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Biomedika
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ISSN (Print) 2085-8345 - ISSN (Online) 2541-2582
Published by Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Homepage  [33 journals]
  • EVALUASI KADAR SEL CD4, VIRAL LOAD, DAN NEUTROPHIL LYMPHOCYTE RATIO (NLR)
           TERHADAP INFEKSI OPORTUNISTIK PADA PASIEN HIV/AIDS

    • Authors: Veronika Vita Kurniawati, Dhani Redhono Harioputro, Agus Joko Susanto
      Pages: 99 - 107
      Abstract: ABSTRAKHIV adalah suatu virus RNA. Virus ini memiliki target sasaran sistem, dan tetap berada dalam tubuh host seumur hidup. Pasien HIV dapat menjadi Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) dan memicuterjadinya infeksi oportunistik (IO). Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh kadar CD4, Viral Load, dan NLR terhadap IO pasien HIV/AIDS. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional. Pengambilan data melalui rekam medis pasien HIV/AIDS di Poliklinik VCT admisi bulan September hingga November 2021. Besar sampel penelitian sebanyak 60 pasien, lalu data diuji dengan menggunakan Mann Whitney, Chi Square, dan Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa sebanyak 24 (40%) subyek mengalami IO. Berdasarkan Uji Mann Whitney, kadar sel CD4 memiliki nilai p=0.00 (p<0.05) berhubungan secara statistik terhadap IO, serta berdasarkan Uji Regresi Logistik Berganda didapatkan kadar sel CD4 memiliki nilai OR= 0.985 dan Nagelkerke R Square=0.492 artinya pengaruh kadar sel CD4 sebesar 49% terhadap kejadian IO. Berdasarkan Uji Mann Whitney, kadar NLR memiliki nilai p=0.126 (p>0.05) artinya tidak berhubungan terhadap IO. Uji Mann Whitney, kadar Viral Load memiliki nilai p=0.039 (p<0.05), didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kesimpulan: Kejadian CD4 berpengaruh terhadap kejadian Infeksi Oportunistik pada pasien HIV, sedangkan viral load dan NLR tidak berpengaruh. Kata Kunci: HIV/AIDS, IO, CD4, Viral Load, NLR  ABSTRACT HIV is a RNA virus from Retroviridae family and Lentivirinae subfamily. The immune system is the main target of the virus. The virus remains in the body for a lifetime. Patients HIV can develop Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom (AIDS) and triggers the occurence of Oppotunistic Infections (OI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CD4, Viral Load, and NLR levels on the incidence of OI. Method: This study is an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional approach. Data collection was carried out through the medical records of HIV/AIDS patients that were admitted at VCT Polyclinic from September 2021 to November 2021. Sample consisted of 60 patients and the data analysis methods used Mann Whitney Test, Chi-Square Test, and the Multiple Logistics Regression Test. Result: 24 patients with HIV experienced OI (40%). Based on Mann Whitney Test, the CD4 levels had p-value=0.00 (p<0.05) it was statistically related to the incidence of OI, and Multiple Logistics Regression Test, it was found that the CD4 levels had an OR = 0.985 and Nagelkerke R Square = 0.492, which means CD4 levels on the incidence of OI as much as 49%. Based on the Mann Whitney test, the NLR level has a p-value of 0.126 (p>0.05) meaning there was not any statistical relation with OI. Based on the Mann-Whitney test, the Viral Load level has a p-value of 0.039 (p<0.05). Conclusion: There was a correlation between CD4 level and the occurrence of OI in HIV patients, but viral load and NLR not. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, OI, CD4, Viral Load, NLR
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.17299
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • UJI EFEK KOMEDOGENIK PRODUK KOSMETIK BB CREAM PADA TELINGA KELINCI

    • Authors: Melly Rahmawati, Betty Ekawati Suryaningsih, Rosmelia Rosmelia
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: ABSTRAK BB cream merupakan istilah dari blemish balm, blemish base, beblesh balm dan beauty balm di pasar barat yang dirancang menjadi alas bedak, pelembab dan tabir surya sekaligus. Penggunaan BB cream diduga berhubungan bermakna dengan keparahan klinis akne vulgaris, karena penggunaan kosmetik ini dapat meningkatkan sebum akibat unsur komedogenik yang terkandung di dalamnya, seperti: lanolin, petrolatum, butyl stearate, lauryl alcohol dan oleic acid. Kandungan parfum seperti linalool, limonene, caffeine, geraniol, dan citral yang terkandung dalam BB cream juga dapat  menyebabkan reaksi alergi dan iritasi sehingga meningkatkan risiko untuk terjadinya akne vulgaris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi efek komedogenik dan iritasi akibat pemberian produk kosmetik BB cream pada telinga kelinci. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain true experimental laboratory dengan metode randomized post test only controlled group design. Penelitian ini menggunakan hewan coba kelinci New Zealand white jantan. Dilakukan aplikasi topikal 3 produk BB cream pada telinga kanan selama lima minggu sedangkan telinga kiri berfungsi sebagai kontrol negatif. Efek komedogenik dan iritasi dinilai berdasarkan skoring. Hasil uji statistik dengan menggunakan uji Fisher exact didapatkan nilai p= 1,00 (p>0,05), oleh  karena itu disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara aplikasi topikal BB cream dengan pembentukan komedo dan perubahan iritasi pada kulit telinga kelinci. Kata Kunci: BB Cream, Akne Vulgaris, Komedogenik, Skoring Komedogenik, Skoring Iritasi  ABSTRACT BB cream is a marketing term that stands for blemish balm, blemish base, beblesh balm and beauty balm. BB cream is designed to be foundation, moisturizer and sunscreen all at once. The use of BB cream is associated with the clinical severity of acne vulgaris, because the use of BB cream cosmetics can increase sebum production due to the comedogenic ingredients contained in it, such as lanolin, petrolatum, butyl stearate, lauryl alcohol and oleic acid. The perfume content such as linalool, limonene, caffeine, geraniol, and citral contained in BB cream could causes allergic reactions and irritation, thereby increasing the risk for acne vulgaris to occur. This study aimed to determine the comedogenicity dan irritation potency of BB cream cosmetic products applications on rabbit ears. This study used a true experimental laboratory design with a randomized post test only controlled group design method. This study used male New Zealand white rabbits as experimental animals. Topical application of 3 BB cream products was carried out on the right ear for five weeks, while the left ear function as a negative control. Statistical tests using Fisher's exact test obtained a value of p=1.00 (p>0.05). It is concluded that there was no significant relationship between the topical application of BB cream with the formation of comedones and changes in irritation of the rabbit ear skin.Keywords: BB Cream, Acne Vulgaris, Comedogenicity, Comedogenicity Scoring, Irritation Scoring
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.17309
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND LEPTOSPIRA DETECTION OF SANITARY WORKERS IN
           JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    • Authors: Muslimin Budiman, Syifa Melati Putri, Putri Medita Rachmayanti, Ramdesima Kasmir, Dian Widiyanti
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Leptospirosis is zoonotic disease, caused by spirochete-bacteria Leptospira, transmitted by excreted urine of rodent into the environment. Sanitary workers had high-risk of Leptospira infection due to frequent exposure to contaminated environment, which could cause asymptomatic leptospiruria (the presence of leptospira in urine) and severe complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to find leptospiruria in sanitary workers, using PCR method, targeting specific genes of Leptospira. Urine samples and questionnaires were obtained from fifteen sanitary workers. Samples were cultured in EMJH-broth with addition of 5-fluorouracil, incubated for 3 months and observed for growth of bacteria using dark-field microscope.  Identification of bacteria was performed by PCR, targeting lipl32, rrl, flaB, ompL1 genes, followed by sequencing using Sanger method, alignment using ClustalW and BLAST. The questionnaires result showed that 26,7% of respondent had medium level of risk factors, and 53,3% of respondent had applied good prevention for leptospirosis. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was relationship between risk factors and prevention. Culture result showed growth in four samples, and analysis by PCR only showed rrl-PCR had expected amplicon. However sequencing result showed that the amplicon had 99% homogeneity to Pseudomonas stutzeri. In conclusion, Leptospira was not found in the urine of sanitary worker, might be due to applied good prevention for leptospirosis.Keywords: Leptospira, Leptospiruria, Sanitary Worker, Risk Factors ABSTRAK Leptospirosis adalah penyakit zoonosis, yang disebabkan oleh bacteria Leptospira Sp., ditularkan melalui urin hewan pengerat yang dikeluarkan ke lingkungan. Pekerja sanitasi memiliki risiko tinggi terinfeksi Leptospira karena sering terpapar lingkungan yang terkontaminasi, yang dapat menyebabkan leptospiruria (adanya liptospira dalam urin) tanpa gejala, dan komplikasi berat, seperti penyakit ginjal kronis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan leptospiruria pada petugas kebersihan, menggunakan metode PCR, menargetkan gen spesifik Leptospira. Sampel urin dan kuesioner diperoleh dari lima belas petugas kebersihan. Sampel dikultur dalam EMJH-broth dengan penambahan 5-fluorouracil, diinkubasi selama 3 bulan dan diamati pertumbuhan bakterinya menggunakan mikroskop medan gelap. Identifikasi bakteri dilakukan dengan PCR, menargetkan gen lipl32, rrl, flaB, ompL1, dilanjutkan dengan sequencing menggunakan metode Sanger, alignment menggunakan ClustalW dan BLAST. Hasil kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa 26,7% responden memiliki faktor risiko tingkat sedang, dan 53,3% responden telah menerapkan pencegahan leptospirosis yang baik. Analisis korelasi Pearson menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan antara faktor risiko dan pencegahan. Hasil kultur menunjukkan pertumbuhan pada keempat sampel, dan analisis dengan PCR hanya menunjukkan rrl-PCR memiliki amplikon yang diharapkan. Namun hasil sekuensing menunjukkan bahwa amplikon memiliki homogenitas 99% terhadap Pseudomonas stutzeri. Kesimpulannya, Leptospira tidak ditemukan dalam urin petugas kebersihan, mungkin karena penerapan pencegahan leptospirosis yang baik.Kata kunci: Leptospira, Leptospiruria, Petugas Kebersihan, Faktor Risiko


      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.17953
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PENULARAN VIRUS DENGUE ANTAR NYAMUK Aedes aegypti DI KOTA TERNATE BELUM
           SECARA TRANSOVARIAL

    • Authors: Amalan Tomia, Rosmila Tuharea
      Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Virus Dengue merupakan agen penyebab penyakit demam berdarah dengue (DBD) yang ditularkan melalui nyamuk Aedes Sp. Penularan virus Dengue antar Aedes Sp. umumnya terjadi secara horisontal dan vertical (transovarial). Penularan transovarial virus Dengue melalui vektor di daerah endemik bisa menjadi potensi peningkatan kasus DBD. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran penularan virus Dengue secara transovarial, dengan menggunakan metode RT-PCR. Sampel penelitian adalah nyamuk Aedes aegypti yang berasal dari koleksi telur Aedes sp. Koleksi telur didapatkan dari pemasangan 400 ovitrap pada 100 rumah yang berasal dari kelurahan endemik yang terdapat pada 4 wilayah kerja Puskesmas yang terdapat kasus DBD. Kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan RT-PCR virus Dengue pada nyamuk F2 (telur dari ovitrap yang ditetaskan). Sampel nyamuk Ae. aegypti betina F2 yang digunakan berjumlah 360 nyamuk. Hasil pemeriksaan RT-PCR menunjukkan bahwa nilai Transovarian Invection Rate (TIR) 0% atau telur nyamuk Ae.aegypti pada wilayah tersebut tidak terinfeksi virus Dengue (negatif). Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah penularan virus Dengue di kota Ternate belum terjadi secara transovarial.  Kata kunci: DBD, Penularan Transovarial, Aedes aegypti ABSTRACT Dengue virus is etiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is transmitted through the Aedes Sp. Dengue virus transmission between Aedes Sp. generally occur horizontally and vertically (transovarial). Transovarial transmission of dengue virus through vectors in endemic areas could be a potential increase in dengue cases. This study aims to determine the description of dengue virus transmission transovarially, using the RT-PCR method. The research sample was the Aedes aegypti mosquito from the collection of Aedes sp. The egg collection was obtained from the installation of 400 ovitraps in 100 houses from endemic villages located in 4 areas of community health centers with dengue cases. Then the dengue virus RT-PCR examination was carried out on F2 mosquitoes (mosquitoes from hatched ovitrap eggs). Samples of Ae. aegypti female F2 used were 360 mosquitoes. The results of the RT-PCR examination showed that the value of the Transovarian Invection Rate (TIR) was 0% or the Ae. aegypti mosquito eggs in the area were not infected with the Dengue virus (negative). The conclusion of this study is that the transmission of dengue virus in the city of Ternate has not occurred transovarially.Keywords: DHF, Transovarial Transmission, Aedes aegypti
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.18028
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI CUKA NANAS (Ananas comosus) PADA PERTUMBUHAN JAMUR
           Malassezia furfur

    • Authors: Maya Dian Rakhmawatie, Tefia Riswanda Lumban Gaol, Ika Dyah Kurniati
      Pages: 136 - 146
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Malassezia furfur merupakan flora normal yang terdapat pada kulit manusia, namun dapat menjadi patogen pada pasien imunosupresi. Di Indonesia, penyakit kulit pityriasis versicolor (hampir 50% penyakit kulit) disebabkan oleh M. furfur. Ketokonazol merupakan obat yang paling umum digunakan untuk pengobatan infeksi M. furfur, namun diketahui memiliki efek samping kerusakan hati. Oleh sebab itu perlu dilakukan pengembangan antijamur yang lebih aman. Cuka nanas mempunyai potensi sebagai antijamur karena mengandung senyawa saponin dan tanin. Penelitian ini melakukan uji kadar hambat minimal (KHM) cuka nanas dengan metode two-fold dilution pewarnaan Resazurin Microplate Assay (REMA). Konsentrasi cuka nanas yang digunakan berada pada rentang 62.5- 4000 µg/mL. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk menilai hubungan antara konsentrasi cuka nanas dengan pertumbuhan jamur M. furfur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi cuka nanas 4000 µg/mL belum dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jamur M. furfur. Namun, berdasarkan hasil uji regresi linier sederhana, diketahui terdapat hubungan antara peningkatan konsentrasi cuka nanas terhadap pertumbuhan jamur dengan persamaan garis y = -0,000097x + 5,88 dan nilai korelasi determinasi (R2) 0,729 = 72,9 % (p=0,000). Peningkatan dosis uji cuka nanas mungkin dapat bermanfaat untuk menghambat pertumbuhan jamur M. furfur.Kata Kunci: Antijamur, Cuka Nanas, Malassezia Furfur, Resazurin Microplate Assay. ABSTRACT Malassezia furfur is normal flora found on human skin, but can be pathogenic in immunosuppressed patients. In tropical areas such as Indonesia, pityriasis versicolor skin disease (almost 50% of skin diseases) is caused by M. furfur.). Ketoconazole is commonly drug for the treatment of M. furfur infection, but it’s known to have hepatotoxic effects. Therefore, it’s necessary to develop safer antifungals. Pineapple vinegar has potential as an antifungal because it contains saponins and tannins. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of pineapple vinegar was carried out using two-fold dilution method and Resazurin Microplate Assay (REMA) staining. The concentration range of pineapple vinegar used is 62.5- 4000 g/mL. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between pineapple vinegar concentration and the growth of the M. furfur. The concentration of pineapple vinegar 4000 g/mL could not inhibit the growth of the M. furfur. However, based on a linear regression test, there is a relationship between increasing the concentration of pineapple vinegar on the growth of M. furfur, with regression line equation y = -0.000097x + 5.88 and (R2) 0.729 = 72.9% (p = 0.000). Increasing the dose of pineapple vinegar may be useful for inhibiting the growth of the M. furfur.Keywords: Antifungal, Malassezia furfur, pineapple vinegar, pytiriasis versicolor, resazurin microplate assay 
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.18564
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • LIPID PROFILE AND SOLUBLE E-SELECTIN LEVELS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TYPE 2
           DIABETES MELLITUS OVERWEIGHT-OBESE AND UNDER-NORMOWEIGHT PATIENTS

    • Authors: Emelia Wijayanti, Indranila Kustarini Samsuria, Dian Widyaningrum
      Pages: 147 - 157
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Diabetes melitus tipe-2 (DMT2) dan obesitas meningkatkan risiko dari penyakit arteri koroner sampai dengan 60-80%. Profil lipid merupakan salah satu dari petanda aterosklerosis dan dapat terganggu akibat resistensi insulin dan inflamasi yang terjadi pada pasien obesitas dengan DMT2. E-Selectin adalah molekul adhesi sel endotel yang dihasilkan dari aktivasi sel endotel yang rusak, dan mencerminkan perubahan struktur serta fungsional dinding pembuluh darah. Kadar soluble E-Selectin (sE-selectin) juga dapat berperan sebagai petanda disfungsi endotel Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan adanya perbedaan profil lipid dan kadar sE-selectin pada pasien DMT2 overweight-obese dan under-normoweight. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan belah lintang yang dilakukan pada 63 sampel antara Februari hingga Juni 2020, di Puskesmas X Semarang. Subjek DMT2 ditentukan berdasarkan diagnosis klinis. IMT dihitung dengan rumus, profil lipid diperiksa menggunakan metode enzimatik kolorimetrik, dan sE-selectin diperiksa menggunakan metode ELISA. Data dianalisis dengan program SPSS versi 22. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan perbedaan signifikan antara kadar kolesterol total, trigliserida, LDL, HDL, dan sE-selectin (p berturut-turut adalah 0,011; 0,043; 0,000; 0,008; 0,001) pada pasien DMT2 overweight-obese dibandingkan dengan under-normoweight. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kadar kolesterol total, trigliserida, LDL, HDL, dan sE-selectin pada pasien DMT2 overweight-obese lebih tinggi dibandingkan under-normoweight. Kata Kunci: sE-selectin, Profil lipid, Diabetes melitus tipe-2, Obesitas. ABSTRACT Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity increase the risk of coronary artery disease by 60-80%. Lipid profile, one of the atherosclerosis markers, may be disrupted by insulin resistance and inflammation in diabetic obese patients. E-selectin is an adhesion molecule resulting from the activation of damaged endothelial cells and reflects the changes in the blood wall. Soluble E-Selectin (sE-selectin) level is also the marker of endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to determine differences in lipid profile and sE-selectin levels between T2DM overweight-obese and under-normoweight patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 63 samples since February to June 2020, at the X Community Health Center, Semarang. T2DM subjects were determined from clinicians’ diagnoses. BMI was calculated with the formula, the lipid profile was examined using the colorimetric enzymatic method, and sE-selectin was examined using the ELISA method. Data were analyzed by SPSS program version 22. There were statistically significant differences in the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and sE-selectin (p respectively 0.011; 0.043; 0.000; 0.008; 0.001) in T2DM overweight-obese and under-normoweight patients. In conclusion, higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, E-selectin and lower HDL cholesterol are found in T2DM overweight-obese patients than T2DM under-normoweight patients.Keywords: sE-selectin, Lipid profile, Type-2 diabetes mellitus, Obesity.
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.18629
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PENGARUH SEKAT ALUMINIUM FOIL TERHADAP RASIO NEURON DAN NEUROGLIA JARINGAN
           SEREBRI TIKUS WISTAR JANTAN YANG DIBERI PAPARAN RADIASI ELEKTROMAGNETIK

    • Authors: Irmawan Farindra, Warda Elmaida Rusdi, Viskasari P Kalanjati, Ni Wajan Tirthaningsih
      Pages: 158 - 169
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Telepon selular merupakan salah satu sumber radiasi elektromagnetik (EMR). Peningkatan penggunaan telepon selular dapat meningkatkan efek negatif EMR sebagai salah satu penyebab stres oksidatif pada tubuh manusia diantaranya jaringan serebri. Aluminium foil (AF) adalah salah satu bahan yang direkomendasikan untuk melindungi otak dari efek negatif EMR karena memiliki potensi absorption loss and reflective loss. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian sekat AF terhadap EMR dari telepon selular terhadap rasio neuron dan neuroglia pada jaringan serebri tikus Wistar jantan dewasa. Sebanyak 32 ekor tikus jantan dewasa dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok (n=8). Kelompok KI EMR (-) dan AF (-); Kelompok K2 EMR (-) dan AF (+); Kelompok P1 EMR (+) dan AF (-); Kelompok P2 EMR (+) dan AF (+). Telepon selular (GSM 2100 MHz; SAR 0,84-1,86 W/kg) diletakkan di dasar wadah kotak plastik , kemudian dipaparkan 4 jam/ hari selama 30 hari. Data jumlah neuron dan neuroglia tiap kelompok dianalisis dengan tingkat signifikansi p<0,05 (uji one way ANOVA, SPSS 17). Dari hasil rasio neuron dan neuroglia didapatkan penurunan rasio pada kelompok perlakuan dibandingkan kontrol, serta peningkatan rasio pada kelompok perlakuan P2 dibandingkan kelompok P1. Hal tersebut membuktikan AF dapat melindungi dari efek negatif EMR dengan meningkatkan jumlah neuroglia sebagai respon proteksi terhadap kerusakan neuron pada jaringan serebri.Kata Kunci: Aluminium Foil, Radiasi Elektromagnetik, Telepon Seluler; Serebri, Neuron, Neuroglia ABSTRACT Cellular phones are a source of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Increased use of cellular phones, can increase the negative effects of EMR as one of the causes of oxidative stress in the human body, including cerebral tissue. Aluminum foil (AF) is one of the recommended materials as protection against the negative effects of EMR because it has the potential for absorption loss and reflective loss. This study aims to determine the effect of AF blocking on EMR from cellular phones, where the variables studied were the number of neurons and neuroglia, as well as the ratio of neurons and neuroglia in the cerebral tissue of adult male Wistar rats. This study used 32 adult male rats which were divided into 4 groups (n=8). Each mouse was placed in a plastic box container measuring 20x16x9 cm with a wire cover. A cellular phone (GSM 2100 MHz; SAR 0.84-1.86 W/kg) was placed at the bottom of the plastic case and exposed 4 hours/day for 30 days. Data were analyzed with a significance level of p<0.05 (Kruskal-Wallis test or ANOVA, SPSS 17). From these results, it is evident that AF can protect against the negative effects of EMR by reducing the effects of oxidative stress by reducing neuronal damage in cerebral tissue.Keywords: Aluminium Foil, Electromagnetic Radiation, Mobile Phone, Brain, Neuron, Neuroglia
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.18725
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • DOSIS TERTINGGI PERLAKUAN JUS CABE RAWIT MENYEBABKAN TERJADINYA EROSI
           MUKOSA KOLON YANG LEBIH MINIMAL DIBANDING DOSIS PERLAKUAN YANG LEBIH
           RENDAH LAINNYA

    • Authors: Sherly Usman
      Pages: 170 - 177
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Cabai rawit mengandung capsaicin sebagai zat dengan kemampuan proinflamasi dan sekaligus antioksidan. Penelitian sebelumnya, pemberian dosis bertingkat jus cabai rawit pada tikus terjadi perbaikan mukosa lambung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui histopatologi mukosa usus besar tikus model yang diinduksi oleh jus cabai rawit dosis bertingkat. Jenis penelitian Quasy eksperimental, posttest only control group design. Dua puluh ekor tikus wistar dibagi menjadi kelompok kontrol (K) dan 4 kelompok perlakuan (C45, C90, C135, dan C180). Kelompok perlakuan diberi jus cabe rawit masing-masing 45 mg, 90 mg, 135 mg, dan 180 mg selama 6 hari. Hari ke-7 diterminasi, organ usus besar dibuat preparat histologi pengecatan Hematoxylen-eosin (HE). Data skoring derajat erosi epitel diuji normalitas Saphiro Wilk dan uji Kruskall Wallis. Hasil menunjukkan adanya erosi mukosa bermakna (p< 0.05) pada semua kelompok perlakuan dibanding kelompok kontrol (K), dengan derajat erosi terberat pada C135, sedangkan derajat erosi teringan pada C180.Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah jus cabe rawit menyebabkan erosi mukosa kolon tikus pada semua dosis perlakuan, dengan derajat erosi terendah pada dosis tertinggi perlakuan (180 mg/hari). Kata Kunci: Jus Cabe Rawit, Derajat Erosi, Usus Besar ABSTRACT Cayenne pepper contains Capsaicin as a pro-inflammatory and antioxidant. In previous studies, giving a graded dose of cayenne pepper juice in rat resulted in an healing in the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to examine histopathology of large intestine mucosa rat induced by cayenne pepper juice This study aims to determine the histopathology of the rat model of the large intestine mucosa induced by cayenne pepper juice in graded doses. This research type was Quasy experimental, posttest only control group design. Twenty wistar rats were divided into control group (K) and 4 treatment groups (C45, C90, C135, and C180). The treatment group was given cayenne pepper juice, respectively 45 mg, 90 mg, 135 mg, and 180 mg for 6 days. On the 7th day of termination, the large intestine was made histology preparations with Hematoxylen-eosin (HE) staining. The data of epithelial erosion degree scoring were tested by Saphiro Wilk test and Kruskall Wallis test. The results showed that there were significant (p<0.05) mucosal erosion in all treatment groups to control group (K), with the heaviest degree of erosion at C135, while the lightest degree of erosion was at C180. The conclusion of this study was that cayenne pepper juice caused erosion of the colonic mucosa of rats at all treatment doses, with the lowest degree of erosion at the highest dose of treatment (180 mg/day).Keywords: Cayenne Pepper Juice, Erosion Degree, Colon Mucosa
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.18755
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PERBEDAAN KADAR IMMUNOGLOBULIN A DAN WAKTU TRANSPOR MUKOSILIAR HIDUNG
           PEKERJA INDUSTRI TEKSTIL AREA DYEING DAN NON-DYEING

    • Authors: Ika Luthfiah, Arlita Leniseptaria Antari, Purnomo Hadi, Eva Annisaa, Awal Prasetyo
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: ABSTRAK Di Indonesia, penyakit sistem respirasi adalah kasus terbanyak penyakit akibat kerja, yang khususnya diakibatkan paparan volatile organic compound (VOC) selama bekerja di pabrik tekstil. Pengaruh  paparan VOC terhadap kadar immunoglobulin A (IgA) dan waktu transpor mukosiliar hidung (TMSH) belum diketahui. Studi ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan kadar IgA dan waktu TMSH  pekerja pabrik tekstil di area dyeing (pencelupan warna) dan non-dyeing. Studi observasional analitik dengan metode cross sectional di PT Apac Inti Corpora Bawen Semarang, melibatkan masing-masing 11 pekerja laki-laki di area dyeing dan non-dyeing yang telah bekerja lebih 5 tahun. Pengukuran kadar Ig A dengan ELISA dari sampel nasal wash, dan waktu TMSH diukur dengan menggunakan uji sakarin. Normalitas data diuji dengan Saphiro-Wilk. Data dianalisis dengan uji Mann-Whitney. Rata-rata kadar IgA di area dyeing dan non-dyeing adalah 59,58±0,91 dan 58,87±0,57, atau tidak berbeda bermakna (P=0,557). Rata-rata waktu TMSH di area dyeing dan non-dyeing adalah 1141,45±368,08 dan 1004,64±717,28 detik, juga tidak berbeda bermakna (P=0.148). Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa kadar IgA dan waktu TMSH pada pekerja pabrik tekstil di area dyeing dan nondyeing tidak berbeda.Kata Kunci : Pekerja Pabrik Tekstil, Kadar Iga, Waktu TMSH ABSTRACT In Indonesia, respiratory system diseases are the most common occupational diseases, which are mainly caused by exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while working in textile factories. The effect of VOC exposure on immunoglobulin A and Nasal Mucociliary Clearance Times (NMCT) is unknown. The purpose of this study was knowing the difference in IgA levels and NMCT in the dyeing and non-dyeing areas of textile factory workers. This is an observational study with cross sectional design, conducted at PT. Apac Inti Corpora, Bawen, Semarang. Each 11 workers in dyeing and  non-dyeing areas were measured their NMCT using saccharin test, as well as IgA by ELISA method of their nasal wash. Normality of the data was tested by the Shapiro-Wilk. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. The mean IgA level on dyeing and non-dyeing workers were 59.58±0.91 dan 58.87±0.57, whereas there no significant difference (P=0.557). The mean NMCT on dyeing and non-dyeing workers were 1141.45±368.08 and 1004.64±717.28, whereas there no significant difference (P=0.148). It would be concluded that there was no difference of IgA level and NMCT on dyeing and non-dyeing workers.Keywords: Textile Workers, Iga Level, NMCT
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.19129
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IMMEDIATE SURGICAL TREATMENT IN NEGLECTED OPEN LEFT SUPRACONDYLAR HUMERAL
           FRACTURE: A CASE REPORT

    • Authors: Tito Sumarwoto, Seti Aji Hadinoto, Hillan Akbar
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Supracondylar humeral fractures are the most common paediatric elbow fractures. However, open supracondylar humeral fractures are rarely found in children. In developing countries, delayed treatment is common, and patient can present to hospital as neglected case. The aim of this article is to report immediate surgical treatment in neglected case of open supracondylar humeral fracture. A case of 16-year-old boy who suffered from neglected open left supracondylar humeral fracture was reported. He had history of traffic accident 10 days before admission, and was treated by traditional bone setter. He has already undergone surgery by debridement and followed by an open reduction with cross K-wire internal fixation, and external support post operatively. The fracture has already reduced and fixated well postoperatively. Immediate surgical treatment of neglected open supracondylar humeral fractures is recommended to achieve the best reduction of the fractures and prevent the infection.Key words: Surgical Treatment; Neglected Case, Open Fracture, Supracondylar Humeral ABSTRAK Fraktur humerus suprakondiler merupakan fraktur yang paling sering pada siku anak-anak. Namun, fraktur terbuka humerus suprakondiler jarang ditemukan pada anak-anak. Di negara berkembang, sering dijumpai penanganan yang tertunda, dan pasien bisa datang ke rumah sakit dalam keadaan sebagai kasus yang terabaikan. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah untuk melaporkan penanganan pembedahan segera pada kasus fraktur terbuka humerus suprakondiler yang terabaikan.Dilaporkan seorang anak laki-laki berusia 16 tahun yang menderita fraktur humerus suprakondiler kiri yang terabaikan. Dia memiliki riwayat kecelakaan lalu lintas 10 hari sebelum datang ke rumah sakit, dan awalnya ditangani oleh dukun sangkal putung tradisional. Dia telah menjalani operasi dengan debridemen dan diikuti oleh reduksi terbuka dan pemasangan fiksasi internal menggunakan k-wire silang, dan pemasangan slab gips eksternal pasca operasi. Hasil pasca operasi menunjukkan bahwa fraktur tereduksi dan terfiksasi dengan baik. Penanganan pembedahan segera untuk fraktur terbuka humerus suprakondiler yang terabaikan direkomendasikan untuk mendapatkan reduksi terbaik dari fraktur dan mencegah infeksi.Kata kunci: Penanganan Pembedahan; Kasus Terabaikan, Fraktur Terbuka, Humerus Suprakondiler  
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.23917/biomedika.v14i2.15186
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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