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Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union     Open Access  
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Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2152-8713 - ISSN (Online) 2154-5731
Published by Scripps College Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Jewish People in the German Far-Right: How AfD is Pandering to Jews to
           Gain Legitimacy

    • Authors: Luca L. Zislin
      Abstract: Despite the consistent rise of anti-Semitic attacks, Jewish people from across Germany are joining the far-right Alternative für Deutschland political party in increasing numbers. In 2018 a group of nineteen Jewish AfD members formed the JAfD, the Jewish division of the party, reflecting just how much Jewish support for the AfD is growing even as national and global Jewish organizations have branded the AfD as anti-Semitic. This growth comes as a shock considering incidents like AfD politician Wolfgang Gedeon’s denial of the Holocaust and accusations that numerous AfD politicians encourage extremist behavior. This paper examines the AfD’s official policy statements to understand how Jewish-Germans can merge their political beliefs with the AfD’s German nationalist position. This paper argues that the AfD has deliberately re-structured its platform to appeal to a Jewish base, which enables party heads to challenge allegations of extremism in a bid to gain mainstream legitimacy.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:55 PDT
  • Integrated or Excluded: The Effects of French Integration Policies on
           Immigrant Communities From 2000 to 2020

    • Authors: Johanna N. Soleil
      Abstract: Few issues are as important to European politics as integration, though research into the actual effect of integration policies on immigrant communities is sparse in Europe and especially in France. This paper examines through the data available to researchers how immigrant communities compare to native populations in terms of cultural, health, and economic characteristics. To this end the paper is organized as follows: the first section introduces the French political context and the cultural attitude towards immigrants. Next, the various methods of analysis are presented, and each of the previously mentioned attributes is analyzed in the French context as well as in comparison to immigrant communities in countries around France. The comparative analysis is completed using the same materials as those used in studying French immigrants, ensuring that the comparisons made are credible and reliable. From the above-mentioned analysis, policy recommendations are drawn for France and its European neighbors.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:49 PDT
  • The EU's Capacity to Lead the Transatlantic Alliance in AI Regulation

    • Authors: Varun Roy et al.
      Abstract: In the face of Chinese advances in AI in terms of technological prowess and influence, there has been a call for collaboration between the EU and the US to create a foundation for AI governance based on shared democratic beliefs. This paper maps out the EU, US, and Chinese approaches to AI development and regulation as we analyze the capacity of the US and EU to establish international standards for AI regulation through channels such as the TTC. As the EU rolled out a proportionate and risk-based approach to ensure stricter regulation for high-risk AI technologies, it laid the foundation for international rule-shaping in the AI domain. The important question is whether the EU can effectively collaborate with the US in response to China’s aggressive AI initiative and, more importantly, lead the transatlantic effort to become the “world-leading region on developing and deploying cutting-edge, ethical and secure AI.”
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:41 PDT
  • From Franco's Nightmare to a Globalized Spain: A Cinematic Analysis

    • Authors: Claire Maurer
      Abstract: Spain has had a long history of determining its own identity through successive regime changes, national crises and shifting international alliances. With Las Chicas de la Sexta Planta (Le Guay, 2011), Torremolinos 73 (Berger, 2003), Miente (De Ocampo, 2008) and The Way (Estévez, 2010) as a guide, I examine the distinctive characteristics of Spansh identity across three notable sections of its history: Francoist Spain (1939-1975), “free” Spain (1975-1986), and Spain as a member of the supranational European Union (EU) (1986-), or the European Economic Community (EEC) at that time. These films and time periods help to shed light on important changes of Spanish opinion/behavior towards Europe and vice versa. Finally, I analyze some of the observable results, both good and bad, of European unification (Europeanization) in modern Spain, and conclude that while the Spanish cultural landscape has become much more open through Europeanization, it has also experienced negative repercussions like a rise of xenophobic/nationalist sentiments surrounding the European identity and the concerning activity of cross-border human trafficking.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:34 PDT
  • Efficacy of the European Union and the United States' Sanctioning of
           Russia in Response to Breaches of Ukrainian Sovereignty

    • Authors: Alexej W. Latimer
      Abstract: This research inquiry breaks down some of the intricacies of US and EU sanctions imposed on Russia following the breaches of Ukrainian sovereignty by the Kremlin in 2014. These sanctions are examined for their direct fiscal impacts and implicit efficacies as the result of specific policies. This paper seeks to identify nuanced characteristics of various sanctions and determine how sanction efficacy is tied to the classification under which the controlled product/good category is considred. This is just an initial record of observed patterns in sanctioning within a specific geopolitical realm. The paper was written in December 2021, and therefore prior to the Russian full-scale invasion of Ukraine that started on February 24, 2022.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:27 PDT
  • Judging From Above: French Feminists & Their Influence on the Veil

    • Authors: Emma Caroline Delapré
      Abstract: Over the past two decades, the international community has found itself questioning France’s application of laïcité and the egalitarianism it supposedly ensures, particularly regarding veils associated with the Islamic faith. Integral to the face veil debate is the advocacy of French feminists, especially those who identify as pro-ban. Overarchingly, pro-ban feminists argue that the practice of wearing face veils or coverings undermines a French citizen’s obligation to foster cohesion in the public sphere through the acceptance of republican norms. This viewpoint informs the analysis of the state of social division in France undertaken here. The tools of analysis include a broad review of secondary literature, the use of various other multi-media avenues, and a thorough investigation into pertinent law-making bodies. Ultimately, the paper concludes that regulations supported by pro-ban feminists have frustrated their objective of promoting gender equality and have only further deepened the divide between Islam and the Republic.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:21 PDT
  • 2015 Syrian Refugee Responses Based on the Strength of Securitization

    • Authors: Jacob M. DeCarli
      Abstract: This paper seeks to answer the question: Why were policy responses to the 2015 Syrian refugee "crisis" so different in Germany and the UK' I argue that these policies were driven by public opinion about migrants and immigration. Germany adopted a more liberal migration policy because of higher approval for refugees entering the country. I argue that this is the result of the degree to which securitization discourse explains different public attitudes towards Syrian refugees in 2015. Specifically, I argue that the greater the strength of securitization discourse, the easier it is to implement restrictive immigration policy. This paper demonstrates how the securitization of migration discourse influenced public opinion about migrants, and, in turn, affected migration policy in the two countries. The paper contributes to debates about the securitization of migration policies, highlighting both the influence of public opinion on policy formation and the influence of state policies and political leadership on public opinion.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:14 PDT
  • Necessary Trade-Offs or Two-Faced Hypocrisy: Normative Conflicts in EU

    • Authors: Florian Bochert
      Abstract: The European Union (EU) often tries to present itself as a normative leader in both human rights protection and climate change prevention. However, since emission reductions sometimes require investments in solar panels that are produced using forced labor, these two norms can conflict with each other. Based on two case studies of EU policies on Israel-Palestine and North Africa, this article shows how conflicts between different norms are nothing new to the EU. In its policies on Israel-Palestine, the EU has had to balance its historical responsibility to Israel with its commitment to international law. In its policies on North Africa, the EU has had to balance its push for good governance with respect for other countries’ sovereignty. Drawing on the academic literature, EU policies, and statements by EU officials, this article therefore argues that normative conflicts are an essential part of what makes the EU a normative actor.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:07 PDT
  • Lessons From European Energy Transition: Reality or Green Dream'

    • Authors: Sky Berry-Weiss
      Abstract: As a looming climate crisis continues to overwhelm the global community and Europe grips with fluctuating fossil fuel prices due to geopolitical tensions, the European Union appears to be rushing to forge a path to renewable energy to forgo dependence on nonrenewable energy sources. Decades ahead of the global community, the European Union has succeeded in its 2020 goals by increasing the share of renewable energy to 20% of overall consumption. Heading towards their strikingly ambitious goals for 2030, this great transition provides a case study that other states should be watching closely. This article analyzes the effects of several different European Union public policy strategies and instruments concerning the energy sector. By studying their approach and the mistakes they made, the global community is presented with valuable lessons and principles that provide strategies and specific policy instruments to mimic or adapt to their own regions.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:22:00 PDT
  • The Holy See: An Institution Like No Other

    • Authors: Jace Bartz
      Abstract: This paper explores the Holy See’s role within the international order of states. Although viewed primarily as a religious institution, the Holy See’s position as a sovereign state and head of a religious body allows it to have a prominent voice on the world stage. I examine the IR theories of constructivism and realism in relation to the Holy See’s influence. This comparison illustrates how the Holy See can affect international action due to its emphasis on diplomacy and peace. I review the history and ability of the Holy See to implement a diplomatic approach to engage with states multilaterally and bilaterally. This paper argues that the Hole See uses soft power to work with other countries on shared concerns. Despite the traditional way of viewing states and power, the Holy See has an important role in global affairs, although lacking the abilities many large states have.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:21:54 PDT
  • Foreword

    • PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:21:48 PDT
  • List of Abbreviations

    • PubDate: Mon, 31 Oct 2022 15:21:43 PDT
  • Where the Grass is Greener: Comparing Green Party Success in National
           Parliamentary Elections and the 2019 European Parliamentary Election

    • Authors: Naomi Tilles
      Abstract: Why do Green parties perform better in European Parliament (EP) elections than in national parliament elections' Even in countries that use proportionally representative voting systems for both national and EP elections, many Green parties gained more than twice the proportion of EP seats in 2019 compared to the previous national election. Using national and EP election results, European Social Survey data, and Eurobarometer polling from the 2019 EP election, I test competing theories of Green party success. As EP voter issues become more salient and more voters believe that their vote matters to EU policy, I find that the “second-order election” effect is less relevant. Surprisingly, I also find that the Greens are the only small party family that consistently gained more representation in the EP. Different voter priorities and party issue framing, for both environmental and pro-EU issues, boosted the Green vote in the 2019 EP election.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:32:33 PDT
  • Variations in Migration in the Baltic States

    • Authors: Annalise Simons
      Abstract: This paper seeks to answer a driving research question: Why do the Baltic Countries exhibit disparate levels of immigration and emigration' The paper considers the period from 2004, when Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania became European Union member states, up to 2019. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, while all small states in the same region, experience different levels of net migration. As Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia maintain small populations with negative natural population increases, migration inflows and outflows are quite significant. Among the three, Latvia and Lithuania have experienced dramatically negative net migration. Examining the push and pull factors influencing net migration in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, sheds light on key factors shaping migration patterns, which can aid in developing policies that align with the countries’ interests regarding migration.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:32:26 PDT
  • The XX Factor: The Influence of Legislative Gender Parity on Migrant
           Integration Policy in the EU Member States

    • Authors: Katherine Y. Kramer Gaines
      Abstract: Many European states have been affected by the so-called European migrant crisis of the 2010s. The UNHCR has said that focusing on integrating migrants is “the most relevant durable solution” for European Union member states. Policies can help pave the road to success for refugees and migrants alike in new, unfamiliar lands. Such policies are associated with migrants’ abilities to reunite with family, find jobs, receive healthcare and education, gain permanent residence and nationality, politically participate, evade discrimination, and fully integrate into the new society they reside in. Using a gender parity lens with cross-sectional, quantitative analysis, this research shows that an increase in female representation in legislative chambers improves the quality scores of migrant integration policy in EU member states. This research expands upon the literature regarding substantive female representation and offers relevant solutions on how the absorption of migrants in Europe can be improved upon.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:32:18 PDT
  • Buying-up Europe No More' How the European Union has Responded to the
           Challenges of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment

    • Authors: Ethan Kable
      Abstract: towards Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) has evolved over the past decade. I contend that the EU was quite receptive to Chinese OFDI at the beginning of the decade, due to both ideological leanings and the economic context of a post-crisis Europe. I then illustrate how the EU slowly adopted a more guarded and critical approach towards Chinese OFDI. This paper will focus specifically on four key issues surrounding Chinese OFDI policy: national security, technology transfers and IP theft, state support for Chinese firms, and market access, ultimately arguing that bilateral investment treaty (BIT) negotiations and the new EU investment screening mechanism are the main policy levers being used to address these concerns. For the sake of this paper, I will use the OECD’s definition of OFDI.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:32:10 PDT
  • The Descriptive Representation of Women in the 9th European Parliament

    • Authors: Licinia Güttel
      Abstract: The European Parliament is often praised for its gender-equal composition and its high descriptive representation of women. However, there is a remarkable gender gap between the representation of women at the national and European level, and it is debated how these variations can be explained. After discussing theories of representation and reviewing data from the European Parliament on the share of women in national delegations and the political groups in the 9th European Parliament after Brexit, this paper evaluates whether institutional and contextual factors can explain the gender gap between the national and supranational level. It argues that the representation of women cannot be sufficiently explained by the institutional rules. Instead, ambitious national rules in some member states and the parties’ role as gatekeepers can explain the high representation of women. These findings have implications for promoting gender equality in politics in the EU.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:32:04 PDT
  • Is the Schengen Area Worth Saving'

    • Authors: Charlotte Coon
      Abstract: The passport-free regime in Europe known as the Schengen Area is comprised of 26 of the 27 European Union (EU) member states plus Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, and Lichtenstein. Signed in 1995, the Schengen Agreement was intended to address the problem of enforcing borders between increasingly connected European countries and has expanded to include non-EU member states since then. This paper will lay out the arguments of those in favor of preserving the Schengen Area, who argue that the benefits of solidarity and free movement of people far outweigh the potential risks, as well as the most prominent criticisms of Schengen, including the perceived failures related to the 2015-2016 migration crisis, the 2015 terror attack in Paris, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The succession of different crises faced by the EU in the last few years has highlighted the fact that the Schengen Agreement is a product of a different time, and that it is in need of reforms. Whether the Schengen Area can weather these challenges and adapt will have an impact on the future and functioning of the EU as a whole.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:31:56 PDT
  • From Pipedream to Possibility: How European Integration has Helped
           Secessionist Movements

    • Authors: Austin E. Bicknell
      Abstract: The European project has brought the states of Europe ever closer together while inadvertently strengthening secessionist movements that seek to fracture the very states it has brought together. Through integration, many of the benefits a region with a potential desire for independence gains from remaining a part of its host state are transferred to the European level. Current academic consensus argues that European integration has overall harmed secessionist movements, but since the UKs decision to leave the EU, this argument has become outdated and no longer holds the strength it once did. This article uses current academic literature on the topic as well as statements from European politicians and separatist political parties to explore and compare the cases of secessionist movements in Scotland, Catalonia, and Flanders. While chosen for their strength and their diversity in circumstances, these independence movements are united in being transformed from pipedreams to possibilities thanks to European integration.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Sep 2021 22:31:50 PDT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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