Publisher: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences   (Total: 5 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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J. of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Skin and Stem Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
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Journal of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2783-2074
Published by Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • PGC1-α mRNA expression cross talk with tumor volume growth and total
           antioxidant capacity in breast cancer model mice: following discontinuous
           aerobic exercise and vitamin D intake

    • Abstract: The modifications of PGC-1𝛼 induce the change of the carcinogenesis and tumor growth and lead to increased antioxidant enzymes. The present study aimed to determine the cross talk between PGC1-α mRNA expression, tumor volume growth, and total antioxidant capacity in breast cancer model mice, followed by discontinuous aerobic exercise and vitamin D. In the present study, 40 female NMRI mice were randomly assigned into five equal groups (n=8): healthy control group (H.C), cancer control group (Ca.C), cancer with the vitamin D group (U.Ca.VD), cancer exercise training group (Ca. Ex), and cancer exercise training with the vitamin D group (Ca.Ex.VD). As the results indicate, the bodyweight of cancer groups (p=0.041, F=3.61) and the tumor growth rate significantly reduced compared to the H.C group. The results indicated that the PGC-1α mRNA expression and TAC (p=0.013, F=5.16) change significantly different between the study groups. Besides, based on the results, a significant positive correlation was observed between PGC1-α and tumor volume growth among the groups, whereas a negative relationship exists between PGC1-α and TAC and among TAC and tumor volume growth only in the Ca. Ex.VD group. The correlation between the variables confirms using vitamin D treatment with the implementation of discontinuous aerobic exercise, as a synergistic effect, improves the total antioxidant capacity and is effective in controlling tumor growth. We recommend that further studies be done on exercise training along with supplementation intake synergistic.
       
  • The effect of high intensity interval training on CTGF and RXFP1 genes
           

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effect of high intensity interval training on CTGF and RXFP1 genes expression of heart tissue and SGPT liver enzyme in rats with fatty liver. 48 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided randomly into the following 6 groups: Healthy base group (BH), base Steatosis group (BS), Healthy HIIT group (HIIT), Steatosis HIIT group (SHIIT), Healthy control group (CH), control Steatosis group (CS). Rats in the fatty liver group received oral tetracycline daily for two weeks. Rats in the training groups were also trained for 5 weeks / five days. Both BS and BH groups sacrificed at the end of the 2nd week. CS and training groups sacrificed at the end of 5th week and heart tissue samples were taken to examine CTGF, RXFP1, and SGPT genes expression. The results of the study showed that he amounts of SGPT in BS and CS groups were meaningfully higher than those in the other 4 groups. The level of this enzyme in SHIIT and HIIT groups was significantly lower than that in the fatty liver groups. The RXFP1 gene expression in CS, BS and SHIIT groups were significantly higher than those in the other 3 groups. Thus, it can be claimed that fatty liver increased cardiac fibrosis factors but by reducing these factors HIIT was able to prevent the process of cardiac fibrosis from liver Steatosis; therefore, HITT can be used as a new method to Cardiac rehabilitation of patients.
       
  • Response of serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and heat
           shock protein 70 levels to trachyspermum copticum and selected swimming
           training

    • Abstract: Regular physical activity is the best defense against many diseases, illnesses, and abnormalities. Aerobic exercise and the consumption of herbal supplements strengthen the body's immune and defense systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a period of swimming endurance training with trachyspermum copticum (Ajwain) consumption on serum levels of some inflammatory factors in young men in a randomized clinical trial. The statistical population included all male students less than 25 years of age at the Islamic Azad University of Varamin Phishva, Iran. Among them, sample sizes of 60 people were selected by simple random sampling and were divided into four groups of 15 people each: trachyspermum copticum + training, trachyspermum copticum, training, and control. The training program included endurance swimming for 10 weeks either with or without the addition of trachyspermum copticum. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were measured in two-time stages before and after the study period. The level of CRP inflammatory index, TNF-α cytokine, and HSP70 were lower among the training + trachyspermum copticum than in the control group and other experimental groups. Endurance swimming training and trachyspermum copticum with anti-inflammatory properties strengthened the immune system, increased antioxidant defense, and decreased inflammatory markers. Also, the level of physical activity has improved this condition by improving endothelial function.
       
  • Does exercise affect lung diseases with lungkine (CXCL15)' Clinical
           benefits of high intensity interval training

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-ChiefThe chemokines are a superfamily of small, secreted proteins that regulate leukocyte migration. Several of these chemokines have been associated with various diseases. Some chemokines have been reported to be expressed in the lung, including interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, eotaxin/CCL11, macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α/CCL20, and DC-CK1/pulmonary- and activation-related chemokine (PARC)/alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine (AMAC)-1/CCL18 (Homey et al., 2000). It is interesting that there is even one reported chemokine that is specifically expressed in the lung, lungkine/CXCL15 (Rossi et al., 1999). Lungkine is an important mediator of neutrophil migration from the lung parenchyma into the airspace.Chemokine CXCL15, which absorbs neutrophils during pulmonary inflammation, is also known as lungkine because of its reported exclusive expression in the lung. CXCL15, previously reported as the only lung-specific chemokine, is also highly expressed in other mucosal organs and endocrine glands of mice. The functional role of CXCL15 is unclear with precise exercise training, and little research has addressed this issue. Files et al. (2015) evaluated the effects of therapeutic exercise on lung disease and also measured CXCL15 levels (Files et al., 2015). In this study, although CXCL15 was down regulated in response to exercise therapy, they stated that exercise therapy improved both alveolar neutrophil lung damage and skeletal muscle atrophy in the animal model of ARDS. They stated that more studies are needed to identified mechanisms underlying exercise and its benefits in the lungs, which may indicate new molecular targets for the treatment of ARDS.Clinical and experimental studies have shown that regular aerobic exercise can prevent or even eliminate a number of diseases, especially in patients in the intensive care unit. This beneficial effect of exercise is associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant protection. Despite the apparent benefits, the dose of exercise intensity is still unknown. Balducci et al. (Balducci et al., 2010), showed that people with type 2 diabetes who performed intense exercise had a significant improvement in their inflammatory status. High-intensity exercise reduced pneumonia and improved oxidative status in experimental models of allergic pneumonia and exposure to contaminants (Ávila et al., 2015). Due to the mechanism involved in changes in epithelial pathogenesis, strenuous exercise with hyperventilation can affect the airway epithelium by altering the viscosity, elastic force, or amount of airway fluid. In an animal model trained with an intense exercise protocol, an increase in the infiltration of leukocytes into the bronchial wall was observed (Chimenti et al., 2007). Therefore, it is believed that performing intense exercise may cause inflammatory cells to invade the airways, epithelial changes, and defective remodeling. However, studies in this area are also contradictory. In a study high-intensity swimming showed a protective effect on ALI, decreasing inflammatory processes and preventing disturbances in antioxidant defenses into the lungs (Cardoso et al., 2018). However, little is known about the possible protective effects of HIIT on lungkine CXCL15 and its mechanisms of action.
       
  • Influence of high intensity interval training on adipose tissue PAI-2 and
           MMP-2 mRNAs expression in rat with high-fat diet-induced metabolic
           syndrome

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high intensity interval training on adipose tissue PAI-2 and MMP-2 mRNAs expression in rat with high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In this experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats (120 to 130 g) were selected and after 12 weeks of high-fat diet and modeling of metabolic syndrome were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, metabolic syndrome (Mets), high intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mets + HIIT. The HIIT program included 5 to 10 intense running on the treadmill with an intensity of 80 to 95% of the maximum speed and in slow running with a speed of 55% of the maximum speed with a zero slope of the treadmill for 8 weeks. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of one-way analysis of variance showed that there was a difference between the mean expression of MMP-2 and PAI-2 mRNA in adipose tissue of male rats with metabolic syndrome in different groups (P = 0.001). However, HIIT improve this gene after Mets in adipose tissue (p<0.05). It seems that HIIT program improve metabolic syndrome with controlling PAI-2 mRNA and have an anti-inflammatory effect in adipose tissue. However, it need to more studies especially on human sample.
       
  • Muscle contraction can improve psychological resilience during the
           COVID-19 lockdown: Neural effects of resistance training at home

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-ChiefThe world has recently experienced one of the hardest pandemics, COVID-19. Clinical signs of this disease include fever, dry cough, and diarrhea, or different symptoms that lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with a further increase in the severity of the disease. Although the first observations of this disease are the involvement of symptoms and respiratory and heart injuries, various studies have also shown the nerve damage caused by this disease. Common neurological symptoms include headache, dizziness, anosmia, seizures, or paralysis. The elderly and critically ill are in the high-risk group and have shown severe neurological symptoms after COVID-19. Apart from COVID-19-induced cellular and neurological damage, this disease has a profound effect on the mental health of people around the world. Increasing the duration of this disease and staying at home causes social and economic problems and as a result mental health problems (Verma et al., 2020). Neurological and mental illnesses are very common all over the world.Psychological resilience was an important issue during COVID-19 epidemic. In other words, during an epidemic, mental health of people should be consider and cheeked, and entertainment programs should be prevented from causing psychological damage. Research during the COVID-19 epidemic found that because of the psychological pressures to increase psychological resilience, people tended to be more exposed to the outdoors, exercise more, receive more social support from family, friends and important people, sleep better, and pray more, that these factors were effective in mitigating psychological trauma. In most studies, spiritual health affects mental health, because repeated prayers and worships have been more independently associated with psychological resilience (Killgore et al., 2020). In other words, those who actively participate in these spiritual activities and strengthen their relationship with God are found to have the most psychological resilience to the mental health challenges imposed by COVID-19. In addition, the effects of exercise at the cellular level can help improve memory and psyche and be effective in improving psychological resilience. To date, no studies have been performed on secretions due to muscle contraction and its effect on the brain and psychological function, and psychological resilience especially to control the psychological damage caused by an epidemic.Exercise has many beneficial effects on brain health and helps reduce the risks of dementia, depression, and stress, and is involved in restoring and maintaining cognitive function and metabolic control. The fact that exercise is sensed by the brain suggests that environmental factors induced by the muscle allow a direct link between muscle function and the brain. Muscles secrete myokines that help regulate hippocampal function. Evidence is accumulating that myokine cathepsin B crosses the blood-brain barrier to increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor production, resulting in neurogenesis, memory, and learning. In addition, the muscle tissue itself can affect the central nervous system, memory, and psyche in form of endocrine by increasing BDNF expression. Exercise also increases the expression of the neurogenic gene FNDC5 (which encodes myogenic FNDC5-dependent PGC1α), which in turn can help increase levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Pedersen, 2019).Serum levels of myokine, IL-6, increase with exercise and may have beneficial effects on the central nervous system. Exercise also increases PGC1α-dependent muscle expression and the enzymes kynurenine aminotransferase, which beneficially alters the balance between the neurotoxic kynurenine and the neuroprotective Kynurenic acid, thereby reducing depressive symptoms. Signaling myokine and other muscle factors and exercise-induced hepatokines and adipokines play a role in the beneficial effects of exercise on neurogenesis, cognitive function, appetite, and metabolism, thus supporting the existence of a muscle-brain endocrine axis. Also, it can affect psychological resilience which needs more studies.
       
  • Exercise and macrophage phenotype switch: The role of myokine
           meteorin-like protein (METRNL)

    • Abstract: Dear Editor-in-Chief Originally, macrophages are known for the critical role of phagocytosis in innate immunity (Yan & Hansson, 2007). They have also been shown to play crucial roles in the homeostasis of white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle (SKM) tissue (Baht et al., 2020; Rao et al., 2014). Macrophage plasticity is an important hallmark enabling them to respond to altered settings (Shapouri‐Moghaddam et al., 2018). In response to those changing environments, macrophages demonstrate different polarizations of the classic/proinflammatory M1 phenotype and an alternative/anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype (Shapouri‐Moghaddam et al., 2018). Obesity, as an adipose tissue’s milieu-altering stimulant, shifts the macrophage phenotype to the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, with the resultant consequences of inflamed adipose tissue and insulin resistance, showing that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are central players in adipose tissue homeostasis (Goh, Goh, & Abbasi, 2016). On the other hand, exercise has been well documented to reduce obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. Exercise-induced mechanisms through which AT inflammation is attenuated, include a combination of: i) a decrease in inflammatory adipokines production, ii) a reduction of toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) expression in immune cells, and iii) an increase in the production of muscle-secreted factors called myokines (Abbasi et al., 2014; Pedersen & Febbraio, 2008). The latter mechanism, muscle-fat crosstalk, is mediated by myokines to deliver exercise-induced health benefits (Pedersen & Febbraio, 2008). Basically, exercise, in a tissue-specific manner, upregulates lipid oxidation-related genes and proteins which in turn decrease oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the inflamed AT (Ruschke et al., 2010). In parallel, exercise-induced muscle contraction triggers the production of genes and proteins in SKM that are responsible for the secretion of molecules called myokines to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise (Pedersen & Febbraio, 2008). Meterorin-like protein (Metrnl) is a newly-identified adipomyokine with immune-regulatory hallmarks (Rao et al., 2014). Metrnl was originally identified as a myokine with immune regulatory functions in AT (Rao et al., 2014). Exercise-induced increases in blood Metrnl levels act as a signaling molecule to recruit eosinophils into AT, driving the M2-phenotype of ATMs, and finally resulting in the browning of white adipose tissue (BWT) (Rao et al., 2014). Metrnl has been shown to upregulate the production of type 2 immunity anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 which in turn activate ATM’s M2 phenotype in a STAT6-dependent pathway in macrophages in animal models (Rao et al., 2014). Exercise-induced Metrnl is correlated with its increased blood levels which is associated with elevated whole-body energy expenditure via stimulating the thermogenesis process in AT (Rao et al., 2014). Based on this evidence, Metrnl-mediated ATMs phenotype shift is related to improved metabolic health in obesity, suggesting Metrnl as a possible therapeutic agent in metabolic challenges. In the study of Rao et al., given the ability of Metrnl in recruiting type 2 immunity, and that type II immunity has characteristics in repairing processes like those in damaged SKM, it was hypothesized that Metrnl might also play roles in regenerating damaged SKM. In this regard, in a recently published study by Baht et al., Metrnl was described as a necessary regulator for SKM regeneration process (Baht et al., 2020). Baht et al’s study’s finding was that Metrnl is induced upon SKM-damaging exercise. In that study, SKM-derived Metrnl was delineated as dispensable for the regeneration of damaged SKM, whereas macrophage-derived Metrnl was shown as a critical coordinator for SKM regeneration (Baht et al., 2020). Macrophage-derived Metrnl, in an auto-/paracrine manner, activates STAT3 which in turn promotes an anti-inflammatory function and induction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which activates muscle progenitors to help myogenesis (Baht et al., 2020). Similar to its actions in AT, Metrnl exerts its physiological functions through macrophage accretion and phenotypical shift in SKM. Of note, in the study of Rao et al. Metrnl was established as a molecule that is selectively expressed in different tissues based on physiologic stimuli with being expressed in AT upon cold exposure and in SKM upon exercise (Rao et al., 2014). With regard to this, in the study of Baht et al. it was shown that there was no Metrnl expression in myogenic cells after injury and that mice with Metrnl silenced in myofibers exhibited a normal phenotype in terms of muscle regeneration while macrophages were the main Metrnl-secreting cells in SKM injury (Baht et al., 2020). There are a handful of studies reporting Metrnl responsiveness to SKM-damaging exercise protocols like unaccustomed resistance exercise (Baht et al., 2020; Rao et al., 2014), downhill running exercise (Alizadeh & Alizadeh, 2021; Rao et al., 2014) in both animal and human subjects. These observations prompt questions regarding the molecular mechanisms that control the selective expression of Metrnl molecule by different cell types according to tissue homeostasis: myofibers after exercise versus macrophages after damage. In summary, this letter addressed two outstanding studies of Rao et al., and Baht et al., describing Metrnl mechanisms of action in both AT and SKM physiology. Metrnl actions are mediated via macrophage phenotype switch (MPS) in AT and SKM. In AT, Metrnl -mediated MPS leads to BWT, while, in SKM, Metrnl-mediated MPS results in muscle regeneration, representing Metrnl as a new therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. What remains unknown, in addition, is that these findings (BWT and SKM regene...
       
  • Is there a cross talk between aortic valve calcification and bone mineral
           

    • Abstract: Despite numerous studies, the association between osteoporosis and aortic valve calcification is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between aortic valve calcification and osteoporosis in an Iranian population over 60. In this cross-sectional study, patients aged over 60 years referring to the Bone Mineral Densitometry center of Baqiyatallah Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2019-2020 were evaluated. Trans-thoracic echocardiography was done for all patients to evaluate the existence of aortic valve calcification. Patients were compared in two groups with and without osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5) as well as in two groups with and without aortic calcification. Two-hundred patients with a mean age of 65.92 ± 5.59 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.73 ± 4.08 kg/m2 were studied (84.5% female). Patients with osteoporosis (n=104) had lower BMI and greater frequency of aortic calcification compared to the patients without osteoporosis (n = 96). Patients with aortic calcification had higher age, lower BMI, and higher proportion of osteoporosis compared to the patients without aortic calcification (P<0.05). According to the results, it is suggested that elderly patients with osteoporosis and hypertension be evaluated for aortic valve calcification. This evaluation seems more crucial for older people with high blood pressure, lower BMI, and osteoporosis. Moreover, patients with aortic valve calcification could be evaluated for osteoporosis. Confirming the above results requires further investigation with a larger sample size.
       
 
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