Publisher: TULPAR Academic Publishing   (Total: 2 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Challenge J. of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Challenge J. of Structural Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2149-8024
Published by TULPAR Academic Publishing Homepage  [2 journals]
  • A Discussion on the Beam on Elastic Foundation Theory

    • Authors: Tunay Uzbay Yelce, Erdem Balcı, Niyazi Özgür Bezgin
      Abstract: A railway track consists of various components. In order to analyze railway tracks properly, both the interaction between these internal components and the interaction between the track and the vehicle passing over the track must be examined. Various design models have been developed in order to simplify this complex structure and to establish appropriate design criteria. Winkler's modeling of the ground with springs was later adapted to railway tracks by Zimmermann, and an effective model for track analysis was put forward over time. The Beam on elastic foundation (BOEF) model is a practical model that is frequently used by engineers and offers values for deformation, stress, moment, and shear force. However, this model has some limitations due to the assumptions it made. In this study, the 4th order differential equation of BOEF will be solved step by step, and the historical development of the BOEF model, its use in railway track analysis, and its shortcomings will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Optimum parameters for adjacent frames coupled by fluid viscous dampers
           considering soil-structure interaction

    • Authors: Oğuz Akın Düzgün, Yavuz Selim Hatipoğlu, Osman Ünsal Bayrak
      Abstract: In this paper, the optimum conditions which ensure that the resulting minimum base shear force and minimum roof displacement for two adjacent frame structures interconnected by fluid viscous dampers, including soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects under seismic excitation were presented. A two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis was carried out with the Taguchi method. As non-reflecting boundaries, viscous boundary conditions were used on the edges of finite soil region. An optimization study was carried out for four parameters such as soil type, height ratio of the frames, damping coefficient of viscous damper, and the location of the viscous damper each with four levels. The optimum conditions which minimize maximum roof displacements and the maximum base shear forces have been obtained. The most affecting parameter on the system response was found to be soil type. It was also found that the sufficient damping coefficient of the viscous damper is equal to 1x105 N.s/m for minimum response. The minimum system response can be achieved by using only one damper. It can be drawn that the Taguchi method can be used with the finite element (FE) method for determining optimum conditions of a soil-structure system for minimum system response.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Natural frequencies of porous orthotropic two-layered plates within the
           shear deformation theory

    • Authors: Ferruh Turan
      Abstract: This paper analyzes the natural frequencies of porous orthotropic laminated composite plates with two different porosity models based on the higher-order shear deformation theory. The fundamental relations of natural frequency analysis are derived by using the virtual work principle and hyperbolical shear deformation theory. The obtained partial differential equations system is reduced to an ordinary differential equations system via approximation functions suitable for simply supported boundary conditions and the Galerkin method. After some mathematical operations, the natural frequency equation of porous orthotropic laminated composite plates is obtained in the framework of hyperbolical shear deformation theory. The natural frequency equation based on the classical laminated plate theory can be determined by ignoring the shear strains in the theoretical formulations. After two validation studies by using appropriate results in the literature, parametric analyses are performed to show the sensitivity of natural frequencies to shear deformation, porosity model, orthotropy, layer sequence, and geometric properties.
      PubDate: 2022-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cover & Contents Vol.8 No.4

    • Authors: Journal Management CJSMEC
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Experimental study on the rotation capacity of bolted and welded
           beam-column connection using cold-formed steel sections

    • Authors: Mahyar Maali, Merve Sağıroğlu, Mahmut Kılıç, Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydın
      Pages: 133 - 140
      Abstract: This paper investigates new bolted and welded beam-to-column connection types on the cold-formed steel sections (CFS) and their behaviors determined using full-scale experiments. This study aimed to analyze the influence of weld/bolt connections based on CFS profile and failure modes to provide the necessary data for improving Eurocode 3. In contrast, the rotation and ductility of a joint of the welded connection are lower than the bolted connection. Thus, the bolted connection exhibits a semi-rigid behavior‒also, the energy dissipation capacity values in the bolted connection are bigger than welded connection. Thus, the bolded connection has a semi-rigid behavior. Also, model failure is determined by the type of connection (bolted and welded). The rotation and ductility of a joint of the welded connection are lower than the bolted connection. Thus, the bolted connection exhibits a semi-rigid behavior‒also, the energy dissipation capacity values in the bolted connection are bigger than welded connection. Furthermore, the specimens of the welded connection have rigid behavior in the failure modes.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Performance-based seismic design of laterally braced steel frames

    • Authors: Sulaiman Al-Safi, Ibrahim A. Alameri, Saad Abdo Noaman Ezzedine, Muaadh Qaid Alwalidi
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Improving the performance of structural frames is one of the most important focuses of today's researchers. The total base shear capacity of the structural frames will increase by reaching the maximum number of plastic hinges. In this work, the effects of bracing system type on different heights of steel frames were investigated. Static pushover analysis was used to evaluate the performance of 4, 8, and 12-story steel frames with seven structural configuration systems. The results showed that the performance of braced frames increased significantly in terms of number of plastic hinges, total base shear and performance point compared to unbraced frames. The capacity curves were maximum in the one-story X-bracing, multi-story X-bracing, and single diagonal bracing systems.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Effect of waste steel tire wired concrete on the mechanical behavior under
           impact loading

    • Authors: Hasan Selim Şengel, Kutluhan Ethem Kınık, Hakan Erol, Mehmet Canbaz
      Pages: 150 - 158
      Abstract: In this experimental study the effect of waste steel tire wire was investigated on the concrete bollards of mechanical behavior under impact loading. Concrete bollards were produced using three different dimensions with three different volumes of waste steel tire wire (0%, 5% and 10%). The concrete was 30 MPa strength. The concrete bollards were cast into molds with a size of 100x100 mm, 150x150 mm and 200x200 mm and standard length of 1100 mm prism. Nine cube specimens of three different dimensions are tested. 84 kg of an impact load is used with the drop height of 400 mm in this study. Compressive strength tests were achieved. Concrete bollards were kept in laboratory standard conditions. According to the results of study compressive strength of the concrete vary between 25-30 MPa. The use of waste steel tire wire in the concrete bollards contributes to the less crack, less deflection, more acceleration and more energy dissipation at the end of the specimens. The experimental test aimed to research the effect of waste steel tire wired concrete on the mechanical behavior under impact loading as a possible environmentally friendly and sustainable solution. It can be said that the results provide the potential usage of waste steel tire wire manufacturing friendly to nature and sustainability of the concrete bollards. Generally, the usage of waste steel tire wire in concrete could be an innovative method in the construction industry.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Design and finite element analysis of a novel auxetic structure

    • Authors: Süleyman Nazif Orhan, Şeydanur Erden
      Pages: 159 - 165
      Abstract: In this study, a novel auxetic structure, namely RDN, is presented in two- and three-dimensions. The unit cells are created by modifying the conventional re-entrant structure and the 2D and 3D structures are formed by multiplying these unit cells. Finite element analyses are conducted to study the deformation mechanism of these structures under uniaxial tension, and the mechanical properties of the structures are obtained. Also, a 3D unit cell is modelled with different strut thickness values to examine the effect of the strut thickness on mechanical properties. Numerical models are developed using ANSYS/Static Structural software and linear elastic analyses are performed by applying small displacements to the structures. It is found that the 2D and 3D RDN structures possess a high negative Poisson’s ratio but relatively small stiffness compared to the other auxetics. The analyses of the 3D unit cells showed that increasing the strut thickness led to higher stiffness values but reduced auxetic behaviour of the structure.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Boundary plate influence on tie bars axial force demands in composite
           plate shear walls‒concrete filled

    • Authors: Erkan Polat
      Pages: 166 - 172
      Abstract: In composite plate shear walls–concrete filled (C-PSW/CF), there is an indeterminate flow of force between concrete, steel plate and tie bars. Finite element methods (FEM) are frequently used to verify this force flow. The theoretical models available in the literature to predict the tie bar maximum axial force demands were based on walls without boundary plates. The finding in this study is intended to help understand whether current theoretical approaches are conservative and can be applied to boundary plate walls as well. Within the scope of this study, tie bar axial force demands for walls with boundary plates consisting of planar and round shapes and without boundary plates were investigated and compared. For this, a previously benchmarked finite element (FE) wall model was considered and configured to have no boundary plate and have planar and round boundary plates. FE models were analyzed under monotonic lateral displacement up to 4% drift ratio. Passive lateral pressures and transverse force variations on the planar and round boundary plates were investigated.
      PubDate: 2022-12-13
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
  • Cover & Contents Vol.8 No.3

    • Authors: Journal Management CJSMEC
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Robustness evaluation of optimum tuned liquid dampers for uncertain
           variable loading of structures

    • Authors: Ayla Ocak, Gebrail Bekdaş, Sinan Melih Nigdeli
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: This study focuses on the performance analysis of optimum tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) under the different live loads of three different structure models, designed as both single and multi-story, under earthquake excitations. For this purpose, single, ten, and forty story structure models have been created and tuned liquid damping devices that contain liquids of different densities and viscosities such as acetone, mercury, and seawater are placed on the structure. For the analysis conducted under earthquake excitations, optimum damping device parameters were previously obtained with the Adaptive Harmony Search Algorithm (AHS), and minimizing the movement of the structure was aimed. The effect of the damping device on the control performance was investigated under increasing and decreasing live loads for the uncertain mass of the structure because of variable actions. When the results are examined, it has been determined that the increase in the story number of the structure will less affect the displacement reduction performance of TLDs for the structure under uncertain variable loading.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Statistical investigation of the effect of different damage conditions on
           the modal frequency value of a steel beam

    • Authors: Emre Alpaslan
      Pages: 87 - 98
      Abstract: This study aimed to parametrically investigate the changes in modal frequency values on a steel beam caused by specified damaged schemes. In this context, the ANSYS Workbench software program was used to create a steel profile's finite-element model. A cantilever steel beam profile is created with a 60x60 mm cross-section and 3m length utilizing single-sided fixed support. In the finite-element model, the crack depth, width, and distance to the support were parametrically assigned as the damaged scheme to the steel profile. To investigate the effects of those damages on the modal frequency values of the steel profile, first of all, the modal frequency values for undamaged cases corresponding to the first ten-mode shapes were obtained. Then, the specified crack properties were determined parametrically, and the changes in frequency values for damaged cases were examined. In addition, a comparative evaluation of the effect of crack properties on the natural frequency of the steel element was performed by utilizing response surface and six sigma analysis. The analysis results demonstrated that specified crack schemes have different effects on different modal natural frequencies. The applied response surface and six sigma analysis provided important statistical data on the modal natural frequency values of the steel beam.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Buckling resistance of the cylindrical shells with two secondary
           stiffening rings under external pressure

    • Authors: Özer Zeybek, Yasin Onuralp Özkılıç
      Pages: 99 - 109
      Abstract: The common way to amplify strength and stiffness of the tank wall is to use the stiffening rings. These stiffening rings can be classified as the primary and secondary stiffening rings (PSRs and SSRs). PSR is placed around the top of the tank shell and it assists to avoid ovalization at the top when the open-top tank is exposed to the external pressure. PSR having small dimensions may be used for fixed roof tanks since the roof system attached to the top of the cylindrical shell provides a natural restraint at this location. On the other hand, one or more SSRs may be required to preclude local buckling in both fixed and open-top cylindrical steel tanks (CSTs) which are exposed to external pressure. The requirements of single secondary stiffening ring have been investigated in detail in previous studies. However, in same cases, a single SSR does not provide sufficient resistance to maintain stability over the entire shell height. Thus, buckling capacity of the CSTs with two identical secondary stiffening rings have been explored in this present work. Pursuant to this aim, the requirements for stiffness of the SSRs which are given in terms of minimum second moment of area (SMA) were evaluated by performing Linear Elastic Bifurcation Analysis (LBA) of CSTs under uniform external pressure. Analysis results show that minimum SMA expression proposed by Blackler underestimates critical buckling value for the tanks, having especially low height-to-diameter ratios and low radius-to-thickness ratios. Furthermore, to trace strength reduction in the tank due to geometrical imperfections, Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis including Imperfections (GNIA) was performed. Analysis findings affirm that thin-walled structures are very sensitive to geometrical imperfections.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Experimental examination of strength and behavior of masonry brick walls
           strengthened with expanded steel plates

    • Authors: Ezatullah Ahmadzai, Zeynep Yaman, Alper Cumhur
      Pages: 110 - 121
      Abstract: As primary load-bearing members of masonry buildings, the strength and behavior of masonry brick walls are the most important factors affecting the structural performance for the loads the building is exposed to during its life span. The current paper therefore experimentally examines a structural strengthening method to improve the performance and behavior of masonry brick walls. Masonry walls were strengthened with expanded steel plates of different thicknesses attached to the walls using different numbers of bolts. Five wall specimens were examined under a diagonal static compression test. For strengthening, expanded steel plates were anchored to both sides of un-plastered walls using bolts and were then plastered. The thickness of the steel plates and the number of bolts were examined as experimental variables. The results showed that the strengthened wall specimens using expanded steel plates of different thicknesses and different numbers of bolts increased an average of 45-94% ultimate strength at 245mm displacement, the ductility of all strengthened specimens increased by 114%-180% and an average increment of 280-480% higher energy dissipation capacities compared to the reference specimen. The result shows that strengthening masonry brick walls provides 2 to 3 times higher energy dissipation capacity for the energy generated by seismic effects compared to the reference specimen. The research then indicated the expanded plate thickness in strengthening walls has a direct relation with load-bearing capacity of brick masonry walls. An increase of 33% and 100% in plate thickness resulted to increase in load bearing capacity by 2% and 11.5%, respectively. It has also been observed that specimens did not experience a sudden drop in load carrying capacity. They maintained their stability until the end of the tests and changed their stiffness and ductility.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Numerical evaluation of reinforced concrete slabs with fixed support under
           impact load

    • Authors: Tolga Yılmaz, Hasan Selim Şengel
      Pages: 122 - 132
      Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) structural members may be subjected to impact load besides quasi-static load or other dynamic loads like earthquake and wind loads in their service periods. Many research emphasized that although impact load acts on structural members for a short time, it caused considerable damage to these members or even collapses the whole structure. Thus, it becomes crucial to consider and accurately evaluate the impact load effect in the design process. The present study intends to introduce a finite element model (FEM) verified with the test data for the accurate evaluation of load-deflection behavior and damage patterns of the fixed supported RC slabs exposed to impact load. First, a nonlinear FEM including strain-rate effect for both concrete and steel reinforcement, and crack visualization algorithm has been established by using LS-DYNA software. Then, the dynamic responses obtained by the present FEM have been compared with the experimental data presented in a previous study existing in the literature and it is found that the present FEM yields accurate results for the RC slab subjected to impact load and it can be safely used in the design process. In the second part of the study, using the verified FEM, the effects of applied input impact energy, the application point of impact load, and hammer geometry on the dynamic responses and failure characteristics of the RC slabs exposed to the impact loading were investigated and interpreted in detail.
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
  • Cover & Contents Vol.8 No.2

    • Authors: Journal Management CJSMEC
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of carbon fibers on the mechanical properties of steam-cured

    • Authors: Mehmet Canbaz, Mouad Bensaoud, Hakan Erol, H. Selim Şengel
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: While the use of the steam-curing method in the precast concrete can result in an early high compressive strength and thus can increase the production rate of structural elements, it should be noted that the steam-curing method has some negative effects on the mechanical properties of concrete due to the fact that the high-temperature steam causes micro-cracks. On the other hand, the inclusion of carbon fibers enhanced the overall mechanical properties in terms of high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. This paper aimed to investigate the effect of adding carbon fibers to steam-cured concrete. Twenty-seven cube specimens of 15 cm dimensions were used to investigate the unit weights, the ultrasonic pulse velocity, the compressive strength, and the split tensile strength of the concrete. Three different mixes were made by adding carbon fibers (0%, 0.12% and 0.24%) by weight to the concrete. Three of each were kept in a standard curing environment for 3, 7 and 28 days. Three specimens of each mix were steam-cured for 4 hours, and three specimens were steam-cured for 8 hours. The result showed a significant increase in the rate of gaining compressive strength under steam-curing with an enhancement in the tensile strength due to the presence of fibers, all without compromising the integrity of the concrete and without increasing the amount of voids.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Performance-based assessment of long masonry structures

    • Authors: Ferit Cakir
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Performance-based assessment (PBA) has become an increasingly important concept for assessing the structural performance of existing structures today. This procedure aims primarily to determine structural damage subject to predetermined load effects and evaluate the state of the building based on the damage obtained. However, because of their complicated engineering characteristics and structural performance, it is very difficult to evaluate the performance of long masonry structures, such as aqueducts, castle ramparts and city walls. The PBA of long masonry structures is extremely challenging because there is no valid approach to assessing their performance. In this study, a practical evaluation method is developed to assess the structural performance of long structures and the seismic performance of Valens Aqueduct, which was constructed by the Roman Empire in Istanbul, is examined using this method.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Modification of Schmertmann-Hartman-Brown method to estimate immediate
           (elastic) settlement of shallow foundations

    • Authors: Mustafa Aytekin
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: One of the methods intensively employed in many practical projects to estimate the immediate (elastic) settlement of shallow foundations is the Schmertmann-Hartman-Brown method (1978). In the method, two approaches are given as a function of type of the shallow foundation either a square/circular (axisymmetric condition) or a strip (plain strain condition) foundation. Thus, two sets of equations are provided to estimate the settlements for these types of shallow foundations. If a shallow foundation has a shape of rectangular, some approximations are suggested in the technical literature to estimate the elastic settlement of rectangular based shallow foundations. These approximations are tedious and time consuming. In this study, the Schmertmann – Hartman – Brown method (1978) is modified and only one set of equations used for any type (square, circular, rectangular, and strip) of shallow foundations is introduced. The modified method estimates the immediate settlement as precise as the original form of the method that is more complicated. Also, some hypothetical cases are considered to figure out the effect of width and length/width ratios of foundations on elastic settlement.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Evaluating effects of granulated glass on structural and seismic behavior
           of tall RC structures using experimental tests and 3D modeling

    • Authors: Memduh Karalar, Murat Çavuşlu
      Pages: 63 - 77
      Abstract: The use of waste materials for reinforcement of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is of great importance for both environmental cleaning and recycling. In this study, the effects of granulated glass released by factories on the structural behavior of RC structures are examined in detail. Initially, 5 different concretes are produced using 5 different granulated glass percentages. Granulated glass is used instead of aggregate. Different aggregate ratios of granulated glass are taken into account for each sample. 5 different concrete samples are subjected to the slump test and the consistency of the concrete samples is assessed in detail. Then, each concrete sample is subjected to compressive strength tests. It is clearly seen from the compressive strength tests that granulated glass increased the strength of the concrete noticeably. Then, the 31-story reinforced concrete structure is modeled considering the most critical granulated glass ratio. The 1995 Kobe earthquake is utilized for the seismic analyses. Firstly, the RC structure is analyzed for the pure concrete and then, analyses are performed for various granulated glass added cases. According to the analysis results, granulated glass significantly increased the earthquake resistance of reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, waste granulated glass caused enormous reductions in the weight of the structure. In this study, it is concluded that granulated glass material, which is found in nature as waste, can be used for the construction of RC structures.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cover & Contents Vol.8 No.1

    • Authors: Journal Management CJSMEC
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Optimum design of a vaulted roof steel structure using grey wolf and
           backtracking search optimization algorithms through application
           programming interface

    • Authors: Osman Tunca
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: In present study, structural formation identification of a vaulted roof steel structure is taken as optimization problem. The cost of a steel structure is directly related to the weight of the structure. Weight minimization of the vaulted roof steel structure is considered as objective function of the design problem. The design problem is intended to be as realistic as possible. Wind loads and snow loads are calculated in direction of TS EN 1991-1-4 and TS EN1991-1-3practice code specifications, respectively. And dead loads reobtained in terms of gravity. The structural design constraints of the optimization problem are determined according to American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design (AISC-ASD). In the design, W-shaped steel profile sections to be selected for assigning to the structural elements are considered as discrete design variables. Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and Backtracking Search Optimization (BSO) algorithms that are relatively recent metaheuristic algorithms are utilized as optimizer tools to obtain the minimum weighted structural design. The vaulted roof steel structure is initially modeled in a finite element packaged software (ANSYS Workbench v18.1). Then, using the application programming interface of the software, integration of finite element model with GWO and BSO optimization algorithms encoded in Microsoft Visual Basic for Application (MS VBA v7) programming language is provided. Thus, the performances of two new generation optimization algorithms in design optimization of a vaulted roof steel structure are compared and the benefits of the application programming interface are demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Wind loads on girder bridges

    • Authors: Lyubomir A. Zdravkov
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Bridges are facilities that are in exploitation outdoor. Often the wind is the leading horizontal force in the transverse direction. Therefore the bridges have received the due attention in the standards for wind loading. Unfortunately, in all available standards for wind load on the bridges, one, summarized value of the aerodynamic coefficient is indicated. It is related to the entire cross-section of the facility. There is no differentiation for the individual longitudinal girders and/or roadway. Information about the specific wind pressure on each of the bridge’s element is required for the correct design of their supporting systems, whether they are framed or braced type. To fill this gap, the author has built several models of bridges with longitudinal girders, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Through them he determined the values of the aerodynamic coefficients for each of the bridge girders under the roadway and the cross-section of the bridge as a whole. Conclusions are summarized and the results clearly show the values of the aerodynamic coefficients for the whole section of the bridge are with 50-60% lower than the ones reported for the windward girder.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Structural evaluation of unitized curtain wall systems by using
           inter-story drift test

    • Authors: Selcuk Dogru, Ferit Cakir, Bulent Akbas
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: A curtain wall enhances the aesthetic appeal of a building and protects it from harmful environmental conditions. As one of the most significant façade curtain walls, Unitized Curtain Wall Systems (UCWS) are constructed concurrently with the construction of the structural framing system. Because of their lightness, ease of application, functionality, and various design possibilities, UCWSs are frequently used as exterior panels on high-rise buildings. UCWSs must be designed to resist external loads such as wind and seismic load during their lifetime. A structural performance evaluation of the UCWSs is therefore one of the most important criteria for their design. American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) suggests conducting a full-scale test on a mock-up to determine the structural performance in accordance with AAMA 501.4. In this study, an inter-story drift test was performed according to the AAMA 501.4 standard on a two-story UCWS system, comprised of six panels 1430.8 mm wide and 4215 mm high. The structural behavior of the system was assessed using horizontal and vertical displacement meters that were placed at various points in the system. In addition, a simplified numerical model of the system was prepared and experimental studies were supported by finite element analysis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
  • Earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete retaining walls
           considering the project location change effect

    • Authors: Zülal Akbay Arama, İlknur Dalyan, Muhammed Selahaddin Akın
      Pages: 27 - 37
      Abstract: In this paper, the design process of reinforced concrete retaining walls is investigated under the issue of “project location change effect” which becomes a significant requirement to assess the earthquake resistant design depending on the new Turkish Building Earthquake Code-2018 (TBEC-2018). Within this context, in the light of the related code, fourteen different districts which are located in the Anatolian Side of Istanbul Province (Turkey) have been taken into consideration, to search for also the effects of the supported earth fill depth, the unit weight and the shear strength angle of surrounding soil and the external loading conditions. In this way, it has been aimed to focus on the application details of the design code and reflect the outcomes of the analysis in terms of the changes that happened in wall dimensions depending on the locations of project. Besides, with this study, it is aimed to reveal that the definition of type sectional wall will not be possible with the new code. As the result, the influence rates of the investigated project variants have been explained considering site-specific retaining wall design in terms of integrated relations of the design parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      DOI: 10.20528/cjsmec.2022.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
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