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Biosystems Diversity
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ISSN (Print) 2519-8513 - ISSN (Online) 2520-2529
Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Geographical distribution and spatio-temporal changes in the occurrence of
           invasive plant species in Slovak Republic

    • Authors: L. Wittlinger, L. Petrikovičová, F. Petrovič, J. Petrikovič
      Pages: 105 - 118
      Abstract: Biological systems are subject to a dramatic increase in invading species in the 21st century due to increasing globalization around the world. In the near future, these species will cause more extensive ecological as well as socio-economic damage. Biotic invasions will result not only in a reduction of the original biodiversity, but also total loss, particularly degradation of natural habitats – especially Natura 2000 habitats. This study aims to understand the processes of spread of invasive plant species, their way of life, adaptation to environmental changes and displacement of native species. Without the local level, it is not possible to understand these processes on the regional and continental dimensions and thus implement scientific facts and findings into the prediction of the development of global biosystems. The research was conducted during the vegetation period in the years 2017–2021 in the studied areas of non-forest and forest habitats in the central part of Slovakia. We recorded 242 localities in the area with the occurrence of invasive plant species in an area of 3.057 km2 out of the total mapped area of 169.024 km2. We recorded the highest number of localities and the most expansive distribution for the species Stenactis annua, Robinia pseudoacacia, Solidago canadensis, Impatiens glandulifera and Fallopia japonica.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.15421/012211
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Polyphyly of the genus Stenurella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae): Consensus of
           morphological and molecular data

    • Authors: A. M. Zamoroka, S. Trócoli, V. Y. Shparyk, D. V. Semaniuk
      Pages: 119 - 136
      Abstract: Stenurella genus is represented by nine small-sized and widely distributed Palaearctic species. Representatives of the genus play a key role in the pollination of wild angiosperms, accelerate the detritus cycle and make a significant contribution to the forest food web. A number of species with heterogeneous morphological features found within the single Stenurella genus indicate the need for revision of the taxonomy this genus. The previous attempt to resolve the intrageneric composition of Stenurella was rather artificial because it did not take into an account evolutionary relationships. In this study we tested the existing model of Stenurella intrageneric subdivision using both morphological and molecular approaches. Our results showed that the genus Stenurella is polyphyletic and consists of two unrelated clades. The first clade comprises six species (S. jaegeri, S. novercalis, S. bifasciata, S. melanura, S. hybridula and S. approximans) and the second includes three species (S. septempunctata, S. vaucheri and S. nigra). Moreover, we found that the second clade is closely related to Rutpela due to both morphological and molecular phylogeny. Based on our findings, we revised the present structure of the genus Stenurella and transferred three species of the second clade to the genus Rutpela, sensu novo. The genus Rutpela was redescribed in the light of our results. Furthermore, we subdivided the genus Stenurella, sensu nov. into two subgenera, Stenurella, subgen. sensu nov. and Priscostenurella, subgen. sensu nov., respectively. Also, the genus Rutpela, sensu nov. was subdivided into four subgenera including Nigrostenurella, Rutpela, Eduardvivesia, subgen. nov. and Nigromacularia, subgen. nov. The assessment of the place of Stenurella, sensu novo and Rutpela, sensu novo within Lepturini based on molecular phylogeny, showed that Stenurella, sensu novo belongs to the Anoplodera-branch and Rutpela, sensu novo nested within the Leptura-branch. These together with morphological features confirmed our idea of the evolutionary distinctiveness of Stenurella, sensu novo and Rutpela, sensu novo. We assumed that the general external morphological similarity of Stenurella, sensu novo and Rutpela, sensu novo was the result of convergent evolution, driven by mimetic selection toward imitation of ants or wasps. Finally, our study establishes a natural phylogenetic taxonomy of Stenurella.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.15421/012212
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Life cycle of Bilharziella polonica (Trematoda, Schistosomatidae) parasite
           of semi-aquatic birds in Uzbekistan

    • Authors: F. Akramova, U. Shakarbaev, Z. Yorkulov, I. Arepbaev, A. Mirzaeva, D. Azimov
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Schistosomatidae are an actively studied ecological group of trematodes. Their ability to cause various parasitic diseases in animals and humans makes them an interesting object of study for a number of research centres worldwide. One of the commonest species in this group is Bilharziella polonica (Kowalewsky, 1895), whose mature stages have been recorded in aquatic and semi-aquatic birds in Uzbekistan. Our research team established that the following birds were infected with mature trematodes B. polonica: Anas platyrhynchos (23%), A. crecca (18%), Podiceps ruficollis (11%), Ardea cinerea (14%) and one individual of Oxyura leucocephala. The highest infection rate was shown by the mallard A. platyrhynchos (23%) and common teal A. crecca (18%). The infection intensity ranged between 2 and 27 individuals. Research into various types of water bodies in Karakalpakstan identified 10 mollusc species – Lymnaeidae (4 species), Planorbidae (4 species) and Physidae (2 species). Cercariae morphologically similar to larvae of B. polonica were found in two species, Planorbis planorbis and P. tangitarensis. 6 chicks of domestic ducks were experimentally infected with those cercariae to track the life cycle of B. polonica in the organism of a definitive host. Helmintholological dissections showed that every duck was infected with B. polonica, which became mature 23–27 days after the infection. Eggs of B. polonica were recorded in the excrement of one of the birds 33–35 days after the infection. Based on field and experimental research, we identify the mollusc P. tangitarensis as a new intermediate host for B. polonica in Uzbekistan.
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.15421/012213
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • The quantitative composition of micromycetes under cereal crops in
           chernozem soils in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine

    • Authors: I. V. Beznosko, T. M. Gorgan, I. I. Mosiychuk, L. V. Havruliuk, O. I. Buniak
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: Soil microorganisms are an important component of agrocenoses, which due to physiological and genetic features respond quickly to changes in the quality of the soil environment. Each plant in the rhizosphere forms a specific composition of the microflora which depends on the phase of plant development and soil-climatic conditions. The objective of our study was the quantitative composition of ecological and trophic groups of rhizosphere soil micromycetes of different crops in chernozem soils in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. According to the results of research, it was determined that the rhizosphere soil under different crops – winter wheat, rye and oats in Chernihiv region – is characterized by the largest number of pedotrophic micromycetes. This indicates that the soil contains a sufficient amount of organic matter. The rhizosphere soils under winter wheat and spring barley in Kiev region were characterized by a larger number of pathogenic micromycetes and amylolytic and cellulolytic ecological-trophic groups. This indicates the intensive use of plant protection products. The rhizosphere soil under onions in experimental fields in Kharkiv region was characterized by a high number of the cellulolytic group. This indicates the presence of cellulose-destroying microorganisms. According to the results of statistical analysis, it was found that the number of micromycetes in the rhizosphere soil of the studied varieties of crops was in direct correlation with the value of the hydrothermal coefficient (НTC) in the vegetation period. Weather conditions during the research vegetation period differed by agrometeorological indicators. The characteristic feature was a contrast of differences in air temperature and unequal distribution of rainfall, which affected the composition of the soil mycobiocenosis. The vegetation period of 2021 in Kyiv region was characterized by a sufficiently moist hydrothermal coefficient which increased to1.81 while in Chernihiv, Kharkiv regions drought prevailed, but in some months the HTC increased to 1.32–1.54. It has been shown that the higher the HTC, the greater the number of micromycetes in all study regions.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.15421/012214
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Morphogenesis, pigment content, phytohormones and yield of tomatoes under
           the action of gibberellin and tebuconazole

    • Authors: V. V. Rogach, V. G. Kuryata, I. V. Kosakivska, L. V. Voitenko, M. M. Shcherbatyuk, T. I. Rogach
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: One of the main tasks of contemporary plant physiology is regulation of growth and development of cultivated plants in order to optimize the productive process. The scientific community focuses its attention on the use of natural activators and growth inhibitors. We investigated the effect of foliar treatment with 0.005% solution of gibberellic acid and 0.025% solution of the anti-gibberellic preparation tebuconazole on morphogenesis, leaf mesostructure, content of photosynthetic pigments, balance of endogenous phytobrybrides and lymphocyte B and productivity of tomatoes. The vegetation experiment was carried out in the conditions of soil-sand culture in vessels with a 10-liter volume. The treatment was carried out in the budding phase. Morphometric parameters were measured every 10 days. The mesostructure of the middle tier leaves was studied in the fruit formation phase, and the chlorophyll content was determined in the raw material by spectrophotometric method. Analytical determination of endogenous phytohormones – indolyl-3-acetic (IAA), gibberellic acid and abscisic (ABA) acids and cytokinins – zeatin (Z), zeatin-O-glucoside (ZG), zeatinribozide (Znila) and isopentenyladenosine (iPA) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). With gibberellic acid treatment plant height increased significantly, while with tebuconazole it decreased. Gibberellic acid increased the number of leaves per plant, and tebuconazole did not change it. The preparations increased the number of leaf blades per leaf, the total number of leaf blades per plant, the weight of the raw material of leaves, the area of leaf blades and the area of the leaves at the end of the study period. The dry matter weight of stems and roots under the action of gibberellic acid increased, and during the treatment of tebuconazole decreased. Gibberellic acid increased the dry matter of the whole plant, and tebuconazole did not change it. Under the action of tebuconazole the content of chlorophyll in the leaves increased, while under the action of gibberellic acid it decreased. Both regulators increased the volume of columnar parenchyma cells. Gibberellic acid increased the size of spongy parenchyma cells, while tebuconazole did not change them. It is revealed that the action of exogenous gibberellic acid in stems and leaves increased the content of endogenous IAA and gibberellic acid, and tebuconazole decreased their content. The ABA content in stems and leaves increased with tebuconazole treatments and decreased with exogenous gibberellic acid. The total cytokinin content in the leaves was higher than in the stems in both the control and the experiment samples. Growth regulators induced an increase in the cytokinin pool in leaves and a decrease in stems. Gibberellic acid increased the content of all five forms of cytokinins in the leaves, and tebuconazole increased only two isoforms. In the stems under the action of both growth regulators the content of Z decreased and iP increased. The content of ZR and iPA in stems increased after the application of the retardant and decreased under the action of growth stimulant. The ZG content exceeded the control after gibberellic acid treatment and was in trace concentrations under the action of tebuconazole. Growth regulators optimized the productivity of tomato plants: under the action of gibberellic acid there was a considerable increase in the number of fruits per plant, and after the use of tebuconazole the average weight of one fruit significantly increased. The obtained results demonstrated that anatomical-morphological and structural-functional rearrangements in tomato plants under the action of exogenous gibberellic acid and tebuconazole occurred against the background of changes in the balance and distribution of endogenous hormones. Increased photosynthetic activity, stimulation of growth processes of some plant organs and inhibition of others increased the biological crop capacity.
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.15421/012215
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • New finds of naked amoebae

    • Authors: M. K. Patsyuk
      Pages: 157 - 162
      Abstract: Findings of naked amoebae in various habitats of Ukraine and other territories are presented. Saccamoeba sp., Thecamoeba similis (Greeff, 1891) Lepşi, 1960, Vexillifera bacillipedes Page, 1969, Vannella lata Page, 1988, Acanthamoeba sp., Willaertia magna De Jonckheere, Dive, Pussard & Vickerman, 1984 were identified based on morphological data and molecular genetic research methods. All these species of amoebae are characterized according to our own observations and measurements and the published data. The amoebae we found belong to three classes (Tubulinea, Discosea, Heterolobosea), six orders (Euamoebida, Thecamoebida, Dactylopodida, Vannellida, Centramoebida, Schizopyrenida), six families (Hartmannellidae, Thecamoebidae, Vexilliferidae, Vannellidae, Acanthamoebidae, Vahlkampfiidae) and six genera (Saccamoeba, Thecamoeba, Vexillifera, Vannella, Acanthamoeba, Willaertia). W. magna was the least common in water bodies of different regions of Ukraine; Saccamoeba sp., V. bacillipedes in the studied water bodies are either uncommon species or occupy the middle position in terms of frequency of occurrence In the water bodies of Ukraine T. similis, V. lata, Acanthamoeba sp. are both the least common and the most common species, or occupy the middle position in terms of frequency of occurrence. The following ecological groups of naked amoebae have been identified in relation to temperature: eurythermal, psychrophilic stenothermal, thermophilic stenothermal. In relation to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water: euryoxidic and stenooxidic. Three species of amoebae can withstand either a wide range of values of organic substances dissolved in water, or belong to stenobiont species. The recorded amoebae belong to monotactic (Saccamoeba sp.), striate (T. similis), dactylopodial (V. bacillipedes), fan-shaped (V. lata), acanthopodial (Acanthamoeba sp.) and eruptive (W. magna) morphotypes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.15421/012216
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Depositing capacity of winter wheat stem segments under natural drought
           during grain filling in Ukrainian forest steppe conditions

    • Authors: V. V. Morgun, M. V. Tarasiuk, G. О. Priadkina, О. О. Stasik
      Pages: 163 - 172
      Abstract: Drought is a major abiotic factor adversely affecting wheat productivity. Water deficit reduces significantly photosynthesis and hence the remobilization of stored assimilate reserves from the stem becomes important sources for grain filling. We assessed the ability of different stem internodes and leaf sheaths to deposit and remobilize reserve assimilates as well as their role in grain yield formation in 6 winter wheat varieties under drought conditions during the period of grain filling. The dry weight and content of water-soluble carbohydrates in the dry matter of stem internodes and leaf sheaths of the main shoot was determined at anthesis, the beginning of milk ripeness and full grain ripeness. The total amount of water-soluble carbohydrates in stem segments was calculated as the product of their specific content in the dry matter of the stem segment and its mass. The amount of remobilized dry matter and water-soluble carbohydrates for each segment was estimated as the difference between the appropriate values at anthesis or milk ripeness and full ripeness. The maximum accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates in the stem was reached at early milk ripeness. The most productive varieties Kyivska 17 and Horodnytsia had the largest amount of remobilized water-soluble carbohydrates in all internodes. Depositing capacity of the second and third (counting from the top) internodes was higher compared to others and has a significant effect on the grain productivity of wheat varieties studied. Despite significant variability and strong genotype x year interaction of the relationships between depositing capacity traits of different stem segments and grain productivity, mainly tight correlations were found for dry matter and total water-soluble carbohydrates accumulation and remobilization in second and third internodes with yield and grain weight per spike. The obtained data suggests that the remobilization of deposited water-soluble carbohydrates is an important factor contributing to the filling of winter wheat grain in arid conditions and more detailed studies of relationships of depositing capacity of individual stem segments with yield can be useful for development of breeding tools for further genetic yield improvement.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.15421/012217
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Endoparasites of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) in Southern

    • Authors: M. V. Bogach, A. P. Paliy, O. O. Horobei, L. V. Perotska, V. Y. Kushnir, D. M. Bohach
      Pages: 173 - 178
      Abstract: One of the main tasks of ecological parasitology at the present stage is to establish patterns of spread of invasive diseases of animals in the environment through a thorough epidemiological examination, as well as to determine the main directions and factors of spread of parasites in Ukraine. Among the many pathogens, endoparasites play a major role in a number of diseases in rabbits with increased morbidity and mortality. In the body of both wild and domestic rabbits several species of parasites that form a parasitocenosis can be localized. The latter have a pathogenic effect on organs and tissues, leading to reduced weight gain, premature slaughter and even mortality. The prevalence of endoparasitoses was studied in weaned rabbits 60 days of age, 120 days of age at fattening, 180 days of age – mating age and adults of 320 days of age to determine the extensiveness and intensity of the dominant invasion. A total of 720 head was studied, 180 animals from each age group. Three species of nematodes were recorded in the rabbits: Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800), Nematodirus leporis (Ransom, 1907) and Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819); the cestode Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780); three species of Emeria: Eimeria stiedae (Lindermann, 1865), which parasitizes in the bile ducts of the liver and gallbladder, E. magna (Perard, 1925) and E. media (Kessel, 1929) – in the epithelial cells of the intestine. The prevalence of the infestation depends on the age of the animals. According to the data obtained, eimeriosis was one of the main parasitic diseases of the rabbits. Dominant invasions of Eimeria in the intestines of 60-day-old rabbits were found in the studied animals, their extensiveness reached 19.4%, while the spread of hepatic Eimeria was registered in 13.3% of the examined rabbits. The total infestation of weaned rabbits with helminths was 22.2%, in rabbits for fattening – 26.7%, and in rabbits of mating age and adults – 20.0% and 20.6%, respectively. Global climate change will change the distribution and dynamics of soil-borne helminthiases, but host immunity may also affect host-parasite interactions. Subsequent studies will be aimed at elucidating the effect of mono and mixed invasions on the body of rabbits. Updated data on helminthiasis will expand the screening strategy to maintain rabbit health and reduce economic losses.
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.15421/012218
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Application of remote sensing data for monitoring eutrophication of
           floodplain water bodies

    • Authors: E. V. Fedonenko, O. M. Kunakh, Y. A. Chubchenko, O. V. Zhukov
      Pages: 179 - 190
      Abstract: The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of structural features of the floodplain water network on the spatial and temporal dynamics of chlorophyll-a concentration as an indicator of eutrophication. The research was conducted in the waters of the “Dnipro-Orilskiy” Nature Reserve. The geographic information base with polygonal objects which represented water bodies of the reserve was created on the basis of detailed geographical maps and the high resolution space images. The water bodies were characterized using such parameters as the distance of the water body centroid from the nearest shore of the Dnipro River, the area of the water body, the order of the water body and the connectivity of the water body. Chlorophyll-а concentration was estimated based on the surface algal bloom index. The information was obtained about 148 water bodies, 141 of which are water bodies in the floodplain of the Dnipro River. The area of floodplain water bodies within the reserve was 3.28 million m2. The area of floodplain water bodies ranged from 300–232,500 m2. Trophic State Index allows us to estimate the trophic level of Dnipro River waters as mesotrophic, water bodies of first and second order as eutrophic, and water bodies of third and fourth order as hypereutrophic. The dynamics of chlorophyll-a content in water followed the seasonal course of temperatures. The concentration was lowest in the cold period of the year and reached its maximum in the second half of summer. The autumn decrease occurred at the end of September. The seasonal course of air temperature was superimposed on the peculiarities of the temperature regime of a particular water body, which depended on its depth and flow rate. The time, water body area, distance from the Dnipro River channel, connectivity and order of water bodies were the statistically significant predictors of chlorophyll concentration in water and were able to explain 85% of the variation of this indicator. The increase in chlorophyll-a concentration with increasing order of a water body is due to a decrease in the intensity of water exchange and a decrease in the depth of water bodies of higher order. An increase in the order of a water body is accompanied by a branching network of water bodies, the ability of water bodies to clear sediments decreases. Sediment accumulation leads to a decrease in their depth. Warming of shallow ponds and accumulation of organic matter in them are factors of intensive growth of blue-green algae. The evacuation of surplus organic matter, which results from mass vegetation development with excessive nutrient inputs, is a key driver of the eutrophic regime of water bodies. The increasing importance of regulatory processes develops in agreement with an increase in chlorophyll-a concentration in a water body. The importance of the considered factors reaches the highest level in summer time, when simultaneous maximum warming of water bodies and minimum water level in them take place. Accordingly, the differences between deep and relatively cool water bodies and shallow water bodies that warm up quickly, which significantly stimulates the growth of organic mass, reach the greatest contrast. The spatial patterns of variation in chlorophyll-a concentration have a complex multiscale structure, indicating the multiple nature of the acting factors. The spatial variability was represented as a composition of broad-scale and medium-scale spatial processes. The broad-scale process is most dependent on connectivity, whereas for the medium-scale process the leading one is the effect of water body order.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.15421/012219
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Influence of air temperature and humidity on Stratiolaelaps scimitus
           (Acari, Mesostigmata) locomotor activity in a laboratory experiment

    • Authors: V. S. Moshkin, V. V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley, 1956) (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) is a predatory soil mite massively produced in laboratories in many countries of the world. The existing spheres of S. scimitus application vary in many parameters, especially temperature and relative humidity. In this article, we analyzed temperature and humidity appropriate for fastest spread of soil predatory mite S. scimitus. Mites should be released to a new environment in such a way that they would distribute in a greenhouse, garden or field as fast as they can (i.e. providing maximum migration activity of S. scimitus), on the one hand, and provide maximum efficient control of number of target phytophage species (i.e. providing maximum trophic activity), on the other hand. In our experiment, at 14 ºC temperature, most specimens of S. scimitus did not leave the migratory circle for 10 seconds. In 15–19 ºC range, only 14.7% of mites left the migratory circle, and their examined activity in 10 s was only 5–10 mm. In 20–24 ºC range, 27.5% of mites left the migratory circle, their migratory activity increased to 15–23 mm. In 25–33 ºC range, the moving activity increased even more, the mites left the migratory circle at the first opportunity that had (some even jumped off the circle to the experimental field), 95.8% of the mites left the circle in 10 s, their examined activity reached 25–60 mm in 10 seconds. Study of thermo- and hygro-preferences for various groups of invertebrates helps to better describe their ecological niche in multidimensional space of ecologic factors.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
      DOI: 10.15421/012220
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
  • Cenopopulation of Epipactis helleborine (Orchidaceae) in forest ecosystems
           that have been anthropogenically transformed to various degrees

    • Authors: O. P. Chornous
      Pages: 198 - 204
      Abstract: Because of developed symbiotic connections of the root system of trees, mycorrhiza-forming fungi and the orchid family Orchidaceae in forest ecosystems of the northeast Polissia Region – cultivated Pinus sylvestris, which are now 100–120 years old, recovery of cenopopulations of Epipactis helleborine has been observed in locations of mixed and broad-leaved forests. In natural plant cover of mature pines of the region, indigenous vegetation is gradually recovering – there occur young Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides of various ages, crown density of understory formed by Coryllus avellana has reached 0.6, above-ground organic leaf foliage that is able to sustain moisture and increase fertility of soil accumulates, creating sufficient conditions of shading for seedlings and juvenile individuals of forest orchids. Special studies revealed a relationship between density of E. helleborine specimens and crown density of the tree stand, shrub strata, structure of soil cover, expressed in cenoses under various degrees of recreational pressure. Density of individuals of forest orchids in the studied populations ranges 10.0 to 0.1 ind./10 m2. Dynamics were seen in groupings of Betuleto-Pineta corylosa, Querceta (roboris) corylosa, Querceto-Pineta corylosa, Acereto (platanoidis) –Tilieto (cordatae) – Quercetum (roboris) aegopodiosum in the territory of the nature-reserve fund and structurally similar anthropogenically pressurized cenoses. We determined that all examined cenopopulations in old indigenous zonal cenoses in the territory of the nature reserve fund are normal, they may be considered relatively stable, ontogenetic spectra are incomplete, mostly with right-sided age spectrum – maximum numbers of virgin and generative individuals of various stages. Low density of individuals and incomplete spectra of cenopopulations in light oak forests are natural, and now the largest share of generative and virgin individuals is concentrated in this area. Impact of recreation, unavoidable due to proximity to a road, is a negative factor directly decreasing their density. Ontogenetic spectra of all cenopopulations are incomplete – no seedlings were found in the natural conditions due to underground type of germination. Much more interesting data may be obtained by monitoring studies of age and morphometric dynamic changes during several years.
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.15421/012221
      Issue No: Vol. 30, No. 2 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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