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Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi
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ISSN (Print) 1301-5737 - ISSN (Online) 2630-5976
Published by Hacettepe University Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Ideal or Burden: The War of the Irish in Observe the Sons of Ulster
           Marching Towards the Somme

    • Authors: Emine Seda ÇAĞLAYAN MAZANOĞLU
      Abstract: Frank McGuinness’ Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching Towards the Somme (1985) presents the struggle of the eight Ulstermen, the Unionists and Protestants, at the Battle of the Somme in 1916 during the First World War. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that McGuinness, an Irish nationalist, makes the audience/reader see the issues of war and heroism from the Unionist perspective. The Ulstermen who enlist in the military to support Britain in the war and honour both Britain and Ireland abandon their ideals as they witness the horrors of war and recognise the possibility of losing their comrades. The characters in pairs depend on each other, and have a strong sense of brotherhood during their march to death at the Somme. In a sense, fighting for Britain and Ireland is no longer an act of heroism, which becomes illusionary, but they show heroism as they risk their lives to save each other and support one another in difficult circumstances. Hence, it will be argued that McGuinness uses the ‘illusion of heroism’ to deconstruct the military, and show that the national, political, religious and cultural differences lose meaning in the face death, which is a reference to the separation between Unionist Protestants and Nationalist Catholics with regard to political and religious affiliation. In this respect, the historical and political background information on the conflicts within Ireland which lead the Southern part to become the Republic of Ireland and the Northern part to remain as a part of Britain will be given as McGuinness questions not only the recruitment of Irish soldiers to fight in the First World War but also the Ulstermen’s devotion to Britain.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Readdressing the Painting Programme of the Church of St. Barbara in the
           Göreme Valley, Cappadocia

    • Authors: H. Ceylan KARACA
      Abstract: The article focuses on the Church of St. Barbara in the Göreme Valley in Nevşehir, Cappadocia. Today the church is within the borders of the Göreme Open Air Museum which is a cluster of many churches, refectories and additional units. The church is unique with its architectural plan and elaborate nonfigurative elements in red ochre. Painted panels of a secondary phase do not cover up this red paint decoration but they are on the already-vacant parts of the naos. Remarkably, almost all motifs differ from each other in detail or in form. Furthermore, certain compartments of the building are reserved for certain motifs. Thus, it becomes clear that ruddled motifs and compositions can be named as parts of a ‘red ochre painting programme’ in which they are hierarchically arranged in the naos and each of them gain their specifical meaning thanks to the detailing. Such a programme must have been comprehended by the first users and accepted and vindicated by the painters of the second layer. The only church exactly similar to the Church of St. Barbara in its plan type is the Çarıklı Church in close proximity in the same museum. It is interesting that the churches exactly similar in architecture but totally dissimilar in painting programme are coexistent in the Göreme enclave on whose institutional organization so little is known. Still, that the panel paintings did not cover up the detailed red paint decoration indicates that the ruddled programme was approved or appreciated by the hierarchical order of the Göreme enclave. This study intends to examine the nonfigurative repertoire of the region, the architectural plan of the church and intends to shortly evaluate iconoclast and iconophile way of thought on figural imagery. By doing this, the study aims to comment on the meaning the church had in the Göreme circuit, and to hypothesize on the congregation who used the church.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Conducting a Digital Research on Technologies of the Self with
           Videoconferencing Technique During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Tuğba ERDEM; Aylin GÖRGÜN BARAN
      Abstract: The methodological approaches and methods offered by digital sociology emphasize the importance of accessing and using information technologies in terms of socialization. The limitation of face-to-face communication with the 'social distance' rule that emerged with the COVID-19 pandemic, which has affected the whole world, has made it necessary to maintain social relations through various information and communication technology tools and has brought digital sociology methods to the agenda for academic research. In this study as a part of doctoral research, which is focused on how recommendation algorithms work as technologies of self through online content streaming platforms, 12 interviews were conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Videoconferencing technique is used as an alternative to face-to-face interviews. The opportunities and limitations of videoconferencing are evaluated in terms of the research subject, research field, the role of the researcher and ethics, participants of the research, new communication style, rapport, validity and reliability and ethics, identity verification, and voice recording. In times of crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, videoconferencing technique provides the opportunity to meet at the time and environment determined by the participants, without the need to meet face to face and to come together physically in the same place. In terms of the research topic and field this technique also constitutes an advantage due to the middle-upper socio-economic level of the participants and the digital skill level at a similar level. On the other hand, the limitations of this technique arise in research subjects that require privacy that also require data security to be taken into account, when different segments have unequal access to these digital tools and services due to the digital divide in society. Moreover, limited information and communication technologies usage skills of the participant may also affect the decision of using videoconferencing technique in a research.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Migration, New Racism, Cultural Identity, and Multiculturalism in Tena
           Štivičić’s Invisible

    • Authors: Nazan ERCİŞLİ
      Abstract: In recent years, when the immigration problem has been widely discussed, Croatian-born Tena Štivičić, one of the notable playwrights of the British theater, made a name for herself with her plays Fragile (2007) and Invisible (2011) in which she dealt with this problem, and these plays won awards such as the European Author's Award and the Innovation Award. In her play Invisible, which is examined in this study, the author tries to express the problems of immigrants by addressing the problem of international migration on the economic, political, cultural and psychological basis in the complex structure of our globalizing world since the last quarter of the twentieth century. In this sense, the author, who deals with the migration stories of the characters by making implicit references to the wars and conflicts that took place in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, also strikingly reveals their struggle for existence and survival with their cultural identities in the multicultural and capitalist-based social structure of England. Štivičić, who tries to reflect the international migration problem mainly from the perspective of immigrants who feel invisible and worthless, also includes the perspectives of the British, who are the other interlocutors of the issue. In the study, the phenomenon of migration, which has become a difficult problem to overcome, is discussed with its causes and consequences, based on the author's play Invisible. Štivičić's approaches to the solution of the immigration problem are examined, in the light of the views of some theorists such as Immanuel Wallerstein, Etienne Balibar and Homi K. Bhabha, regarding the identity process of immigrants and the racist and marginalizing treatments they are exposed to.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Adventures of Tuscan Ambassador Neri Giraldi in Istanbul (1598)

    • Authors: Özden MERCAN
      Abstract: In this article the diplomatic initiative of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which was negotiated with the Ottoman administration in 1598 and ended in failure, will be examined. In the existing literature, the anti-Ottoman activities of the galleys of the Order of St Stefano in the Eastern Mediterranean are considered as the reason for the failure of the negotiations. Although this matter was one of the main issues discussed during the negotiations, there were other factors that played a decisive role in the failed diplomacy. In this regard, the activities of Neri Giraldi, who was sent to Istanbul as the representative of Tuscany, deserve attention. Giraldi’s lack of knowledge about Ottoman administration and diplomatic practices led to some diplomatic mishaps and eventually the failure of the negotiations. Reconstructing the negotiation process in light of the evidence from various archival documents, this article will focus on Tuscan ambassador’s adventures in the Ottoman capital.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Is L1 Transfer Operative at the Syntax-Discourse Interface' The
           Acquisition of Null and Overt Subjects in L2 Turkish

    • Authors: Oktay ÇINAR
      Abstract: Recent studies on L2 acquisition focus on how interface-related properties are acquired at the end state grammars. Proposed as part of this theme, the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace & Filiaci, 2006; Sorace, 2011) claims that the syntax-discourse interface is particularly challenging to acquire, irrespective of the L1 and L2 of the speakers. On the other hand, the Full Transfer / Full Access Hypothesis (Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996) predicts that L2 acquisition is L1-constrained and UG is directly accessed. This study tests these assumptions on the acquisition of null and overt subjects in L2 Turkish to understand whether L1 transfer operates in the domain that needs the mapping of syntax on the discursive knowledge. This was tested in a study on advanced Korean and Japanese L2 Turkish speakers (n=27) by employing contextualized grammaticality judgment task (CGJT). In this task, participants were asked to judge whether the contextualized sentences they read were pragmatically odd or not (for each condition n=4). The discursive constraints (topic continuity and topic shift) on the use of null and overt subjects were not violated in the first two conditions. However, the latter two conditions violated the discursive constraints, rendering unacceptable null and overt subject constructions. The results of the CGJT revealed that the L2 participants were insensitive to the discourse of null and overt subject distribution. Since the very same constraints that regulate the null and overt subject distribution hold both in the L1 and L2 of the speakers, this finding suggests that L1 transfer is not operative at the syntax-discourse interface, which is in line with the claim that the properties at this interface cannot be fully acquired as postulated by the Interface Hypothesis.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • A Discussion on the Political Context of Locke's Critique of Innate

    • Authors: Erman KAÇAR
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the epistemological basis of elementary concepts such as natural law, state of nature, contract and property used in the construction of public realm and private spheres in John Locke's political theory. Unlike other contractual theorists, John Locke grounds the key arguments of his political theory by testing it with his own epistemology, which he developed against the elementary principles of Cartesian philosophy. According to Locke, the Cartesian thesis that there are some innate ideas sealed or innately given to the human mind will enable the legislators or controllers in a political society to legitimize their power in line with their own political interests. According to Locke, the main reason for this is that the idea of innate ideas appears as a belief, and it becomes easier to rule people or communities who believe in it and to exert power on them. The aim of John Locke is to eliminate the confusion mentioned above by grounding a whole political theory, starting from his own epistemology, from the law of nature to the social contract, from the political society to the concept of property. In this context, in the first part of the study, the epistemological foundations of the concept of natural law will be discussed, and in the second part, the problems in the execution of the natural law will be shown. In the third and last part, concepts such as contract, political society and property will be examined by bringing them side by side with Locke's epistemological analysis. From this point of view, the relationship between the basic concepts of Locke's political philosophy, the state of nature, natural law, contract and property, and his original epistemology, which he developed through his critique of innate ideas, will be investigated.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Disfigural Dynamisms of the Pictographic Theater: Towards a Deleuzian
           Phenomenology of the Embodied Comics Experience

    • Authors: Corry SHORES
      Abstract: Vivian Sobchack’s Merleau-Pontian phenomenology of embodied film experience is applicable, with certain modifications, to the embodied comics experience, especially when considering her analyses of Gestalt closure, bodily affectivity, and synaesthesia. We adopt these concepts yet with a different aim, namely, to account for shocking, disorienting, and decompositional embodied comics experiences of dramatically deformed bodies. For this task, we employ Gilles Deleuze’s philosophy of shocking sensations and their role in promoting the “body without organs.” While it can be depicted in comics, like it is in Francis Bacon’s paintings, the visual experience of such a figure may also communicate these disordering forces to the viewing reader’s body as well, thereby shockingly disrupting their own inner workings. We test the potential applicability of these Deleuzian concepts by examining deformational bodies in Peter Bagge, Mary Fleener, and Craig Thompson, which will demonstrate the potential aptness of a Deleuze-inspired analysis of physiological shocks in the comics experience.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Cover and Editorial

    • Authors: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi HÜEFD/HUJFL
      Abstract: Cover and editorial of Hacettepe University Faculty of Letters Journal Volume 39 Issue 2.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
      Issue No: Vol. 39, No. 2. (2022)
  • A Typological Comparison on Chinese Word Order with Kyrgyz and Russian

    • Authors: Mesut KESKİN
      Abstract: The word order type of Chinese syntax configuration was generally summarized as VO type, however, the study on the syntactic configuration of language type features and tendencies pointed out that in fact it is more inclined to be summarized as OV type. Kyrgyz and Russian were chosen as the contrast languages in this study. The former is a typical OV-type language, and the latter is a typical VO-type language. The effectiveness of syntactic configuration was tested again by comparing these two languages with Chinese.The result shows that the syntactic configuration which is used to confirm the tendency of language types is effective. Through the study of word order types, it is considered that Chinese tends to be regarded as OV type like Kyrgyz, not VO type like Russian.For Chinese learners whose mother tongues are Kyrgyz and Russian, it is significantly important to understand the similarities and differences between Chinese and other OV and VO languages.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Communicative Purposes Expressed in Court by Defendants of Sexual Assault
           and Child Sexual Abuse

    • Authors: Utku TANRIVERE
      Abstract: Even though the language in the legal process is one of the major subjects of forensic linguistics, there are only a few studies in this regard in the scientific literature of the Turkish language. One of the reasons is that forensic linguistics has recently become a subject for study in Turkey, and the other reason is the hardship of accessing real forensic data. This study aimed to detect communicative purposes of statement parts and to reveal qualitative findings on these purposes by analysing moves of statements given by defendants in court who were accused of sexual assault and child sexual abuse, which were defined under articles 102 and 103 of the Turkish Criminal Code. At the end of the study, which was conducted on data from an open-source by close reading, five different moves were identified and named as acknowledgement, denial, palliation, sympathy, and accusation. Information regarding moves’ content and prospects was presented under subtitles with these names. Findings seem to be promising for further studies in the future in terms of both this specific topic and (descriptive) forensic linguistics in general.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Reimagining Woman and Nature Beyond Dualism in Ann Jellicoe’s The
           Rising Generation

    • Authors: Işıl ŞAHİN GÜLTER
      Abstract: Ecofeminist philosophy has developed sophisticated critiques of the structures in western patriarchal culture that contribute to the continuing domination and oppression, not only of women but of nature as well. Drawing on ecofeminism’s critique of dualist structures as its principle guiding paradigm, this paper aims to explore how Ann Jellicoe comes to terms with the anti-dualist insights of ecological feminism in The Rising Generation (1969). The central issues that occupy and motivate ecofeminists, including the domination of women by men and humanity’s misappropriation of nature, are also Jellicoe’s primary concerns in the play. Jellicoe endeavors to depict characters and settings in a manner that rejects dualisms and embraces multiplicity, offering the basic conditions required for alternative representations of all the categories concerned, ‘woman,’ ‘man,’ ‘nature,’ and ‘culture’. In doing so, Jellicoe reconceptualizes the female/male and nature/culture relationships in configurations other than the traditional oppositions produced by the dualist strategy. In light of those preliminary observations, this paper indicates that in The Rising Generation, Jellicoe adopts an anti-dualist strategy to promote an egalitarian and pluralistic point of view through which all oppressive forms of domination within a culture can be unlocked.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Transformation of Ideology and Power in the Consumption Society

    • Authors: Rıfat AYDIN
      Abstract: In the post-Word War II period, the impact of the welfare state in the West, the change in the economic structure and the enormous increase in mass communication brought with it the concept of consumer society as a new phenomenon. Although the concept penetrates all meaning points of life in many respects, the concept of consumer society in this study is examined in the context of the transformation of ideologies and power relations. In this framework, the changes that occurred during the transition from the ideological society to the consumer society and the effects of these changes on the power relations were discussed. On the other hand, the continuous reproduction of social hegemony within the framework of the power of consumer society and its mass media to create demand, determine their lifestyle and control free time has been evaluated in terms of the effect of the ideology of consumption. In addition, the founding role of the like / like principle about the relation of power with consumption has been emphasised. Unlike the ideology-oriented socialization, the final analysis tried to explain with a sociological perspective how the hegemonic processes on the masses evolved into a consumption-oriented structure.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Reflexivity and Relationality in Media Ethnography from the Perspective of
           Transcendental Realism and Pragmatic Philosophy: Roy Bhaskar and George
           Herbert Mead

    • Authors: Elif ÖZUZ DAĞDELEN
      Abstract: As consequences of digitalization processes, a digital culture that individuals and society both create and get involved in necessitates new research methods and techniques in social sciences. One of the research techniques that has been used to meet this need has been media ethnography. The aim of this study is to discuss the question, “What kind of paradigm should be appropriate for intersubjective processes, daily life practices, digital culture, media culture, so in general, the object of research that media ethnography concerned with'”. For this purpose, especially in culture-based studies, it is pointed out that how to handle the research object is no longer dominated by the positivist paradigm, but rather shaped by phenomenology-based ethnomethodology, that is, hermeneutics in general, and following a path towards relationality. To make this emphasis and to discuss the role of reflexivity and relationality in media ethnography, how Roy Bhaskar, one of the pioneers of critical realism and George Herbert Mead, one of the important names of symbolic interactionism and pragmatic philosophy, but who is generally discussed with the hermeneutic tradition, contribute to critical realism are described. In this paper, it is thought how these two important names can be thought together, especially based on relational ethnography as Davies suggests, and new questions are raised about the meaning, risks, and limits of media ethnography in digital societies.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Architectural Evaluation on the Houses in the Neighborhoods Where the
           Greeks Lived in Ürgüp in the 19th Century

    • Authors: Aytülü DIRIK; Pelin TEKİNALP
      Abstract: Ürgüp, one of the important settlements of Cappadocia region, is located 20 km east of Nevsehir city center. Ürgüp settlement has hosted many civilizations throughout history. Christian and Muslim peoples lived together in this settlement, which dates to very ancient times, until the population exchange in 1923. The Greek people, who had an important population in Cappadocia region, emigrated here leaving cultural heritage artifacts. The aim of the study is to examine and document the houses in the neighborhoods where the Greeks lived in Ürgüp in the 19th century in terms of art and architectural history. Information was given about the climate, natural conditions, topography, historical urban texture of the settlement of Ürgüp and the relations of the Greeks to the city, their socio-cultural and economic status. The Greek dwellings were studied in terms of art and architectural design and a catalog of 18 houses was prepared. An evaluation was made in terms of ground plan features, facade design, decorative features and material aspects of the studied houses and a conclusion was drawn. This studies were carried out on the houses examined in the study and an attempt was made to reproduce the original condition of the buildings. This study provided a basis for the rapidly progressing restoration and repair work in the region. With this study, it was determined that the houses have local characteristics and possess their original values. Baseline data for future preservation and restoration activities in the region will be established.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Morality and Freedom from the Perspective of Nietzsche and Marx

    • Authors: Burcu GEDİKLİ; Mehmet Eren GEDİKLİ
      Abstract: Nietzsche and Marx, who act from two different and even opposite views in terms of their basic philosophies, agree that the period in which they live is intolerable and oppressive for people. While Nietzsche criticizes the moral understanding of the period in terms of the dominance of slave morality, Marx criticizes the moral understanding stemming from the capitalist mode of production and domination. From this point of view, the thoughts of Nietzsche and Marx on the relationship between morality and freedom are presented in our article. In order to explain Nietzsche's views on morality, first of all, his views on the philosophy of knowledge and being are explained. And in this framework, his thoughts about nihilism and human are included. Then, the moral understanding that he put forward on the basis of these views is explained and the overman view that will create this morality is detailed. In order to deal with Marx's moral view, his conception of human as a social being is mentioned. In this direction, Marx's view of morality is explained through the ideal of human transformation from alienation to freedom. Finally, the similar and different aspects of Nietzsche and Marx about morality and freedom are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Ignoring Second Modality (M2) Beyond Second Language (L2) in Turkish Sign
           Language Teaching

    • Authors: Bahtiyar MAKAROĞLU
      Abstract: The issue for the teaching a language with the same modality and a language with a modality being different from L1 involves various teaching approaches and strategies. However, due to limited theoretical and empirical knowledge there are a large number of serious problems on pedagogical standards in TİD teaching for hearing L2 learners despite a growth in the number of courses. In addition, a sustainable acquisition planning has not yet been achieved due to the limited knowledge of policymakers on visual-spatial modality and TİD. This critical paper is an overview of the current implementations in different aspects such as curriculum design, teacher qualification, acquisition planning etc. in TİD pedagogy and addresses two basic questions: (i) how is TİD traditionally taught for hearing learners as a L2 in classrooms' and (ii) how are the L2 courses designed to ensure the modality-specific requirements' Overall, the results demonstrate that TİD curricula (MoNE, 2011a; 2011b; 2021) currently in use are mainly adaptations of grammatical and lexical features of Turkish and consequently, this “spoken-driven” approach does not offer hearing L2 learners the possibility of interacting and communicating with TİD at all.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Veil as a Literary Central Motif in Selected Works

      Abstract: In this article, the veil was treated as a central theme in selected literary texts. For this purpose, autobiographical novels, youth literature and short stories were selected. All were examined for a veil motif by evaluating the perception in the individual works. In addition, the holy scriptures, the Torah, the Bible and the Koran were analyzed for veiling fundamentals. The veiling in the individual works was examined for religious backgrounds and the behavioral pattern of the respective perception was observed. During the analysis of the texts, theoretical methods such as hermeneutics, reception aesthetics, psychoanalysis and comparative studies were used. The main work of this study is Chador by Murathan Mungan, with which the remaining works have been compared. The aim of the study was to find an answer to the question of how veiling is treated in German-Turkish literature. In addition, it was examined whether the respective veiling in the works is really religious or just traditional or culturally justified.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Why Do We Want to Show Ourselves' A Qualitative Study on the Use of
           Social Media in the Society of Exhibition

    • Authors: Ramazan ÜNSAL
      Abstract: In this article, based on the idea of the society of exhibition, the main motivations and guiding factors behind the exhibition in social media have been studied. Only undergraduate students studying at universities within the borders of Turkey and actively sharing on social media were included in the scope of the study. Since the research was conducted only with undergraduate undergraduate students, the subject discussed was limited to this group. Qualitative research methods and techniques were used in the study. In the study, in which content analysis and descriptive analysis techniques were used, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 university students through semi-structured interview forms. In the analyzes made, it was found that there are a number of reasons behind the display, including psycho-social and techno-social. Psycho-social reasons can be expressed as the desire to be liked, the desire to show, the desire to attract attention, the desire to transcend oneself and the feeling of obligation. Techno-social reasons are online interactions, offline interactions, desire to be famous, social surveillance, personal privacy perception. The findings were compared with the literature and it was seen that the findings were quite original.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • On the Example of Bertolt Brecht – Samuel Beckett: Daily Life,
           Heterocosmos and Illusion

    • Authors: Melih Deniz İŞCEN
      Abstract: In the antecedent chapter of the article, the structural parts of the theatre’s ability to create illusion are taken into consideration. These parts differ from each other as the world of audience (daily life) and the world of theatre (heterocosmos). In this manner, the boundaries of the two different worlds and the relationship between them, which took place in the phenomenon of theatre starting from its origins in Ancient Greece and continuing until the mid-twentieth century, is opened to discussion in structural and cultural dimensions. The main idea is that, through illusion, in Ancient Greece, two different worlds, which were naturally separated, could organically preserve their vitality as each other's support point. This motion, which shaped the origins of theatre in Ancient Greece, inevitably enters a process of adaptation from the moment it is preternaturally incorporated into Western culture with the Renaissance. As to the following chapter of the article, the connection between the social dissolutions that emerged in daily life with modernism and the world of theater is measured. In this direction, the stage works of Bertolt Brecht and Samuel Beckett in order to harmonize two different worlds with each other are examined, with an emphasis on the way they deal with the phenomenon of theater and its capacity to create illusion.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • The Relation of Temporality, Existence and Praxis in Sartre

    • Authors: Gülçin AYITGU METİN
      Abstract: Although Sartre’s existentialism is criticized for imprisoning the subject in an empty subjectivity, we see that Sartre tries to discuss the problem of “freedom” and “existence” together with cultural, social and political determinations, without falling into the trap of “idealism”. Sartre’s emphasis on the relationship with the “other” in his effort to explain the relationship between “me” and the world enabled him to carry existentialism to the field of praxis, and as a result, to examine the individual together with the intentionality of consciousness and the determinations of the field of praxis, not leaving the individual only to the “cogito” or the spirituality of the historical process. Dialectic is also a concept that draws the problem of existence into the field of praxis, along with the dynamics of experience. At this point, the dialectic, which seems to be ahistorical because it is hierarchical and its steps are predetermined, opens the door to an area of freedom in Sartre’s philosophy. According to Sartre, the basic point of view that philosophy adds to these discussions is how people can be evaluated together with their contradictions, moments of decision and indecision. While these evaluations lead us to a discussion about how temporality and therefore historicity should be grasped, the problem of temporality also emerges as an important tool for understanding the dynamism of human existence. In this context, in this study, the field of praxis determined by Sartre was tried to be examined based on the relationship he established between temporality and existence.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Balance State of Multi-Ethnic Nation-State

    • Authors: Sertan BAKAR
      Abstract: Nation-states perceived as a whole generally correspond to an equilibrium formed by different ethnic groups. Subgroups, which may differ in terms of culture, religion or nationality, continue their existence in an environment of implicit oppression within the framework of the ability of a dominant ethnic group to administer the state mechanism. Therefore, the sustainability of this balance can be defined as a process of struggle that includes different elements. In this process, the dominant role points to the concepts of dominant ethnic groups and sovereignty. The construction of the nation and the nation-state is configured or possible according to these two concepts. Although multi-ethnic nation-states reflect the image of being a whole in the international arena; being multi-ethnic also means that they potentially involve conflict and competition. Accordingly, the multi-ethnic nature of nation-states poses a clear threat to their existence. This threat, as well as the rivalry between existing ethnic groups; it can also occur with migratory movements caused by the globalization process. The aim of this study is to emphasize that nation-states are extremely sensitive due to their multi-ethnic and complex structures and to reveal how sustainable the current equilibrium situation is. In this context, an evaluation has been carried out in line with the conditions and possibilities that must be taken into account in terms of the survival of nation-states, whose conceptual background is based on a common history and a desire for the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Agriculture and Society in Western Anatolia from the Ottoman State to the
           Republican of Turkey: Cannabis Production in Little Meander Basin

    • Authors: Okan CEYLAN
      Abstract: The Small Meander Basin is a geography where there has been market-oriented agricultural production since the 19th century. Besides, the topographic structure, climate and water sources are the fundamental criteria that provide cannabis production. Cotton, tobacco, and grape and cannabis are important crops in the agricultural production this basin. However, the cannabis production and trade were in the shadow of those of cotton and tobacco. As a matter of fact, this basin was the second cannabis production center after the Western Black Sea. This study observes the history of cannabis production in the Small Meander Basin with social dimensions. Thus, the roles of ordinary people in cannabis growing, trade, and the production of rope are enlightened. It benefited from the archives of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, national and local press, the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute, and secondary sources. Using parliamentary minutes, the government politics in cannabis agriculture is discussed. Local and National press shed light on the daily lives of ordinary people. The secondary sources which, are a considerable part published in the 1930s and the 1940s give academic point of view to the social history of cannabis.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
  • Experiences of Elderly’s COVID-19: A Qualitative Study in the Case
           of Hatay

    • Authors: Işıl AVŞAR ARIK; Ferhat ARIK
      Abstract: With the development of technology, pandemics have become global in the twenty-first century. The speed in communication and transportation has increased in recent years, and the COVID-19 disease experienced today has become the most devastating pandemic of this century. During this period, the elder people were named as the risk group. In addition, various social and political attitudes towards the elderly have emerged. When all these are evaluated together, it can be said that we are faced with a new social fact. Starting from this, the present study tries to understand this new phenomenon from the elders' own experiences. The study is a qualitative study to explore the economic, cultural, social, psychological and family relationships and spatial perceptions of the elderly aged 60 and over who have recovered from COVID-19 disease before, during and after the illness. In this direction, by using purposeful sampling and snowball sampling together, a total of 10 people aged between 60 and 75 living in Hatay were reached. As a result, it was seen that the themes of fear and social pressure became the most distinct themes. Besides these, internalized stigma was another prominent theme.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +030
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