Publisher: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences   (Total: 5 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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Intl. J. of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2322-1100 - ISSN (Online) 2476-5759
Published by Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • COVID-19 screening in rheumatologic diseases cases; Special look at
           chloroquine derivate use

    • Abstract: Introduction: Among suggested medications for treatment of COVID-19, chloroquine derivate and angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are the two medications with conflicting effects on development of the disease. The present study aimed to evaluate COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving chloroquine derivate. Material and methods: Every patient with proved rheumatologic diseases who registered in our medical center, Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, was enrolled in the present descriptive cross sectional study between May and June 2020. At first the symptoms of COVID-19 were assessed and if a case have suspicious symptoms RT-PCR COVID-19 test were done. Demographic and clinical data documented for every patient. Then, the patients grouped once according to their COVID-19 infection status and another time according to their hydroxychloroquineuse. Results: 1159 patients enrolled in the study with mean age of 49.39 years. Frequency of Hypertension was 22.17% , diabetics (9.49%) and 20 (1.7%) patients were positive for COVID-19 testing. The most common symptoms of the COVID-19 positive cases were cough (5.2%) and fever (4%). There was not any significant difference in term of receiving ACEIs/ARBs or other medications between COVID-19 positive or negative patients. Among the patients receiving hydroxychloroquine, 15 patients (1.7%) had proved COVID-19 versus 5 patients (1.7%) who were not receiving these medications (P>0.999). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that receiving ARBs or ACEIs were not different among patients with or without COVID-19. Moreover, receiving chloroquine derivate was not relate to development of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatologic disorders.
  • The necessity of designing and launching electronic COVID-19 vaccination
           registry system in Iran

    • Abstract: -
  • Clearing the air: a global health perspective on air pollution

    • Abstract: Air pollution is responsible for one in eight deaths globally per year. The severity of air pollution and its effects on global health are frequently discussed in the literature but are poorly reflected in health policy and have not yet resulted in sufficient actionable change. Air pollution mitigation policies should embody the planetary health concept, which highlights the interdependence between the health of humans and the planet. There is an urgent need for the standardisation of air quality measurement and programmes on a global scale. A reduction in fine particulate matter has been shown to contribute to the greatest degree of public health benefits. Current efforts to improve urban air quality include a significant focus on the transition to sustainable energy and transportation through the electrification of transportation. There are two main fronts in the campaign against pollution, one being the reduction of anthropogenic emissions through public and government policy, and the other being the introduction of novel attempts to decrease pollution and other innovative research to develop new approaches that will ultimately improve global health.
  • Developmental Cost of Being Asian But Living in the United States:
           Diminished Returns of Household Income on Cortical Surface Area in 9-10
           Year Old Children

    • Abstract: Background. While socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as household income are known to be associated with larger cortical surface area, recent research on Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggests that family SES indicators such as household income may have weaker effects on brain function and structure for non-White (marginalized) than White (privileged) families. Objective. To test racial variation in the association between household income as SES indicator and cortical surface area among American children. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that used baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Data was collected between 2016 and 2018. Overall, 6039 9–10-year-old children entered our analysis. The independent variable was household income. The moderator was race. The primary outcome was the overall cortical surface area. Age, sex, and family structure were the covariates. We used mixed effects regression models that adjusted for data analysis because ABCD data is nested into families, centers, and US states. Results. While high household income was associated with larger cortical surface area, this effect was weaker for Asian than non-Hispanic White children. This racial heterogeneity in the effects of household income on cortical surface area was documented by a statistically significant interaction between race and household income on cortical surface area. Discussion. For American children, household income does not similarly correlate with cortical surface area of diverse racial groups. Brain development in the US is not solely a function of SES (availability of resources) but also how social groups are racialized and treated in the society.
  • SARS-CoV2 Infection of Athletes in Brazilian Soccer Competitions: Lessons
           from Recent Events Worldwide and the Return of Fans to Stadiums

    • Abstract: The 2020 Brazilian Soccer Championship began on August 8, 2020 and ended on February 25, 2021 with the participation of 20 teams from 9 different states in Brazil with 302 players were tested positive for COVID-19 with some cases of reinfection in the 635 players enrolled in the championship.In Copa America, only after 3 days of the beginning, 41 positive cases of COVID-19 were reported, with 31 players and members of delegations and 10 employees of the hotels where the teams were hosted. In 6 days, 82 cases were reported with 37 players and members of delegations and 45 persons from hospitality and event staff, with an increase of 75.60% only 3 days after (144 positive cases) with 17.443 RT-PCR tests performed.The community transmission become de main problem in this event, representing an alert for other types of sport events due to the high risk for diseases exportation to other countries. The risk for exporting the disease will be low if these preventive measures will be adopted even in the return by the participating teams in their countries with a mandatory quarantine for 14 days in an isolated place is essential, especially for players who are part of European teams and in other countries. Despite being vaccinated, there is a low possibility to become infected and eventually transmit the disease to your local of origin and export to other countries.
  • Omicron Variant

    • Abstract: The Coronavirus disease 2019 has persisted as a pandemic for just over 2 years, vaccines have been developed to prevent the clinical disease and treatment regimens improved upon, but SARS-CoV-2 appears to be up to the task, coming up with mutations resulting in multiple variants, alpha, beta, delta, Omicron and so much more. The most important and recent one, the omicron variant, with an amazing 50 genetic mutations, 37 of which are on the Spike-protein, has emerged as a massive public health problem, rapidly replacing the Delta-variant and the predominant variant in many countries, and foretelling a new and likely more devastating wave of the pandemic. To provide an inclusive overview to global health authorities and prospectivereaders worldwide, we detailed in this review, the properties of the Omicron Variant, its infectiousness, and the dangers it poses to the general public, we also discuss the situation in Nigerian and the rest of the world alike.
  • Free falling: Characteristics and prevention of injury and death in
           extreme aerial sports tourists

    • Abstract: Extreme aerial sports are unique in terms of their high degree of lethality, life-changing injuries, and the lack of experience required by amateur participants. As society gradually re-emerges from the pandemic, we are likely to witness a renewed interest in outdoor adventure activities, including extreme aerial sports such as bungee jumping and skydiving. Sports physicians, general practitioners and travel medicine advisers should have a basic familiarity with the risks associated with bungee jumping and skydiving. Serious injury can occur during bungee jumping when the safety harness fails, the cord elasticity is miscalculated, or the cord is not properly connected to the platform. There is a predominance of ocular injuries, especially retinal haemorrhage. More severe non-fatal injuries include facet joint dislocation with quadriplegia, carotid artery dissection, and non-fatal hanging. The majority of adverse skydiving incidents occur during the landing phase and most injuries involve the lower extremities. When travelling as a skydiving tourist, individuals should carry documents explaining each aspect of the equipment and a note for security personnel. Tourists should check if their insurance covers skydiving. Future research should investigate the experiences of aerial sports tourists, in relation to the level of preparation and safety measures applied to their jumps.
  • Epidemiological investigation of a Covid-19 community cluster in Kedah,

    • Abstract: Introduction: A cluster of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to an international traveller was reported in Kedah, Malaysia in July 2020. This study aimed to report data of a local community cluster of COVID-19 with a view to document the lessons learnt and to identify key points for future containment strategy in response of the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed cases of COVID-19 within this cluster were collected via interviews and in-patient medical records. All data were analysed, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of all cases were presented. Results: Total of 31 cases of COVID-19 were confirmed and linked epidemiologically in Kedah state. The index case was identified and reported to breach quarantine order for international traveller given by health authority. The virus transmission widely spread among family members, restaurant customers and later in the community. Conclusion: Non-adherence to the preventive measures is the driving factor for the widespread of this cluster infection. Active contact tracing, aggressive containment measures, and effective risk communication are important to control the virus transmission in this locality.
  • Kleine-Levin syndrome in a Young Woman Triggered in Travel: A Case Report
           from Iran

    • Abstract: Introduction: Klein-Levin Syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder often associated with recurrent hypersomnia, first described by Klein in 1925 but named in 1942 by Critchley and Hoffman. KLS is more common in adolescence and is also more common in men than women.Case Report: In this report, we present a 27-year-old woman with Kleine-Levin syndrome who showed symptoms such as overeating and mood changes, unwillingness to talk to anyone, and a sedentary lifestyle. Also, in these periods, other symptoms such as lack of speech, decreased energy, lethargy, slowness of mental and mood movements are observed in the patient. Eventually, with lithium consumption, his symptoms improve significantly. But the exact cause of this syndrome and its definitive treatment is still unknown and will require further reports and studies.Conclusion: According to the reported case, Klein-Levin syndrome may be triggered by travel and migration, and in such situation, may respond well to lithium.
  • Vaccination Passport Use and Travel Health Status among Turkish Travelers
           at an International Airport

    • Abstract: Introduction: Even though Istanbul is one of the centers of the world's fastest-growing tourism and travel sector, there are limited statistics on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of travelers from this region regarding travel-related infectious diseases. This study aimed to determine the passengers' KAP about contagious diseases and contribute to developing new solutions for the problems people face while traveling abroad.Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 182 Turkish travelers planning on traveling abroad and applied to the Istanbul Travel Health Center and the Istanbul Airport Health Control Center between January and March 2019.Results: The proportion of carrying a vaccination certificate was statistically higher in those who received healthcare services at international terminals (p=0.002), especially those who had yellow fever (p<0.001) and meningococcal vaccine (p=0.011). More than half of the vaccinated passengers did not carry their vaccination certificates, while around half (53.8%) were traveling to Africa. When compared to travelers flying to Europe, vaccination checks were 6.7 times (95% CI 2.5-17.9) higher in passengers traveling to Africa, 6.1 times (95% CI 1.5-24.3) higher in passengers traveling to Asia, and 14.8 times (95% CI 1.3-164.3) higher in passengers traveling to South America. In addition, the vaccination certificate carrying proportion was significantly more in those with a travel duration of 15 days or more (p=0.028), those who received health services at international terminals (p=0.002), and those vaccinated (p<0.001).Conclusion: Improved knowledge of travel-related infectious diseases and increased adoption of pre-travel health advice and vaccines are urgently needed among Turkish travelers.
  • Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Haiti

    • Abstract: Introduction: The problem of the prevailing occurrence of hypertension and diabetes cases quickly took the world by storm. Rural areas became even more exposed to the negative issues associated with these health conditions due to the lack of a skilled workforce and educational programs for patients. Within the framework of the current paper, the researcher utilized the data from two mission trips in Thomonde, Haiti, in order to gain more insight into chronic health issues among rural Haitian residents.Methods: This study employed a retrospective analytical cross-sectional retrospective, descriptive design using data obtained from two mission trips in Thomonde, Haiti in the areas of Palmay, Savane Plate, and La Hoye. The information was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software. A total of 403 adult patient visits across the three sites and two visits were included in the analysis.Results: GERD (25.8%) was the most common diagnosis found in the rural Haitian communes among adults in the total sample (N = 403), followed by Hypertension (16.8%) and Dehydration (13.9%). Among women, significant differences by location were found for pregnancy. The greatest number of pregnancies were observed in La Hoye (19.0%).Conclusions: The core implication of these findings was the importance of disseminating knowledge across rural areas while conducting similar retrospective studies to check progress. Real-life application of relevant knowledge could be beneficial for both patients and care providers operating in rural locations that are the hardest to reach.
  • Diminished Protective Effects of Educational Attainment against Perceived
           Economic Hardship among Chinese Americans

    • Abstract: ----
  • Inequalities in accessing healthcare in the United States of America: A
           major contributor to the increasing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality

    • Abstract: Introduction: A high proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths have been reported from the United States (U.S.). This study aimed to assess the health system inequalities as a determinant of COVID-19 case morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Methods: This study collected data on U.S. COVID-19 cases and deaths as of 27th January 2021 from the Worldometer and COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index. The strength of association between the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), total COVID-19 deaths and tests, and regional population in the U.S were determined using Pearson’s correlation. P-values <0.05 were statistically significant. Results: In the North-Eastern region, New York has the highest SVI (0.94), and the highest percentage of non-Whites. In the Western region, California has the highest SVI (0.90), and the highest proportion of Asians. In the mid-Western region of the U.S., Illinois has the highest SVI (0.88), and the highest proportion of African Americans and Asians. In the Southern region, North Carolina has the highest SVI of (1.00), and the highest proportion of African Americans. There is a strong positive correlation between the SVI and total COVID-19 tests (p=0.001) in the Northeastern, and Southern regions (p=0.025). A positive correlation (p<0.039) exists between SVI and total population in the Western and mid-Western regions (p<0.003). Conclusion: Multisectoral collaboration should be encouraged to promote equity in accessing COVID-19 healthcare in the U.S, especially in States with high COVID-19 SVI.
  • Health risks and benefits of international travel for adult patients with

    • Abstract: Asthma is a very prevalent condition. A significant proportion of patients with asthma will engage in travel for work or leisure purposes. Patients may be fearful of travel, especially during the current COVID-19 global pandemic. However, there are health benefits to be obtained, including leaving an area of high air pollution and travelling to an area of lower air pollution, travelling to high altitude, the beneficial effects of a low trigger environment and the psychological benefits associated with travel. Travel can be associated with improved diet and increased vitamin D exposure. Caution should be taken with alcohol consumption as it may worsen asthma. Whilst bariatric surgery has been shown to improve asthma symptoms and control, there are dangers associated with bariatric surgery tourism that the traveller should be made aware of. Travellers with asthma may experience jet lag and a worsening in their symptoms. Caution is required around exogenous melatonin use. Optimal asthma control pre travel is essential. The destination should be carefully considered, in terms of air pollution, altitude and possible environmental triggers. Pre-travel, written asthma management plans should be reviewed and updated if necessary. Patients should carry more asthma medications than they think is necessary, including oral corticosteroids and a pressurised metered dose inhaler via spacer. Travellers with asthma should have a self management plan in the event of exacerbations occurring during travel.
  • Sickle cell disease complications following air travel: a review of the
           current literature

    • Abstract: Every year, the number of people using commercial aircraft is estimated at about two billion and more than 300 million people take long-haul flights. Sickle cell patients may be at risk during the air journey because at cruising altitude a significant hypobaric hypoxia may occur. This literature review reports complications related to air travel such as painful crises, serious spleen complications (spleen infarcts) requiring a splenectomy, or even sudden death. Prevention of these complications includes environmental protection (maintaining pressure inside the aircraft cabin in a hypobaric condition) as well as individual prophylaxis (general recommendations for all travelers and specific measures for sickle-cell patients). In order to assess complications associated with air travel in sickle-cell patients, an assessment of their ability to fly is necessary. The flight fitness assessment identifies patients who will need additional oxygen during flight. When prescribed by the passenger’s physician, additional oxygen is provided by most airlines. Knowing these elements makes it possible to anticipate problems and provide appropriate responses to patients.
  • Migrant-health inequity as a consequence of poor Siracusa Principles
           implementation in the COVID-19 era

    • Abstract: The Siracusa Principles dictate that restrictions on the rights of individuals or a group of individuals in the name of public health safety should be strictly necessary and be least intrusive to reach their objective. While social distancing measures have proven to abide by the Siracusa Principles to a larger extent, they have failed to meet the laws of distributive justice, which requires limiting unfair or inequitably personal and economic burdens on the nation’s inhabitants. While employing social distancing measures, the principle of reciprocity also obliges governments to provide the people living within their borders with the necessities of life. Although asylum-seekers, refugees, and undocumented migrants already disproportionately bear the brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic, poor application of the Siracusa Principles in social distancing measures seems to intensify their vulnerabilities. We argue that while implementing public health measures that could potentially impact the lives and livelihoods of the people living within the nation, considerations should also be paid to minority groups such as asylum-seekers, refugees, and undocumented migrants. We propose that the application of the social distancing measures should be ‘migration-aware’, adopting interventions, policies, and setting systems that embed migration as a central concern in their design.
  • Bell’s palsy onboard: a case report of a very common disease in a
           special setting

    • Abstract: Introduction: Cruises are one of the major travel industries worldwide and a variety of medical issues can happen onboard. This is a case report of peripheral facial nerve palsy in an elderly man with diabetes treated onboard a world cruise ship. Case Presentation: A 78-year-old man presented to the infirmary due to difficulty closing his left eye during a 105-day world voyage. The patient was in a good general health and had a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (treated by dietary intervention). He was diagnosed with severe Bell’s palsy by history and physical examination and treated with prednisolone and valacyclovir without any complications and a near-complete recovery. The possibility of misdiagnosis and deterioration of diabetes mellitus due to the corticosteroid treatment was explained to the patient.Conclusion: When it comes to medical management in a resource-limited setting like cruise ships, passenger physicians trained in a wide variety of illnesses are crucial. It is important to explain to patients the prognosis and expected outcome of the medical condition. Emergency medical evacuation may be warranted in certain cases.
  • Traveling and celebrating during Songkran as superspreading events: a
           potential triggering factor of the surge of COVID-19 cases in Thailand

    • Abstract: Thailand, a Southeast Asian country, recently celebrated Songkran, a traditional Buddhist new year festival which is annually marked by festivities such as water-splashing, powder-smearing, and foam parties. However, the case was different since the COVID-19 pandemic began. In 2020, the Thai government completely canceled the holiday across the country in order to prevent and control the COVID-19 transmission. However, in 2021, Songkran pushed through with approval from the Thai government and restrictions set by the country’s Center for COVID-19 Situation Administration such as banning the usual festivities and gathering of people. Additionally, the Tourism Authority of Thailand even encouraged the public to travel across the country. Due to this opportunity, several Thais from Bangkok traveled to their provinces to visit their loved ones in this special occasion. Locals and foreigners also visited the famous tourist hotspots in the country to spend the week-long vacation. Unfortunately, a day after the Thai New Year, daily new cases of COVID-19 started to shoot up and even exceeded the 1,000 mark which happened for the first time. Currently, the highest daily record already reached to almost 10,000 cases. Aside from the arrival of variants of concern in the country, the recent Songkran, a superspreading event, might have triggered the ongoing surge of COVID-19 cases in Thailand. Government leaders should learn from this experience in order to prevent superspreading events to occur which in turn will possibly prevent and control a potential outbreak of contagious diseases such as COVID-19.
  • The Myth of the Para-Lockdown to Fight COVID-19 in Hong Kong

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