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Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi
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ISSN (Online) 2667-7733
Published by Mustafa Kemal University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Determination of yield and some quality characteristics of hybrid melon
           cultivar candidates in Konya ecological conditions

    • Authors: Banu Çiçek ARI; Necibe KAYAK, Ünal KAL, Neslihan ISSI, Önder TÜRKMEN, Yeşim DAL, Ertan Sait KURTAR, Musa SEYMEN
      Abstract: Aims: It was aimed to determine some yield and quality characteristics of 85 hybrid melon cultivar candidates in Konya, which is one of the most Altınbaş melon growing regions of Turkey.Methods and Results: This study was carried out in the research and application area of Selçuk University Faculty of Agriculture between May and August 2021. In the experiment, 85 Altınbaş hybrid melon cultivar candidates, obtained as a result of crosses with genotypes showing superior characteristics from a large genetic pool, were used by Selko-Tarim company, which carries out R&D studies on different vegetable species in Antalya. There was a positive correlation between the yield per plant and the number of fruits and fruit length that directly affect the yield. In addition, while the increase in fruit number caused a decrease in fruit weight, a negative significant correlation was found between these two characteristics.Conclusions: As a result of PCA, the study was explained as high as 75.94% in 6 components. It was determined that hybrid melon cultivar candidates 73, 61, 35, 27, 23, 18 and 30, located at the positive intersection of the components of PC3 and PC4, showed superior characteristics in terms of yield and fruit quality and were promising genotypes.Significance and Impact of the Study: Some yield and quality characteristics of 85 hybrid melon cultivar candidates were revealed in Konya ecological conditions.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effects of vegetable production on income and livelihood of rural
           households in Nigeria

    • Authors: Ridwan MUKAİLA; Abraham FALOLA, Sheu-usman Oladipo AKANBİ, Lynda EGWUE, Angela OBETTA, Tochukwu Linda ONAH
      Abstract: Aims: The growing level of food insecurity and poverty in developing nations, especially among rural households, requires more effort and measures to curb it. Engaging in vegetable production by rural households can play a significant role in alleviating poverty, improving their nutritional status and livelihood. This study, therefore, investigates the effect of vegetable production on rural farmers’ income and households’ livelihood in Nigeria.Methods and Results: Data collected from 400 vegetable farming households were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. The results revealed that vegetable farming is a female-dominated venture (89.4% females). The regression results revealed that vegetable output had a positive and significant effect on rural households’ income. Other factors that influenced farmers’ income were household size, access to credit and farm size. Furthermore, vegetable production had positive effects on rural households’ livelihood by providing employment, income, basic needs, food, paying for school fees, improving their nutritional status and standard of living. Pests and diseases, poor storage facilities, post-harvest loss, inadequate credit facilities, high cost of inputs, poor knowledge of irrigation, poor transportation and poor extension services were the severe constraints faced in vegetable production.Conclusions: It can be inferred that vegetable production contributed immensely to rural households’ economic status, livelihood and wellbeing. Although, the venture was faced with some challenges. Therefore, the provision of accessible and affordable credit facilities by banks, government and non-governmental organizations to the farmers is important as this would encourage them, curb most of the constraints and increase their income.Significance and Impact of the Study: Understanding the effects of vegetable production on the income and livelihoods of rural dwellers will enhance participation. Therefore, the outcome of this study would allow policymakers to intervene in its production in view to lower poverty and malnutrition, and improve rural households’ wellbeing.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Effect of soil biostimulant application for the growth and quality of beet

    • Authors: Marcelle BETTONİ; Duelen Carolay CASTRO CABRAL, Tefide KIZILDENİZ
      Abstract: Aims: The goal of this investigation was to examine how different dosages of Viva BR® biostimulant affected the yield and quality of beet seedlings of Early Wonder Tall Top variety.Methods and Results: The experiment was carried out at intervals of 7 days, the first being at 7 days after sowing (DAS) until 28 DAS, totaling 5 applications (0 (control), 7, 14, 21 and 28 DAS) in the greenhouse of the Universidade Tuiuti do Paraná/Brazil, in a completely randomized design.Conclusions: It is concluded that the application via soil of the Viva BR® biostimulant had a positive impact on the growth of beet seedlings.Significance and Impact of the Study: In warm climates, Beta vulgaris L. (beet) of the Chenopodiaceae family predominates and its cultivated intensively in Brazil's Southeast and South regions. The seedling cultivation phase identifies the crops early establishment in the field in order to ensure stand consistency and appropriate ultimate productivity. Among the diverse techniques treated to achieve increases in this stage is the application of substances with biostimulating impacts, which result from the combination of two or more bioregulators with other compounds that might boost plant growth and development. As a result, substances having a biostimulating impact emerge as a reasonable solution for improving seedling growth. The maximum efficiency for the biometric variables at the dose of 6.2 mL L-1 while for the qualitative variables it was 5.0 mL L-1.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The effects of different rhizobacteria and mycorrhiza applications on
           seedling growth and development of starflower (Dahlia variabilis)

    • Authors: Onur Sefa ALKAÇ; Sabriye BELGÜZAR, Esra ÖNDEŞ, Fulya OKATAR, Zeliha KAYAASLAN
      Abstract: Aims: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae on the growth and development from seed to seedling of Dahlia variabilis (starflower) plant, which is widely produced in the world as a cut flower and outdoor ornamental plant, and which is becoming increasingly widespread in Turkey.Methods and Results: Within the scope of the study, Enterobacter cloacae (ZE-2), Bacillus cereus (ZE-7), Pseudomonas putida (ZE-12), Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (ZE-13), Burkholderia cepecia (7-a-2) bacterial species and commercially available mycorrhiza (5000 ppm) were applied to seeds of D. variabilis cultivar 'Violet'. In order to determine the effects of applications on seedling growth and development; germination rate (%), seedling height (cm), stem diameter (mm), number of leaves (piece), plant fresh weight (g), plant dry weight (g), root length (cm), root fresh weight (g), root dry weight (g) and SPAD value and chlorophyll content were measured. At the end of the study, it was determined that the applications had different effects on D. variabilis. It was determined that P. putida (ZE-12) application increased germination by 12% compared to the control, and A. calcoaceticus (ZE-13) increased the seedling height by 32.9%.Conclusions: In conclusion, with this study, it was determined that these bacteria, which are of natural origin and do not harm the environment, have the potential to be used in seedling cultivation in ornamental plants, and it is important to expand the use of these applications in the ornamental plant’s production sector.Significance and Impact of the Study: Although the Dahlia plant is known in the world, there is not much information on this subject in Turkey. In addition, the use of newly isolated bacterial species in order to obtain higher quality seedlings during the period from seed to seedling stage of the Dahlia plant is also very limited. Improvement of the quality of seedlings with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizae, which are among the sustainable methods, is considered to be important.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Evaluation of population density of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella
           xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on different canola varieties
           in Hatay province

    • Authors: Nihat DEMİREL
      Abstract: Aims: Evaluation of population density of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), on different canola varieties in Hatay province.Methods and Results: The study was conducted in 2007-2009 to evaluate population density of diamondback moth on different canola varieties in Hatay province. The study was carried out in six different canola 'Hydromel', 'Elvis', 'Sarı', 'Lycosmos', 'Hunter' and 'Sory' varieties. Samplings were done by using a 45-cm diameter sweep-net, taking 25 (back-forth) sweep samples per site. The DBM larvae were sorted out from plant materials, counted and recorded for each of the sampling locality and canola variety in order to evaluate population density of P. xylostella. After three years of the study, the population density of pest varied in each of the sampling year and variety of canola. In 2007, a total of 348 DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net on five different canola varieties and canola fields. The largest mean of DBM larvae catches by sweep-net were recorded on 15 May on variety of ‘Lycosmos’. In 2008, A total of 1009 DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net on four different canola varieties and eleven canola fields. The largest mean of catches by sweep-net were recorded on 10 April on variety of ‘Elvis’ (Atçana III), followed by variety of ‘Hunter’ (Demirköprü I), ‘Sarı’ (Demirköprü I), ‘Lycosmos’ (Demirköprü II). In 2009, a total of 75 DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net on canola variety. The largest number of DBM larvae catches by sweep-net were recorded on 22 April, followed by 20 May. Conclusions: The highest number of the DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net in May, following in April in three years. In addition, the highest number of the DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net on variety of ‘Lycosmos’, following by ‘Elvis’, and ‘Sarı’ cultivars.Significance and Impact of the Study: The diamondback moth is important pest of brassica vegetable and oilseed crops in Turkey. The highest number of the DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net in May, following in April during the sampling periods. In addition, the highest number of the DBM larvae were caught by sweep-net on variety of ‘Lycosmos’, following by ‘Elvis’, and ‘Sarı’ cultivars.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of responses to salt stress of some fescue (Festuca spp.)
           species at germination and seedling stages

    • Authors: İbrahim ERTEKİN; Şaban YILMAZ, Ersin CAN
      Abstract: Aims: This study was carried out to determine the performances of some grass species (Festuca arundinaceae L. (tall fescue), Festuca rubra L. subsp. rubra (red fescue with rhizome), and Festuca. rubra L. subsp. commutata (red fescue without rhizome)) under different salt doses (control/0, 50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, and 200 mM).Methods and Results: NaCl2 was used to create different salt doses in the study. Solutions prepared according to salt doses were added to the germination medium of Festuca species as 8 mL and the species were left for germination and seedling development in the climate cabinet for 10 days. At the end of this period, germination rate, germination index, mean germination time, shoot and root length, and seedling fresh weight characteristics were examined. The germination rate, germination index, and average germination time of Festuca species were not affected by salt doses, while the shoot and root length and seedling fresh weight properties were affected.Conclusions: According to the results, it was concluded that the seedling growth characteristics of the fescue species differ under different salt doses. Festuca rubra L. subsp. rubra (red fescue with rhizome) species used in the study was determined to be more tolerant to salt stress compared to other species.Significance and Impact of the Study: It was aimed to examine the fescue species belonging to the genus Festuca under salt stress and to be a guide for the studies carried out to establish green areas, especially for regions with salinity problems. In addition, this study has the quality of being a reference for scientific studies to be carried out.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Irrigation effect on some quality characteristics of popcorn (Zea mays
           everta Sturt.)

    • Authors: Cem Tufan AKÇALI; Cenk Burak ŞAHİN
      Abstract: Aims: This study was conducted under Hatay, Turkey ecological conditions in the second crop season and aimed to determine the effect of irrigation numbers and amounts on some quality characteristics of popcorn (Zea mays everta Sturt.)Methods and Results: Antcin 98 popcorn cultivar was cultivated in Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Research Area in the second crop season of 2015 under five irrigation managements as follows: (I1) 12 times (1757 mm), (I2) 8 times (1449 mm), (I3) 6 times (1148 mm), (I4) 5 times (989 mm) and (I5) 4 times (800 mm). After harvest, quality analysis were carried out with 4 repetitions for each irrigation treatment and kernel size, crude protein, crude oil and crude ash ratios were determined. It’s revealed that all the parameters investigated significantly affected by irrigation managements. According to the results; the lowest grain size (89.00 grains 10 g-1) and the highest crude protein ratio (10.59%) were obtained from the I5 treatment, while the highest crude ash (2.04%) and crude oil (5.74%) ratios were obtained from the I4 treatment. It was determined that as the number of irrigation decreased, the crude protein ratio increased, the crude ash and crude oil ratios increased to a certain level and then decreased. With the correlation analysis performed, significant and positive relationships were determined between kernel size and crude protein (r = 0.686) and between crude oil and crude ash (r = 0.852). Conclusions: The results showed that excessive irrigations cannot increase kernel size, which directly affects the popping volume, which is one of the most important quality criteria of popcorn, However, the nutritional values can be changed by applying different irrigation managements. It can be concluded that under similar growing and climatic conditions, popcorn can be produced with 5 irrigations and a total of 989 mm of irrigation water.Significance and Impact of the Study: The study revealed the effects of different irrigation numbers and amounts on some quality characteristics of popcorn grown under second crop season conditions.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Agro-morphological characterization of local bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    • Authors: Aykut ŞENER; Muharrem KAYA
      Abstract: Aims: This study aims to evaluate the performance of local bean genotypes collected from different provinces.Methods and Results: The experiments were carried out in 2019 and 2020, using 68 bean genotypes and 5 cultivars (Akın, Akman98, Göynük98, Önceler98 and Yunus90) according to the augmented design. It was observed that there were significant variations among bean cultivars and genotypes in terms of all the characteristics examined. According to the research results in 2019, differences observed as follows; days to emergence 10.15-37.15 days, days to flowering 35.60-71.20 days, days to pod setting 53.65-84.85 days, chlorophyll contents 25.21-43.86 SPAD, plant heights 22.49-73.60 cm, pod lengths 6.75-14.35 cm, seed per pod 1.95-5.85, grain yield per plant 11.79-57.35 g and the harvest index 24.36-66.34%. The results for the same characteristics in 2020 were as follows; days to emergence 10.75-33.95 days, days to flowering 31.80-84.60 days, days to pod setting 60.55-92.55 days, chlorophyll content 27.29-47.25 SPAD, plant height 30.01-173.9 cm, pod length 5.85-12.60 cm, seed per pod 2.56-6.86, grain yield per plant 5.58-68.34 g and the harvest index 13.11-71.46%.Conclusions: It was determined that ISP5, ISP13, ISP18, ISP19, ISP21, ISP22, ISP23, ISP31, ISP32, ISP34, ISP35, ISP72, ISP98, BUR14, BUR20, BUR21, ESK3, KON5, MAN1, DEN2, KON16 and KON17 local genotypes showed higher performance than control cultivars in terms of seed per pod, grain yield per plant and harvest index.Significance and Impact of the Study: It was concluded that there were promising local genotypes superior to the cultivars in all characteristics.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of consumers’ attitude and behaviours about probiotic
           products: a case study of TR63 Region in Turkey

    • Authors: Ahmet Duran ÇELİK; Tuğçe SARIOĞLU, Erdal DAĞISTAN
      Abstract: Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels, attitudes, and consumption tendency of consumers in the TR63 region of Turkey (Hatay, Kahramanmaraş, Osmaniye).Methods and Results: A face-to-face survey study was conducted with 600 consumers in the TR63 region in order to determine consumers’ general behaviors and approaches regarding probiotic food products. Although consumers were generally willing to buy probiotic food products in the market (66.80%), they found home-made probiotic products healthier. Within the study it was determined that 74.80% of the consumers were producing at least one kind of probiotic product at home. The most common products produced at home were respectively; yogurt, ayran, pickled cucumbers/pickled cabbage, and kefir.Conclusions: In recent years consumers’ interest in functional products have been increasing in Turkey as well as the world. Consumers tend to consume functional products in order to have a more wholesome life and prevent several health problems. Among the functional foods, probiotic products have an important place and are the most consumed functional products by consumers. According to the research results, consumers have a high awareness of the benefits of probiotic foods and they consume these products with confidence. In addition to these results, it was determined that consumers were willing to buy more probiotic food products if their prices were less expensive.Significance and Impact of the Study: With the findings of the research; the preferences, priorities, and consumption frequencies of the consumers in probiotic products were determined. It is expected that these results will contribute to the food industry and the growing functional food product market in order to increase the consumption level of these products, and develop marketing opportunities.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of some microbiological and physicochemical properties of
           butter produced in central villages of Kastamonu province of Turkey

    • Authors: Deren TAHMAS KAHYAOĞLU; Gizem MUSAOĞLU
      Abstract: Aims: In this study, some microbiological and physicochemical properties of butter produced in central villages of Kastamonu province of Turkey and put on the market were investigated.Methods and Results: The 13 butter samples used in the research were obtained from the villagers producing in April-May 2021. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria growing on MRS agar, lactic acid bacteria growing on M17 agar, coliform group bacteria, yeast and mold counts were determined 5.34-7.07, 3.47-5.71; 3.60-6.62; <2-3.88; 2.30-4.07; <2-4. log cfu/g respectively, dry matter, fat, non-fat dry matter, titratable acidity, acid value, peroxide value, saponification number, Reichert-Meissl number, polenske number, refractive index, melting point, L, a, b values were determined 78.14-87.98%; 77.50-86.40%; 0.69-1.97%; 0.241-0.292%; 0.63-1.24 mg KOH/ g fat; (-) meqO2/kg fat; 212.74-234.69; 20.34-28.13; 0.88-1.45; 1.4565-1.4580; 34.00-37.00°C; 80.59-85.72; (-2.48)-(-3.50); (+18.45) - (+23.73) respectively.Conclusions: Considering the average values, the butter samples were found to be suitable in terms of physicochemical properties, but as a result of microbiological analyzes, they were found to be of insufficient quality, especially in terms of yeast and mold numbers. It is thought that this situation is caused by not following the hygiene rules during production and/or not storing the products under appropriate conditions.Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, the butter produced in the central villages of Kastamonu province was examined and the results obtained were generally determined in terms of the physicochemical properties of butter in accordance with the Turkish Food Codex Communique on Butter, Other Milk Fat Based Spreadable Products and Anhydrous milkfat, TS 1331-Butter Standard and results of the other studies carried out by the researchers. However, it was observed that none of the butter samples were of sufficient quality, especially in terms of yeast and mold numbers. Especially today, the increase in demand for products produced in villages, with the thought that they are healthier, necessitates informing the producers about butter production and hygiene in terms of public health.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Cost analysis in peanut bagging (human labor & prototype bagging

    • Authors: Selçuk UĞURLUAY; Ali SOMAY
      Abstract: Aims: The aim of this study was to economically compare the method that could semi-mechanized bagging and the method that uses human labor.Methods and Results: For this reason, a Prototype Pneumatic Peanut Bagging Machine powered by tractor PTO shaft was designed, manufactured and used, which conveys peanut pods from the ground using aspirated air and fill the product into the bags. As a result of the cost analysis made within the scope of the study, the cost of bagging using human labor costs 7.2 $ t-1, and the prototype bagging machine costs 9.6 $ t-1. It was determined that an average of 2.5% loss occurs due to crushing while the bags were filled with human labor. In a day of work, 15 tons of products were generally bagged and loaded on a truck. In this case, approximately 375 kg of product was lost. The shelled peanut price was approximately 1.6 $ kg-1 in 2019. The approximate monetary value of the 375 kg lost product was $600. This loss should be taken into account when evaluating both bagging methods in terms of costs.Conclusions: It has been found that bagging with a prototype machine is more profitable and more humane in terms of conditions than bagging using human labor.Significance and Impact of the Study: In terms of mechanization in the cultivation and harvesting of peanuts was no problem but some post-harvest processes (especially bagging) still require a large amount of human labor and has such as some basic problems with peanut bagging. Due to lean working and dusty environment, there was a difficult and tiring working situation in terms of occupational health. Thus was getting more and more difficult to find workers for this heavy work conditions. In addition, the shovel or canister used in bagging breaks the peanut shells and causes losses.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Investigation on phytoplasma diseases, their potential insect vectors and
           other hosts in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) growing areas of Hatay-Turkey

    • Authors: Hakan ÇARPAR; Gülşen SERTKAYA
      Abstract: Aims: This study was conducted to determine the phytoplasma diseases of pepper plants in Hatay province between 2016 and 2019.Methods and Results: Samples of pepper (Capsicum annuum), sesame (Sesamum indicum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) which had typical phytoplasma symptoms and insect (Cicadellidae spp.) samples were collected from the pepper fields. Empoasca sp., Cicadulina bipunctata, Psammotettix sp., Balchutha hebe, Euscelidius sp., Anaceratagallia laevis and Exitianus capicola were found as potential insect vectors of the phytoplasmas as descending order of population densities. T-budding grafting technique was successful for phytoplasma transmission from infected sesame and basil plants to healthy periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants in controlled conditions. Phytoplasmas were detected in pepper, tomato, basil, sesame and bindweed and from some insect samples. Total nucleic acid isolation was accomplished by the CTAB method. Direct and Nested PCR were used employing R16F1/R16R0 and R16F2n/R16R2 primer pairs respectively.Conclusions: DNA of positive samples were sequenced, and uploaded to Genbank, and were identified as Ca. Phytoplasma trifolii on pepper (MT993358), sesame (MT994434), tomato (MT992754), basil (MT994432), Empoasca sp. (MT994430), Exitianus capicola (MT994433), Euscelidius sp. (MT994431); and as Ca. Phytoplasma solani on binweed (MT993422) and tomato (MT992796).Significance and Impact of the Study: According to our knowledge, this study is the first to identify and upload to Genbank of Ca. Phytoplasma trifolii on basil and Empoasca sp., Exitianus capicola and Euscelidius sp. as insect vectors of the diseases in Turkey.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of the host range of Pectobacterium polaris causing
           bacterial soft rot disease

    • Authors: Murat OZTURK
      Abstract: Aims: Pectobacterium polaris is a novel species of Pectobacterium taxa, which was reported in different regions of the world and has been recently detected in Turkey. In this study, in order to determine the host range of this novel species, two representative strains were evaluated in terms of their pathogenicity on several host plants, and it is aimed to determine plant species under the risk of the pathogen.Methods and Results: P. polaris strains NV3 and NV19, isolated from potato plants showing blackleg symptoms in Nevşehir province during the vegetation period of 2019, were used for artificial inoculation. Bacterial suspension of both strains was inoculated by injecting into the red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, onion, garlic, carrot, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, melon, watermelon, lettuce, sunflower and sugar beet plants. The appearance of the disease symptoms indicated that both strains of P. polaris caused disease in all the plant species inoculated artificially. Viable bacterial colonies were re-isolated from infected plant tissue.Conclusions: Pectobacterium species are very destructive bacterial plant pathogens that cause soft rot on numerous plant species. It has been determined that P. polaris, which has been reported in different regions of the world and in Turkey as a new emerging pathogen within in a wide host range. Disease protection precautions should be taken in the regions where the pathogen is isolated for the first time, and especially pathogen transmission should be prevented to the clean production areas by potato tubers.Significance and Impact of the Study: All tested plant species were determined as potential hosts for P. polaris. The risk status of the pathogen on these plants, which have economic importance in Turkey, was determined for the first time with this study
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The effects of foliar sulfur application under water stress conditions on
           yield, evapotranspiration and some physiological properties of cotton

    • Authors: Berkant ÖDEMİŞ; Yaşar AKIŞCAN, Deniz CAN, Batuhan AKGÖL
      Abstract: Aims: This study was carried out to determine the effects of foliar sulfur application under water stress conditions on yield, evapotranspiration and some physiological properties of cotton.Methods and Results: This research was conducted on Carisma cotton plant variety, by splitted plots in randomized block design. Foliar sulfur doses was determined as 150 mL da-1 (S1), 250 mL da-1 (S2) and 350 mL da-1 (S3) and non sulphur (S0) treatment. Irrigation levels were composed of non irrigated (I0) and available water at three different irrigation levels (I100, I66, I33). Stomatal conductance (Sc), chlorohyll content (spad value) leaf surface temperature (LSt), cotton yield, evapotranspiration were measured in order to determine the effect of the applications. Foliar sulfur application did not effect the expected increase in yield. The highest yield was obtained as 6150 kg ha-1 in I100S1 in second year. The water stress that the plant was exposed caused a decrease in all parameters. Foliar sulfur application increased spad values in stressed leaves, but decreased in unstressed leaves. A high correlation was found between yield and Sc and LSt. It was determined that Spad values were not as sensitive to stress as Sc and LSt. The period of recovery from the stress that cotton was exposed to from the beginning of the flowering period took approximately 2 days longer than the beginning of the boll formation period. Water stress was accelerated the senescence trend in all treatment.Conclusions: There are studies showing that sulfur applications are successful in reducing stress. In these studies, sulfur was applied from the soil and to plants in controlled environments. The same success was not achieved in foliar application. While water stress negatively affected the physiological properties of the plant, foliar application of sulfur could not significantly eliminate this negativity.Significance and Impact of the Study: This research is important in terms of revealing the effects of foliar applied elemental sulfur on some physiological properties and evapotranspiration of cotton under water stress conditions
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Heterosis, heterobeltiosis and dominance effect on yield, total soluble
           solid and dry matter of red pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. conoides
           (Mill.) Irish] hybrids

    • Authors: Senay MURAT DOĞRU; Hayati KAR, Mehtap ÖZBAKIR ÖZER, Nur KOBAL BEKAR
      Abstract: Aims: The aim of this study is to estimate heterosis, heterobeltiosis and dominance effect on yield, total soluble solid and dry matter of capia type red pepper.Methods and Results: In this study 11 capia type red pepper parents and 47 hybrids obtained from crosses of these parents were used as materials. Heterosis in fresh fruit yield ranged from -48.23 to 80.68. The highest heterosis were recorded for 209 YKB (80.68%), 239 YKB (60.35%), 225 YKB (56.97%) and 195 YKB (55.30%), respectively. Heterosis rates of F1 changed between -33.70 and 30.98 in terms of total soluble solid. The highest heterosis rates was found in 218 YKB. In terms of dry matter, highest heterosis rate was calculated as 66.67% in 195 YKB. As a result of the study, 39-H-2, 43-H-6 and 45-H-5 were determined as the best parents giving the highest heterosis rates in crosses.Conclusions: In this study, heterosis rates were highly positive direction in terms of all three characteristics. The use of heterosis can be indicated as a practical method to increase yield and other economic characteristics in peppers.Significance and Impact of the Study: These results can be used to determine the varieties that become prominent in terms of desired characteristics.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Investigation of chemical and biological control possibilities of stem
           canker and black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) diseases in potatoes

    • Authors: Aysel Zübeyde ERDEVİL; Ali ERKILIÇ
      Abstract: Aims: In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of various chemical fungicides, plant activators and biological preparats on the suppression of mycelial growth and disease incidence caused by stem canker and black scurf disease agent Rhizoctonia solani.Methods and Results: In the experiment, the effects of fungicides (flutolanil, fluxapyroxad, fludioxonil, penflufen+Prothiconazole and tolclophos-methyl+thiram) and plant activators (ISR-2000, Crop-set, Aliette and Messenger Gold) on the mycelial growth of R. solani were determined under laboratory conditions. The antagonistic effects of biofungal and biobacterial preparats (T-22 Planter Box, Trianum-p, Serenade and Cedriks) against R. solani were also investigated. The effects of chemicals and biological preparats on the disease of R. solani were evaluated with micro-plot trials. According to the in vitro results; fungicides tolclophos-methyl+thiram and flutolanil inhibited mycelial growth 100% from 5 ppm. Among plant activators, the highest fungicidal effect was caused in Aliette with 31.5% inhibition at 1000 ppm. Commercial biofungal preparat Trichoderma harzianum, suppressed mycelial growth at varying rates between 3.8% and 66.9%. Commercial biobacterial preparats, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Cedriks) and Bacillus subtilis (Serenade) inhibited mycelial growth by 82.9% and 59.4% respectively. According to the results of micro plot experiments, the most successful treatments were determined as tolclophos-methyl+thiram, fosetyl-al and P. fluorescens.Conclusions: Among tested treatments, Tolclophos-methyl+thiram, fosetyl-Al and P. fluorescens treatments significantly suppressed the growth of R. solani both in vitro and in vivo.Significance and Impact of the Study: Although fungicides were found to be quite effective in laboratory conditions, they showed similar fungicidal effect as shown by plant activators and biopreparats in field conditions. Considering this effect, it is possible to say that plant activators and biopreparats may have potential as an alternative control method to registered fungicides.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of adult population density of Agonoscena pistaciae
           Burc.&Laut. (Hemiptera:Psyllidae)' on pistachio trees in Şanlıurfa
           province by different methods

    • Authors: Mehmet Ali SAĞIROĞLU; Kamuran KAYA
      Abstract: Aims: With this study, which was carried out in two pistachio orchards (Karaköprü-1 and Karaköprü-2) in Karaköprü district of Şanlıurfa province in 2019-2020, it was aimed to determine the adult population changes of Pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, which is the main pest in the pistachio orchards, by beating and yellow sticky trap (SYT) methods.Methods and Results: Counts were made in weekly periods with 10 trees from each orchard which were chosen for both sampling methods. In the graphs plotted by data obtained, similar population curves were observed in both orchards for two different sampling methods. However, curves obtained from yellow sticky traps indicate a higher population than the curves obtained from beating method. This difference was found to be significant in the statistical analysis. The first adults were seen in 04/28/2019 in the first year and in 05/03/2020 in the second year in both orchards and sampling methods. In the first year, the highest population level was found in 09/01/2019 in orchards Karaköprü-1 and 2 as 100.3 adult/SYT, 119.3 adult/SYT, and 84 adult/beating, 92.5 adult/beating, respectively. In the second year, similar population densities were determined in the samplings achieved by yellow sticky trap and beating in the same orchards and population levels.Conclusions With this study, it was concluded that yellow sticky traps are able to determine changes in the population as accurately as beating method, a classical method, in the studies which monitor the adult population movements with A. pistaciae. The fact that the numerical difference between the samples obtained by the two sampling methods is statistically significant shows that the yellow sticky traps are promising tools in terms of being used within the scope of biotechnical methods within the integrated control methods.Significance and Impact of the Study: It is considered that the effectiveness of yellow sticky trap to catch A. pistaciae adults can be increased with new studies by using yellow sticky traps alone or in combination with some other methods. With these studies, trapping A. pistaciae adults in mass and thus keeping their populations below the Economic Damage Threshold or at least reducing the number of pesticide applications will ensure that these studies have achieved their purpose.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of fungal and bacterial species and their densities in fruit
           and airborne microbiota in citrus packing houses located in Hatay province

    • Authors: Aysun UYSAL; Şener KURT, Soner SOYLU, Merve KARA, Emine Mine SOYLU
      Abstract: Aims: This study aims to determine fungal and bacterial species and their densities in fruit and airborne microbiota in citrus packing houses located in Antakya, Dörtyol and Erzin districts of Hatay province.Methods and Results: Investigation were conducted in citrus fruit packing houses in Hatay province in 2020-2021. In order to determine the airborne microbiota, the nutrient media were placed in 3 different regions of the packing houses (product entrance, fruit processing and product dispatch). Fruit-borne fungal and bacterial isolates were obtained from the deliberately selected rotten fruits. Fungal and bacterial isolates were identified by morphological, biochemical and MALDI-TOF proteomic analysis. Penicillium italicum, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, Xanthomonas hortorum, Pantoea eucrina, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Pseudescherichia vulneris, Bacelliotymegatibia vulnerica, Bacelliot, eucrina, Leclercia adecarboxylata and Pseudescherichia vulnerica were determined as airborne fungal and bacterial species. Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium solani, Geotrichum citri-auranti, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Phytophthora sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Geotrichum candidum, Erwinia herbicola, Xanthomonas hortorum were isolated and identified as fruit borne fungal and bacterial species on infected fruits.Conclusions: It has been observed that the airborne microbiota density is quite higher in the fruit processing section of the packinghouses, while the microbiota density is low in the product acceptance (entry) and dispatch (exit) sections because of proper ventilation.Significance and Impact of the Study: Airborne fungal and bacterial microbiota in the packinghouses can be easily transported by air movements and remain suspended in the air for a certain period of time, causing symptoms such as deterioration and rot in fruits. Since some of identified airborne bacterial and fungal species are known as allergens or human pathogens, necessary advices were given about the sanitation measures which should be taken into consideration in commercial citrus packinghouses.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Yield and nut characteristics of some foreign almond cultivars in
           Gaziantep ecology

    • Authors: Safder BAYAZİT; Mustafa ALAZ
      Abstract: Aims: In this study, yield and pomological properties of Texas, Nonpareil, Mandalay, Marta, Ruby, Padre, Primorski, Picantili, Desmayo Larguetta and Sonora almond cultivars which were planted on the seedling rootstocks in Gaziantep ecological conditions were tried to be determined.Methods and Results: In the study, yield per tree (kg/tree) nut weight (g), nut dimensions (length, width, height) (mm), shell thickness (mm), the kernel weight (g), kernel dimensions (length, width, height) (mm), kernel ratio (%), fat and protein ratios (%) were determined. As a result of the study, the yield per tree was ranged from 4.18 kg (Primorski) to 7.83 kg (Marta) in 2018 and 3.67 kg (Primorski) to 8.67 kg (Padre) in 2020. Average lowest nut weight was obtained from the Sonora cultivar (1.43 g and 1.52g) in the two years of the study and the highest was obtained from D. Largueta cultivar (3.17 g and 3.44 g). While the kernel weight was low in Primorski and Pikantili cultivars, it was over 1 g in Mandalay, Ruby and Sonora cultivars. In the analyses carried out in 2018, the fat content ranged from 39.20% (Ruby) to 50.82% (Primorski), and the protein ratio ranged from 17.60% (Nonpareil) to 26% (Mandalay).Conclusions: : It has been determined that Primorski cultivar is not suitable for the region due to its low yield and low kernel weight. The result of the research has also revealed that D. Larguetta cultivar should not be recommended in Gaziantep ecological conditions due to the low kernel percentage.Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study concerns the assessment of yield, nuts and kernels physical traits of ten almond cultivars recently introduced in Gaziantep ecology. The aim is to identify the best cultivars, which best adapted to the climatic conditions of favorable for the cultivation of almonds in this region. Because the characteristics of fruit species and cultivars vary according to ecology. Adaptation studies are important for high yield and quality.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Determination of the effectiveness of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and
           fertilization on tomato pith necrosis disease

    • Authors: Neriman ERCAN; Ebru KARNEZ, Benian PINAR AKTEPE, Yesim AYSAN
      Abstract: Aims: The effectiveness of single, double and triple combinations of mycorrhizal fungi, vermicompost and potassium fertilization in tomatoes against the Pith Necrosis Disease caused by Pseudomonas cichorii were investigated in glass greenhouses with pot experimentsMethods and Results: The vermicompost, prepared at the dose recommended by the producer, was mixed with the soil at the rate of 20%, and seven mycorrhizal fungi species, which were produced in the clover plant, were mixed equally and applied to the planting pit of the tomato seedlings at a rate of 100 g per seedling, in contact with the roots. Potassium sulfate fertilizer prepared at a dose of 300 ppm was given after the tomato seedlings were planted. As a result of this study, all of the applications were successful by suppressing the disease at a rate of 52-74%. The most successful application was the Mycorrhiza application, which suppressed the disease by 74%. Vermicompost application prevented the disease by 71%, vermicompost+mycorrhiza and vermicompost+potassium application by 69% and mycorrhiza+potassium application by 68%. Other successful applications were obtained in triple combination with 62% and potassium fertilization alone with 52%.Conclusions: It was determined that vermicompost, mycorrhiza and potassium fertilization applied to tomato plants, both alone and in combination, was successful in preventing the Pith Necrosis Disease caused by Pseudomonas cichorii between 52-74%. Since there is no chemical control of the Pith Necrosis Disease, plant activators stimulating the resistance mechanisms of plants and applications that enrich the microbial activity of the soil are important in terms of suppressing the disease and it is recommended to include these applications in the integrated control program of the disease.Significance and Impact of the Study: This study has shown that these applications, which increase soil microbial activity, improve plant nutrient uptake and stimulate resistance to diseases, can be used successfully in the control of Pith Necrosis Disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +030
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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