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Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales     Open Access   (SJR: 0.188, CiteScore: 0)
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Tropical Grasslands - Forrajes Tropicales
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.188
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2346-3775
Published by CIAT Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 – review of a tropical forage

    • Authors: Rainer Schultze-Kraft, Yang Hubiao, Tang Jun, Liu Guodao
      Pages: 95 - 120
      Abstract: A comprehensive review, based on about 180 references, synthesizing research and development about Stylosanthes guianensis accession CIAT 184 is presented. This genotype has been widely tested across the tropics and was developed into commercial cultivars in several countries. Agronomic evaluations in a range of disciplines and other research in numerous countries of tropical America, Africa, Southeast Asia and China, and utilization of the legume by farmers are reported. CIAT 184 is particularly successful in southern China, where it gave origin to 5 cultivars. Its outstanding feature is an apparently durable tolerance of the fungal disease, anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), throughout the tropics, with exception of the savanna ecozone in tropical America. Further assets include adaptation to acid, infertile soils, drought tolerance and high production of nutritious dry matter that can be used as traditional forage for ruminants and as leaf meal or pellets to feed monogastrics. CIAT 184 has also found application for soil conservation and improvement (such as erosion control, mulch and green manure), alone or in association with crops and trees. Published work dealing with basic research, mainly conducted in China, is presented. The review concludes with a brief discussion on the current adoption of CIAT 184 and with suggestions regarding future perspectives and research needs.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)95-120
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Herbage yield and quality of 12 Urochloa cultivars and lines in Northeast

    • Authors: Michael D. Hare
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Forage accumulation yields and nutritive value of 12 Urochloa cultivars and pre-commercial lines (Mulato II, Cayman, Cobra, Marandu, Toledo, BRS Piatã, BRS Paiaguás, Ruzi, Humidicola, BRO4/3025, BRO4/3207 and BRO4/2515) were evaluated in a field trial in Northeast Thailand during 2015–2018. Total herbage yields for cultivars and lines over 3 years ranged from 15,800 kg DM/ha (Ruzi) to 33,800 kg DM/ha (Toledo). Toledo produced the highest total biomass across the 3 wet and dry seasons. BRS Piatã and BRS Paiaguás showed good performance, out-yielding Ruzi and Mulato II in total DM in both wet and dry seasons. The 6 hybrid Urochloa cultivars/lines (Mulato II, Cayman, Cobra, BRO4/3025, BRO4/3207 and BRO4/2515) all accumulated similar total DM yields over 3 years, outyielding Ruzi (P<0.05). Crude protein concentrations in forage were higher (P<0.05) in the dry season than wet season and in leaf than stem. In the second and third dry seasons, Ruzi had higher CP concentrations in both leaf and stem than all other cultivars and lines. ADF and NDF concentrations were lower in the dry season than the wet season. This trial has shown that BRS Piatá and BRS Paiaguãs would be ideal replacements for Mulato II and Ruzi in Northeast Thailand because of their superior dry season production for smallholder farmers for either cut-and-carry forage or grazing.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)121-130
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Long-term effects of rotational grazing in Urochloa brizantha cv. MarandĂș
           pastures on soil quality indicators

    • Authors: Nelino Florida Rofner, Rober Miler Abad Principe, Alex Rengifo-Rojas, Javier Nazar Cipriano
      Pages: 131 - 144
      Abstract: Cattle raising is an important activity in Peru, with production systems differentiated by purpose, edaphoclimatic conditions and pasture management practices. In Ruiz farm, located in Codo del Pozuzo district (Huánuco, Peru), the effect of long-term grazing on soil quality was evaluated through physical (texture, penetrometer resistance) and chemical indicators (pH, OM, N, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, CEC, base saturation, exchangeable acidity and aluminum saturation), in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandú pastures managed for 10 (PU10), 20 (PU20), 30 (PU30), and 40 years (PU40), compared to a contiguous secondary forest (BS) area. Data were analyzed with descriptive and multivariate statistics, and multiple linear regression models. Long-term (up to 40 years) grazing resulted in increasing soil compaction over time, and affected all chemical indicators evaluated, except for pH and Al3+. The transformation of forest into pastures negatively affected the pH, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and CEC levels, and increased Al3+ content. Results obtained suggest that the rotational grazing system applied for up to 40 years in the study farm resulted in soil compaction, loss of exchangeable bases and aluminum toxicity. Further studies are required to determine the effects of applying a rational grazing management considering the carrying capacity of the pastures, as well as plowing and fertilization, as means to mitigate trampling effects, reverse compaction, improve nutrient availability and reduce Al3+ content in soils.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)131-144
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Relative palatability of woody forage species from the tropical dry forest
           using a cafeteria method

    • Authors: Nelson Pérez-Almario, Jairo Mora-Delgado, Dagoberto Criollo-Cruz, Christian Thomas Carvajal-Bazurto, Jorge Mario Moreno-Turriago, Oscar Eduardo Orjuela-Franco
      Pages: 145 - 159
      Abstract: The relative palatability of woody perennials´ fodder has been proposed as the selection criteria for species to be integrated in livestock systems. For that purpose, 20 species with different nutritional characteristics, that grow in the tropical dry forest of Colombia, were evaluated. The woody perennials were managed under pruning, in plots established at the Agrosavia´s Nataima Research Center. Fodder of those species was offered to five mature Blanco Orejinegro (BON) cattle for a total of 19 days, using a cafeteria method with each species exposed to animals for only 3 minutes. The assignment of species was in pairs, with a total of 190 pairs, resulting from the combinations of 20 species taking two at the same time, without replication. The results of the palatability trials identified nine species with very high and high palatability, which ordered in a descending manner were: Albizia niopoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Erythrina fusca, Guazuma ulmifolia, Gliricidia sepium, Tithonia diversifolia, Clitoria fairchildiana, Spondias purpurea and Spondias mombin. The pair of species that showed the highest palatability was A. niopoides-L. leucocephala; and the species frequently present in combinations with high intake was A. niopoides. It is concluded that there are several native species with high relative palatability, whose forage potential is unknown by technicians and ranchers, and the high palatability of some species already known was confirmed.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)145-159
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Productive behavior and blood chemistry in replacement pullets of White
           Leghorn layers fed Tithonia diversifolia forage meal

    • Authors: Ysnagmy Vazquez Pedroso, Bárbara Rodríguez Sánchez, Lourdes Lucila Savón Valdés, Tomás Elías Ruíz Vázquez
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Tithonia diversifolia foliage meal constitutes a practical alternative for the substitution of conventional feeds in poultry diets, due to its nutritional characteristics. There is limited information on the use of this feed in poultry diets, particularly in the case of replacements for laying hens. In the present study the effect of tithonia (ecotype 10) forage meal on the productive behavior and serum components in replacements of White Leghorn L-33 layers were evaluated. A total of 840 chicken, from 7–126 d of age, with an average initial live weight of 70 ± 10 g were used. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (corn-soybean) and the inclusion of 10, 15 and 20 % of Tithonia diversifolia forage meal, with 7 replicates (cages) each with 30 birds in a cage as the experimental unit. No differences (P>0.05) between tithonia levels and the control diet were detected. The batch uniformity was higher with 20 % tithonia in the diet, for birds of 64–126 d of age. The inclusion of the tithonia (ecotype 10) foliage meal did not affect the concentration of total proteins, albumin and globulins in chicken serum. The results obtained suggest that using up to 20 % of tithonia (ecotype 10) meal in the diet of White Leghorn laying hen replacements, between 1 and 18 weeks of age, does not affect the productive performance and health condition of the chicken.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)160-168
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
  • Influence of shade on productivity and nutritional value of Urochloa
           decumbens in silvopastoral systems using different spatial arrangements of
           eucalyptus cultivars

    • Authors: Claudinei Alves dos Santos, Alan Figueiredo de Oliveira, Elwira Daphinn Silva Moreira, Lúcio Carlos Gonçalves, Maria Celuta Machado Viana, Miguel Marques Gontijo Neto, Ângela Maria Quintão Lana
      Pages: 169 - 182
      Abstract: This study evaluated pasture productivity and nutritional characteristics of Urochloa decumbens in silvopastoral systems (SPS) with different eucalyptus cultivars and spatial arrangements providing differing levels of shade. SPS were arranged to provide 46 % shade (eucalyptus trees arranged in 2 double rows 2 m apart, with trees every 3 m in each row, and 20 m between double rows), 60 % shade (eucalyptus trees arranged in 2 double rows 2 m apart, with trees every 2 m in each row in double rows and 9 m between double rows) and 57 % shade (eucalyptus trees arranged in a single row, with trees every 2 m in the row and 9 m between rows) using eucalyptus cultivars ‘GG100’, ‘I144’ or ‘VM58’. Two full sun pastures treated as managed (soil pH correction and N, P and K fertilizer application) or non-managed (no correction or fertilizer application) were evaluated in addition to the 3 SPS arrangements. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was 1,439 μmol/m2/s in full sun compared with a mean of 715 μmol/m2/s under different SPS arrangements. Leaf area index of U. decumbens was 28 % higher in 46 % shade and lower in all shade arrangements compared with full sun managed pasture. The dry matter yield was 58 % lower in 46 % shade and 86 % lower in 60 % shade compared with full sun managed pasture. The crude protein content in SPS pastures was higher than in the full sun pastures, with higher values in 57 % and 60 % shade. SPS significantly reduced the PAR and forage yield. These results indicate that in systems where the main objective is animal production, spacing between tree rows greater than 20 m should be used to provide sufficient high-quality grass.
      PubDate: 2023-05-31
      DOI: 10.17138/tgft(11)169-182
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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