Publisher: Asian Business Consortium   (Total: 5 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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ABC J. of Advanced Research     Open Access  
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Engineering Intl.     Open Access  
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Engineering International
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2409-3629
Published by Asian Business Consortium Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Chemically Converted Graphene as a Hole Transport Layer (HTL) Inorganic
           Photovoltaics (OPVS)

    • Authors: Farjana Haque, Md. Moshiur Rahman, Md. Abdullah Al Mahmud, M. Subbir Reza, Munmun Akter, A.H.M Zadidul Karim
      Pages: 7 - 20
      Abstract: Concerns about Global Warming and diminishing fossil fuel reserves have accelerated the search for low cost sources of renewable energy. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) could be one such source; however, they have a list of shortcomings, including low efficiencies, short lifetimes, and reliance on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT: PSS), an expensive and highly acidic (pH = 1) hole transport layer. Replacing PEDOT: PSS with chemically derived graphene may eliminate one of the drawbacks associated with OPVs. This paper took the first step towards that goal by developing a process to synthesize and characterize inverted and normal poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6, 6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solar cells. Although detrimental to the stability of the cells, ambient synthesis replicated the conditions required for large-scale, industrial production. The utilization of graphene oxide (GO) thin films as the hole transport and electron blocking layer in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is demonstrated. The incorporation of GO deposited from neutral solutions between the photoactive poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer and the transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) leads to a decrease in recombination of electrons and holes and leakage currents. This results in a dramatic increase in the OPV efficiencies to values that are comparable to devices fabricated with PEDOT: PSS as the hole transport layer. Our results indicate that GO could be a simple solution process able Alternative to PEDOT: PSS as the effective hole transport and electron blocking layer in OPV and light-emitting diode devices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v6i1.1085
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Review on Emission of Radiated Electromagnetic Fields from Train
           Pantograph Arcing

    • Authors: Md Mamun Ur Rashid, Tadele Belay Tuli
      Pages: 21 - 28
      Abstract: Pantograph arc is one of the most common and yet unavoidable difficulties in electrified railways. During winter the intensity of arcing increases due to ice layer on the overhead catenary wire. In AC traction system, the sinusoidal waveforms of the supply voltage and current distort due to pantograph arcing. It generates both conducted and radiated emission in a wide band. Both the DC component and higher order conducted and radiated emission increases with line speed. The amplitude of the DC voltage shows a wide variation concerning train speed, applied voltage, type of electrical load, the gap between the contact wire and the pantograph and current. In this paper, pantograph arcing and its effects on the railway vehicles are described. Sliding contact between the pantograph contact strips and the catenary contact wire is illustrated with the emphasis on the pantograph arcing. Arc characteristics, formation methods, extinction and resignation of the arc are studied. This paper presents a comprehensive review on pantograph arcing and its effects near radio-based mobile communications and other signaling instruments and some other related areas.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v6i1.1086
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Age-related Mitochondrial DNA Deletions Produce Fusion Peptides in Mice

    • Authors: Md. Ayub Ryhan, Md. Miraj Kobad Chowdhury
      Pages: 29 - 34
      Abstract: Deletions in mitochondrial DNA occur from oxidative stress generated during physiological processes. Such deletions have been associated with ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration. In this study, the outcome of mtDNA deletions has been investigated to justify the physiological effect of such mtDNA deletion. For this, five established and two predicted age-related murine mtDNA deletions were analyzed for fusion peptide. Three out of the five established deletions and all the predicted deletions produced fusion proteins like COXIII-ND5, ND3-ND5, ATP6-ND5, and ND5-CYTB. Interestingly, we have observed that the partners of these fusion proteins are from different complexes. Thereby, these fusion proteins can produce chimeric complexes that could bypass the usual electron transport system and could make short-circuit across the mitochondrial membrane. Such event can provoke more oxidative stress leading to further accumulation of mtDNA damage and apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v6i1.1087
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study of Exponential Thermal Boundary Condition on Unsteady
           Magnetohydrodynamic Convection in a Square Enclosure Filled with Fe3O4-
           Water Ferrofluid

    • Authors: Eare Md. Morshed Alam, M. M. Rahman, Md. Sharif Uddin
      Pages: 35 - 62
      Abstract: In this paper, magnetohydrodynamic convection is analyzed numerically for a square enclosure filled with Fe3O4–water ferrofluid. A time-dependent exponential thermal boundary condition is applied at the bottom wall of the cavity. The ferrofluid is modeled as a single-phase fluid. Maxwell-Garnet model is used for modeling the effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of the ferrofluid. The Galerkin-weighted residuals method of finite-element analysis is adopted for the numerical solutions. The solid volume fraction, f is varied from 2.5 to 10% and the Hartmann number Ha from 0 to 20. Investigations are carried out for Rayleigh number Ra =104 and 105 over dimensionless times τ=0.01–1.0. The present study indicates that Ra, Ha and f, have a significant effect on heat transfer. At τ =1, if Ra=104, a higher solid volume fraction maximizes heat transfer whereas at Ra=105, a lower solid volume fraction maximizes heat transfer. Moreover, at τ =1, incrementing Ha diminishes heat transfer at Ra=104 whereas an optimum value of Ha=10 maximizes heat transfer for Ra=105. The exponential thermal boundary conditions have a certain importance on heat transfer. The present results provide necessary information for further investigation of heat transfer in its different applications.
      PubDate: 2018-05-27
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v6i1.1091
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Analysis and Evaluation of Energy Consumption over 4G Network

    • Authors: Md Mamun Ur Rashid, Tadele Belay Tuli
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: The mobile communication network cuts 0.5 percent of today’s global energy consumption. Among all other constrains, energy is the most critical concern to deploy any communication network. The demand of power for wireless networks increases dramatically. By applying three novel approaches, we can minimize the power consumption of 4G wireless networks such as optimal power scheduling (OPS) for base stations, packet delay scheduling (PDS) and sleep mode for variable traffic density (SMVTD). This paper presents energy consumption issues over the 4G wireless network and its associated constraints such as finding the optimal radio base stations to reduce the energy and cost for the entire system. Within same network coverage area if we optimize the number of base stations, then it will be a hallmark to minimize the energy cost. We have considered the various element concerning the 4G network and responsible parameters for energy consumption. We also studied the different mode of variable traffic density in 4G network.
      PubDate: 2018-05-05
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v5i2.1081
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Radioactive Waste Classification, Management and Environment

    • Authors: Md. Iqbal Hosan
      Pages: 53 - 62
      Abstract: Radioactive waste comes from the nuclear power production facilities; defense-related weapon activities, medical/hospitals use radioisotopes and research activities has a dreadful crisis for management and protecting the environment to be safe to the present and future generations. In this study different types of waste are classified according to international standards, the source of waste is identified around the world and Bangladesh, and waste disposal plan in the world and Bangladesh are analyzed. Although Bangladesh has excellent facilities for the management of present radioactive waste its need improvement for the final disposal of the present and future radioactive waste arise from the country’s first nuclear power plant.   
      PubDate: 2018-05-05
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v5i2.1082
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effect of Boric Acid on the Properties of Sorbitol Plasticized Starch/PVA

    • Authors: Md. Abdul Kader, Mubarak A Khan, Md. Elias Molla
      Pages: 63 - 74
      Abstract: This research aimed to focus on the thermochemical and physico-mechanical properties along with biodegradability nature of partially pregelatinized maize starch (PMS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based biocomposites. Several PMS/PVA/BA (varying the mass ratio, wt %) based biocomposites were prepared by solution casting with and without sorbitol plasticizer. Boric acid (BA) used as cross linked agent. The FT-IR, DSC and TGA results revealed that the hydrogen bonding takes place between PMS and PVA in presence of BA and thus biocomposites shown more thermal stability than that of pure PMS and PVA provided by TGA and DSC. Based on the results, sorbitol plasticized PMS/PVA/BA (5%) was optimized as pliable and stable biocomposite; the tensile strength (TS)and percentage of elongation at break (EB%) was 16.6 MPa and 11.2 % respectively. However, unplasticized biocomposites shown the highest TS (38.1 MPa) but were hard and brittle. Moreover, the optimized biocomposite was the lower moisture sensitivity and moderate water solubility compared to other biocomposites. In addition, the biodegradability nature of biocomposites were also investigated and found it biodegradable. Thus, the optimized biocomposite (PMS: PVA: BA with a ratio of 40:55:5) can be used as effective and eco-friendly packaging material.
      PubDate: 2018-05-06
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v5i2.1083
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
  • Tannery Wastewater Treatment Using Low Cost Coagulants with Simple
           Coagulation-Filtration Process

    • Authors: Bishnu Chandra Barman, Md. Ariful Islam Juel, Md. Abul Hashem
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Tannery is the oldest industries in the world. It is characterized as pollutants generating industries, which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic residues. This study has been focused on the removal of physicochemical parameters of tannery wastewater through simple coagulation-filtration techniques using low cost coagulants. Standard methods were used for sampling and analysis. Removal efficiency was measured in terms of reduction of COD, BOD5, suspended solids (SS), total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity and color. Several doses of coagulants e.g. alum, ferric chloride and their combination were used in treatment process. Maximum removal efficiency was obtained with the combination of alum and ferric chloride dosing at 75 mg/L in terms of color, BOD5, COD, TDS, SS and conductivity corresponding to 75%, 78%, 76%, 37%, 94% and 41% respectively and that were increased to92%, 82%, 80%, 48%, 98% and 51% respectively after sand-stone filtration. Ferric chloride and combination of alum and ferric chloride are recommended for the effective primary treatment of tannery wastewater. The filtration with multi-layer sand-stone filter was effective in removing of color, TDS, conductivity and SS.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
      DOI: 10.18034/ei.v5i2.1084
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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