Publisher: Cracow University of Economics   (Total: 2 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. Entrepreneurship Review     Full-text available via subscription  
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International Entrepreneurship Review
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Online) 2658-1841
Published by Cracow University of Economics Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Entrepreneurship research in economics and management: Understanding the
           term and research trends

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Krzysztof Wach; Agnieszka Głodowska
      Abstract: Objective: The article aims to discuss the most important aspects and areas of entrepreneurship in the newest research and to identify research trends present in the literature. Research Design & Methods: The article is a literature review of narrative type. The research method we employed is content analysis and synthesis by causal assessment. We used the newest publications, primarily articles from renowned journals indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases. Findings: Entrepreneurship is a multi-thread, interdisciplinary, and multidisciplinary area of research. We may analyse entrepreneurship as a function of: personality, managerial activities, the individual entrepreneur, the market, the SME sector in the economy, self-employment, economic production factor. Many types and categories of entrepreneurship described in the literature have developed over the years, which resulted in a broad diversity of subjects in the field. The evolution of entrepreneurship studies highlights the changing conditions for entrepreneurship and provides new perspectives. Implications & Recommendations: This article responds to the fragmentation and dispersion of research efforts, summarizing achievements in the field of entrepreneurship studies at the intersection of two disciplines: economics and management. We discuss the most important questions of entrepreneurship synthetically and exhaustively, which allows us to delineate up-to-date and more understandable themes for both researchers and practitioners. Contribution & Value Added: The article’s added value consists in the updated and synthetic presentation of entrepreneurship’s most important aspects and areas. The overview presents the current state of the art on entrepreneurship, its functions, classifications, and research directions.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A comparative analysis of regional integration potential in the
           Asia-Pacific Region

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Wojciech Ficek; Remigiusz Gawlik
      Abstract: Objective: The objective of the article is to verify whether the EU can be perceived as a benchmark for further integration of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Participating Countries (RCEP PC) of the Asia-Pacific region. Research Design & Methods: We adopted a quantitative research methodology. It employed cluster analysis through Ward’s minimum-variance method to analyze the Euclidean distances of eight GDP-based World Development Indicators and build two synthetic development measures: SMDRCEP and SMDEU. They were used to group countries according to their level of economic advancement. Standard deviation was used to measure the differences in the structure of GDP in both environments (σRCEP and σEU). The research sample was composed of all RCEP PC and European Union Member States (EU MS). The data sets came from the World Bank database. Findings: The integrity level of RCEP PC is lower than that of EU MS; however, the differences are less significant than expected. Nevertheless, the possibility of RCEP reaching the next integration levels in the foreseeable future is limited. Implications & Recommendations: As RCEP PC do not seem to be able to engage in further integration in the near future, RCEP PC policymakers and business entities should focus on keeping the agreement alive in its current form (FTA). We recommend analyzing whether integration in smaller and more homogeneous groups of countries is possible and desirable. Another factor worth further research is whether the inadequate size of the Chinese economy within the agreement has a pro- or anti-integrational influence on RCEP. Contribution & Value Added: Our research provides an actual insight into the development possibilities of the ‘youngest’ regional integration agreement, the RCEP, based on the experiences related to the integration of the most advanced regional integration agreement, the EU.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • New-generation trade agreement with Japan: Significance to EU Companies
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Małgorzata Czermińska
      Abstract: Objective: The New-generation trade agreements, which include the agreement with Japan, provide wide coverage – not only the liberalisation of trade in goods or services but also the protection of intellectual property rights, the public procurement market, sustainable development and others. This paper aims to demonstrate key provisions and (both ex post and ex ante) opportunities that the agreement creates for EU companies. Research Design & Methods: The research methods include a critical review of existing literature, an analysis of relevant legal and official documents of the European Union, as well as the provisions of the EU-Japan trade agreement. The empirical research focused on Eurostat data. Findings: The provisions of the EU-Japan agreement provide an incentive for European companies to strengthen their position on the Japanese market. The elimination of import duties and other barriers to trade in Japan in relation to certain agricultural products on the entry into force of the agreement contributed to higher exports from the EU for these groups of goods. What might be expected is the additional effect of the liberalisation of bilateral trade on third countries. In fact, standards or rules agreed by Japan and the EU may become even more attractive to third countries, as their adoption would facilitate access to two large markets. Implications & Recommendations: Japan is a relatively important trading partner for the EU and vice versa. One of the biggest achievements of the agreement made between the European Union and Japan includes the wide and deep liberalisation of trade in goods. Despite the fact that the overall level of tariff protection is relatively low, there are still some groups of goods for which the protection in the form of customs duties constitutes an important barrier, as a result of which the conditions for competing on the partner’s market deteriorate. It seems that EU entrepreneurs should make more use of the opportunities which are created by the provisions of the free trade agreement with Japan. So far, the trade crisis caused by the pandemic has stood in the way. Contribution & Value Added: Research conducted so far is of an ex ante nature, both regarding the provisions of the agreement (publications written before 2018) and the evaluation of its potential effects on economy, trade, production or selected sectors. The research carried out in this article is of an ex post nature; it covers the period following the entry into force of the agreement and does not present any growth scenarios or forecasts, as was the case in the existing research. The article attempted to juxtapose the provisions of the agreement with Japan with trade conditions applicable to EU companies, as well as with the growth rate, volume and coverage of bilateral trade in goods.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours of young adults in shaping the
           market offer in the international dimension

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Robert Lisowski; Mariola Mamcarczyk, Anita Proszowska, Mariano Soler-Porta
      Abstract: Objective: The objective of the article is to identify selected pro-environmental behaviours (along with their determinants) of young adults from Polish and Spanish universities and to determine which of them should be taken into account in shaping the market offer of modern international companies. Research Design & Methods: The basis for the conclusions was qualitative research conducted with the use of an online questionnaire. The survey covered students of Polish universities, from whom 540 completed questionnaires were obtained, and students of a Spanish university – 54 questionnaires. The analysis of cross-tabulation in various sections was carried out using the Pearson Chi-square statistics, the contingency coefficient and Cramer's V coefficient. Findings: Young adults from Spain less often than respondents in Poland believe that their lifestyle is environmentally friendly and are more critical of the intensity of involvement of modern people in pro-environmental activities. The positive opinion of Polish students about themselves does not correlate with their behaviour – they participate in protest marches or monitor the network activity of pro-environmental organisations less often than Spanish students. In the case of respondents from Spanish university, essential determinants of their pro-environmental activity turned out to be the following variables: “a source of income” and “a form of study”, while for students from Polish universities, these were “gender” and “a year of birth.” Implications & Recommendations: The pro-environmental elements of the product offer will be appreciated faster in the Spanish market than in the Polish market. At the same time, the offer with such elements will be more popular among younger people, women, and people from big cities. It will be easier to convince the Spanish community of the restrictions on using private cars in urban spaces. The pro-environmental elements of the job offer will be essential only for almost 20% of candidates from Spain and nearly 10% of applicants from Polish universities. Contribution & Value Added: Describing the intensity of pro-environmental behaviour of young adults from selected universities in Poland and Spain. Separating statistically significant relationships between selected pro-environmental behaviours of young adults from the Polish and Spanish markets and their demographic characteristics.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Understanding academic entrepreneurship: A signalling theory perspective
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Marcin Olszewski
      Abstract: Objective: The objective of the article is to apply signalling theory to explain researchers’ engagement with the industry and the barriers to collaboration. Research Design & Methods: A mixed-mode study was carried out among scholars to explain the role of signalling on academic entrepreneurial engagement. The links between signalling and entrepreneurial engagement were assessed in the quantitative part using a sample of researchers from Poland. Moreover, qualitative research helped identify additional forms and barriers of signalling, which were not considered in the quantitative part. The IBM SPSS Statistics and Atlas.ti software was used in the data analysis. Findings: In line with signalling theory, scientists’ signals were divided into three groups: individual and organizational characteristics, researchers’ actions, and third-party endorsements. Results show that the third-party endorsements expressed by researchers’ active involvement in professional organizations enhance entrepreneurial engagement. In the qualitative part the role of signalling through graduates and the problem of the signalling cost were identified. Implications & Recommendations: Signalling sheds light on university-industry relationships through a new lens, explaining the matching process and cooperation barriers. Stimulating collaboration requires understanding the specific language of signals used by both scientists and business partners. Therefore, this research calls for action to strengthen scientists’ communication skills, more frequent interpersonal contacts with business representatives, and communication of scientific and non-scientific competencies. Contribution & Value Added: The theoretical focus on signalling theory can advance the extensive research on academic entrepreneurship. This theory explains how actors are selected for cooperation and describes the mechanism of partner selection. It also enables the reinterpretation of previous research related to the characteristics and activities of researchers and their relevance for undertaking collaborations.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Questing benchmarks for the current ratio: An analysis of the Warsaw Stock
           Exchange firms

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Piotr Wójtowicz
      Abstract: Objective: The first objective of the article is to assess the benchmarks for the current ratio commonly provided in the accounting and financial analysis literature. The minor objective is to arrange a research methodology permitting the accomplishment of the first objective. Research Design & Methods: The paper, apart from the literature review and its critique, presents the results of descriptive, quantitative research. The research sample consists of 5 148 firm-years. Data were retrieved from Worldscope Database via Refinitiv Eikon for domestic, going concern, non-financial companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2021. For comparison, the U.S.-related data was retrieved from Internet resources as ready-made ratios. Methods used in the analysis include descriptive statistics, parametric and nonparametric ANOVA, confidence intervals, and linear and parabolic trend analysis. Findings: The tests show that identifying a benchmark for the current ratio is problematic. Benchmarks vary between countries and industries; universal standards do not exist. The benchmark for the current ratio commonly suggested, 1.2-2.0, may be used only as a rough evaluation of the desired value. The findings indicate that the acceptable range for CR is much broader, from 1.1 (the first quartile) to 2.3 (the third quartile) for the total sample. Moreover, the SIC division's quartiles vary from 0.7 to 1.2 (the first) and from 1.6 to 3.6 (the third). Statistical tests indicate that benchmarks do not vary annually. However, the distribution's median and the third quartile change slowly over time toward higher values. The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in a substantial increase. On the contrary, the first quartile of about 1 remains relatively stable over time, indicating the reasonable lower bound for CR. The mean of the distribution is useless as a benchmark because of its sensitivity to outliers. Various techniques must be used to assess the benchmark. Implications & Recommendations: Since there are material between-industry and between-country differences in benchmarks, analysts and investors should be very sensitive to the standards suggested in the literature and interpret them cautiously. Variability over time exists but is low unless a shock in the economy appears. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution of the paper is empirical verification of the benchmarks for the current ratio provided in the literature. Tests show that suggested benchmarks are not universal. Seeking a benchmark, an analyst must compare the firm's financial standing with other firms from the same country, industry, and period.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
 
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