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redit : Revista Electrónica de Didáctica de la Traducción y la Interpretación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2174-3681
Published by Universidad de Málaga Homepage  [25 journals]

    • Authors: Isabel Ruiz-Mora
      Abstract: PORTADA / COVER
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Public Relations and the Fundraising professional in the Cultural Heritage
           Industry: a study of Spain and Mexico / Las relaciones públicas y el
           profesional de la captación de fondos en la industria del patrimonio
           cultural: un estudio de España y México

    • Authors: Rocio Torres-Mancera, Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa, Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado, Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez
      Abstract: Abstract The present research aims to understand the current situation of strategic communication and public relations applied in the professional field of fundraising in the cultural heritage environment. It observes the current patterns used in the sector to obtain and generate long-term sustainable funding, through the stimulation of investors and International Cooperation projects from the European Union in line with UNESCO.Two international case studies are compared: Spain and Mexico, through the selection of territorial samples in Malaga and San Luis Potosi. The methodology used is based on a combination of in-depth interviews with key informants and content analysis. In the first instance, the degree of application of communication and public relations tools for strategic purposes to directly attract economic resources to the management of cultural heritage (tangible and intangible) in the region is studied. In line with the results obtained, the current parameters and key indicators of the profile of the fundraising professional in public and private cultural management are presented.Keywords: Sustainability, fundraising, public relations, heritage management; local development.Resumen La presente investigación tiene como objetivo conocer la situación actual de la comunicación estratégica y relaciones públicas aplicadas en el ámbito profesional de la captación de fondos en el entorno del patrimonio cultural. Se observan los patrones actuales empleados en el sector para obtener y generar financiación sostenible a largo plazo, mediante el estímulo de inversores y proyectos de Cooperación Internacional provenientes de la Unión Europea en consonancia con la UNESCO.Se comparan dos casos de estudio internacionales: España y México, a través de la selección de muestras territoriales en Málaga y en San Luis Potosí. La metodológica empleada se basa en la combinación de entrevistas en profundidad con informantes clave y análisis de contenido. Se estudia en primera instancia el grado de aplicación de herramientas de comunicación y relaciones públicas con fines estratégicos para atraer de forma directa recursos económicos a la gestión del patrimonio cultural (tangible e intangible) de la región. En línea con los resultados obtenidos se presentan los parámetros actuales e indicadores clave del perfil del profesional del fundraising en la gestión cultural pública y privada.Palabras clave: sostenibilidad, fundraising, relaciones públicas, gestión patrimonial, desarrollo local.
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Relaciones públicas y tecnología: la interactividad como punto de
           encuentro entre las ONG y sus públicos / Public relations and technology:
           interactivity as a meeting point between NGOs and their audiences

    • Authors: Andrea Leticia Quintana-Pujalte
      Abstract: Este estudio pone foco en los procesos de interactividad perceptibles en los sitios corporativos de unos actores políticos no tradicionales de enorme importancia en las sociedades cada vez más desiguales: las organizaciones no gubernamentales. Se toma como referencia a otros estudios similares, y se selecciona una muestra de siete ONG de Cooperación al Desarrollo que operan en España. Desde este corpus se analiza el nivel de interactividad que ofrecen estas entidades en sus sitios web, y se interpreta el tipo de vínculo que establecen con sus públicos desde los espacios de participación e interactividad que propician. El estudio concluye que estas ONG ofrecen altos niveles de interactividad en sus sitios corporativos, sin embargo, el primer contacto que ofrecen a partir del llamado a la acción de las páginas web apunta a solicitar aportes económicos, lo cual impactaría negativamente en la generación de un vínculo a largo plazo entre estas ONG y sus públicos. Palabras claves: Interactividad, relaciones públicas 2.0, organizaciones no gubernamentales, actores políticos, influenciaAbstractThis study focuses on the perceptible interactivity processes in the corporate websites of non-traditional political actors of enormous importance in increasingly unequal societies: non-governmental organizations. To carry out this study, another similar research is taken as a reference on the methodological matter (Caprioti et al, 2016; Smolak and Castillo, 2017). In the first part of the article, we make a theoretical review about how interactivity gets to establish as an issue for public relations scholars. This is a subject that has been being studied for almost twenty years in the academic field.Then, in the methodology section, to analyze the interactivity level of these websites, a sample of seven NGOs dedicated to Development Cooperation that operate in Spain is selected. These NGOs have the greatest annual budget, and we decided to pick only the ones that do not have a religious basis. The Spanish NGOs that enter on that category are: Oxfam Intermon; Plan Internacional España; Educo; Cruz Roja Española; Save The Children España; Acción contra el Hambre y Ayuda en Acción. We carry out a content analysis is that aims to identify the expression of two categories, Information Presentation Tools and Virtual Visitor Resources. To carry out the methodology, we use a model created by the studies mentioned above. Based on the detection of these categories on each NGO website, the level of interactivity offered by these entities is analyzed, and the type of relationship they establish with their audiences is interpreted from the spaces for participation and interactivity that they promote. The analysis is complemented with the study of the "call to action" present on each web page, as a singular element of web design that aims to establish a privileged contact with the public. Among the results, we can say that several NGOs are using the same tools to get in contact with their audiences. Also, they implement different kinds of digital spaces to get more interactivity with their stakeholders. Nevertheless, we also identified that the first contact that they offer from their websites is asking for money, which might be a problem for them as non-traditional political actors who depends on their capacity of influence in the political system. This action may have an impact on the way people think about them, and the symbolic capital of these entities may be at stake.The research concludes that the NGOs that are part of the study offer high levels of interactivity on their corporate websites, however, the first contact they offer from the call to action of the web pages aims to request financial contributions, which would negatively impact in generating a long-term bond between these NGOs and their audiences. With this first contact, they are communicating that their stakeholders are just money givers, and not citizens how are committed to changing the odds of unequal situations. These results are a contribution to the existing scientific literature about public relations and interactivity on the NGOs, and invite a critical reflection on the actions of digital communication from NGOs for development, non-traditional political actors of enormous importance in the current context.Keywords: Interactivity, public relations 2.0, non-governmental organizations, political actors, influence 
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • La gestión de las relaciones con los públicos en los festivales de
           música durante la pandemia. El caso de Bilbao BBK Live / The management
           of the relationships with music festivals publics during the pandemic. The
           case of Bilbao BBK Live

    • Authors: Cristina Pérez-Ordóñez, Andrea Castro-Martínez, Eduardo Villena Alarcón
      Abstract: La crisis sanitaria y económica provocada por el coronavirus ha afectado a la totalidad de la población y de las empresas e instituciones, siendo la cultura uno de los sectores en los que esta pandemia está teniendo más impacto, en especial en las artes escénicas y en la música, sobre todo, en directo. En este artículo se ofrece un análisis de cómo la gestión de las relaciones con los públicos puede mejorar la reputación y las perspectivas de supervivencia del Bilbao BBK Live, un festival de música moderna que ha visto cómo su actividad empresarial ha quedado casi totalmente paralizada. A través de un estudio de caso, pretendemos ofrecer un análisis de las principales acciones de relaciones públicas desarrolladas en 2020 y aportar algunas propuestas para el resto del sector de los festivales en el que la actual pandemia ha tenido tanto impacto. Para ello, se ha realizado una entrevista en profundidad con la directora de comunicación de la promotora del evento, Last Tour, y se han estudiado las publicaciones en Instagram de las iniciativas puestas en marcha, a través de un análisis de contenido. Los resultados obtenidos certifican la importancia de la gestión de las relaciones con los públicos como herramienta esencial en la estrategia empresarial, incluso, en época de pandemia y con la actividad casi paralizada. Palabras claves: festivales de música, relaciones con los públicos, comunicación, Covid-19, Instagram, EspañaAbstractThe health and economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic has affected the totality of the population, companies and institutions. One of the most affected sectors by this crisis is Culture, especially in the performing arts and, above all, in the live music sub-sector, where it is having the greatest impact. During these months of health emergency, restrictions on venues and mobility have caused live music to almost paralyse all its activity completely. Particularly significant, due to the great repercussions of the pandemic, is the music festival sub-sector, mainly large-scale festivals, which have had to postpone their editions to future years. Thus, 17% of the promoters of this type of event cancelled their edition, 56% postponed it, 21% were held on their dates and 6% took place, but the dates were modified, although they did not take place in the traditional way, neither in terms of programming nor in terms of capacity (BIME, 2020).But, despite this situation, the big Spanish festivals - and the smaller ones - have managed to keep some activity, either by organising smaller events, adjusted to health conditions, or through initiatives that are more distant from the live music activity itself. This article, through a case study, offers an analysis of how the management of public relations can enhance the reputation and survival prospects of music festivals. For this reason, we have focused on Bilbao BBK Live, a modern music festival which has seen its business activity almost completely paralysed. In this way, we aim to offer an analysis of the main public relations actions developed in 2020 and provide some proposals for the other festival sector on which the current pandemic has had such an impact. To do so, we conducted an in-depth interview with the communications manager of the promoter of the event, Last Tour, and studied the Instagram posts published and news from the website by the initiatives launched, through a content analysis. These activities have been targeting different audiences, from all kinds of suppliers to general attendees and sponsors.The results confirm the importance of public relations management as an essential tool in business strategy, even in times of pandemic and with business almost at a standstill. Thus, the different campaigns developed during the pandemic have managed to keep and strengthen the relationships with the different stakeholders of the event: attendees, sponsors, city of Bilbao public administrations and the mass media, although it has also focused special attention on suppliers and collaborators, vulnerable communities in its environment and other bodies in the sector that, for the last few months, have been joining forces to exert pressure on the authorities to demand a return to activity.In the same way, and thanks to the work developed by the communication departments of the festival and its promoter, Last Tour, Instagram has become a key tool in the work of marketing these activities, as well as to improve the engagement of its audience, according with the results obtained in previous research (Klara, 2019; Castro-Martínez, Pérez-Ordoñez, y Torres-Martín, 2020).Keywords: music festivals, public relations, communication, Covid-19, Instagram, Spain

      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • O mercado de trabalho em Relações Públicas: estudo sobre o cenário da
           atividade trabalhista formal no Brasil (2013-2018)/The job Market in
           Public Relations: study on the scenario of formal labor activity in Brazil

    • Authors: Tiago Costa Martins, Victor da Silva Oliveira, Mônica Elisa Dias Pons
      Abstract: O estudo da Federação das Indústrias do Rio de Janeiro – FIRJAN apontou o crescimento da profissão de Relações Públicas no Brasil entre os anos de 2015 e 2017 associado à preocupação das organizações com o entendimento dos consumidores e na promoção e manutenção da imagem (FIRJAN, 2019). A contratação desse tipo de profissional pode ser reconhecida como um custo de investimento intelectual às organizações (Bolaño, 2002), com reflexo direto na atividade trabalhista formal. A partir desses elementos, a presente pesquisa amplia a análise do trabalho em Relações Públicas. Metodologicamente, utiliza-se informações da Relação Anual de Informações Sociais (RAIS) do Ministério da Economia (Brasil), numa análise temporal de 2013 até 2018, através da Classificação Brasileira de Ocupações (CBO) e da Classificação Nacional de Atividades Econômicas (CNAE). Logo, a abordagem utilizada fez uso de técnicas quantitativas, mas também qualitativas, sobretudo por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica. As discussões e posterior conclusão do estudo apontam para um panorama específico para a quantidade, os setores de atuação, a dimensão salarial e a possibilidade de perceber algumas transformações na atuação do profissional na economia do Brasil. Os dados coligidos corroboram com a percepção do profissional na ampliação da competitividade e na resolução de conflitos gerados na (re)produção das economias.Palavras chave: Trabalho formal, Relações Públicas, comunicação; emprego, BrasilAbstractThe study made by the Federation of Industries from Rio de Janeiro – FIRJAN pointed the growth of the Public Relations profession in Brazil between 2015 and 2017 years associated to the concern in organizations with the understanding by the consumers in the promotion and maintenance of the image (FIRJAN, 2019). The hiring of this kind of professional may be recognized as an intellectual investment cost to the organizations (Bolaño, 2002), reflecting directly in the formal labor activity. The study is reflexive to the Public Relations. First, because it says that the growth of the formal labor in Public Relations is connected to the impact in the digitization and experience value of the consumer. It implies in the graduation and qualification of the professionals inside the market. Second, because it takes to discuss the intense structural transformation of the profession: structural; if it is realized the changes in the position of the profession in economic activities and, consequently, in form of constitution of the profession while a know-how technique; intense, if it can be analyzed in time and in the quantity of formal labor constituted by the profession in Brazil. From these elements, the present research broadens the labor analysis in Public Relations.  The methodologic approach made in this investigation used the qualitative and quantitative procedures. Qualitative, by the bibliographic review to build the theoretical framework about a paper for and in the economic system, as the occupation particularities of the Public Relations and the recent transformations. Quantitative, the research shows the view of the formal labor of the public relations through de Annual Relation of Social Information from Economic Ministry (Brazil), in a time analysis from 2013 to 2018. It was specifically analyzed the occupation of the Public Relations inside the National Classification of the Economic Activities (CNAE), while there is formal labor in public and private organizations.  The study discussions point to a more specific view to quantity, the sectors of actuation, the salary dimension and the possibility to realize some transformation in the professional act in the economy of Brazil. Among 2013 and 2018 almost two thousand jobs were created in the area. In 2013, five sectors corresponded 53% of the occupations (1. Industry of transformation; 2. Administrative activities; 3. Technical and scientific activities; 4. Business and vehicles reparation; 5. Public administration). In 2018, one more time, five sectors corresponded 54% of the occupations (1. Technical and scientific activities; 2. Education; 3. Industry of transformation; 4. Administrative activities; and 5. Other service activities). By the organization side, it was realized that the number public relations bonds are an allocation of the professional sources with the capacity to comprehend and use knowledge pro the organizations. However, this knowledge was not implied in the sectors which generate material products constituted after a process of factory transformation, as it was spread in the conception in the labor value since XVIII and XIX centuries. The growth in number of jobs was in a sector which the final product did not constitute in a material physical good, but in services which effort the ampliation in the competitivity and conflict resolution generated in (re) production in economy. The public relation professional is, as a fact, part of a group intelligence in service of capitalist accumulation (Bolaño, 2002). The collected data corroborate to the perception of the professional in the broadening of the competitivity and in the resolution of conflicts generated in the (re) production of the economies. Keywords: Formal labor, Public Relations, communication, Job, Brazil. 
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Direcionamento da visibilidade nas mídias sociais a partir da estratégia
           de baralhamento / Targeting visibility on social medias from the shuffling

    • Authors: Diego Wander da Silva, Rudimar Baldissera
      Abstract: Nossa pesquisa se insere no contexto dos relacionamentos com públicos nas ambiências digitais e tem como objetivos: refletir sobre as noções e práticas de (in)visibilidade nas mídias sociais e apresentar iniciativas adotadas pelas organizações visando ao baralhamento e a incompreensões de uma situação, enquanto estratégia de direcionamento da visibilidade nessas mídias. As discussões são feitas a partir de relatos de profissionais que atuam em agências filiadas à Associação Brasileira de Agentes Digitais, coletados em entrevistas em profundidade por Da Silva (2018), os quais evidenciam tais iniciativas. Os resultados revelam um conjunto de oito possibilidades a partir das quais as organizações buscam conduzir a visibilidade para enfoques que não embatam com os desejos de posicionamento ou que sejam menos prejudiciais em um comparativo com outros sentidos visibilizados, ou com esse potencial. Tais achados sinalizam a profissionalização em nível sociotécnico, visto que há uma série de alternativas adotadas com o intuito de preservar as organizações. Observamos tais resultados com preocupação e os problematizamos sob a ótica do interesse público, visto que há distorções éticas que podem causar danos expressivos à sociedade.Palavras-chave: comunicação organizacional, mídias sociais, direcionamento da visibilidade, baralhamento da visibilidade, agências de comunicação digitalAbstractOur research is inserted in the context of relationship with publics in digital environments. Specifically, it is related to strategies for directing visibility in social medias, triggered when identifying risks or emerging issues (in society and/or in the media) that may go against how organizations want to be perceived (Da Silva & Baldissera, 2019). We understand that visibility, in its broadest sense, is usually indicated as the most incident desire of organizations in social media (Silva, 2020). However, studies that deal with this theme tend to disregard the fact that being in the spotlight can be negative, especially when the correlated issues and approaches are unfavorable or uninteresting. In these cases, organizations, opportunely, activate a set of strategies that try – along the dynamics of relationship and interaction with the publics – to direct visibility towards something that seems (more) opportune to them (Da Silva, 2018). The purposes of this article are reflect on the notions and practices of (in)visibility in social medias and present initiatives adopted by organizations aiming at shuffling and misunderstanding a situation, as a strategy to direct visibility in these medias. Symbolic interactionism is the epistemic foundation of research. Discussions are based on reports from professionals working in agencies affiliated to the Brazilian Association of Digital Agents, collected in depth interviews by Da Silva (2018), which evidenced such initiatives. The results reveal a set of eight possibilities from which associations seek to lead visibility to approaches that do not conflict with the positioning desires or that are less harmful in comparison with other senses seen, or with this potential. We are referring to the deviation of the focus towards positive guidelines, the generation of facts, the promotion of other approaches based on paid investment, the infiltration of organizational actors in the discussions, the “purchase of audience”, the incidence or hiring of influencers, the competitor imbalance, and the optimization of the desired visibility in search engines. Such findings signal professionalization at the sociotechnical level, since there are a number of alternatives adopted in order to preserve organizations. We observed these results with concern and problematized them from the perspective of the public interest, because there are ethical distortions that can cause significant damage to society. The practices learned show and allowed us to perceive that there are many dynamics that are part of the problem we have discussed. All these paths disturb us. In these cases, there is a certain disqualification of the place (and strength) of the subjects, who seem to be led/perceived almost like “puppets”, in a conception that organizational interventions lead to certain behaviors, which have already been predicted. An action-reaction idea prevails. It is important to emphasize that, if, on the one hand, appropriations of visibility targeting strategies can enhance the communication processes of organizations and their public presence in the sense they want, on the other hand, they can lead organizations to different levels of "omission" and/or concealment of matters of public interest, ranging from moral issues to legal commitments. This situation is enhanced, in the current context, due to the incipient initiatives that aim to observe and, in some way, monitor these (potentially) abusive practices, such as the distortion of information, the dissemination of false news and the act of spreading rumors (Henriques & Silva, 2014). Furthermore, “most of the time, surveillance initiatives end up discovering abusive practices long after the effects of those actions, which implies a research that is always focused on the past” (Henriques & Silva, 2020: 49).Keywords: organizational communication, social medias, visibility targeting, visibility shuffling, digital communication agencies
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Novas estratégias comunicacionais diante da pandemia de Covid-19:
           reflexões sobre o papel público da comunicação organizacional / New
           communication strategies in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic: reflections
           on the public role of organizational comm.

    • Authors: Mariana Carareto, Renata Calonego, Roseane Andrelo
      Abstract: Este estudo propõe refletir sobre o papel público da comunicação organizacional ao assumir estratégias comunicacionais que podem gerar impacto de interesse público diante da pandemia de Covid-19. Como perspectiva teórica abordamos a relação entre as organizações e a sociedade a partir da comunicação organizacional. No procedimento metodológico realizamos uma pesquisa bibliográfica, uma pesquisa documental e a análise do discurso midiático e aspectos dialógicos do "Todos pela Saúde". Os resultados sugerem que estratégias comunicacionais de interesse público possuem capacidade para impactar a sociedade.Palavras-chave: Comunicação Organizacional, Poder Organizacional, Impacto Público das Organizações Empresariais, Interesse Público, Covid-19Abstract The Covid-19 pandemic impacted many social spheres and demanded immediate transformations in society. Organizations needed to reinvent themselves quickly in several aspects, such as their internal practices, as well as in the way of relating to their various publics. This evidenced the interdependence between business organizations and society, requiring them to act for collective interests. In view of this, it is observed that these organizations are assuming a public character, being important to think about how they get involved with society and what are the impacts for social, political, cultural and economic realities. For this, organizational communication has an important role because it is able to act in the public sphere with regard to the promotion of debates that can impact collective attitudes, considering that organizations occupy a strategic position to direct issues that influence social behavior. As a communicative phenomenon, they disseminate ideas, values, and information that influences society, mainly because of their centrality in the daily lives of individuals. So, facing the pandemic scenario, there are numerous corporate actions that aim to serve the public interest, such as the initiative “Todos pela Saúde” (All for Health), an alliance between several organizations. This initiative was chosen as the object of study for contributing to the objective of this paper: analyzes the public role of organizational communication by assuming that communication strategies can generate an impact on public interests in face of the Covid-19 pandemic. The movement aims to mitigate the effects caused by the virus by supporting public health actions promoted by SUS (“Sistema Único de Saúde”- Health Unic System), contributing with solutions and financial support to the public authorities. The “Todos pela Saúde” is coordinated by a group of specialists from the health area that guide the decisions to be made to face the virus with scientific basis. Therefore, as a methodological procedure was adopted three ways: a bibliographic research aiming to investigate about the role of the communications from private organizations in the pandemic context; a documentary research of the “All for Health” medias; and the media discourse analysis (Charaudeau, 2005; 2006) and the dialogic aspects (Bakhtin, 2002; 2003) from the material released by the Initiative. As part of the results, it is observed that the strategies used, at least from the point of view of organizational communication, were innovative in producing something new in their narratives, because the organizations adopted a unison speech in favor of fighting the virus without political or commercial interest. Another highlight is the language strategies used, which seek to value the public in the enunciative act. The consequence is an unusual gender in organizational communication, the educative one. Undoubtedly, it is not possible to ignore the marketing objectives from this Initiative. However, it is important to understand organizational communication as a phenomenon of collective construction and reconstruction that influences the individuals, as well as guide the formation of society. This study provides significant reflections about the public impact of organizational communication for the collective interest, especially regarding the current Covid-19 pandemic.Keywords: Organizational Communication, Organizational Power, Public Impact of Business Organizations, Public Interest, Covid-19 
      PubDate: 2021-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Presentación: Investigación en Relaciones Públicas / Presentation:
           Public Relations Research

    • Authors: Ana Almansa-Martínez, Isabel Ruiz-Mora
      Abstract: Hace diez años, un grupo de personas comenzamos esta ilusionante aventura de publicar la Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas. El principal objetivo de la publicación era y es convertirse en la plataforma en la que investigadores e investigadoras puedan publicar y difundir sus trabajos. Este sigue siendo hoy nuestro compromiso.En estos diez años hemos visto crecer la disciplina. Se han creado nuevos estudios de posgrado vinculados a las Relaciones Públicas y la profesión goza cada vez de mayor reconocimiento. Hoy, cualquier organización que se precie debe satisfacer las necesidades de comunicación de sus públicos. Las crisis vividas en este tiempo, incluida la COVID-19, han servido para que se evidencia le importancia de las Relaciones Publicas en todo tipo de entidades.Una década después presentamos el número 21 que, fiel a su cita semestral, presenta contenidos diversos de investigación en Relaciones Públicas. Ese hemos querido que sea, precisamente, su título.El número reúne a un buen número de investigadores e investigadoras de España, México, Argentina y, especialmente, Brasil. Artículos publicados en español, inglés y portugués.AbstractTen years ago, a group of us began the exciting adventure of publishing the International Journal of Public Relations. The main objective of the publication was and is to become the platform where researchers can publish and disseminate their work. This continues to be our commitment today.In these ten years we have seen the discipline grow. New postgraduate studies related to Public Relations have been created and the profession enjoys increasing recognition. Today, any self-respecting organization must satisfy the communication needs of its public. The crises experienced during this time, including COVID-19, have served to highlight the importance of Public Relations in all types of organizations.
      A decade later, we present the 21st issue, which, faithful to its biannual appointment, presents diverse contents of research in Public Relations. That is precisely what we wanted its title to be.
      The issue brings together a good number of researchers from Spain, Mexico, Argentina and, especially, Brazil. Articles published in Spanish, English and Portuguese.
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Comunicación Integral y transparencia en las organizaciones del tercer
           sector / Integral Communication and transparency of the third sector

    • Authors: Herlinda Ortiz Rodríguez
      Abstract: Las organizaciones del tercer sector son estructuras organizacionales que contribuyen en el bienestar social de los países. Este tipo de organizaciones requieren del apoyo y comprensión de sus públicos para alcanzar sus objetivos organizacionales y para obtener dicho apoyo deben comunicarse de forma transparente con sus públicos. La transparencia debe entenderse como un deber ético de las organizaciones del tercer sector para dar a conocer no sólo información detallada del uso de los recursos financieros a sus públicos sino también mantenerlos informados acerca de sus acciones, decisiones y comportamientos diarios. La comunicación integral tiene un papel primordial en la gestión estratégica de la transparencia de las organizaciones, porque es a través de ésta que los públicos pueden conocer a detalle las acciones de la organización. Debido a que actualmente los medios digitales tienen un gran alcance, se debe comunicar la transparencia y buenas prácticas de estas organizaciones a través de los medios digitales de manera adecuada. Es decir, las organizaciones no sólo deben diseñar estrategias para fortalecer su transparencia, sino que deben comunicarla con sus públicos. Dicho lo anterior esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar y comparar a través de un análisis de contenido el nivel de comunicación integral en medios digitales que tienen las organizaciones del tercer sector de México y España con sello de ONG acreditadas para comunicar a sus públicos su transparencia y buenas prácticas, a través de su sitio web y sus redes sociales oficiales: Facebook y Twitter. La muestra de organizaciones del tercer sector fue de 104 organizaciones españolas y de 104 organizaciones mexicanas. Los principales hallazgos fueron que el nivel de comunicación en las organizaciones del tercer sector españolas es mejor que en las mexicanas, no obstante, ambas enfrentan el reto de comunicar su transparencia eficientemente en medios digitales. Palabras clave: organizaciones del tercer sector, públicos, comunicación integral, transparencia, mediosdigitalesAbstractThird sector organizations are organizational structures that contribute to the countries social welfare. This type of organizations requires their audiences support and understanding in order to accomplish their organizational objectives and, to obtain such support, they must communicate in a transparent form with their audiences. Transparency must be understood as a third sector organizations ethical duty with a view to announce their audiences not only detailed information about the use of financial resources but also to keep them informed about their actions, decisions and daily behaviors. Third sector organizations must manage their transparency and best practices not as designed action within a logistical or merely operational plan, but as the core idea of a strategic plan that allows them to create bonds of trust with strategic audiences such as: collaborators, donors, volunteers, government, other third sector organizations and society. When the audiences notice that a third sector organization puts their transparency and best practices into practice as an ethical and voluntary attitude for making visible and explaining each one of their actions, decisions, projects, profits and results, they will not hesitate to participate with it and offer their unconditional support. Comprehensive communication plays a fundamental role in the transparency strategic management of the third sector organizations, since it is through it that the audiences are able to know in detail the organization actions. Owing to, currently, digital media own a great reach, third sector organizations transparency and best practices must be communicated using digital media in a proper form. That is, organizations must not only design strategies to strengthen their transparency, but they also must communicate them with their audiences.  With that said, the objective of this research was to analyze and to compare through a content analysis the comprehensive communication level in digital media owned by the third sector organizations from Mexico and Spain with NGO certification accredited to communicate their transparency and best practices to their audiences via their website and official social media: Facebook and Twitter. The third sector organizations sample was of 104 Spanish organizations and 104 Mexican organizations. This research was performed through a quantitative content analysis. Such analysis is digital and it was carried out in the official website and in two social media: Facebook and Twitter. It is a cross-sectional research, since the information gathering was performed during the period January-August, 2020.  The research stages were: definition of the sample, definition of variables, information coding and analysis and interpretation of results. The study categories were determined from the nine transparency and best practices principles of Lealtad y Confío foundation; indications based on international standards recommended by the ICFO (International Committee on Fundraising Organizations).  The main findings were that the communication level in the Spanish third sector organizations was better than in the Mexican organizations; however, both organizations have the challenge to efficiently communicate their transparency using digital media. Although it is true that Spain owns a better level of transparency and best practices comprehensive communication in digital media compared to Mexico, it has merely focused in taking advantage of its website, leaving the advantages of social media, Facebook and Twitter, aside. Keywords: Third S...
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Análisis bibliométrico de las tesis doctorales españolas sobre
           “comunicación interna” (1986/2019) / Bibliometric analysis of the
           spanish doctoral theses on "internal communication” (1986/2019)

    • Authors: Jesús Segarra-Saavedra, Borja Cascales-Gonzálvez, Carmen Carretón-Ballester
      Abstract: Este estudio identifica y analiza las tesis doctorales defendidas en España que aluden al concepto “comunicación interna” en un período de 34 años (1986 y 2019). Para ello se realiza un análisis bibliométrico descriptivo y retrospectivo dividido en tres fases: 1) Búsqueda e identificación en Dialnet Plus y TESEO; 2) Análisis de un total de (n= 81) tesis; 3) Representación gráfica con RStudio de las relaciones entre directores-as y presidentes-as de tribunal. Destacar que están presentes 32 universidades (85,2% de titularidad pública), de las cuales la UCM (22,2%) es la más productiva. La década más prolífera es la de 2010-2019 (56,8%) en la que destaca el año 2016 con el 12,3% de tesis y, en cuanto a idiomas, las tesis se han presentado principalmente en español (92,6%). Su autoría, cercana a la paridad, se distribuye entre un 50,6% de mujeres y un 49,4% de hombres. Existe dirección única en el 71,6% y un promedio de 1,3 directores o directoras por tesis. Además, se observa una dispersión de directores-as y una mínima relación con presidentes-as. En cuanto a la composición de los tribunales, priman los hombres que como presidentes actúan en el 76,5%, como secretarios en el 60,5% y como vocales en el 71% y de nuevo es la UCM es la universidad con mayor presencia. Se concluye que la producción de tesis sobre comunicación interna en España ha vivido un auge en la última década de la mano de las universidades públicas y con la UCM como principal entidad creadora y evaluadora. Sin diferencias de género en cuanto a su origen, sí existe una brecha de género tanto en la dirección como en la participación en los tribunales, donde los hombres adquieren especial protagonismo. Se constata también la casi nula conexión entre directores y miembros de los tribunales.Palabras clave: bibliometría, comunicación científica, comunicación interna, relaciones públicas internas, tesis doctoral, género.Abstract This study aims to identify and analyse all the doctoral theses defended in Spain that refer to the concept of "internal communication" (hereinafter IC) over a period of 34 years from 1986 to 2019 (including both). It should be noted that not all of them are specialized in IC, but that some of them refer to the concept in some way. For this purpose, a descriptive and retrospective bibliometric analysis has been used, divided into three phases: 1) Search and identification in Dialnet Plus and TESEO; 2) Analysis of a total of (n= 81) theses; 3) Graphic representation with RStudio of the relationships between advisers and chairmen of the tribunal. For this, 30 variables distributed in three dimensions (work, research team and evaluation team) have been used. 32 universities are present (85,2% of them are state owned), of which the UCM (22,2%) is the most productive, followed by the UNAV, the ULL and the UAB (all with 6,2% each). If we analyse the origin of the theses by autonomous xommunities, Madrid (28,4%), Catalonia (14,8%) and Andalusia (12,3%) are in the lead. The most prolific decade is 2010-2019 (56,8%), especially 2016 with 12,3% and in terms of languages, the theses have been presented mainly in Spanish (92,6%), with English being almost anecdotal (3,7%). Its authorship is divided close to parity with 50,6% of women and 49,4% of men. It should be noted that there is individualism in management with 71,6% of sole advisers and an average of 1.3 advisers per thesis. In addition, there is a strong dispersion of advisers and a minimal relationship with chairpeople, as only 5,1% have repeated in the management and among them, only on one occasion, they have coincided with the same chairman. It is relevant to mention that 70,4% of the first advisers are men and 80% of the professionals who have occupied this function more than once are also men. In terms of the composition of the boards, the chairmen (76,5%), the secretaries (60,5%) and the male members (71%) are the most important, and once again the UCM is the university with the greatest presence. As might be expected, the terms most used in the theses´ titles revolve around "communication" and "internal" with 82,7% and 50,6% respectively. Among the descriptors, "communication" decreases to 49,4% (although it is still the most repeated) but "internal" disappears completely. There is evidence of a great diversity of items in both questions, although it is important to emphasize the use of concepts such as "strategy", "information", "influence" or "behaviour" that demonstrate the direct link between IC and public relations. By way of conclusion, it can be stated that the production of theses on internal communication in Spain has experienced a boom in the last decade thanks to state owned universities and with the UCM as the main creative and evaluative entity. Among the academics of the discipline, the figure of Alfonso-Javier Fernández-del-Moral, professor at the UCM, stands out, with two theses supervised and seven evaluation panels (five presidencies, a secretariat and a membership). Although there are no gender differences in terms of their origin, it is evident both in the management and in the tribunals, where men take especial presence. There is also the almost inexistent connection between advisers and members of the boards, and among the boards themselves. For future research work in this field, it would be interesting to delve into the main sources cited in these theses or to analyse the methodologies and tools most commonly used in them.Keywords: scientific communication, internal communication, scientific dissemination, internal public relations, doctoral thesis, gender. 
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • La formación universitaria española sobre organización de eventos:
           retos del sector / Spanish university training in events managment:
           challenges of the sector

    • Authors: Elena Borau-Boira
      Abstract: Las transformaciones que el sector comunicativo está experimentando en los últimos años ponen de manifiesto necesidades formativas que el mercado laboral demanda. La digitalización de los contenidos, el cambio de la relación marca-consumidor o la organización de eventos son sectores especialmente necesitados de nuevos perfiles profesionales. Los eventos como espacios singulares que ofrecen un valor añadido transformados por la presencia digital en medios sociales, la contribución de influencers, la utilización de apps, el uso del streaming o la gamificación, es uno de los sectores con mayores necesidades. En este sentido el objetivo del trabajo que aquí se presenta es realizar un estudio exploratorio descriptivo de las titulaciones que actualmente ofrecen estos estudios en las universidades españolas. Se lleva a cabo una metodología mixta cuantitativa-cualitativa y un análisis de contenido como técnica de estudio de la muestra analizada: todas las titulaciones de posgrado y grado relacionadas con la Organización de Eventos publicadas en RUCT (Registro de Universidades, Centros y Títulos). Entre otros resultados concluyentes, la investigación refleja la tímida apuesta que la universidad española hace por la formación en un sector que en este país mueve grandes cifras y puestos de trabajo, así como cierta carencia en cuanto a la incorporación de perfiles emergentes adaptados a la evolución del sector.Palabras clave: Organización de eventos, universidad, grado, máster, retos, perfil del egresado. Abstract The events sector moves around 6,900 million euros a year, and provides jobs for thousands of professionals. The digitization of our era has transformed the way we communicate and, therefore, the way events are organized, presented and disseminated. On the other hand, the transformations that the communication sector has undergone in recent years highlight the training needs that the labor market demands. The digitization of content, the change in the brand-consumer relationship or the organization of events are sectors that are especially in need of new professional profiles. Events as unique spaces that offer added value transformed by the digital presence in social media, the contribution of influencers, the use of apps, the use of streaming or gamification, are some of the tools that need this update in training. The management of good digital communication in events allows, among other things, to identify experts and prescribers, create a community around the event, broadcast live activities, virtual networking, create an online debate before, during and after the event, etc. Therefore, future event organizers should have a multidisciplinary training and with very defined skills such as knowledge of new 2.0 technologies, versatility and adaptability, as well as creative and strategic capacity. In fact, not all actions communicate by themselves, they must be accompanied by quality actions and commitments. The need for new professional profiles in the different areas of communication is a reality pointed out and studied both from the institutional and academic spheres. The objective of the work presented here is to carry out a descriptive exploratory study of the degrees currently offered by these studies in Spanish universities, to check whether they respond to the training needs demanded by the sector at present. The methodological approach used to address the study presented is qualitative-quantitative, specifically using content analysis as an ideal technique in social science studies related to communication. A mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology and a content analysis are carried out as a study technique of the analyzed sample: all postgraduate and undergraduate degrees related to the Organization of Events published in RUCT (Registry of Universities, Centers and Titles). In the first term, the more formal aspects of the sample degrees are analyzed, both in master's degrees and in degrees, to establish their basic characteristics in analysis files that collected the following qualitative variables: name of the university, type of degree. Second, a content analysis of the study plans of the selected postgraduates is carried out, using the information hosted on the web pages of each university as a source of access. Among other conclusive results, the research reflects the timid bet that the Spanish university makes for training in a sector that moves a large number and jobs in Spain. Especially in the public university, since only one university offers a postgraduate degree in this area, compared to the six offered by the private university. Likewise, it is found that professional careers change according to work scenarios, and a certain lack of incorporation of emerging profiles into the evolution of the sector is observed, so a more precise interrelation between profile-task / function-specialization should be established. Keywords: Events management, university, postgraduate degree, bachelor´s degree, challenges, graduate profile.
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Ethos, imagem e reputação organizacional nas redes sociais digitais: o
           discurso audiovisual da Rede Globo no YouTube / Ethos, image and
           organizational reputation in digital media: the Rede Globo's
           audiovisual discourse on YouTube

    • Authors: Marcelo Pereira da Silva, Jéssica de Cássia Rossi, Ana Carolina Trindade
      Abstract: A sociedade, os países, os sujeitos e as organizações atravessam um momento atípico na história por causa da pandemia de Covid-19, a qual coloca em relevo a necessidade de se proporem, estrategicamente, saídas locais, regionais e planetárias para fenômenos que afetam a saúde e a economia. Neste contexto, a comunicação das organizações é impulsionada pela frenética circulação de conteúdos e sentidos disseminados pelas redes sociais digitais, fenômeno que mudou – e continua mudando – os modos de subjetivação, conversação e trocas sociais, já que eleva à infinidade os atores, as partilhas e as conexões. Este ambiente constitui um território favorável para a construção de relacionamentos, mas, também, fomenta conflitos e crises de reputação que podem envolver pessoas, governos, instituições, marcas e organizações. Este cenário reforça a atividade de Relações Públicas como verdadeiro sine qua non, pois discursos e estratégias mal planejados podem desencadear reações negativas quando produzidos em um tempo de acentuada sensibilidade social. À luz destas considerações, o objetivo deste artigo reside em analisar, discursivamente, com base na noção de ethos, duas enunciações audiovisuais da Rede Globo veiculadas em seu canal oficial do Youtube, em julho de 2020, intituladas: “Globo – Qualidade também é respeito” e “Globo – Qualidade também é brasilidade”. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados foram a pesquisa bibliográfica,problematizando temas como redes sociais digitais, relações públicas, identidade, imagem, reputação e organizações, e princípios da análise de discurso, discutindo a produção de efeitos de sentido em imagens de si (ethos) que podem produzir dissonância cognitiva. Debruçamo-nos em pesquisas realizadas e disponibilizadas pela consultoria em Relações Públicas Edelman para compreender a confiança dos cidadãos na mídia brasileira, as quais demonstram que mais da metade dos entrevistados desconfiam dos meios de comunicação de massa. Inferimos que questões éticas, de honestidade e de verdade se tornam fulcrais para a reputação em virtude da aceleração dos processos de midiatização, marcados pela interatividade, pela participação e pelos embates, lançando as organizações em um oceano de vulnerabilidade caracterizado por elogios, boicotes e cancelamentos que colocam como imperativo a gestão estratégica das relações públicas diante das reverberações e conversações negativas de imagem e reputação de organizações nas redes sociais da Internet.Palavras-chave: Comunicação organizacional, Reputação, Redes sociais digitais, Ethos, Rede Globo.AbstractSociety, countries, chaps and organizations are going through an atypical moment in history because of the Covid-19 pandemic, which highlights the need to strategically propose local, regional and planetary solutions for phenomena that affect the health and the economy. In this context, the communication of organizations is driven by the frenetic circulation of content and meanings disseminated by digital media, a phenomenon that has changed - and continues to change - the modes of subjectivation, conversation and sociability, as it elevates the actors, the shares to infinity and the connections. This challenging environment constitutes a favorable territory for building relationships, but also foments of conflicts and reputational crises that may involve people, governments, institutions, brands, organizations, etc. Hence, the current scenario shows that the production of information and the building of relationships through digital media reflect on identity, image and reputation. We highlight the existence of a fine line that can become unfavorable through controversial and contradictory communicative actions, given that the contents are disseminated and subject to all kinds of evaluation by the “inhabitants” of the online ecosystem. The organizational performance must align ethical, transparent and coherent principles with corporate and public objectives, as well as paying attention to the rapid changes on the contemporary society. The monitoring of communication becomes a fundamental tool so that, given the fast connections made possible by the development of digital technologies and media, organizations can prevent and manage possible crises and conflicts. These theoretical-pragmatic scenario reinforce the nature of the Public Relations activity as a true sine qua non, as poorly planned speeches and strategies can trigger negative reactions when produced in a time of heightened social sensitivity. In conclusion, the scenario also points to challenges related to the surveillance of citizens, which cover issues related to security, integrity and privacy. Thus, the objective of this article is to analyze, discursively, based on the notion of ethos, two audiovisual utterances from Rede Globo de Televisão on its official Youtube channel, in July 2020, entitled: “Globo – Qualidade também é respeito” and “Globo – Qualidade também é brasilidade”. The methodological procedures correspond to bibliographic research, discussing themes such as d...
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Ambiências digitais como lugares de visibilidade/invisibilidade das
           organizações na gestão das crises / Digital environments as places of
           visibility/invisibility for organizations in crisis management

    • Authors: Cleusa Maria Andrade Scroferneker, Diego Silva, Lidiane Amorim, Rosângela Florczak de Oliveira
      Abstract: No presente artigo discutimos sobre o processo de gestão de crise nas organizações e o respectivo ‘lugar/não-lugar’ da comunicação nesse contexto, considerando que as ambiências digitais (re) definem as relações nos/dos espaços organizacionais e que nestes espaços as organizações transitam entre estratégias de visibilidade e de invisibilidade. Recorremos, no espaço teórico, ao pensamento complexo (Morin, 2008, 2015), articulando, entre os autores, as contribuições de Augé (2017), Bauman (2016), Forni (2013) e Wolton (2010). Em termos empíricos, partimos da observação de duas crises ocorridas no Brasil envolvendo a Mineradora Vale S.A. (Brumadinho e Mariana). As dimensões qualitativa e exploratória (Gil, 2021) caracterizam a natureza do trabalho. Os resultados indicam que há uma (des/re) territorialização na/da comunicação nessas ambiências, ao longo desses acontecimentos, potencializando não-lugares (Augé, 2017) e a ausência de diálogos. Conforme ressalta Santaella (2010), ambiências digitais, como as mídias sociais, incrementam sobremaneira as relações coletivas que fundamentam as organizações, propõem agenciamentos e hibridações, territorialidades fluidas e ‘sublevações temporárias’, marchas deslocativas pelas diferenças, “para comunicar outras visões e ideias que as ideologias exclusivas e as verdades absolutas, fechadas sobre si mesmas como as cidades muradas, não contém” (Santaella, 2010: 280). Por outro lado, esse mesmo fascínio diante dessa realidade midiatizada, por vezes ofuscam movimentos de invisibilidade, silenciamento, ocultação e esvaziamento de relações e interações. Os casos da Vale S.A. também evidenciam a diluição de fronteiras e territórios comunicacionais, que fazem com que os desdobramentos das crises transbordem os locais geográficos nos quais os eventos críticos acontecem. Se a era digital tem como um de seus traços a ubiquidade (Santaella, 2010), acreditamos que os efeitos das crises também se tornam ‘ubíquos’, ou seja, estão por toda a parte e reconfiguram por completo as noções de impacto e alcance. Nesse contexto, as tentativas de invisibilizar aspectos da crise tornam-se insuficientes.Palavras-chave: comunicação organizacional; gestão de crise; ambiências digitais; diálogo dialógico.AbstractThe digital environments (re) defines the relationships in/of organizational spaces. We realize that in these spaces as associations they move between visibility and invisibility strategy, considering opportunities and risks that involve them recursively. In this scenario, we discuss possible places/non-places for organizational communication in digital environments and reflect on the crisis management process in associations and the respective 'place' of communication. We start from the assumption that the associations are immersed in a scenario of uncertainty (Morin, 2008) and hypervisibility in which the ordinary daily life becomes, increasingly, transparent and absent of borders for the social environment. With this, the critical hypothesis, which are conventionally called ‘crisis’, become the new common (Bauman, 2016). And it is precisely in times of crisis that communication gains centrality, because “without effective, transparent, timely communication, it becomes much more difficult to control the crisis” (Forni, 2013: 289). We resort to complex thinking (Morin, 2008) and, in empirical terms, to the observation of two crisis that occurred in Brazil involving a mining company, Vale S.A. (Brumadinho and Mariana). To reflect on the (non) place of communication in crisis situations, in the light of the analysis of the cases mentioned, we are anchored in the anthropological conception of place and not place proposed by Augé (2010, 2012). The results indicate that there is a (de/re) territorialization in/of communication in these environments, over the course of events, potentiating non-places (Augé, 2017) and the absence of dialogues. There is a potential for hierarchical communication to give rise to dialogical dialogue (Sennett, 2012), which is not always understood, comfortable and experienced by organizations. Such scenarios, fluid and accelerated, demand openness to horizontal and more egalitarian communication to the detriment of hierarchical, vertical, centralized and centralizing communication. As Santaella (2010) points out, digital environments, such as social media, greatly increase the collective relationships that underlie organizations, propose agency and hybridization, fluid territorialities and 'temporary upheavals', displacement marches through differences, “to communicate other visions and ideas that exclusive ideologies and absolute truths, closed in on themselves like walled cities, do not contain” (Santaella, 2010: 280). On the other hand, that same fascination and seduction in the face of the possibilities arising from this mediatized reality, sometimes overshadow movements of invisibility, silencing and emptying of relationships and interactions. Vale S.A.'s cases also show the dilution of borders and communicational territories, in the midst of mediatized contexts, which cause the unfolding of crises to overflow the geographic locations where critical events take place. If the digital age has ubiquity as one of its features, in which borders between private and public life, between inside and outside, between here and there (Santaella, 2010), we believe that the effects of crisis also become 'ubiquitous'...
      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
  • Reseña del libro Fake News: La verdad de las noticias falsas / Book
           Review Fake News: The Truth of Fake News

    • Authors: Rafael Alexandre Coelho da Silva
      Abstract: Fake News: la verdad de las noticias falsas, libro escrito por el periodista español Marc Amorós García, trae una interesante visión introductoria acerca de uno de los mayores e interesantes retos de la comunicación en la actualidad. El autor es graduado en periodismo por la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona e impartió clases en centros universitarios como ESERP Business School e IDEC-UPF, además de ser guionista y director en radio y televisión.La obra de García -dividida en cinco partes y 39 capítulos- intenta, por medio de un lenguaje “lúdico” y de fácil compresión, introducir el lector a una temática altamente compleja de una forma leve y llena de ejemplos. En la primera parte, compuesta por 12 capítulos el autor hace una presentación del tema y levanta algunos cuestionamientos importantes que serán respondidos a la continuación del libro.AbstractFake News: the truth of fake news, a book written by Spanish journalist Marc Amorós García, provides an interesting introductory view of one of the biggest and most interesting challenges in communication today. The author is a graduate in journalism from the Autonomous University of Barcelona and has taught at universities such as ESERP Business School and IDEC-UPF, as well as being a scriptwriter and director in radio and television. García's work - divided into five parts and 39 chapters - attempts, by means of a "playful" and easy-to-understand language, to introduce the reader to a highly complex subject matter in a light-hearted manner and full of examples. In the first part, composed of 12 chapters, the author presents the subject and raises some important questions that will be answered in the following chapters of the book. 

      PubDate: 2021-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2021)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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