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J. of Applied Linguistics and Language Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
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Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research
Number of Followers: 28  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2376-760X
Published by Lulu Press Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Kahoot! Quizzes: A Formative Assessment Tool to Promote Students’ Self-
           Regulated Learning Skills

    • Authors: Nahla Helmy Nadeem, Hanady Abdulaziz Al Falig
      Pages: 1 - 20
      Abstract: Gamified student response systems (GSRSs) have been increasingly used for formative assessment (FA) purposes in higher education. While previous studies on Kahoot! have given empirical evidence of the effectiveness of its gamified features in increasing students’ motivation, enhancing classroom dynamics and providing immediate feedback on students’ learning, the present study mainly investigates the students’ ratings of Kahoot! Quizzes (KQs) as a FA tool that facilitates the development of self-regulatory learning (SRL) skills. The study uses the seven principles of effective feedback to design a FA model that promotes students’ self- regulatory skills by defining the teacher’s role and students’ responsibilities while administering KQs. The study is a classroom action research that was done during a summer course and involved (n =70) female students in two linguistics courses. The researchers used a questionnaire and a focus group discussion to get students’ feedback on the effectiveness of KQs in enhancing their self-regulated learning. The results consistently showed positive evaluation of KQs along three dimensions: effective feedback, classroom environment and developing students’ meta-cognitive skills, the three essential ingredients of self-regulated learning. The model proved to be extremely effective in designing effective KQs that enhance students’ self- regulatory skills.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Impact of Cumulative Group Dynamic Assessment on the Learning of
           Congruent and Non-Congruent Collocations among Iranian Intermediate EFL

    • Authors: Fatemeh Farahani, Fatemeh Sadat Alavi Moghadam
      Pages: 21 - 36
      Abstract: The present study was an attempt to find out how cumulative group dynamic assessment impacts on the learning of congruent and non-congruent collocations by Iranian Intermediate EFL learners.  To conduct the study, 58 language learners at intermediate language proficiency level were selected as the participants of the study. Their age range was between 19 and 27 who studied English language in Zabankadeh Language Institute in Tehran, Iran. Before and after receiving cumulative group dynamic assessment, language learners were tested on their knowledge of cumulative collocations through using a researcher-made collocation test developed and validated by an expert in TEFL. The statistical analyses included the use of paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann Whitney U test. The results indicated that cumulative group dynamic assessment was significantly effective in the learning of congruent and non-congruent collocations. Obviously, it was found that there were significant differences between the learners’ scores on congruent and non-congruent posttest. Finally, it was concluded that the scores of congruent collocations being higher than the non-congruent collocations test.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Value of Debates by EFL Tertiary Students

    • Authors: Nourelhuda Elnasri Mohammed Ahmed
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: Speaking is significant for communication skill by English language learners because students must use language inside and outside classroom. English language has been learned for students since kindergarten up to university. However, the outcomes of learning language are not satisfied and most of students face difficulties towards communicating in English and most of them are not able to speak fluently in English. Thus, students should be trained having an opinion and introducing their ideas as well as explaining and supporting their points of views. This can be done by conducting a debate. Through directing debate students are anticipated to be more confident in presenting their points of view in different matters and circumstances. This paper highlights the importance of debate inside and outside classroom. It considers a classroom discussion as one of the most frequently used and often comprised pedagogical strategies. It aims to encourage students to improve participation quality and discussion effectiveness. This paper provides the relationship between debate and the enhancement of speaking skill. It displays the literature review that pertinent to debate in language learning and how students accomplish the process of learning English language. Moreover; it presents the concept of the debate as well as debate procedures and materials. This paper provides English Language Society (ELS), Faculty of Education, Al-Zaiem Al-Azhari University as an authentic example of the effectiveness of the debate in language learning. The conclusion is strongly encouraging students to train themselves in debate by explaining the benefits of debates to achieve the necessary speaking and presentation skills.
      PubDate: 2020-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • Promoting Critical Thinking Skill in the 21st Century: The Role of Saudi
           Female EFL Teachers in the Writing Classroom

    • Authors: Hayat Rasheed Alamri
      Pages: 46 - 69
      Abstract: The current quantitative and qualitative research study attempts to explore the role of Saudi female EFL teachers in promoting critical writing as a 21st century skill in classrooms. The sample size of the study is 145 (16.46 % of the entire population) female EFL teachers in government and private schools in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. For the purpose of the study, the researcher formulated a questionnaire that consisted of closed and one open-ended questions. The results show that 77.9% of the participants rated writing skills as “Difficult” for their students, and only 45 participants (31.0%) corrected students’ written materials “Every time”. Only 35 (24.1%) of the EFL teachers provided students with constructive feedback “Every time”. The results also demonstrate that the students of 68.28% of the participants relied heavily on their teachers’ correction and feedback, and counted on their teachers to provide analytical comments for their further improvement; 62.76% of participants used concept mapping in teaching critical writing skills. The majority of EFL teachers reported that students’ greatest obstacles to mastering critical writing are insufficient vocabulary, inability to express thoughts clearly, and inability to structure ideas logically. The results of the open-ended question show that Saudi female EFL teachers indicate full understanding of the importance of critical writing skills for their students, and as a result, they suggested wide variety of critical writing strategies. Some recommendations have been made based on the study results.
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • Genre Pedagogy within Systemic Functional Linguistics: Avoiding Linguistic
           Hegemony in Spanish Classes in Higher Education

    • Authors: Ana Cristina Sanchez
      Pages: 70 - 83
      Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to explore the Spanish variety taught in Spanish as a foreign language courses in most colleges and universities in the United States, where many Heritage Spanish students attempt to relearn and enhance their heritage language skills. The paper will be inclusive of the presence of Spanish and the state of Heritage Spanish Education in the United States. Additionally, it will examine the characteristics of American Spanish and some of the bilingual practices of Heritage Spanish speakers due to their contact with English and other Spanish varieties. The study will also explore how a genre-based curriculum within the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics can accommodate HS students’ home varieties and expand their repertoire so they can have access to various linguistic varieties, including the standard used to teach the language in many Spanish classrooms in the United States.  
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • English Language Proficiency and Code-Switching in the Saudi EFL
           University Classrooms: Learners’ Perspectives

    • Authors: Arafat Hamouda, Fahad Hamad Aljumah
      Pages: 84 - 119
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the perceptions and practices of students with various proficiency levels toward reasons, factors, functions of using CS by learners and, teachers’ using CS in EFL classes, and its impact on the teaching and learning processes. To this end, sixty-four English majors were chosen out of 70 Saudi university students. The participants were classified into three groups (i.e. three levels of high, mid, and low-proficiency) according to the scores obtained in the Oxford Placement Test. A qualitative and quantitative design was used throughout the integration of questionnaires, in-class observations, and interviews to reach valid and reliable data. The results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis indicate that most mid- and low-proficient students have favorable attitudes towards the use of CS in the EFL classroom, whereas the high proficient students have negative perceptions towards the use of CS. The findings also indicate that the participants with lower proficiency tend to use CS more than the intermediate or advanced ones. In addition to this, there are some discrepancies in attitudes towards the usages of CS among the three participant groups. These discrepancies display that the mid and low -proficient students see the use of CS as an influential teaching and learning tool to facilitate students’ comprehension and knowledge of target language grammar and vocabulary. On the other hand, the high proficient participants see that CS can be off-putting as it does not help in improving their linguistic competence in English. In addition, the findings showed that there is a negative relationship between learners’ proficiency level and their attitude toward using CS. The findings have some implications for teachers, material developers and English policy makers.
      PubDate: 2020-08-23
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Speech Act of Refusal: Jordanian vs. Syrian Arabic

    • Authors: Mo'ath Ghaben, Ala’eddin Abdullah Ahmed Banikalef
      Pages: 120 - 129
      Abstract: This study aims at investigating the refusal styles of Syrian Arabic speakers and Jordanian ones. The sample consists of 30 Syrian Arabic speakers which are divided equally into two gender groups. Similarly, 30 Jordanian Arabic speakers who are also divided equally into two gender groups. At the time of the experiment, the Syrian and the Jordanian subjects were in Jerash, Jordan. The subjects responded to a twelve-item Discourse Completion Test (DCT). And, the findings reveal that there are slight differences between Syrian speakers and Jordanian speakers in terms of directness/indirectness. With regard to the gender differences, the findings show that both Syrian and Jordanian males are more direct in their refusal strategies than their female counterparts. Thus, the findings of the study will help material developers in making for resource books or modules for teaching and training of language and cultural awareness. The findings can increase the awareness about the sociocultural rules that rules about the use of language functions.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • Common European Framework Implementation and English Language Learning

    • Authors: Behnam Behforouz
      Pages: 130 - 146
      Abstract: This paper is a short review regarding the challenges of implementing Common European Framework on EFL context outside of the Europe. It is mainly focused on the limitations of CEF, investigated the common reasons of the discrepancy between EFL and ESL learners` proficiency levels according to CEF, and finally presented the possible adopted version of Comprehensible Input by Stephen Krashen in EFL context as the probable solution to overcome some problems that EFL learners may encounter while learning a foreign language.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • The Effects of Right/Left brain Dominance and Two Pre-writing Strategies
           of Clustering and Looping on Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

    • Authors: Sanaz Nadimi
      Pages: 147 - 164
      Abstract: The present study investigated the effects of right/left-brain dominance and two pre-writing strategies of clustering and looping on Iranian lower-intermediate EFL learners’ writing performance. The participants of this study were 39 male and female English major students participating in two different Advanced Writing classes at Islamic Azad University, North Tehran branch. Students in both classes sat for a placement test and then for a brain dominance test. Two essay writing tests were administered to evaluate the students’ writing performance, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that the right brain dominant group significantly outperformed the left-brain dominant group on the post-test of writing irrespective of types of pre-writing strategies. The clustering group significantly outperformed the looping group on the post-test of writing irrespective of the types of brain dominance. There was a significant interaction between the types of pre-writing strategies and brain dominance. After receiving the clustering strategy, there was not any significant difference between the right and left-brain dominant groups’ means. However, the right brain dominant group significantly outperformed the left-brain dominant group after receiving looping as the pre-writing strategy.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • Madness in Women's Fiction: A Reading of Subversive/Redemptive
           Strategies in Three Novels by Jean Rhys, Sylvia Plath, and Margaret Atwood

    • Authors: Saba Marwan Suleiman
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: This article investigates a sample of women’s writing with relation to the depiction of female madness in Wide Sargasso Sea (1968) by Jean Rhys, The Bell Jar (1971) by Sylvia Plath, and Surfacing (1973) by Margaret Atwood. This argument uses feminist theory and focuses on madness as a redemptive strategy for madwomen. The novels under analysis reveal the struggle of the “mad” heroines to have a voice of their own. In addition, the discussion suggests that female writers try to articulate their experiences, which were otherwise culturally muted, through giving madwomen a voice in their texts.  This study thoroughly looks into the three selected novels to investigate their heroines’ language, identities, and hysteria from a feminist point of view. This discussion exposes the ways women are marginalized in their professional—and private—lives and investigates what might lead them to madness—real or constructed. Women can subversively use their image as mad to protect themselves from patriarchal oppression and to react against this oppression through symbolic writing. These novels serve the aim of this study because of their narrative perspectives and their common but nuanced treatment of madness. My contribution is my selection of such diverse novels and my proposed analysis of the theme of madness as an example of the subversive potential of feminine writing. The issue of madness in feminist fiction may not be particularly new. However, this study proves that this trope of the madwoman is a transgressive one in that it resists dominant power structures and threatens an apparently ordered, "rational" patriarchal culture. It has been possible through dissecting the inner psychology of the protagonists of the novels—Antoinette, Esther, and Atwood's anonymous heroine—to ascertain how male domination has a negative impact on the psychological, social, and spiritual lives of women. Although male-domination has a negative impact on the heroines’ lives, their madness sometimes appears as a willed choice against patriarchal oppression. Consequently, in tackling the central issue of madness in women’s fiction as subversive/redemptive strategy through analyzing the characters of Antoinette, Esther, and Atwood's anonymous heroine, this article presents madness as a means to express women’s real being and resist patriarchal oppression from within its own power structures. The discussed novels are written by female writers and have emerged as major narratives of madness in the twentieth century, whereby the figure of the madwoman ultimately empowers women and thus redeems them.
      PubDate: 2020-09-18
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
  • From Linguistic Repression to Revitalization: The Igbo Language Case

    • Authors: Chinweude Nwakaego Ugochukwu
      Pages: 172 - 183
      Abstract: Language endangerment is presently one of the humanity’s greatest cultural challenges, posing enormous scientific and humanist problems. Many indigenous languages have become endangered due to linguistic repression caused by colonization, in which the original language is replaced by that of the colonist. It is sad to note that after a long time of gaining independence from the colonial masters, most indigenous languages are still being repressed by the owners of the language themselves. An increasing number of communities are giving up their language by their own choice. Many believe that their children will not acquire a professional qualification if they teach them tribal languages. This paper examines the level of post-colonial repression bedeviling indigenous languages using Igbo language as case study. The work suggests practical steps to the revitalization of the Igbo language. The paper also calls for more spirited efforts in saving the Igbo language not only as a special gift from God, but most importantly as part of our country’s natural resources which could be consumed locally or exported to other countries.
      PubDate: 2020-10-22
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2020)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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