.758 kcal/mol. Fucoidan and captopril are also easily absorbed and have good permeability and are classified as low toxicity, but are dangerous if ingested in the 2000 <LD50≤ 5000 mg/kg range. Fucoidan has the potential as a candidate for antihypertensive drugs because it is predicted that in silico has the same ability as captopril.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.15933
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Analisis Prevalensi dan Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Swamedikasi
           Sebelum dan Selama Pandemi COVID-19: Studi pada Mahasiswa Kesehatan di
           Jawa Tengah

    • Authors: Indriyati Hadi Sulistyaningrum, Arifin Santoso, Fildza Huwaina Fathnin, Dian Mila Fatmawati
      Pages: 10 - 20
      Abstract: Self-medication is defined as an attempt to treat using medicines purchased at pharmacies or drug stores without a doctor's prescription. There is currently a public health emergency due to the emergence of COVID-19. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of self-medication before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among health students in Central Java and its associated factors. This cross-sectional  survey  involved 384 respondents with teknik snowball sampling using an online questionnaire  that had been tested for validity and reliability. The data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics, namely bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Bivariate analysis with Chi square and Wilcoxon to compare sociodemographic characteristics with self-medicating before and during the pandemic. Furthermore, multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression to see the factors that most influenced individual desires to self-medicate (p<0.05). Based on the analysis, the results showed that the prevalence of self-medicating among health students in Central Java has increased from before the pandemic (58.6%) to (78.6%) during the pandemic. Self-medication was mostly done by women (84.4%), aged 18-40 years (99.2%). Places to buy drugs at pharmacies (91%) and considerations in choosing drugs by looking at drug brands (52%). Another factor of respondents doing self-medication is due to previous experience using similar drugs (49%), the factor of information sources from the internet (46%). The results of the study concluded that there were differences between age, gender, level of education, understanding of self-medication, experiencing pain in the last 3 months, physical activity and suggestions from others affecting individual desires for self-medication before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, it is necessary to conduct education and monitoring related to self-medication carried out by students so that the treatment carried out is appropriate and rational.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.17699
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Studi Docking Molekular Aktivitas Panghambatan Enzim Tirosinase Ubi Jalar
           (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam)

    • Authors: Dwi Utami, Ryan Syahputra, Wahyu Widyaningsih
      Pages: 21 - 34
      Abstract: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) is a plant source of carbohydrates with chemical content of catechins, quercetin, asam klorogenat, anthocyanins, beta-carotene. These phytochemical compounds have been shown to have antioxidant activity that is closely related to tyrosinase through the oxidative stress pathway. The purpose of this study was to develop sweet potato plants as anti-tyrosinase candidates for cosmetic preparations by molecular docking of these 4 compounds to tyrosinase protein (pdb:2Y9X) with kojic acid control. The research was done in 4 stages : (1) Preparation of proteins (receptors) and ligands with Biovia Discovery Studio (2) Optimization of geometry with Avogadro and Chem 3D (3) Validation of docking and molecular docking methods for proteins (2Y9X) with Autodock-4 (5) and (4) ADMET study with pkCSM and SwissADME websites. The test results obtained the highest affinity for 3 active compounds, namely beta-carotene with (ΔG) -6.05 kcal/mol (IC) 36.72 M and quercetin has (ΔG) -5.87 kcal/mol (IC) 45.30 M . While the control kojic acid has a lower affinity of (ΔG) -5.27 kcal/mol (IC) 380.37 M. ADMET predictions provide information that the four active compounds Ipomoea batatas L. Lam meet the requirements to be developed as natural tyrosinase inhibitors based on lipophilicity (logP), topology polar surface area (TPSA), skin permeability, skin sensitivity, logKP, CYP1A2 inhibitor, lipinski rule. and bioavailability. The molecular docking study and ADMET prediction indicate that the active compound of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has the potential to be developed as a natural cosmetic ingredient.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18295
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Cytotoxic and Antiproliferation Activity of n-Hexane Fraction of Avocado
           seed (Persea americana Mill.) on MCF7 cell

    • Authors: Juwita Rahwawati, Maryati Maryati, Ratna Yuliani
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Avocado seeds, which often end up as food waste, have many health benefits, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to determine the potential cytotoxic activity of avocado seeds against breast cancer cells, MCF7. Avocado seeds were macerated with 96% ethanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate as solvents. Cytotoxic activity of the extract and fractions was tested using the MTT method, while antiproliferation activity and apoptosis of the n-hexane fraction were tested using the doubling time and double staining methods, respectively. The selectivity of the n-hexane fraction was also determined. The results showed that the extract and n-hexane fraction of avocado seeds had cytotoxic activity on MCF7 with IC50 values of 211.2±25 and 47.87±1.5 µg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction was selective (Selectivity Index = 4.73). The fraction can extend the doubling time to 76.54-77.41 hours. The double staining test results showed red fluorescence in the cells, indicating the apoptosis of MCF7 cells. The n-hexane fraction of avocado seed extract has the potential to be developed as an anticancer therapeutic agent. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18274
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Molnupiravir - the First Oral Antiviral for COVID-19: A Literature Review

    • Authors: Nur Afni, Suharjono Suharjono
      Pages: 45 - 61
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is still an unresolved global health concern, although half of the world's population has been vaccinated. The pharmaceutical industries are still struggling to develop effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Molnupiravir is a new oral antiviral with antiviral properties by targeting coronavirus RNA. This literature review aims to describe the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of molnupiravir based on published preclinical and clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment. Relevant studies were collected by electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria were preclinical and clinical trials related to molnupiravir as an antiviral for the COVID-19 treatment published in December 2019 to January 2022. Preclinical trials demonstrated therapeutic and prophylactic properties against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture and animal models. Molnupiravir is currently under the emergency use authorization from the FDA to treat COVID-19. Its potent and broad antiviral activity is demonstrated through a mechanism of error catastrophe that causes coronavirus RNA mutagenesis. The published clinical trials have shown that molnupiravir is well-absorbed, well-tolerated, and has relatively mild side effects such as headache, nausea, and diarrhea with a minimal incidence at a dose of 800 mg twice daily. Time to viral RNA clearance was significantly decreased in patients administered molnupiravir 800 mg compared to those who administered placebo (14 days vs 15 days, P value=0,013). Molnupiravir is a promising oral antiviral that can reduce the incidence of COVID-19 hospitalization or death. Further clinical trials regarding its efficacy for severe symptoms and other clinical aspects such as drug interactions and contraindications are still needed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.17330
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Studi Penggunaan Obat Anti Tuberkulosis (OAT) Tahap Lanjutan pada Pasien
           Baru BTA Positif

    • Authors: Tista Ayu Fortuna, Hidajah Rachmawati, Didik Hasmono, Hidayah Karuniawati
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis will cause pain and death if not treated properly. OAT (Antituberculosis Drugs) is a treatment for tuberculosis patients. OAT has different dosage regimens and types of drugs. Treatment of TB patients consists of two phases (intensive and continuation phases). The continuation phase was at to kill dormant bacteria to prevent recurrence in patients. The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the pattern of using OAT in patients newly diagnosed rwith smear-positive at the continuation phase. This study is an observational descriptive study with results showing that the pattern of using OAT-KDT in patients was 89% and OAT-Separated was 11%. The pattern of using the OAT-KDT dose was 1x3 2KDT tablets. Another combination of antibiotics given to the patient is cotrimoxazole at a dose of 1x960mg. The side effect of OAT is an increase in serum transaminase and nausea each with a percentage of 23%. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the pattern of using OAT in Tuberculosis patients has followed the guidelines for the management of Tuberculosis treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.17907
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Uji Cemaran Mikroba dan Kapang Khamir Ekstrak Air Daun Muntingia calabura
           L. (Kersen)

    • Authors: Aulia Nur Rahmawati, Dwi Saryanti, Fryda Nurita Sari, Irma Yovita Turnip
      Pages: 72 - 78
      Abstract: Kersen (Mutingia calabura L.) is a plant that can be used as a raw material for medicine because it has many medicinal benefits. Kersen as a medicinal raw material must pass a quality parameter testing process to be safe to use. One of the extract quality parameters is the total plate count for microbial (ALT) and yeast contamination (AKK). This study aims to evaluate the suitability of microbial and yeast contamination in the water extract of Kersen leaves to the applicable regulations. Extraction of Kersen leaves used maceration method with water solvent for 3 days with a ratio of 1:10. The results obtained from the water extract of Kersen leaves are organoleptically in the form of thick extract, dark brown in color, sour taste, bitter, and has a distinctive odor. The ALT value in the aqueous extract of cherry leaves was 8.4 x 10⁴ colonies/g. The AKK value in the aqueous extract of cherry leaves was 102 colonies/g which was reported as an approximate AKK value. The ALT and AKK values in the water extract of Kersen leaves meet the safety and quality requirements of traditional medicine.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18304
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Development of Prasman Leaf Suspension in Combination With Pulvis Gummi
           Arabici and Hydroxyethylcellulose Using Simplex Lattice Design Method

    • Authors: Dina Salwa Atiqi, Slamet Slamet, Wirasti Wirasti, Dwi Bagus Pambudi
      Pages: 79 - 86
      Abstract: Suspending agents affect the viscosity, storage, and re-dispersal of suspension preparations. This study aims to optimize the combination of suspending agent PGA and hydroxyethylcellulose to obtain the optimum suspension preparation. This suspension formulation uses a computer program design expert version 11 using the Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) method with 2 suspending agents, namely PGA and hydroxyethylcellulose. This SLD method produces 8 formulas. The parameters of these eight formulas were measured including their physical properties, such as organoleptic, pH, viscosity, sedimentation volume, and redispersibility of the preparation. Data were analyzed and produced a graphic equation of each response that gave the optimum suspension formulation. The formula I showed optimal parameters, i.e. physical stability, organoleptic stability, the pH of 5, the viscosity value of 59 cP, 0.04 mL sedimentation, and 95% redispersibility value with the concentration of the suspending agent is 6.25% of PGA and 0.775% of hydroxyethylcellulose, and the desirability value of 0.57. The results indicated that the suspension preparation had the characteristics of low viscosity, the particles settle quickly and are easily re-dispersed. Analysis of ANOVA statistical data on viscosity, sedimentation volume, and redispersibility of suspension preparations showed a p-value <5 or significant meaning that the use of the SLD method affected increasing and decreasing the response value.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.15565
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Studi In Silico Kandungan Senyawa Daun Srikaya (Annona squamosa
           L.)Terhadap Protein Dihydrofolate Reductase Pada Mycobacterium

    • Authors: Nur Cholis Endriyatno, Muhammad Walid
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: Tuberculosis is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is one of the problems in the world, especially the problem of resistance which requires the search for new alternative drugs, one of which is from natural compounds.In silico studies with molecular docking method can be used as a preliminary test to assess the potency of a natural compound. In this study, the target proteins were Dihydrofolate Reductase: 4KL9 and 4KM2 with the original P33 and ATR ligands on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Dihydrofolate reductase is a protein that has an important role in nucleotide biosynthesis, and has become a target for antibacterial drugs. The natural compounds tested were anonaine, asimilobine, and corypalmine contained in soursop leaves. The molecular docking results showed that the three compounds had docking score, especially for the 4KL9 target protein, which was lower than the original ligand. A lower value means that the binding of the ligand and target protein is stronger than that of the native ligand. The three compound ligands on the target protein 4KM2 have a higher docking score  than the original ligand, meaning that the binding of the three ligands is not as strong as the original ligand, but the values are not far apart. In addition, there are similar residues involved from the original ligand and the ligands of the three compounds to the target protein. Therefore, it can be concluded based on an in silico study of the content of anonaine, asimilobine, and corypalmine compounds that may have antituberculosis activity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-25
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18044
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
  • Uji Aktivitas Antikolesterol Kombinasi Ekstrak Teh Oolong, Buncis Dan Kayu

    • Authors: Ahmad Fauzi, Tanti Azizah Sujono, Azis Saifudin, Arifah Sri Wahyuni
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: Hyperlipidemia has an important role in the occurrence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. High cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood are at risk of causing various diseases such as atherosclerosis, pancreatic dysfunction and kidney disorders. Meanwhile, high triglyceride levels can cause impaired liver, pancreas and kidney function. Green bean, oolong tea and cinnamon are plants that can lower cholesterol levels. Oolong tea contains catechins, Green Bean contain phytosterols and cinnamon contains cinnamaldehyde. Determination of secondary metabolite levels of extracts was carried out using the Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) method. The activity test was carried out with 30 Wistar white rats which were divided into 6 test groups. The normal control group was treated with CMC-Na without feeding hypercholesterolemia, the positive control group was treated with simvastatin 0.4 mg/KgBW, the negative control group was treated with CMC-Na, the test groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated with cinnamon extract, oolong tea and green bean, respectively (150:50:50 mg/KgBW), (50:150:50 mg/KgBW) and (50:50:150 mg/KgBW). The detected metabolite content was cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon up to 10%, catechins in oolong tea up to 12% and stigmasterol in beans as much as 3.4%.The results obtained by test group 1 and test group 2 can reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05). All test groups had no significant effect on HDL and LDL levels.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      DOI: 10.23917/pharmacon.v19i1.18193
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2022)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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