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Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology, medicine
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2310-4155 - ISSN (Online) 2312-7295
Published by Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Storing and structuring big data in histological research (vertebrates)
           using a relational database in SQL

    • Authors: V. Langraf, R. Babosová, K. Petrovičová, J. Schlarmannová, V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 207 - 212
      Abstract: Database systems store data (big data) for various areas dealing with finance (banking, insurance) and are also an essential part of corporate firms. In the field of biology, however, not much attention has been paid to database systems, with the exception of genetics (RNA, DNA) and human protein. Therefore data storage and subsequent implementation is insufficient for this field. The current situation in the field of data use for the assessment of biological relationships and trends is conditioned by constantly changing requirements, while data stored in simple databases used in the field of biology cannot respond operatively to these changes. In the recent period, developments in technology in the field of histology caused an increase in biological information stored in databases with which database technology did not deal. We proposed a new database for histology with designed data types (data format) in database program Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio. In order that the information to support identification of biological trends and regularities is relevant, the data must be provided in real time and in the required format at the strategic, tactical and operational levels. We set the data type according to the needs of our database, we used numeric (smallint,numbers, float), text string (nvarchar, varchar) and date. To select, insert, modify and delete data, we used Structured Query Language (SQL), which is currently the most widely used language in relational databases. Our results represent a new database for information about histology, focusing on histological structures in systems of animals. The structure and relational relations of the histology database will help in analysis of big data, the objective of which was to find relations between histological structures in species and the diversity of habitats in which species live. In addition to big data, the successful estimation of biological relationships and trends also requires the rapid accuracy of scientists who derive key information from the data. A properly functioning database for meta-analyses, data warehousing, and data mining includes, in addition to technological aspects, planning, design, implementation, management, and implementation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Influence of derivatives of 2-((6-r-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid on
           rhizogenesis of Paulownia clones

    • Authors: M. Zavhorodnii, N. Derevianko, T. Shkopynska, M. Kornet, O. Brazhko
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: In recent years, the demand for effective and low-toxic stimulators of rhizogenesis, which are used in microclonal propagation of plants, has been increasing in Ukraine. One of the promising directions in the search for effective compounds is molecular modeling based on known natural and synthetic compounds. The development of new highly effective and low-toxic biologically active compounds is largely based on derivatives of nitrogen-containing heterocycles, and quinoline occupies a significant place among them. Modern methods of chemometric analysis make it possible to find certain regularities in the "chemical structure – biological activity" and to select the most promising compounds for experimental research. The values of lipophilicity log P for neutral forms and the value of the distribution coefficient log D at pH = 7 were obtained by quantum chemical calculation. The values of log P and log D of the studied compounds are in the most favourable interval for overcoming the biological membranes of the cells of the root system, depending on the pH of the environment. According to Lipinski’s "rule of five", all studied compounds can show high biological activity. The toxicity of compounds of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid derivatives was evaluated by computer programs and experimentally. Among the derivatives of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid, the most toxic compounds were those that did not have alkoxy substituents in the 6th position of the quinoline ring. Sodium salts are more toxic than the corresponding acids. This is due to an increase in the bioavailability of ionized compounds. Derivatives of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid (sodium salt of 2-((quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid (QAC-5) showed the greatest toxic effect on the model of the study of progressive sperm motility) and 2-((quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid (QAC-1), which will reduce this indicator by 15–20% compared to intact. The toxicity assessment of the studied compounds made it possible to determine a number of factors of the structure of molecules which affect the level of toxic action of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid derivatives and the directions of creation of non-toxic growth stimulants in this series. The impact on rhizogenesis during microclonal reproduction in vitro in explants Paulownia clone 112 and further adaptation of microplants in vivo hybrid molecules of quinoline and acetic acid, which are analogues of known growth stimulants, was studied. A number of factors influencing the level of influence on rhizogenesis of the action of derivatives of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4- yl)thio)acetic acid and directions of creation of highly active substances in this series was defined. The studied compounds showed a high stimulating effect on rhizogenesis in vitro in Paulownia explants. It was established that the sodium salt of 2-((quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid was the greatest stimulator of rhizogenesis compared to the corresponding original acid. The presence of alkoxy groups in the 6th position and methyl in the 2nd position of the quinoline ring of 2-((6-R-quinolin-4-yl)thio)acetic acid reduced the activity of the compounds. The selection of new effective, low-toxic, less expensive substances was carried out for further testing as potential stimulators of rhizogenesis for microclonal propagation of plants.
      PubDate: 2022-07-11
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Post-slaughter indicators of meat productivity and chemical composition of
           the muscular tissues of bulls receiving corrective diet with
           protein-vitamin premix

    • Authors: O. S. Yaremchuk, O. P. Razanova, O. I. Skoromna, R. A. Chudak, T. L. Holubenko, O. O. Kravchenko
      Pages: 219 - 224
      Abstract: The problem of increasing the production of beef to provide the population with domestically-produced meat is mainly being solved by selective breeding of dairy and combined breeds. Therefore, there is a need for the development and introduction of complex measures to increase meat productivity of young cattle, especially regarding the completeness of diet and optimal content of mineral elements in it. The study was conducted on bulls of the Ukrainian Black-Spotted Dairy breed starting from the age of 6 up to the age of 15 months. At the end of the experiment, the animals were slaughtered, 5 from each group. The study was aimed at determining the effect of the protein-vitamin premix Intermix Fattening on the slaughter parameters, morphological composition of carcass and flesh composition by quality grades, chemical composition of the muscle tissue. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that feeding bulls with the supplement increased pre-slaughter live weight by 7.1% and slaughter weight by 9.8%. After meat separation, more edible parts of carcass were obtained in the absolute value. The weight of paired carcass was 9.5% higher. Intake of the diet with protein-vitamin premix influenced the bulls’ characteristics of growth and development of musculature and bones, intensity of fat deposition, leading to 10.8% increase in flesh and no statistical decrease in the yield of bones compared with the carcass weight. Muscle-bone ratio equaled 4.27 in the control, and 4.56 in the experimental animals. Meatiness index of the young animals that had received the supplement with the diet was higher by 11.1%. Flesh of carcasses of bulls belonging to the experimental group had higher content of valuable grades of beef. We obtained 27.3% more flesh of the highest quality and 11.5% of the first-grade quality. In the muscle tissue and the longissimus of the bulls that had been consuming the premix, the concentration of dry matter was higher by 0.78%, and protein by 0.85%. Use of the Intermix protein-vitamin premix would lead to an increase in live weight of animals, and therefore significantly increase the yield of meat and improve the morphological composition of the bulls’ carcasses.
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Association of Fut1 and Slc11a1 gene polymorphisms with productivity
           traits of Large White pigs

    • Authors: V. V. Sukhno, P. A. Vashchenko, A. M. Saenko, O. M. Zhukorskyi, O. M. Tserenyuk, N. V. Kryhina
      Pages: 225 - 230
      Abstract: The purpose of our work was to study the polymorphism of genes associated with disease resistance and to search for their associations with productive traits in the population of the Ukrainian Large White pigs. For this study, 50 pigs were used, observations and measurements were carried out at the age from birth to 180 days. Genetic studies were carried out in a certified laboratory of the Institute of Pig Breeding and Agroindustrial Production. In the study of fucosyltransferase 1 and solute carrier family 11 member 1 genes, polymorphism was found in three of the five analyzed loci. In the Ukrainian Large White subpopulation of pigs the informativeness of these gene polymorphisms was at the optimal level for associative analysis, Polymorphism Information Content was greater than 0.3 in two loci. A sufficiently high level of Polymorphism Information Content indicates the value of this breed to preserve the biodiversity of pigs. The distribution of genotypes at some loci of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene was characterized by a deviation from the theoretically expected one due to the increase in the frequency of the heterozygous genotype. There was also a statistically confirmed deviation of the genotypes’ distribution from the normal and polymorphism fucosyltransferase 1 gene, but in this case in the direction of increasing the frequency of both homozygous variants. These results indicate the presence of a certain selection pressure on the mentioned polymorphisms and their possible impact on productive traits. The influence of solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphism on the weight of pigs at the age of 120 and 180 days, the average daily gain recorded in the period 28–120 days and from birth to 180 days, as well as on the backfat thickness, was established. The preferred genotype is TT, which can be used in breeding to obtain more productive animals with increased disease resistance, but in the selection of animals at this locus, it is necessary to control the backfat thickness and prevent breeding of pigs that may worsen this trait.
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Identification of acetolactate synthase resistant Amaranthus retroflexus
           in Ukraine

    • Authors: L. M. Mykhalska, V. V. Schwartau
      Pages: 231 - 240
      Abstract: The problem of weed resistance to herbicides has become very important in the last decade and threatens to dramatically reduce the productivity and profitability of modern crop production. Herbicides – ALS inhibitors dominate among current herbicides and are used annually on large areas of sunflower, wheat, corn, soybean, and rapeseed. Also, in recent years, Clearfield seeds of sunflower, corn, canola, soybean and wheat have been sown in large areas. In recent years, there has been a sharp decrease in Amaranthus retroflexus L. control levels by imidazolinone class herbicides. Thus, the effects of herbicides with different modes of action on the development of A. retroflexus on sunflower after imidazolinone application were investigated in field research. In the conditions of the Cherkasy region of Ukraine, the biotype A. retroflexus was identified, which is resistant to the post-emergence application of herbicides - acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors of the imidazolinone class – imazapyr and imazamox. Weed plants treated with imidazolinone derivatives in the maximum doses registered in Ukraine did not differ from untreated control plants. Also, in the conditions of field experiments, cross resistance of the weed biotype to herbicides – ALS inhibitors of the sulfonylurea class – foramsulfuron and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, thifensulfuron-methyl, tribenuron-methyl, nicosulfuron was established; and also, to the triazolinone derivative – thiencarbazone-methyl; to triazolpyrimidine derivatives – florasulam and flumetsulam. Multiple resistance of the A. retroflexus biotype to herbicides of the classes of glycine derivatives – glyphosate, phenoxycarboxylates – 2,4-D, benzoic acid – dicamba has not been established; compositions of dicamba with triketone – topramesone; diphenyl ethers – aclonifen; pyridine carboxylates – clopyralid, picloram and aminopyralid. It was shown for the first time that herbicide compositions with selected nutrients (ammonium pool) can increase the level of effectiveness of controlling resistant weed biotypes. Thus, the addition of ammonium sulfate increases the effectiveness of controlling ALS-resistant A. retroflexus with herbicides – a derivative of benzoic acid (dianate) and a derivative of benzoic acid with a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor (stellar – dicamba + topramesone). Thus, the A. retroflexus biotype resistant to ALS-herbicides of the imidazolinone class was identified for the first time in Ukraine, which is cross-resistant to other ALS-inhibitors of the sulfonylureas, triazolinones, and triazolpyrimidine classes. Multiple resistance of A. retroflexus to herbicides of the classes of glycine derivatives – glyphosate; phenoxycarboxylates – 2,4-D; benzoic acid – dicamba, triketones – topramesone; diphenyl ethers – aclonifen; pyridine carboxylates – clopyralid, picloram and aminopyralid has not been established. The identification of a highly harmful weed species resistant to widely used herbicides – ALS inhibitors in the central part of the "grain belt" of Ukraine requires a significant revision of the principles of crop rotation formation and ways of controlling weeds in the country in order to maintain high levels of profitability and productivity of agrophytocenoses.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Experimental study of tropism of cultivated canine parvovirus in the
           immunogenesis organs of puppies

    • Authors: M. Radzykhovskyi, I. Sokulskiy, O. Dyshkant, A. Antoniuk, B. Gutyj, R. Sachuk
      Pages: 241 - 246
      Abstract: The immune system unites the organs and the tissues that protect the organism against genetically alien cells or substances entering the organism from the environment. Canine parvovirus is an etiologic agent of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and causes a significant problem for veterinary medicine due to high level of morbidity and mortality, mostly among dogs, because of fast progression without immune-complement response. In this study, based on the results of our clinical, virological, histological, histochemical and morphological assays, we determined the pathogenetic role of parvovirus in sick dogs experimentally infected per os, specifically with isolated canine parvovirus (Antaeus) with titer of infectious activity equaling 3.80 ± 0.008 lg TCID50/cm, cultivated on heterological cell cultures. This allowed us to clarify, add to and generalize the data on the pathogenesis of the disease and determine pathohistological and histochemical changes in the immunogenesis, since the studied virus expresses immune-suppressive properties, leading to ruination of the locomotor ability of the organism and fast lethal outcome. The study of pathomorphological changes was carried out using pathoanatomical and histologic methods. Pathoanatomical material from the autopsy of puppies aged 45 days was fixed in 10% aqueous solution of neutral formaline and embedded in paraffin. Having parvoviral infection, dogs experience pathomorphologic changes in immune-complement organs, indicating inhibition of the immunogenesis function during an infectious disease of viral etiology. In the immunogenesis organs of puppies with the experimental reconstruction of parvoviral enteritis, we microscopically determined the following: edema of the cortex and medulla, disorganization of thymic corpuscules, and impairment of processes of differentiation of lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobules; edema and large areas of accumulation of hemosiderin in the spleen as a result of breakdown of large amount of erythrocytes; acute inflammatory hyperemia of the parenchyma, swelling of sinuses, serous and serous-hemorrhagic lymphadenitis in lymph nodes. The complex of histologic changes in the immune protection organs, which we found in the conditions of experimental reconstruction of parvoviral infection, can be considered a distinct criterion for pathomorphologic differentiation diagnostics of parvoviral enteritis in dogs.
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Influence of aromatic substances on locomotor activity of Deroceras
           agreste slugs

    • Authors: M. Remezok, T. M. Kolombar, O. V. Parhomenko, V. V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 247 - 256
      Abstract: The global climate changes are causing an increase in the number and harmfulness of slugs. Deroceras agreste (Linnaeus, 1758) (Stylommatophora, Agriolimacidae) is a polyphagous phytophage that damages over 150 species of plants, including many vegetables, cultivated berries and grasses. Other than decrease in yield, slugs cause deterioration of consumer qualities of the products, promote infections of plants, and are intermediate hosts of some parasites of mammals and birds. Thus, slugs impose great losses on agricultural farming, and therefore the objective of our study was determining the variability of locomotor activity of D. agreste slugs in reaction to aromatic substances. We determined repellent or attractive effects of those substances for the purpose of further using the obtained data for plant protection. We tested 52 substances and their mixtures, which were conditionally divided into the following groups: chemical solvents, plant extracts, aromatizers, organic acids and synthetic cosmetic additives. Only dimethyl sulfoxide could be identified as an attractant. All the rest of the substances increased the speed of the slugs to various degrees, but had no significant effect on the direction of the animals’ movement. Gasoline increased the speed of the slugs’ movement by 3.20 times, xylene by 4.56. The most effective organic acids and aromatizers to increase the moving speed of slugs were avobenzone and formic acid: the first caused a 2.83-fold increase in the moving speed, the other a 3.16-fold increase. Only one of 13 aromatic substances changed the direction of the slugs’ movement during the experiment – β-ionone. As with the plant extracts, the highest effect on locomotor activity of slugs was exerted by tree bark of Quillaja saponaria (3.64-fold) and Aesculus hippocastanum extract (4.33-fold). Furthermore, together with Capsicum frutescens, they changed the direction the mollusks were moving in, and therefore could be used as repellents. Synthetic cosmetic additives hydrolyzed silk and chrysalide oil exerted the greatest effects on the lcomotor activity of slugs (3.16 and 3.20 times, respectively). A total of 78.6% of the slugs moved away from chrysalide oil, and thus this oil may be suggested as a repellent, as well as mousse de babassu and cocamidopropyl betaine (84.6% and 78.6%, respectively). Therefore, a large amount of the tested substances to one or another extent made the slugs move faster, but most of them did not alter the direction in which the slugs were moving.
      PubDate: 2022-08-26
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Microflora of boxes for holding veterinary patients in clinics

    • Authors: M. M. Mocherniuk, M. D. Kukhtyn, Y. V. Horiuk, V. V. Horiuk, O. A. Tsvigun, T. S. Tokarchuk
      Pages: 257 - 264
      Abstract: A significant element of the prophylaxis of nosocomial infection in veterinary clinics is monitoring ambient objects, air, equipment, and instruments. In order to determine the role of boxes for keeping ill animals as a source of transmission of pathogens of nosocomial infections in veterinary clinics, we studied the microflora of surfaces of boxes and bioaerosol prior and after sanitation. For this purpose, we collected rinses from the surfaces of plastic and steel boxes, air samples prior to morning sanitation, after cleaning and wiping the surfaces with water and detergents and after disinfection. From the surfaces of the boxes for holding animals, we mostly isolated bacteria of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Enterococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. Gram-negative species we found were bacteria of Escherichia spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Enterobacter spp. After wet cleaning and disinfection of plastic boxes, we detected species of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in 5.4% of the samples, Micrococcus spp. in 8.1% and Bacillus spp. in 2.7%. Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacter spp. were found in 2.7% of the samples. At the same time, the number of microorganisms in samples in which the bacteria were found after disinfection on the surfaces of stainless-steel boxes was 2.0 times lower than in such from the surfaces of plastic boxes. We determined that after wet disinfection of boxes’ surfaces, there occurred decrease in the microbial number in the air, equaling 3.7 times on average, compared with prior to disinfection. The basis of the air microflora after disinfection comprised species of Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp., which can be airborne-transmitted. Bacteria that were isolated from the boxes after disinfection (Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.) formed highly dense biofilms, which probably ensure the survival of the microbial cells, thus making the boxes a probable source of nosocomial infection.
      PubDate: 2022-07-10
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Specifics of vitrification of in vitro-produced cattle embyos at various
           development stages

    • Authors: V. V. Kovpak, O. S. Kovpak, O. A. Valchuk, Y. V. Zhuk, S. S. Derkach
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Producing embryos in vitro is an important technology used to improve the genetic potential of cattle and perfect the programs of their breeding. Regardless of the way they are produced, all embryos that had not been used for transplantation to recipients must be conserved. Because of significantly increased interest in the problem of cryoconservation of embryos, both coming from scientists and businesses, there are emerging new commercial environments that allow the facilitation of cryoconservation and the increase in the embryo survival. Oocyte-cumulus complexes obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered clinically healthy cows matured in 22–24 h in in vitro conditions. The oocytes were co-cultured with spermatozoids in Fertilization medium, and the obtained zygotes were cultured in Culture medium with Sodium-Pyruvate for 4 or 7 days up to the stage of morula or blastocyste, respectively. For the vitrification of cow embryos, we used a commercial kit for the vitrification of human embryos, having compared the duration of equilibration. According to the results of the studies, we observed high efficiency of cryoconservation of cow embryos using the commercial kit for vitrification of human embryos. The results revealed the significant effect of equilibration on survival and further development of embryos. In addition, we described the dependence of development stage of cattle embryo on the duration of the contact of embryo with equilibration solution. Therefore, optimal time of contact of cattle embryos at the morula stage with equilibration solution was 12 minutes. On the 24th h after thawing, 46.7 ± 3.3% of the embryos were observed to undergo blastulation, and on 48th h, this parameter increased to 96.7 ± 3.3%, which corresponded to the parameters in the group of embryos that had not been subjected to cryoconservation. In the conditions of further cultivation, the percentage of blastocystes that hatched in the experimental group was no different from that of the control. At the same time, the highest efficiency of vitrification of blastocystes of cows was seen after the contact with the equilibration solution for 15 min, since the percentage of hatched blastocystes was the same as in the control group. Therefore, using the commercial kit for vitrification of human embryos is beneficial, for it promotes the parameters of cow embryos after vitrification/thawing that are similar to such of intact embryos (without freezing). The data we analyzed and presented in the paper could help to increase the efficiency of cryoconservation of cattle embryos for both scientific and commercial purposes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • The whole-cell kinetic metabolic model of the pH regulation mechanisms in
           human erythrocytes

    • Authors: O. I. Dotsenko
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: Mathematical modeling in recent years helped to obtain answers to questions that were difficult or even impossible to answer experimentally, to predict several unexpected connections in cell metabolism and to understand and importance of certain biochemical reactions. Due to the complexity and variety of processes underlying the mechanisms of intracellular pH (pHi) regulation, mathematical modeling and metabolome analysis are powerful tools for their analysis. In this regard, a mathematical metabolic model for human erythrocytes was created, which combines cellular metabolism with acid-base processes and gas exchange. The model consists of the main metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, some membrane transport systems, and interactions between hemoglobin and metabolites. The Jacobs-Stewart cycle, which is fundamental in gas exchange and pH regulation, was included to these pathways. The model was created in the COPASI environment, consisted of 85 reactions, the rate of which is based on accurate kinetic equations. The time dependences of reaction flows and metabolite concentrations, as an outcome of calculations, allowed us to reproduce the behaviour of the metabolic system after its disturbance in vitro and to establish the recovery mechanisms or approximation to stationary states. The COPASI simulation environment provides model flexibility by reproducing any experimental design by optimizing direct quantitative comparisons between measured and predicted results. Thus, the procedure of parameters optimization (Parameter Estimation) followed by the solution of the model’s differential equations (Time Course procedure) was used to predict the behaviour of all measured and unmeasured variables over time. The initial intracellular concentrations of CO2, HCO3– in human erythrocytes used for incubation in a phosphate buffer medium were calculated. Changes in CO2, HCO3– content over time were shown. It was established that the regulation of pH in erythrocytes placed in a buffer medium takes place with the participation of two types of processes – fast (takes place in 1.3 s) and slow. It is shown that fast processes are aimed at restoring the intracellular balance between CO2 and HCO3–, slow processes are aimed at establishing the balance of H+ between the cell and the extracellular environment. The role of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and hemoglobin in the processes of pH stabilization is shown and analyzed. The physiological role of the metabolon between band 3 protein (AE1), CA, aquaporin and hemoglobin in maintaining pH homeostasis in the conditions of in vitro experiments are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Efficacy of ultrasound in diagnosis of dirofilariasis in dogs caused by
           Dirofilaria immitis

    • Authors: V. Yevstafieva, D. Kryvoruchenko, V. Melnychuk, O. Nikiforova, M. Kone, O. Barabolia
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: Ultrasonic diagnostics is a modern and effective method of laboratory testing of both animals and humans, used for estimation of overall state, and for detection of different pathologies in organs and systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the efficacy of ultrasonic diagnostics of dog dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis parasitism, based on several indexes of invasion intensity. It was established that the number of D. immitis helminths found depended on the intensity indexes of microdirafilariasis invasion: using echocardiography, there were no helminths found under the index lower than 40 larvae/cm3. Under the index higher than that, we visualized 1–10 parasite individuals in the cavity of the right ventricle and right atrium, and at the tricuspid valve leaflets. It was established by the results of echocardiography of dogs invaded by D. immitis that the level of invasion intensity impacts significantly on the animals’ heart structure and function, and on their intracardiac hemodynamics. It was proved that under increase of microfilaria number in the blood, heart function deteriorates. Under the invasion intensity lower than 40 larvae/cm3, the changes were characterized by a slight increase in thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle in diastole, aorta diameter, left atrium and pulmonary artery (by 6.2%). Under the invasion intensity of 40–60 larvae/cm3, the deterioration in heart structure and function was followed by thickening of the interventricular septum in diastole, posterior wall of the left ventricle in diastole (by 5.6%), increase in ejection fraction index (by 7.0%), widening of aorta root, pulmonary artery, diameter of the left ventricle (by 21.4%), and with increase in indexes of ratio between diameters of the left ventricle and pulmonary artery, and aorta (by 15.6%). Signs of hemodynamic deterioration were established in sick animals, which was characterized by increase of blood speed in the tricuspid valve (by 33.7%), and its decrease in the pulmonary artery (14.1%). Under the invasion intensity higher than 60 larvae/cm3, the aforementioned indexes changed even more significantly. We observed thickening of the posterior wall of the right ventricle in diastole, decrease of the end-systolic size of the left ventricle (by 13.0%), blood speed increase in the aorta and mitral valve (by 12.2%). The obtained results show the necessity of echocardiographic testing of dogs with cardiac dirofilariasis, which allows effective proof of the diagnosis and also helps to understand the overall state of the animal more deeply and to provide it with the appropriate symptomatic cure.
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Efficacy of hepatoprotectors in prophylaxis of hepatosis of laying hens

    • Authors: L. G. Slivinska, V. Y. Yaremchuk, A. R. Shcherbatyy, B. V. Gutyj, H. O. Zinko
      Pages: 287 - 293
      Abstract: Hepatoses of laying hens are quite common in poultry farms as a result of improper practices of poultry maintenance consisting in excessive number of protein feeds for provision of high productivity. The objective of the study was preventive efficacy of Gep-A-Stress hepatoprotectors (carnitine hydrochloride, D L methionine, sorbitol, choline chloride, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate) and Hepasan VS (L-carnitine hydrochloride, sorbitol, choline chloride, magnesium sulfate hepahydrate, betaine hydrochloride, L-arginin) against hepatosis of laying hens. To determine the efficacy of Hep-A-Stres and Hepasan-VS hepatoprotectors during production tests (n = 4,500), we monitored the parameters of survival rate (the final number of individuals as percentage of the initial number) and egg productivity of laying hens. We determined that after 30 days of using the hepatoprotectors, the content of overall protein in blood serum of laying hens of the first and the second experimental groups decreased by 21.4% and 18.9% compared with the parameters prior to providing the hepatoprotectors and by 26.3% and 23.3% compared with the control group after receiving the drug. The urea contents in blood serum increased by 19.0% and 10.5%. Compared with the control, the activity of alanine aminotransferase decreased by 43.7% and 24.1% in the first experimental group and by 23.4% and 14.9% in the second. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase in blood serum of the experimental groups decreased by 10.7%. The cholesterol concentration decreased by 50% and 58.3%. The content of triaglycerols decreased by 24.1% and 8.9% respectively. The concentrations of high-density lipoproteins after 30 days of the experiment decreased by 33.3% and 77.8% respectively, the content of low-density lipoproteins decreased by 61.3% and 40.4% and 42.3%. Population maintenance equaled respectively 97.1%, 98.3% and 98.1%. At the end of the experiment, the egg productivity of laying hens of the first and second groups increased by 4% and 3.6% compared with the control. Therefore, intake of the hepaprotectors by laying hens stimulated their metabolism, positively influenced the blood parameters, survival and egg productivity. The conducted studies confirm the benefits of using hepatoprotectors for the prohylaxis of hepatosis of hens.
      PubDate: 2022-08-04
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Occurrence of cytogenetic effects under the action of epimutagen in winter

    • Authors: V. Beiko, M. Nazarenko
      Pages: 294 - 300
      Abstract: Research on studying the features of 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.50% epimutagen Triton-X-305 impact at the cellular level, which means the way of identifying the viability of pollen in plants of the first generation, and cytological analysis of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of the primary meristem of germinal roots during germination of bread winter wheat seeds have been conducted. Research in this direction allows us to significantly improve the monitoring of same type of substances in the environment and to forecast the nature of their action at the DNA-level. Genotypes Podolyanka and Spivanka created by Ukrainian selection and varieties of French selection Altigo, Courtot, Lyrik, Flamenko have been studied. These genotypes were selected in order to characterize possible genotype-mutagenic interactions for a compound of complex hereditary pattern for a range of concentrations with maximum contrast taking into account the possible high site-specific effect. The main purpose of this research was to identify the specificity of impact of the agent Triton X-305 at the cellular level and identify parameters fully showing the effect of this substance on the subsequent induction of biodiversity and the enhancement of hereditary variability at the cellular level. Such indicators as pollen sterility effected by various concentrations, the total frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, the spectrum of chromosomal rearrangements, including fragments and double fragments, single and double bridges, micronuclei and lagging chromosomes have been investigated. The ratio of fragments to bridges as an indicator of the active factor nature, the number of cells with two or more rearrangements as an indicator of genetic toxicity of this substance has been established. As a result, a significantly weaker effect of the epimutagen on the overall frequency of chromosomal rearrangement has been shown unlike other factors of a mutagenic nature, at the same time changing the ratio of the obtained aberrations in favour of micronuclei and lagging chromosomes. In addition, other parameters are determined as more meaningful for identifying a specific agent of impact, and the differences in concentrations are less contrasting. There is also a less significantly decreasing fertility, however, this parameter is highly dependent on the source material. In the future, we intend to assess the variability, primarily of a hereditary nature, by the way of a visual analysis of the obtained material in subsequent generations, as well as through biochemical analysis, yield qualities analysis and morphometry of the obtained material.
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Comparative clinical and morphometric investigations of cervical stenosis
           of the spinal canal in humans and dogs

    • Authors: T. O. Andreyeva, O. M. Stoyanov, G. M. Chebotaryova, R. S. Vastyanov, V. I. Kalashnikov, A. O. Stoyanov
      Pages: 301 - 307
      Abstract: Acquired stenosis of the spinal canal is a common problem in human and animal pathology. It is defined as a pathological condition that mainly develops as degeneration of the spine with cervical myelopathy development, which is a characteristic manifestation of this pathology. Pain both in the neck and upper back is the leading syndrome of this pathology. 65 human patients aged 20–65 years and 19 dogs weighing more than 20 kg were examined with the aim of comparative clinical and morphometric analysis of stenosis of the spinal canal. The age of the dogs was maximally converted to the age of a person. Computed tomography using the Pavlov-Torg index and the reserve space evaluation supplemented diagnosis of stenosis of the spinal canal. The mass proportion of stenotic changes of the spinal canal against the background of the degenerative-dystrophic process was 21 in males (n = 25) 84.0%, females – 28 persons (n = 40) 70.0%. Pain syndrome was the main complaint in all patients. Cervicalgia prevailed in 60 (92.3%), pain in the upper back was registered in 32 (49.2%) patients. The intensity of pain syndrome was equal to 3.1 ± 0.4 points. Motor deficiency in the form of paresis, mainly of the distal parts of the hands, was registered in 48 patients (73.8%), pyramidal symptoms were noted in the legs in 32 (49.2%) patients, pelvic reservoir dysfunction (7.0–10.8%), and sensory disorders were also found (24.0–36.9%). Such manifestations of cervical myelopathy progressed slowly. Pyramidal symptoms were more frequent and more pronounced in men. According to the computed tomography scan, degenerative changes of the spine were maximal at the level of the C6 vertebra with the maximum clinical correlation (neurological deficit, pain syndrome, etc.). In the course of the research, probable stenosis of the spinal canal was found in people on computed tomography images. In the 19 dogs observed weighing 20 kg or more the presence of pain syndrome was evaluated in all the animals (100.0%) as well as behaviour change (100.0%). During the examination, gait disorder was detected (18.0–94.7%); reaction to palpation of the neck area (15.0–78.9%); the habitus of animals experiencing pain, especially during neck movements (14.0–73.7%), body tension (12.0–63.1%), etc. Bony outgrowths of the edges of the vertebrae and intervertebral joints were found in almost all dogs of 18 (94.7%) large breeds compared to others. Narrowing of the intervertebral openings, deformation and sclerotic changes of the locking plates, thickening of the yellow and elongated ligaments occurred three to four times more in large breeds compared to dogs weighing less than 20 kg, and were absent in cats. Stenosis of the spinal canal was detected in 15 (78.9%) dogs. Therefore, acquired stenosis of the spinal canal probably develops after degenerative-dystrophic changes in the neck in 87.7% of people and in 78.9% of dogs with clinical manifestations of cervical myelopathy and with persistent pain syndrome (equal to 3.1 ± 0.3 points in humans and 2.6 ± 0.4 points in animals according to visual analog scale). This kind of pathological process in the investigated groups developed mainly at the level of the C6 vertebra. Similar clinical and morphometric indexes were obtained in humans (87.7%). It was found that the maximum similarity of pathological processes with stenosis of the spinal canal formation was characteristic in dogs of exclusively large breeds. Therefore, we consider it promising to study the development mechanisms of stenosis of the spinal canal and peculiarities primarily in young generations of humans and animals, to implement modern non-invasive neuroimaging methods, in particular for animals with investigation of morphometric indexes. This will prevent the occurrence of most comorbid syndromes, including chronic pain, neurological deficits as well as help find new opportunities for correction of stenosis of the spinal canal, to suppress the aging processes not only of the muscle-skeletal system but also of the body as a whole. The importance of this work, we suppose, lies in the further identification of adequate models in animals of different breeds and weight categories with stenosis of the spinal canal pathology in which it develops significantly faster, for extrapolation to humans to predict the development of pathological events.
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells on repair of the lung
           tissue of rats with experimental pulmonary fibrosis

    • Authors: Y. V. Surtaieva, A. Y. Mazurkevich, R. R. Bokotko
      Pages: 308 - 316
      Abstract: Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the commonest forms of interstitial lung diseases with poorly studied methods of its treatment in both human and veterinary medicines. Therefore, this paper focused on seeking alternative methods of its diagnostics and treatment. The article provides the results of the study of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with experimental lung fibrosis and influence of transplanted allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells of the bone marrow on stimulation of regenerative processes in damaged lung tissues. The studies were conducted on female Wistar rats with pulmonary fibrosis modeled using single transthoracic injection of solution of bleomycin hydrochloride. For the purpose of treatment, we used allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells introduced by various methods and the traditional treatment. We determined that best normalization of the parameters of the studied brochoalveolar lavage occurred in animals that received mesenchymal stem cells. The most active repair processes were in the experimental group that received the mesenchymal stem cells directly to the lung tissue. The animals that received intravenous injection of mesenchymal stemm cells were observed to have lower clinical parameters of the brochoalveolar lavage, but still better than such in the group treated traditionally. The lowest parameters were in animals that received the traditional treatment; they were greater than the phisological parameters, but significantly exceeded them in animals of the control group, indicating presence of inflammatory process in the lung tissue. The conducted cytological assays of the samples of the brochoalveolar lavage revealed that experimental animals with experimental pulmonary fibrosis had development of macrophage and lymphocytic reactions under the influence of transplanted mesenchymal stemm cells. We observed no atypical cells in all the experimental groups. This allows us to draw a conclusion that using stem cells by various methods of transplantation does not stimulate the onset of negative reactons (formation of atypical cells, metastatic processes, etc). Thus, the results of the study of the influence of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells demonstrate that in the conditions of experimental pulmonary fibrosis, the activity of regenerative processes in pathologically altered lung tissue may be an effective method of treatment of animals with this kind of pathology.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Pathohistological features of mediastinal lymphoma in domestic cats

    • Authors: K. Oriekhova, O. Shchebentovska
      Pages: 317 - 323
      Abstract: The article covers two clinical cases of domestic cats suffering from a mediastinal form of lymphoma and provides their cytological, immunohistochemical, and pathohistological verification. The lymphoma immunophenotyping method using the B-cell markers CD79a and CD3 was used to identify T-cells. The mediastinal type of lymphoma in cats is usually rarely registered and statistically, the number of cases does not exceed 20%, which is consistent with our observations. Shortness of breath, difficulty with swallowing, lack of appetite, cyanotic mucous membranes, lymphadenomegaly of the mediastinal lymph nodes and effusion in the chest cavity were found in the clinically ill cats. An X-ray examination of the chest cavity revealed an increased contrast in the mediastinal area and displacement of the lungs towards the spine. A complete blood count revealed lymphopenia. Cytological smears of the chest cavity transudates revealed mostly monomorphic lymphoblasts with large rounded hyperchromic nuclei and narrow cytoplasm stained in light blue. The karyoplasm was somewhat granular, the nucleoli were visible, and the mitoses were atypical and numerous. The cytological picture in biopsy samples of mediastinal lymph nodes was characterized by a monomorphic population of lymphoblasts with an eccentrically located nucleus and moderately basophilic karyoplasm. The cell cytoplasm was vacuolated in some places, with presence of atypical mitotic figures. Most of the cells had two nuclei. Diffuse tumoral lesions of the chest cavity tissues, focal tumorous lesions of the lung parenchyma, and lymphadenopathy of the mediastinal lymph nodes were found during the autopsy in the first case. The second clinical case demonstrated the massive lymphadenopathy of the mediastinal lymph nodes. Histologically, a diffuse lesion by a monomorphic population of lymphoblasts was revealed in preparations from the soft tissues of the chest wall. The lymphoblasts’ insignificant cytoplasm, with nuclei from round to elliptical shape, infiltrated the chest wall’s soft tissues. It was found immunohistochemically that the blast cells showed reactivity to CD79a, and were mostly negative to CD3. This indicates the development of a large diffuse B-cell lymphoma. The immunohistochemical picture of lymph node necropsies from another cat was somewhat similar. However, it was also characterized by lymphoblasts with eccentrically placed nuclei, increased number of cells with mitotic figures, somewhat intensive CD3 antibodies expression (especially in the paracortical area of lymph nodes), and significant CD79a marker expression.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
  • Impact of invasive species Parectopa robiniella (Gracillariidae) on
           fluorescence parameters of Robinia pseudoacacia in the conditions of the
           steppe zone of Ukraine

    • Authors: K. K. Holoborodko, S. A. Sytnyk, V. M. Lovynska, I. A. Ivanko, I. M. Loza, V. V. Brygadyrenko
      Pages: 324 - 330
      Abstract: Robinia pseudoacacia L. is one of the most common and environmentally adaptable introduced tree species which has become an important element of artificial afforestation and landscaping in Ukraine over the past 150 years. Throughout the history of its introduction on the territory of Ukraine, this species was considered resistant because of the absence of dangerous phytophages. At the beginning of the XXI century, the phytosanitary situation changed as the result of the penetration and rapid spread of a number of North American invasive phytophages. The appearance and distribution of the miner Parectopa robiniella (Clemens, 1863) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) feeding on R. pseudoacacia was recognized as the largest invasion in Ukraine. This paper considers the issues of studying the effect of P. robiniella caterpillars feeding on R. pseudoacacia in various forest-growing conditions in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The process of photosynthesis, as the most important physiological parameter, was chosen as indicator of condition. The study was conducted using biosensor technology which made it possible to measure the effect of caterpillar feeding on critical parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (the Kautsky curve). The research has shown that the initial value of fluorescence induction was within the range of 196–284 RFU, and the maximum value of the background fluorescence parameter was recorded in undamaged leaves and under shading conditions. Both the effect of phytophages and the shading factor caused a significant decrease in the values of fluorescence induction of the “plateau” both in the conditions of an artificially washed sandbar, on the watershed area of a watershed-gully landscape, as well as on natural sandy-loam soil. The maximum values of photosynthetic fluorescence induction under the simultaneous influence of the studied factors had rather high variability. In contrast to the fluorescence induction parameter, the “plateau” of the highest maximum fluorescence induction was reached in the absence of pest damage under conditions of total shading. As revealed by dispersion and regression analyses, the maximum fluorescence index was most dependent on the amount of solar radiation and on the degree of the leaf surface damage by phytophages. Significantly higher values of the steady-state fluorescence induction parameter were determined in the absence of insect damage in both shading and lighting conditions. A statistically significant combined influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the “plateau” fluorescence induction parameter was determined in comparison with the mono-influence of individual factors. A highly significant dependence of the maximum efficiency indicator of primary photosynthesis processes on individual factors of exogenous influence was established, while the combined effect of these factors did not affect this parameter. The obtained data allow one to apply in practice the methods of analyzing chlorophyll fluorescence induction to establish the physiological state of tree flora in forest and garden farms.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 3 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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