Publisher: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences   (Total: 5 journals)   [Sort alphabetically]

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J. of Exercise & Organ Cross Talk     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Skin and Stem Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.134, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hospital Practices and Research     Open Access  
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International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2322-1100 - ISSN (Online) 2476-5759
Published by Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Determining Contributory Factors to the Competitiveness of Iran’s
           Medical Tourism: An Importance-Performance Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction: Medical tourism is developing more rapidly, particularly in developing countries, as a tool to enhance economic growth and achieve a competitive position. The present study aims to investigate and identify contributory factors to the competitiveness of Iran’s medical tourism using importance-performance analysis. Methods: This is an applied study with a descriptive nature conducted using field studies and surveys. A conceptual model was adopted and contributory factors were extracted from previous studies. A questionnaire was designed based on extracted factors and opinions of experts who are specialists in the field of medical tourism. The statistical population consisted of tourism experts, health experts, physicians, and medical staff working in hospitals with international units. Data analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: The results showed that “medical services” were more important than the two components “special factors of tourism” and “characteristics of medical tourism destinations”. It was also revealed that the current situation of “medical tourism destination characteristics” is unfavorable compared to the other two components. Conclusion: This study provided an insight into the importance and quality of performance of the factors affecting the competitiveness of medical tourism, which can be beneficial for managers and planners in Iran and other medical tourism destinations.
  • Hematological Parameters Variations among Patients with Uncomplicated
           Plasmodium Falciparum Infection in Cambodia

    • Abstract: Introduction: The prevalence of anemia among patients with malaria is very common from subsequent erythrocytes destruction and should be managed most appropriately. This study aimed to explore the changes in hematological parameters and their underlying influence among people with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among uncomplicated malaria patients infected by P. falciparum on community-based active screening days in one of the highest malaria hot-spot areas of northwestern Cambodia. Descriptive statistics, and student t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Among 103 malaria blood samples, the results showed that most participants had thrombocytopenia (84.5%). More than one-half of the participants presented normal levels of the following hematological parameters: red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. A significant correlation was noted between parasite counts and three BMI groups (p = 0.047). Next, a strong association was also seen between parasite counts and body temperature (p = 0.03). Statistically significant differences in parasite count were observed across three levels of neutrophil (p = 0.005), lymphocyte (p = 0.001), eosinophil (p<0.001), absolute lymphocyte (p = 0.001) and absolute eosinophil (p<0.001) counts. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed the significant role of hematological parameters in predicting the presence of malaria infection, parasite density, and forecasting adverse consequences of malaria, together with the underlying risk factors.
  • Effect of a supervised exercise-training programme on morbidity and
           wellness of South African Hajj pilgrims in 2018: A pilot study

    • Abstract: IntroductionIll health and poor physical and mental conditioning adversely affects pilgrims’ ability to optimally perform the arduous physical rituals of Hajj. We postulate that a supervised, pre-departure exercise programme improves their health status and may reduce morbidity.MethodsNinety-three accredited pilgrims completed a 6-12 weeks graduated, supervised walking programme designed to get the participants fit to do a 10km walk. Assessments including a morbidity survey, a six-minute walk test, and a POMS (Profile of Mood States) were conducted before and immediately after the exercise programme. A morbidity questionnaire, the six-minute walk test, and POMS were completed post-Hajj (n = 88). A group of 200 non-matched pilgrims who were not part of the exercise programme, were approached post-Hajj to fill in the morbidity questionnaire, with eight-two responding. ResultsEighty-eight participants completed the exercise programme, with 13.7% reporting medical events during the Hajj period, significantly less than the non-participants (62.2% of 82 respondents), and less when compared to other studies (up to 91%). The mean distance recorded in the six-minute walk test increased by 5% after the exercise programme (481.3 meters before to 506.3m after) and 3% after Hajj (520.7m). Similar positive changes in the POMS were noted across the three time periods. The resting heart rate did not show significant changes. ConclusionThis study shows that a supervised exercise programme for Hajj pilgrims has a positive effect on their physical and mental conditioning, which may reduce morbidity. Larger controlled trials are warranted to determine the optimum dose of exercise.
  • Treatment camp and patients in Arbaeen Pilgrimage in 2019

    • Abstract: Introduction: One of the largest religious gatherings in the world is the Arbaeen pilgrimage, which takes place on the 40th day after the anniversary of the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, the third Shiite Imam. This study was aimed to investigate how to set up the Sahib-al-Zaman treatment camp on the Arbaeen walking route in 2019 and the patients referring to it.Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients referring to the Sahib-al-Zaman camp of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the Arbaeen Walking plan in 2019. In this study, how to set up camp was described. Patients' data and drugs used by the medical team were collected, and then were analyzed.Results: Totally, 3,477 patients were enrolled. The mean±SD of patients’ age was 33.77±16.19 (ranging from 1 to 96) years, and 2,183 patients (62.78%) were male. Most patients were Iranian (84.5%) and then Iraqi (13.66%), and only 1.84% were from other nationalities. Upper respiratory tract infection (60.2%), low back pain and muscle cramps (17.6%), and blister and need for dressing (12.3%) were the most common chief complaints in the patients. Adult cold pills, acetaminophen (325 mg), and cetirizine (10 mg) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for the patients.Conclusion: Although the data used in this study are not sufficient due to the lack of a pre-created data recording system, the results of this study showed that in addition to the importance and necessity of holding such ceremonies, health issues and facilities should also be considered.
  • Stemming the Brain Drain of Medical Graduates From Developing Countries:
           Controversies and Solutions

    • Abstract: Brain drain is a term used to describe the migration of highly skilled or educated people from their home country to other locations across the world. One of the existing strategies to combat the brain drain of medical students and graduates from poorer countries is the practice of conditional or bonded scholarships. Conditional scholarships have been relatively successful in stemming brain drain and have been implemented all over the world, even in developed nations such as the USA, Kuwait, and Australia, although this perspective focuses on Nepal and Malaysia as developing countries. While bonding has proven to be effective in reducing the emigration of medical graduates from poorer to wealthier countries, it is not a perfect solution. In this policy review we argue on ethical grounds that it may not be truly justifiable to limit the freedom of movement of medical graduates. Another problem associated with bonding schemes is that they further widen the gap between rich and poor in developing nations. Most countries that implement this compulsory service following graduation allow a means to escape the bond through monetary payments, which may be equivalent to the cost of their undergraduate medical education. The problem arises when wealthier graduates can pay this cost and emigrate to countries with better resources, salaries, and opportunities, while poorer students remain in their home countries
  • The necessity of designing and launching electronic COVID-19 vaccination
           registry system in Iran

    • Abstract: -
  • Clearing the air: a global health perspective on air pollution

    • Abstract: Air pollution is responsible for one in eight deaths globally per year. The severity of air pollution and its effects on global health are frequently discussed in the literature but are poorly reflected in health policy and have not yet resulted in sufficient actionable change. Air pollution mitigation policies should embody the planetary health concept, which highlights the interdependence between the health of humans and the planet. There is an urgent need for the standardisation of air quality measurement and programmes on a global scale. A reduction in fine particulate matter has been shown to contribute to the greatest degree of public health benefits. Current efforts to improve urban air quality include a significant focus on the transition to sustainable energy and transportation through the electrification of transportation. There are two main fronts in the campaign against pollution, one being the reduction of anthropogenic emissions through public and government policy, and the other being the introduction of novel attempts to decrease pollution and other innovative research to develop new approaches that will ultimately improve global health.
  • Developmental Cost of Being Asian But Living in the United States:
           Diminished Returns of Household Income on Cortical Surface Area in 9-10
           Year Old Children

    • Abstract: Background. While socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as household income are known to be associated with larger cortical surface area, recent research on Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggests that family SES indicators such as household income may have weaker effects on brain function and structure for non-White (marginalized) than White (privileged) families. Objective. To test racial variation in the association between household income as SES indicator and cortical surface area among American children. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that used baseline data from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. Data was collected between 2016 and 2018. Overall, 6039 9–10-year-old children entered our analysis. The independent variable was household income. The moderator was race. The primary outcome was the overall cortical surface area. Age, sex, and family structure were the covariates. We used mixed effects regression models that adjusted for data analysis because ABCD data is nested into families, centers, and US states. Results. While high household income was associated with larger cortical surface area, this effect was weaker for Asian than non-Hispanic White children. This racial heterogeneity in the effects of household income on cortical surface area was documented by a statistically significant interaction between race and household income on cortical surface area. Discussion. For American children, household income does not similarly correlate with cortical surface area of diverse racial groups. Brain development in the US is not solely a function of SES (availability of resources) but also how social groups are racialized and treated in the society.
  • SARS-CoV2 Infection of Athletes in Brazilian Soccer Competitions: Lessons
           from Recent Events Worldwide and the Return of Fans to Stadiums

    • Abstract: The 2020 Brazilian Soccer Championship began on August 8, 2020 and ended on February 25, 2021 with the participation of 20 teams from 9 different states in Brazil with 302 players were tested positive for COVID-19 with some cases of reinfection in the 635 players enrolled in the championship.In Copa America, only after 3 days of the beginning, 41 positive cases of COVID-19 were reported, with 31 players and members of delegations and 10 employees of the hotels where the teams were hosted. In 6 days, 82 cases were reported with 37 players and members of delegations and 45 persons from hospitality and event staff, with an increase of 75.60% only 3 days after (144 positive cases) with 17.443 RT-PCR tests performed.The community transmission become de main problem in this event, representing an alert for other types of sport events due to the high risk for diseases exportation to other countries. The risk for exporting the disease will be low if these preventive measures will be adopted even in the return by the participating teams in their countries with a mandatory quarantine for 14 days in an isolated place is essential, especially for players who are part of European teams and in other countries. Despite being vaccinated, there is a low possibility to become infected and eventually transmit the disease to your local of origin and export to other countries.
  • Omicron Variant

    • Abstract: The Coronavirus disease 2019 has persisted as a pandemic for just over 2 years, vaccines have been developed to prevent the clinical disease and treatment regimens improved upon, but SARS-CoV-2 appears to be up to the task, coming up with mutations resulting in multiple variants, alpha, beta, delta, Omicron and so much more. The most important and recent one, the omicron variant, with an amazing 50 genetic mutations, 37 of which are on the Spike-protein, has emerged as a massive public health problem, rapidly replacing the Delta-variant and the predominant variant in many countries, and foretelling a new and likely more devastating wave of the pandemic. To provide an inclusive overview to global health authorities and prospectivereaders worldwide, we detailed in this review, the properties of the Omicron Variant, its infectiousness, and the dangers it poses to the general public, we also discuss the situation in Nigerian and the rest of the world alike.
  • Free falling: Characteristics and prevention of injury and death in
           extreme aerial sports tourists

    • Abstract: Extreme aerial sports are unique in terms of their high degree of lethality, life-changing injuries, and the lack of experience required by amateur participants. As society gradually re-emerges from the pandemic, we are likely to witness a renewed interest in outdoor adventure activities, including extreme aerial sports such as bungee jumping and skydiving. Sports physicians, general practitioners and travel medicine advisers should have a basic familiarity with the risks associated with bungee jumping and skydiving. Serious injury can occur during bungee jumping when the safety harness fails, the cord elasticity is miscalculated, or the cord is not properly connected to the platform. There is a predominance of ocular injuries, especially retinal haemorrhage. More severe non-fatal injuries include facet joint dislocation with quadriplegia, carotid artery dissection, and non-fatal hanging. The majority of adverse skydiving incidents occur during the landing phase and most injuries involve the lower extremities. When travelling as a skydiving tourist, individuals should carry documents explaining each aspect of the equipment and a note for security personnel. Tourists should check if their insurance covers skydiving. Future research should investigate the experiences of aerial sports tourists, in relation to the level of preparation and safety measures applied to their jumps.
  • Epidemiological investigation of a Covid-19 community cluster in Kedah,

    • Abstract: Introduction: A cluster of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to an international traveller was reported in Kedah, Malaysia in July 2020. This study aimed to report data of a local community cluster of COVID-19 with a view to document the lessons learnt and to identify key points for future containment strategy in response of the ongoing pandemic. Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed cases of COVID-19 within this cluster were collected via interviews and in-patient medical records. All data were analysed, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of all cases were presented. Results: Total of 31 cases of COVID-19 were confirmed and linked epidemiologically in Kedah state. The index case was identified and reported to breach quarantine order for international traveller given by health authority. The virus transmission widely spread among family members, restaurant customers and later in the community. Conclusion: Non-adherence to the preventive measures is the driving factor for the widespread of this cluster infection. Active contact tracing, aggressive containment measures, and effective risk communication are important to control the virus transmission in this locality.
  • Kleine-Levin syndrome in a Young Woman Triggered in Travel: A Case Report
           from Iran

    • Abstract: Introduction: Klein-Levin Syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder often associated with recurrent hypersomnia, first described by Klein in 1925 but named in 1942 by Critchley and Hoffman. KLS is more common in adolescence and is also more common in men than women.Case Report: In this report, we present a 27-year-old woman with Kleine-Levin syndrome who showed symptoms such as overeating and mood changes, unwillingness to talk to anyone, and a sedentary lifestyle. Also, in these periods, other symptoms such as lack of speech, decreased energy, lethargy, slowness of mental and mood movements are observed in the patient. Eventually, with lithium consumption, his symptoms improve significantly. But the exact cause of this syndrome and its definitive treatment is still unknown and will require further reports and studies.Conclusion: According to the reported case, Klein-Levin syndrome may be triggered by travel and migration, and in such situation, may respond well to lithium.
  • Sickle cell disease complications following air travel: a review of the
           current literature

    • Abstract: Every year, the number of people using commercial aircraft is estimated at about two billion and more than 300 million people take long-haul flights. Sickle cell patients may be at risk during the air journey because at cruising altitude a significant hypobaric hypoxia may occur. This literature review reports complications related to air travel such as painful crises, serious spleen complications (spleen infarcts) requiring a splenectomy, or even sudden death. Prevention of these complications includes environmental protection (maintaining pressure inside the aircraft cabin in a hypobaric condition) as well as individual prophylaxis (general recommendations for all travelers and specific measures for sickle-cell patients). In order to assess complications associated with air travel in sickle-cell patients, an assessment of their ability to fly is necessary. The flight fitness assessment identifies patients who will need additional oxygen during flight. When prescribed by the passenger’s physician, additional oxygen is provided by most airlines. Knowing these elements makes it possible to anticipate problems and provide appropriate responses to patients.
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Heriot-Watt University
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