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International Blood Research & Reviews
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2321-7219
Published by Science-res Publishing Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Durational Effect of Cement Dust Exposure on Haematological Profile of
           Albino Rat

    • Authors: Amalachukwu Okwukwe Ike, Samuel Ifedioranma Ogenyi, Achilefu; Ramson Chinemerem, Okwuanaso Chetachi Blessing, God’sman Chidugam Eberechukwu
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Background: This research work studied the durational effects of cement dust inhalation on the haematological parameters of exposed Albino rats. In this study, a glass house animal exposure chamber was fabricated using a plexi-glass and two blowing fans of adjustable revolution. Methodology: Twenty five Albino rats were divided into five groups. Group A served as the control, while group B, C, D and E served as the test, and were exposed for 15, 30, 45 and 60 days interval respectively, for one hour daily to cement dust (200g), at a revolution of 3000rpm of the fans. At the end of the exposure, the animals were sacrificed, blood collected in EDTA bottle and was analysed for some haematological variables. Results: The result showed that there were significant durational increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC), Lymphocyte, Monocytes and Eosinophils of the test group compared to control group but there was no significant difference in the Wbc, Basophils, Platelets and Neutrophils levels among the groups (p >0.05). Conclusion: There is a durational exposure haematotoxic effect of cement dust inhalation on rat exposed to cement dust.
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2023/v14i1296
       
  • Common Approaches of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Induction Assays

    • Authors: Rupali Ghosh, Md. Iqbal Hossain Nayan, Mehedi Mala Mitu, Tirtha Nandi
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: The induction of enzymes is a defensive mechanism for some xenobiotics, but it may alter the drug's safety and efficacy by altering the activity of metabolic enzymes. One of the major families of enzymes involved in phase I metabolism is Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes which may get induced by certain drugs. Concomitant administration of drugs due to chronic disease or polypharmacy, inducers among them may cause toxicity or reduce the plasma concentration at a sub-therapeutic level. This is one of the dangerous types of drug-drug interactions, but predictable & preventable. The CYPs get induced by three nuclear receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); constitutive androstane receptor (CAR); the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Without identification during drug development, enzyme induction phenomenon of a new drug molecule may get noticed only during pharmacovigilance. Though, this CYP induction may not be a barrier for drug development, it may cause possible DDI and treatment failure. According to FDA guidelines, pharmaceutical industries adopted In-vitro, Ex-vivo and In-vivo techniques based on different developmental stages. The results are also interpreted based on regulatory bodies guidelines. For In-vitro assay best accepted method is using primary hepatocytes either fresh or cryopreserved, for Ex-vivo liver slices of different species and in-vivo, clinical investigations are the extreme option. This paper reviews current industry approaches of CYP induction assays to evaluate potentiality for a new drug molecule as an inducer.
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2023/v14i1297
       
  • A Single Center 25-year Experience in Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem
           Cell Collection: A Focus on the Collection Efficiency

    • Authors: Gessoni Gianluca, De Fusco Giulia, Polese Francesca, Frigato Andrea, Marson Piero
      Pages: 15 - 28
      Abstract: Background: Harvest of hematopoietic progenitor cells via leukapheresis is being used increasingly for autologous transplantation. Adequate yield of cells per kilogram body weight of recipient is required for a successful engraftment. Collection efficiency (CE) is a useful parameter to assess quality of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection program. In this study, we report a 25-year experience in a tertiary care Hospital in Italy. Patients and Methods: 1,026 consecutives autologous PBSC collection procedure, performed in 763 patients, from January 1996 to December 2020 were retrospectively considered. Data regarding patients, Blood Cells Separators (BCS) , apheresis procedures and PBSC products were collected in our database. In these 25 years different BCS were adopted in our Apheresis Unit (AU). In the first period (1996-1999) we used Fresenius Com. Tec, in the central period (2000-2013) we used Cobe Spectra and in the last period (2014-2020) Spectra Optia. Results: As regards the evaluation of patients before leukapheresis, the most significant data was the increasing number of CD34+ cells. Considering the PBSC collection procedure, there was a progressive increase in the processed blood volume with a shorter apheresis duration. Data related to the PBSC collection demonstrated an increasing CD34+ cell yield and efficiency a raise in CE that was 43% using Fresenius COM-TEC BCS, 49% using Cobe Spectra BCS and 53% using Spectra Optia BCS. . Conclusions: These results were observed considering a 25-year period, thus a great number of factors likely contributing to the observed results, including technological improvement of the instrumentation for leukapheresis, increased experience of the team operating in the Apheresis Unit, improved mobilization protocols, better criteria for patients’ selection. Focusing our attention on CE  we observed quite satisfactory results with a median which rose from 43% to 53% with an increase of 10% in the observation period.
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2023/v14i1298
       
  • Anti Colton-A Foeto-Neonatal Haemolytic Disesase: Diagnosis; Clinical
           Outcome and Family Study

    • Authors: G. Gessoni, L. Collodel, I. Vaccara, M. Pivetta, T. Mancuso, P. Lago, A. Cattarozzi, N. Revelli, A. Barzan, P. Cavicchioli
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: The authors report a case of neonatal haemolytic disease (HDN) attributable to maternal allo immunization to a high frequency antigen present on paternal red blood cells which have been identified as Colton-a (Coa). The case seemed worthy of reporting not only for the relative rarity of HDN from anti Coa but for the rigorous approach followed in the immunohaematological follow-up of pregnancy and for the diagnostic effort expended in identifying the specificity of the antibody. A family study of ascendants, collaterals and descendants was also carried out using genotyping techniques.
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.9734/ibrr/2023/v14i1299
       
 
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