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J. of Ancient History and Archaeology     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
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Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology
Number of Followers: 31  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2360-266X
Published by Mega Publishing House Homepage  [1 journal]
  • DEBUNKING A MYTH: THE DACIAN CURVED SWORD BETWEEN HISTORIOGRAPHICAL
           DISCOURSE AND THE ARHEOLOGICAL REALITIES

    • Authors: Hent Alin, Cioată Daniel
      Abstract: In the first part of this paper, we will try to review the main discourses elaborated so far in the Romanian historiography regarding a certain type of weapon, namely the curved sword, known from the ancient sources as falx (plural falces). For almost a century and a half of Romanian history and archaeology, there was an increased interest of scholars for this type of weapon and for curved weapons in general. In a perfect cultural-historical manner, an entire identity discourse was shaped, the curved swords being an element for the identification of the Dacian population. In the second part of this paper, the accent will shift towards archaeology, and we will present, in particular, the curved swords discovered over time at Grădiștea de Munte – Sarmizegetusa Regia (Hunedoara County, Romania). In contrast with most papers that start from iconographical representations and ancient textual sources, we would rather let archaeology tell us the story of these weapons.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.613
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • RECOVERING CULTURAL HERITAGE. FORENSIC ARCHAEOLOGY AND NUMISMATICS – THE
           ROMAN HOARD FROM THE PRISACA HILL (ROMANIA)

    • Authors: Cristian Gazdac, Marius Mihai Ciuta
      Abstract: Combining forensic archaeology and numismatic methods of investigations, the present study identify a new Roman hoard buried in the context of the Dacian wars.Furthermore, the composition and the findspot of this hoard reveal the Roman functionality of the site where the hoard was discovered.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.589
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • A STILL LIFE OIL PAINTED BY HENDRIK VANDER BORGHT IN 1650 WITH ANCIENT
           COINS FROM DACIA: A HIGHLY EDUCATED WORK AND A POLITICAL MANIFESTO

    • Authors: Francois de Callatay
      Abstract: An oil painting by Hendrik Vander Borght and dated 1650 displays an assemblage of Roman vases (6 in clay and 2 in glass) and 11 ancient coins (3 Greek, 3 Roman Republican and 5 Roman Imperial), depicted with an astonishing accuracy, allowing a precise identification for most of them. From an archaeological point of view, such a grouping of coins can only come from ancient Dacia. It is argued here that the painting is organized in order to display a political manifesto for the good ruler, strong, but not autocratic. It may refer to the general uncertainty felt soon after the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) which ended the Wars of Religion, but it may also be more precisely related to Transylvania at a time when the young and adventurous George II Rákóczi was recklessly preparing to invade Poland, after having succeeded in 1648 his father George I, whose reign was remembered as a golden age for Transylvania.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.599
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • LATE SCYTHIAN NECROPOLIS CHERVONY MAYAK: 10 YEARS OF EXPLORATION

    • Authors: Aleksandr SYMONENKO
      Abstract: The Late Scythian archaeological complex Chervony Mayak (past name is Bizyukiv monastery) is situated near the eponymous village of Beryslav district in Kherson region. It consists of the hill-fort and burial ground and is the historical and cultural site of national importance (by official ranking). The site is known since the nineteenth century. It was mentioned in the works of prince Myshetsky and N.F. Nogachevsky. The first plan of the hill-fort was taken by the military engineer A.P. Chirkov, and Kherson archaeologist V.I. Goshkevich has made the description and map of the site. The first graves were discovered randomly in nineteenth century in the monastery yard and southward of it. In 1975 the burial ground, known today as Chervony Mayak necropolis, has been discovered northeastward of the hill-fort. It was partly explored in 1976-1977 and during 1986-1988 by Moscow archaeologists Drs. Erast Symonovich and Olga Gei. In total they excavated 108 burials. Since 2011 the burial ground is studied by the Late Scythian expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of NASU headed by Dr. Aleksandr Symonenko. The funerary constructions of Chervony Mayak necropolis are represented by catacombs (crypts) with multiple and single burials (107), niche graves (25) and rectangular or oval pits (35). Among the grave goods there were Roman red-slip fine ware and Scythian hand-made pottery, gold earrings, bronze adornment and personal items (fibulae, bracelets, mirrors), necklaces made of carnelian, jade, amber, and glass beads. Some graves contained the items typical for the Baltic Germanic cultures. Earliest burials of the necropolis were accompanied by the fibulae of Mid-La Tène scheme and can be dated to the late 2nd – 1st centuries BC. The Roman imported goods (red-slip pottery and fibulae) allow us to date the most of graves to the 1st – first half of the 2nd century AD. Several assemblages ought to be dated to the late 2nd – first half of the 3rd century AD.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.620
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • THE SARMATIAN MIRROR WITH TAMGAS FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF SEBEȘ - “PODUL
           PRIPOCULUI” (ALBA COUNTY, ROMANIA): 50 YEARS LATER

    • Authors: Vitalie BÂRCĂ
      Abstract: The article discusses the mirror discovered in 1967 following the archaeological excavations conducted in the Sebeș - “Podul Pripocului” settlement (Alba county/RO), dated to the 3rd – 4th century AD. The piece, singular in the intra-Carpathian area, belongs to the type of disc mirrors with rectangular side handle and decorated reverse. These are specific mainly to the Sarmatae world, yet are also found in the environment of other cultural identities. Although they emerge in the 1st century AD, they were broadly used in the 2nd century – first half of the 3rd century AD, being rare in the second half of the 3rd century AD.
      On the Romanian eastern and south-eastern territory, such toiletries appear sometime by mid 2nd century AD, originating especially from graves and features of the second half of the 2nd century – first half of the 3rd century AD, while in only a few cases the dating may also include the first part of the second half of the 3rd century AD. In the case of the specimens from the Romanian territory, these are small, thin in cross-section, exhibiting a slightly marked border on the rim, while the central disc convexity is lacking with most, these being features characteristic to the decorated mirrors of the second half of the 2nd century – first half of the 3rd century AD.
      The study of the ”Podul Pripocului” exemplar showed that on its reverse there are two identical tamgas set in the mirror, rendered erroneously in their previous publications, which explains the lack of any reported parallels.
      The author concludes that most close or very close parallels are specific to the region to the right of the Dnieper. As for the dating, these are specific to the period comprised between the second half of the 1st century AD – mid 3rd century AD. It is also noted that in the north-Pontic area, there are many tamgas with components similar to those on the Sebeș - “Podul Pripocului” mirror (in particular the volutes with the inward wavy loops), however these may not be deemed, according to the author, parallels.
      Owing to its significance, yet especially their function and their borrowing mechanism by the neighbouring populaces, the author concludes that the Sebeș - “Podul Pripocului” mirror did not reach the intra-Carpathian area by trade or exchange.
      On the basis of the existing finds, it is concluded that currently, it is impossible to say with certainty when the Sebeș - “Podul Pripocului” settlement started or ceased, but also that there was a most certain Barbarian presence, of which further details would be known only subsequent to future archaeological research.
      Given the role and function of the tamgas on the objects, their distribution manner in other cultural areas and borrowing mechanism by the neighbouring populations, the author concludes it is very likely that among the Barbarians who settled in the “Podul Pripocului” settlement also counted Sarmatians, to whom the presence of this mirror on in the intra-Carpathian area is due.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.621
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • INTANGIBLE HERITAGE'...NOT ANYMORE, FROM PHOTO TO 3D PRINTED CULTURAL
           HERITAGE ASSETS REPLICAS. THE TWO MISSING IRON DISCS FROM THE DACIAN
           HILLFORT OF PIATRA ROȘIE (ROMANIA)

    • Authors: Radu COMES, Cătălin GREC, Călin NEAMȚU, Cristian GĂZDAC, Liliana MATEESCU-SUCIU
      Abstract: Cultural heritage domain has started to adopt various modern technologies to improve their visitor’s user experience within various museum exhibitions. There are a wide variety of academic papers that present various workflow that enable the digitization of various cultural heritage assets, starting from small objects up to entire buildings and fortifications. This paper is focused on the development of 3D models that are suited for 3D printing using budget 3D printers as well as open-source 3D modelling software to enable the physical reconstruction of tangible cultural heritage assets. The case study presented within the paper has been done on the Dacian ornamental discs that has been looted from the Dacian hill fort from Piatra Roșie (Luncani, Hunedoara County, Romania) and the only references are a set of images that have appeared online at an action house from United States of America. Researchers are currently making new materials 3D printable expanding their category from plastics and metals up to composite materials that combine multiple materials to get the best properties of each. Along with these new materials, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been developed, these technologies have the potential to become a vital component in cultural heritage empowering the research, documentation, and preservation for a wide variety of cultural heritage assets.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.622
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • SCHEIDEL, WALTER (ED.), THE SCIENCE OF ROMAN HISTORY. BIOLOGY, CLIMATE AND
           THE FUTURE OF THE PAST, PRINCETON/OXFORD, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS,
           2018. ISBN 978-0-691-16256-0, 260 P.

    • Authors: Csaba Szabó
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.586
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • RADA VARGA, CARVING A PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY. THE OCCUPATIONAL EPIGRAPHY OF
           THE LATIN WEST, ARCHAEOPRESS ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY 73, OXFORD, ARCHAEOPRESS,
           2021, 119 P., ISBN 9781789694642

    • Authors: Annamaria Izabella Pazsint
      Abstract: Rada Varga, Carving a Professional Identity. The occupational epigraphy of the Latin West, Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 73, Oxford, Archaeopress, 2021, 119 p., ISBN 9781789694642
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.592
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • TOURAJ DARYAEE & KHODADAD REZAKHANI. FROM OXUS TO EUPHRATES: THE WORLD OF
           LATE ANTIQUE IRAN. ANCIENT IRAN SERIES VOL. 1 IRVINE/LOS ANGELES, CA:
           JORDAN CENTRE FOR PERSIAN STUDIES/FARHANG FOUNDATION, 2017, XVI + 106P.,
           ISBN 978-1-780835907.

    • Authors: Matthew Gray Marsh
      Abstract: Touraj Daryaee & Khodadad Rezakhani. From Oxus to Euphrates: The World of Late Antique Iran. Ancient Iran Series Vol. 1 Irvine/Los Angeles, CA: Jordan Centre for Persian Studies/Farhang Foundation, 2017, xvi + 106p., ISBN 978-1-780835907.
      PubDate: 2021-04-09
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.593
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • IT'S A SWORD, IT'S A SCABBARD, IT’S TISNA COINS WITH
           DEPICTION OF PERSIAN AKINAKES

    • Authors: Emre Erdan
      Abstract: In this study, a series of Tisna's coins dated to the 4th century BC are discussed. It is known that Tisna, a less known city of Aiolis which is one of the important Iron Age cultural regions of Western Anatolia, gained polis status in the 4th century BC. The archaeological surveys we have been continuing in the site proved that Tisna was inhabited since the end of the 3rd millennium BC. An item depicted in the coins, which are among the most important finds of the city, constitutes the main subject of this study. This item was often described as a sword or a scabbard in previous publications. However, when the object is examined iconographically, it is surprising that it is actually a Scythian-Persian sword, akinakes. As a result of our examinations and comparisons it has been suggested that coins with depiction of akinakes may be related to both Persian identity in the region and the cult of Ares.
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.581
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • AN UNKNOWN COIN DIE OF AUGUSTUS (27 BC – 14 AD), FOUND NEAR OESCUS
           ON THE DANUBE

    • Authors: Metodi Yordanov Manov
      Abstract: The paper presents an unknown coin die, which is for obverse of denarii of Augustus. The coin die is said to have been found many years ago in the vicinity of the village of Gigen, district of Pleven – near the ancient Roman colony of Ulpia Oescus and is now kept in a private collection. Only the bronze plate is preserved, where in negative is featured a portrait of Augustus, turned to the left, and around the portrait image is disposed the legend: AVGVSTVS DIVI F – mirrored. The coin type of the coin die is for denarii of Augustus struck in the mint at Lugdunum (today Lyon, France) between 15 and 11 BC. The new coin die presented is of the same type as one of the coin dies from the collection of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum in Sofia. The collection of the same museum in Sofia stores another obverse coin die for denarii of Augustus of a type struck in the mint at Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain). All three obverse coin dies for denarii of Augustus are discussed in a general context, because their time of making is between 17 – 16 and 15 – 11 BC. All three obverse coin dies of Augustus are represented as dies of moving military camp mints.
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.579
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • TROPAEUM TRAIANI: REVISITING THE FIELD FINDINGS OF CARL WILHELM WUTZER
           (1856) VS. EXCAVATION DATA OF GRIGORE TOCILESCU (1885) ON THE TRIUMPHAL
           MONUMENT

    • Authors: Emil Sever Georgescu
      Abstract: The Triumphal Monument Tropaeum Traiani of Adamclisi, Romania is analyzed with reference to the survey published by the German Professor Carl Wilhelm Wutzer after his trip of 1856 in Dobrudja. Since 1882, Tocilescu excavated the ruin and appreciated past data, although there was enough criticism about the idea of considering the monument as built by Persians and geometrical figures of parapets as Persian letters. Most intriguing was, anyway, the information about the previous existence of a “fountain“, as well as of a “coffin-shaped marble vessel“ on the upper part of ruin, as well as of some stone plates, according to the stories of an elder Bulgarian. Since the data of that epoch are scarce, they are worth to be re-evaluated. In this respect, a careful translation was done, with due attention to debatable findings. The pieces, images and symbols associated to the ruin and with stone parts were correlated with the stages of dismantling and decay, in the historical and religious context of the Ottoman period. The author¢s correlations and interpretations are based on factual arguments, bridging the gap between the archaeologist¢s concepts and local population perceptions and public memory in Dobrudja. Thus, a valuable historical information is recovered, and it was established that the three items of Wutzer report existed and were excavated by Tocilescu. Although they had other initial functions, they correspond to specific components of the hexagonal tower, some of them exposed in museum, other lost in time.    
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.605
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
  • COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS ANALYSIS OF THE POTTERY SHARDS FROM KUH-I KHAWJA
           HISTORICAL SITE, SISTAN, EAST OF IRAN

    • Authors: Hossein Sarhaddi-dadian, Zuliskandar Ramli, Hossein Moradi, Zohreh Jozi
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine whether pottery shards from Kuh-i Khawja were locally made or imported. Kuh-I Khawja is one of the most ancient settlements in Iran’s Sistan during the Sassanid period. The study shows that the antiquity of the site goes back to the 3rd to 8th centuries CE and the earthenware found in Kuh-I Khawja can be categorized into four groups which are i) Plain unglazed pottery; ii) Unglazed painted pottery; iii) Plain glazed pottery; iv) Glazed and painted pottery. Archaeologists believe that most of the pottery shards are locally made; hence, to test this hypothesis, a scientific analysis was done to determine the chemical composition of the pottery shards. X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) was applied to determine the major and trace elements of the pottery shards. The results demonstrate that most of the pottery shards are in the same group and this strongly suggests that they are local products. Additionally, based on the major and trace elements, it can be suggested that some of the samples were imported items.
      PubDate: 2021-02-19
      DOI: 10.14795/j.v8i1.538
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2021)
       
 
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