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Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
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Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.188
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2346-3775
Published by CIAT Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A review of silvopastoral systems in the Peruvian Amazon region

    • Authors: Eduardo Fuentes, Carlos Gómez, Dante Pizarro, Julio Alegre, Miguel Castillo, Jorge Vela, Ethel Huaman, Héctor Vásquez
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Livestock in the Peruvian Amazon region is mostly produced in areas considered degraded pastureland and associated with deforestation. Silvopastoral systems (SPS) are an alternative for sustainable livestock production. This article aims to provide information about progress in development of SPS in the Peruvian Amazon region during the last 2 decades and opportunities to develop it further at the national level. The geographical characteristics and climatic conditions of the Peruvian Amazon are described, followed by a review of the experiences with SPS in the 5 most relevant departments of the region. Constraints for implementation of SPS practices in the country and the current initiatives at regional and national level to promote and develop more sustainable livestock production in the region are presented. There is a large variation in SPS practiced along the different departments of the Amazon region. It is imperative that the Peruvian Government continues promoting SPS for recovering degraded lands through generating enabling conditions for farmers to adopt and/or scale up SPS.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)78-88
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales Vol.10 No.2

    • Authors: TGFT Journal
      Pages: 78 - 155
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)78-155
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Land use effects on soil macrofauna communities in a mountainous region of
           southwest Guizhou, China

    • Authors: Xuedong Yang, Leilei Ding, Jiajia Liu, Li Li, Jingzhong Chen, Jiming Liu, Puchang Wang
      Pages: 89 - 97
      Abstract: An experiment to compare the effects of land use types on soil and macrofauna characteristics was conducted in a mountainous region of southwestern China. Soil physical and chemical properties and soil macrofauna were investigated in four land use types: natural grassland, mixed pasture of Dactylis glomerata L. and Trifolium repens L., mixed pasture of Holcus lanatus L. and Trifolium repens L., and cropland planted with annual Brassica napus L. and Zea mays L. rotation. The results showed that natural grassland, mixed pasture and cropping increased soil pH (23.0%–36.0%), soil organic matter (69.1%–73.9%, except the cropland with a decrease of 18.9%), total nitrogen (346.2%–738.5%), available nitrogen (389.9%–482.7%), available phosphorus (61.9%–303.6%) and available potassium (326.2%–481.4%). The taxonomic richness of macrofaunal communities was lower in the mixed pasture and cropped land than in natural grassland, with the Shannon’s index and Menhinick index being negatively related to soil organic carbon content. The mixed pasture maintained the abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna. The short-term cessation of utilization and management facilitated the restoration of soil macrofaunal communities. This study shows that pasture/grazing or leaving fallow for a year after cropping were able to better sustain macrofaunal communities in this mountainous region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)89-97
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Leucaena
           leucocephala plants in nursery phase in a neutral pH substrate

    • Authors: Gustavo Crespo-Flores, Hugo M. Ramírez-Tobias, Moisés R. Vallejo-Pérez, Heriberto Méndez-Cortés, Pedro J. González-Cañizares
      Pages: 98 - 108
      Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the simple and combined inoculation with three local rhizobia isolates (R1, R2 and R3) and two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus cubense -AMF1- and Claroideoglomus claroideum -AMF2-) on mycorrhizal colonization, nodulation, growth and biomass production of Leucaena leucocephala in a substrate with a close to neutrality pH under greenhouse conditions. Thirteen treatments were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The inoculation and co-inoculation promoted greater plant growth with respect to the control without inoculation and to the fertilization treatment. Within the inoculation and co-inoculation treatments, one rhizobium isolate (R2) stood out for producing the highest plant height and leaflet production, while the R3 + AMF1 and R3 + AMF2 combinations promoted the highest plant height, and also promoted higher biomass together with R1 + AMF1. In addition, the R3 + AMF2 combination stood out for presenting a high number of AMF spores, frequency and intensity by AMF colonization, and nodule activity. It is concluded that inoculation with local rhizobia isolates and their combination with AMF favors the development of mycorrhizal structures, nodulation, growth and biomass production of L. leucocephala grown in a substrate with neutral pH. Isolate R2 and the combination R3 + AMF2 were identified as effective inoculants to increase plant growth.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)98-108
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Principal component analysis applied to the study of yield and nutritional
           characteristics of forage cultivars

    • Authors: Rodrigo Gonçalves de Carvalho, Ronilton Araújo de Souza, Janaina de Lima Silva, Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira, Michelle Christina Bernardo de Siqueira, Djane Leite de Amorim Santos
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of various yield and nutritional characteristics for the differentiation of forage cultivars using principal component analysis (PCA). Data were obtained from an experiment conducted with a complete randomized block design (RCBD) with 6 replications. Eleven cultivars of forage grasses of the species Urochloa brizantha, U. ruziziensis, Megathyrsus maximus, Cenchrus ciliaris, Andropogon gayanus and Setaria sphacelata were evaluated. For yield characteristics, PCA revealed that the first 3 components explained 82.0% of total variation between forage cultivars. Similar results were observed for nutritional characteristics with the first 3 components explaining 91.4% of total variation in leaf chemical composition and 83.8% of variation in stem chemical composition. Variables that contributed most to discrimination between forage cultivars were: number of tillers per plant; number of leaves per plant; median leaf width; stem dry matter yield; leaf:stem ratio; % dry matter, % crude protein (CP) and % neutral detergent fiber of leaves; and % CP, % ether extract and % acid detergent fiber of stems. PCA was effective in identifying the key parameters that need to be measured in evaluating grass species and allowed a reduction in the number of yield and nutritional characteristics to be assessed in experiments designed to evaluate forage cultivars. This reduced both the workload and the costs involved while still allowing valid conclusions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)109-115
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Effects of growth stage on nutritional value of barley and triticale
           forages for goats

    • Authors: Hande Işıl Akbağ
      Pages: 116 - 123
      Abstract: The nutritional composition and in vitro gas production of barley and triticale forages at tillering, stem elongation, and ear emergence stages were studied. The mean crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content was higher in barley than triticale. The supplementation of wheat grain in in vitro incubation had no effect on the gas production of barley and triticale forage. The nutritive value of barley and triticale forages is highly influenced by growth stage and is high during the early stage of growth during tillering and stem elongation. Barley and triticale forages have potential as feed for dairy goats and although barley had a higher CP content, both have adequate ME and CP levels to meet the nutritional requirements of adult goats with 50 kg body weight in early lactation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)116-123
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Is the total mixed ration the best option for feeding crossbred dairy cows
           using diets based on cactus cladodes on family farms'

    • Authors: Diego Amorim dos Santos, Juana Catarina Cariri Chagas, Júlio César Vieira de Oliveira, Djalma Cordeiro dos Santos, Gláucia Sabrine de Oliveira Moraes, Felipe Gusmão de Souza, Janaina de Lima Silva, Carolina Corrêa de Figueiredo Monteiro, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira
      Pages: 124 - 133
      Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the effects on the performance of lactating cows of different strategies for supplying diets based on cactus cladodes. Eight Girolando cows at 97 ± 7.6 days into lactation, producing 12.2 ± 0.26 kg milk/day, were assigned to 4 treatments in two 4 × 4 Latin squares. The feeding strategies were: total mixed ration (TMR) based on a mixture of concentrates, cactus cladodes [Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.] and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fed after milking; concentrate fed during milking with cactus cladodes and sugarcane offered later (Con/CC+SC); cactus cladodes combined with concentrate fed after milking with sugarcane offered later (CC+Con/SC); and sugarcane combined with concentrate fed after milking with cactus cladodes offered later (SC+Con/CC). Intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 4.54 ± 0.09 kg/d) and total digestible nutrients (TDN; 9.30 ± 0.50 kg/d) were similar (P>0.05) for all feeding strategies and there was no effect of feeding strategy on milk yield (12.2 ± 0.26 kg/d). The different feeding strategies did not change the ingestive behavior or performance of lactating Girolando cows. Since the shortage of labor prohibits the feeding of TMRs on family farms because of labor required for preparation, these rations would be appropriate only on large farms where the costs of machines to prepare diets efficiently might be available. Cows fed concentrate during milking spent longer to consume the concentrate than the time to milk, resulting in inefficient usage of scarce labor. Appropriate feeding strategies for family farms appear to be SC+Con/CC and CC+Con/SC, i.e. partial separation of dietary ingredients, and all feeding should be done after milking.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)124-133
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Protein and carbohydrate fractionation of silages made from maize,
           Urochloa species and their mixtures

    • Authors: Daniel Augusto Alves Teixeira, Kátia Aparecida de Pinho Costa, Mariana Borges de Castro Dias, Kátia Cylene Guimarães, Patrícia Soares Epifanio, Patrick Bezerra Fernandes
      Pages: 134 - 142
      Abstract: New feed assessment systems and methodologies for ruminants are being used with the aim of maximizing the use of nutrients by animals. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) considers the dynamics of ruminal fermentation and the potential loss of nitrogen in feed evaluation. We used this system to evaluate the protein and carbohydrate fractionation of silages made from maize and Urochloa species alone and in combination (70:30). The experiment was carried out under a completely randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Treatments comprised silages made from the following forages: maize (Zea mays); Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis); Xaraes palisadegrass (U. brizantha 'Xaraés'); Paiaguas palisadegrass (U. brizantha 'BRS Paiaguás'); 70% maize + 30% Congo grass; 70% maize + 30% Xaraes palisadegrass; and 70% maize + 30% Paiaguas palisadegrass. The results showed that despite the Urochloa exclusive silages having higher crude protein concentration than maize and mixed silages, they have a higher proportion of unavailable fractions with slow degradation rates, which can compromise animal performance. The maize silage and mixed silages had higher percentages of protein and carbohydrates with high degradation potential than Urochloa exclusive silages. Therefore, mixed silages represent one more alternative to provide forage with good nutritional value for ruminant feeding in times of feed shortage. Mixing grass and maize at ensiling would increase the volume of silage produced relative to ensiling maize alone without any significant reduction in quality of the silage produced. However, further studies are needed to determine the appropriate combinations of maize and grass at ensiling to produce silage with the desired nutritional value for the particular application and class of animals being fed. Feeding studies with animals would verify production levels achieved with the various silages.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)134-142
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of auxin and cytokinin use for vegetative propagation of
           Asystasia gangetica for forage production

    • Authors: Nur Rochmah Kumalasari, Luki Abdullah, Lilis Khotijah, Indriyani Indriyani, Nurul Ilman
      Pages: 143 - 148
      Abstract: The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of auxin and cytokinin application on vegetative propagation of Asystasia gangetica for forage production. Stem cuttings were treated with 9 different hormone levels; control (without hormone), immersion of ends of cuttings in 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm solutions of auxin (indole 3-acetic acid) and immersion of ends of cuttings in 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm solutions of cytokinin (benzyl amino purine) for 15 minutes, followed by planting in plastic trays. After 21 days, cuttings were transplanted into soil in polybags in the greenhouse. Forage was harvested 50 days after transplanting to determine yield and quality. The results showed that hormones affected plant height, leaf number, primary branch number, tertiary branch number, yield and nutritional value. It can be concluded that plant hormones can be used for vegetative propagation of A. gangetica as forage.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)143-148
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Economic results of the use of Tithonia diversifolia fodder meal in the
           diet of different poultry categories

    • Authors: Nadia Báez Quiñones, Bárbara Rodríguez, Tomás Elias Ruíz, Ysnagmy Vázquez, Humberto Díaz Rodríguez
      Pages: 149 - 155
      Abstract: The present study evaluated economically the use of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia) forage meal in the diets of broilers; layers replacements and laying hens, as a partial replacement of corn and soybean meals. The data used come from feeding experiments carried out between 2018–2021 at the Cuban Institute of Animal Science. The direct costs involved in establishing this crop and making the meal were considered. The total feeding costs, and costs per animal, per kg of gain, per ton of live weight produced, per kg of eggs and per 1,000 eggs were estimated for the different treatments (Control 0%; T1-5%; T2-10%; T3-15% and T4-20% of tithonia meal in the ration). In all cases, feeding costs decreased with the greater use of tithonia meal. The best results in feeding costs reductions per kilogram of live weight gain for broilers (7 to 42 days) were obtained with T3 (14.78%); for layer replacements (weeks 9 to 18) with T4 (20.94% per animal); and with T3 in laying hens (weeks 23 to 44), with a 19.34% decrease in costs per thousand eggs produced. It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of tithonia forage meal in the diet of these species, as partial replacement of corn and soybean meals, constitutes a viable productive and economic alternative, which could contribute to reduce the importation of traditional and highly expensive feed ingredients.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(10)149-155
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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