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Showing 1 - 200 of 3044 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors Reports
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

    • Authors: Bach Xuan Tran; Hue Thi Mai; Long Hoang Nguyen; Cuong Tat Nguyen; Carl A. Latkin; Melvyn W.B. Zhang; Roger C.M. Ho
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Bach Xuan Tran, Hue Thi Mai, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Carl A. Latkin, Melvyn W.B. Zhang, Roger C.M. Ho
      Background and aims The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT) and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors. Results The two-factor model of Vietnamese version of s-IAT demonstrated good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of Factor 1 (loss of control/time management) was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.82) and Factor 2 (craving/social problems) was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.75). Findings indicated that 20.9% youths were addicted to the Internet. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between Internet addiction and having problems in self-care, lower quality of life and high perceived stress scores. Discussion and conclusions The Vietnamese version of s-IAT is a valid and reliable instrument to assess IA in Vietnamese population. Due to the high prevalence of IA among Vietnamese youths, IA should be paid attention in future intervention programs. s-IAT can be a useful screening tool for IA to promptly inform and treat the IA among Vietnamese youths.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T15:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • The associations among personality, alcohol-related Protective Behavioural
           Strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse in Irish,
           female college students

    • Authors: Sinéad Moylett; Brian M. Hughes
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sinéad Moylett, Brian M. Hughes
      Introduction The study presented one of the first examinations of the associations among personality, alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse and sex-related alcohol negative consequences in Irish, female college students (n =522). Methods A cross-sectional observational design was employed and participants completed the study online. Participants completed measures of personality, alcohol-related PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse. Hierarchical multiple regression was utilised to access the associations between such measures. Results From the analyses, it was found that age, frequency of sexual intercourse, frequency of alcohol consumption, level of alcohol consumption and openness were all significantly related to the use of alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies, and in turn, sex-related negative consequences. However, inconsistent findings with other personality dimensions to those of previous research were noted. Conclusions The findings of this study posited that the use of PBS has a key role to play in the levels of sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption, age and openness, and the associated negative sexual consequences in Irish, female college students.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T17:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Alcohol related mental imagery: The effects of a priming dose in at risk

    • Authors: Michael Yates; Sunjeev K. Kamboj
      Pages: 71 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Michael Yates, Sunjeev K. Kamboj
      Objectives Drug related mental imagery is proposed to play a central role in addictive behaviour. However, little is known about such cognition or how it is pharmacologically modulated. Here, we test theoretical predictions of the ‘elaborated intrusion’ theory by comparing neutral with alcohol related mental imagery, and examine the effects of low dose alcohol on phenomenological aspects of this imagery. Methods Alcohol related and neutral imagery was assessed after at risk drinkers (n=40) consumed alcohol (0.3g/kg) or placebo, in a crossover design. Sensory and visuospatial qualities of imagery, along with associated craving, positive affect and ‘mind wandering’ were assessed. Results Alcohol related mental imagery was rated as more vivid and sensorially rich, effects that were larger following the priming dose of alcohol. In addition, mind wandering was substantially lower during alcohol versus neutral imagery, especially after alcohol consumption. First person perspective was more prevalent for alcohol imagery after alcohol, although the Drink×Imagery type interaction did not reach statistical significance. However, first person imagery was associated with higher levels of craving during alcohol related imagery. Conclusions Alcohol related mental imagery differs phenomenologically from neutral imagery on a number of dimensions. Priming with alcohol may enable cognitive elaboration by biasing the output of controlled cognitive processing towards enhanced sensory elaboration and increased attention to alcohol related cognition. These feedforward effects may be involved in focusing cognitive and behavioural resources on alcohol acquisition/consumption through the elaboration and rehearsal of relevant goals and plans.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Improving cerebral oxygenation, cognition and autonomic nervous system

    • Authors: Daniel Aranha Cabral; Kell Grandjean da Costa; Alexandre Hideki Okano; Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy; Vanessa Paula Rachetti; Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Daniel Aranha Cabral, Kell Grandjean da Costa, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Vanessa Paula Rachetti, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
      The abusive use of alcohol has shown to be associated to cerebral damage, impaired cognition, poor autonomic nervous control, impaired cardiovascular health, increased levels of stress and anxiety, depression symptoms and poor quality of life. Aerobic exercise has shown to be an efficient tool to reduce and overcome these issues. In this case report, a patient (forty-four years old, male) under treatment in public psychiatric hospital, classified as having a substance use disorder, underwent a three-month running program. The maximal oxygen consumption increased from 24.2ml/kg/min to 30.1ml/kg/min, running time increased from 6min to 45min (650%) and distance covered from 765m to 8700m (1037.2%). In prefrontal cortex oxygenation, oxyhemoglobin levels improved by 76.1%, deoxyhemoglobin decreased 96.9% and total hemoglobin increased 78.8% during exercise. Reaction time in the cognitive test during rest decreased 23%, and the number of correct answers increased by 266.6%. Parasympathetic cardiac parameters increased in several heart rate variability indices. Thus, we conclude that running exercise performed by an alcoholic patient hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital improves cerebral function, cognition and cardiovascular health.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
  • Online-specific fear of missing out and Internet-use expectancies
           contribute to symptoms of Internet-communication disorder

    • Authors: Elisa Wegmann; Ursula Oberst; Benjamin Stodt; Matthias Brand
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Elisa Wegmann, Ursula Oberst, Benjamin Stodt, Matthias Brand
      Some of the most frequently used online applications are Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. These applications allow individuals to communicate with other users, to share information or pictures, and to stay in contact with friends all over the world. However, a growing number of users suffer from negative consequences due to their excessive use of these applications, which can be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The frequent use and easy access of these applications may also trigger the individual's fear of missing out on content when not accessing these applications. Using a sample of 270 participants, a structural equation model was analyzed to investigate the role of psychopathological symptoms and the fear of missing out on expectancies towards Internet-communication applications in the development of symptoms of an Internet-communication disorder. The results suggest that psychopathological symptoms predict higher fear of missing out on the individual's Internet-communication applications and higher expectancies to use these applications as a helpful tool to escape from negative feelings. These specific cognitions mediate the effect of psychopathological symptoms on Internet-communication disorder. Our results are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016) as they show how Internet-related cognitive bias mediates the relationship between a person's core characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms) and Internet-communication disorder. However, further studies should investigate the role of the fear of missing out as a specific predisposition, as well as specific cognition in the online context.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
  • Systematic review of Australian policing interventions to reduce
           alcohol-related violence — A maxillofacial perspective

    • Authors: Timothy Liu; Jason Ferris; Angela Higginson; Anthony Lynham
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Timothy Liu, Jason Ferris, Angela Higginson, Anthony Lynham
      Alcohol-related violence remains to be a health concern, and the oral and maxillofacial surgeons are routinely exposed to its impact on the victims and the healthcare system. At a community level, various policing interventions have been implemented to address this violent crime in and around licensed premises. Current study sought to examine the effectiveness of these interventions in Australia. Ten eligible studies, that evaluated the impact of 15 Australian policing interventions on reducing alcohol-related violence in the night-time economy, were included in this systematic review. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs and the insufficiency of the reported data, quantitative meta-analysis of the findings was precluded. Instead, a critical narrative approach was used. Police-recorded assault rate was the primary outcome measured to assess the level of alcohol-related violence, which was influenced by the level of police duties implemented during the intervention period. The overall evidence base to support Australian policing interventions was found to be poor and was limited by the low-quality study design observed in the majority of the included studies. However, there is some evidence to suggest interventions involving proactive policing to be more effective than traditional reactive policing. There was also an increased emphasis on developing policing interventions in collaborative partnerships, demonstrating the synergistic benefits in crime prevention through community partnerships, where communities were encouraged to take ownerships of their own problems and develop targeted responses to alcohol-related violence rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. Further research is required to define their effectiveness with the use of more appropriate and robust methodologies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Age-related changes in the relationship between alcohol use and violence
           from early adolescence to young adulthood

    • Authors: Christopher P. Salas-Wright; Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez; Michael G. Vaughn; Seth J. Schwartz; Katelyn K. Jetelina
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, Michael G. Vaughn, Seth J. Schwartz, Katelyn K. Jetelina
      Background Despite the accumulation of studies examining the link between alcohol use and violence, no studies to our knowledge have systematically set out to detect age-related differences in these relationships. This limitation inhibits important insights into the stability of the relationship between alcohol use and violence among youth across varying ages. Method Study findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected annually as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013. We combined a series of nationally representative cross-sections to provide a multi-year string of data that, in effect, reflects a nationally representative non-traditional cohort. We conducted logistic regression analyses to examine the cross-sectional association between non-binge and binge drinking and violent attacks among youth between ages 12 (2002) and 24/25 (2013). Results With respect to the association between non-binge alcohol use and violence, the only significant relationship identified—while controlling for sociodemographic and drug use factors—was for youth at age 13 (2003; OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.04–3.72). For binge drinking, we identified a distinct pattern of results. Controlling for sociodemographic, drug use factors, and school enrollment, binge drinking was significantly associated with violence between ages 13 (2003) and 20 (2010) with the largest odds ratios observed during the early adolescent period. Conclusions Non-binge drinking is associated with violent behavior at age 13. Binge drinking was found to be associated with violence among youth through age 20; however, the relationship dissipates when youth arrive at the legal drinking age of 21.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Substance use among adolescent sexual minority athletes: A secondary
           analysis of the youth risk behavior survey

    • Authors: Philip Veliz; Carol J. Boyd; Sean Esteban McCabe
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Philip Veliz, Carol J. Boyd, Sean Esteban McCabe
      Aims While a robust literature exists regarding substance use patterns among adolescent athletes, no studies have examined substance use among adolescent sexual minority athletes; a subpopulation of adolescents that may experience greater rates of substance use due to their marginalized status within the context of sport. Methods This study uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009–2013). Adolescents (N=26,940) from four states were included in the analyses that assessed past 30-day cigarette use, alcohol use, binge drinking and marijuana use among sexual minority athletes, heterosexual athletes, heterosexual non-athletes, and sexual minority non-athletes. Results Approximately 4% of the sample included athletes who identified as a sexual minority (3.7% males and 5.3% females). While the bivariate analyses found that sexual minority athletes had higher past 30-day prevalence rates of substance use when compared to heterosexual athletes and non-athletes, these rates were similar to sexual minority non-athletes. Moreover, when demographic characteristics and history of substance use were included in the multivariate analytic models, many of these differences were no longer statistically significant. These results were generally consistent for both males and females. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that the context of sport may not be an additional site for stress among adolescent athletes who identify as a sexual minority, and subsequently may have little impact on substance use behaviors. However, participating in sport may not serve as a protective context for adolescent sexual minorities given that substance use behaviors may be learned and reinforced.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A
           prospective pilot study

    • Authors: Dean Kaptsis; Daniel L. King; Paul H. Delfabbro; Michael Gradisar
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Dean Kaptsis, Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Michael Gradisar
      Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative), psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress), and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming). A total of 24 participants (M age =24.6years, SD =5.8) were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Prospective recovery of cannabis use in a psychotic population: A
           qualitative analysis

    • Authors: Shane Rebgetz; Leanne Hides; David J. Kavanagh; Anand Choudhary
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Shane Rebgetz, Leanne Hides, David J. Kavanagh, Anand Choudhary
      Introduction There is growing evidence for natural recovery from cannabis use by people with psychosis, but mechanisms underpinning it need further exploration. This study prospectively explored this issue. Method Twenty-two people with psychosis and cannabis misuse were recruited: 19 provided data for at least one follow-up assessment, and 13 of these (68%) reduced or ceased using cannabis. A semi-structured interview with the latter group explored reasons for initiating the attempt, strategies they employed, and context/s where any relapse occurred. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to identify themes. Results Participants who reduced or ceased cannabis use had fewer negative symptoms at Baseline, and were more likely to only use cannabis. Major reasons for starting an attempt were worsening mental health, relationship and lifestyle difficulties. Effective strategies fell into psychological, relationship, lifestyle and medication themes. Only three participants reported a relapse: triggers involved substance-using peers, relationship difficulties, and problems with negative emotions including ones from past trauma. Conclusions An encouragingly high rate of maintained reductions in cannabis use was seen. Increased awareness of the benefits across multiple life domains from addressing cannabis use may be critical to the initiation and maintenance of attempts, both to maximise motivation, and avoid over-dependence on improvements in any single domain. Negative symptoms, multiple substance use, dysphoria and pressure from substance-using peers clearly offer additional challenges for control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Exploring the alcohol-behaviour link: Myopic self-enhancement in the
           absence of alcohol consumption as a function of past alcohol use

    • Authors: Antony C. Moss; Ian P. Albery; Khaleda Rahman
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Antony C. Moss, Ian P. Albery, Khaleda Rahman
      Dual process accounts of the alcohol-behaviour link hypothesise that differences in drinking patterns will moderate the effects of exposure to alcohol-related cues on behaviour, such as when a placebo is administered. We test this hypothesis by adapting a paradigm used in alcohol myopia research to examine the effects of alcohol-related priming on self-enhancement behaviour amongst social drinkers. Participants were asked to engage in a computerised self-rating task prior to being exposed to alcohol related and/or motivational primes. A staged computer error then occurred, and participants were then asked to complete their self ratings again – this method allowed for an immediate assessment of the impact of alcohol and motivational primes on self enhancement. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory, the overall effect of priming with alcohol-related cues was not significant irrespective of response-conflict manipulations. However, drinker type moderated this effect such that heavier drinkers self-enhanced more after exposure to alcohol-related cues, but only in high-conflict conditions. This suggests that the efficacy of a placebo may be significantly moderated by individual differences in reactions to alcohol-related stimuli, and that dual process accounts of the effects of alcohol on behaviour better explains this variation than alcohol myopia theory.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the Gamblers'
           Beliefs Questionnaire in a sample of Argentinean gamblers

    • Authors: Angelina Pilatti; Marcos Cupani; Francisco Tuzinkievich; Walter Winfree
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Angelina Pilatti, Marcos Cupani, Francisco Tuzinkievich, Walter Winfree
      Introduction: Cognitive distortions are related to gambling frequency and gambling severity. Having a culturally sensitive measure to assess cognitive distortions will facilitate the early detection of people who might be at risk of developing problematic gambling behaviors. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire was translated into Spanish (GBQ-S) but no previous study explored the structure of the GBQ-S in a non-US sample with different levels of gambling involvement. Aim: The present study examined the factor structure of the GBQ-S in a community sample of gamblers from Argentina. It also analyzed the association between cognitive distortions and type of gambling activity and frequency of gambling behaviors and the predictive utility of the GBQ-S on gambling severity. Participants: 508 youth and adults completed the GBQ-S. Results: The CFA showed an overall acceptable fit to the data confirming the proposed two-factor model. Scores of the two GBQ sub-scales were positively and significantly correlated with scores on gambling severity. Cognitive distortions have a significant effect on gambling severity after controlling for frequency of engagement in gambling activities. Luck and perseverance, but not illusion of control, was positively related to gambling severity. Discussion: scores measured by the GBQ-S exhibit adequate psychometric properties for the accurate assessment of cognitive distortions across adults and youth from the general community of Argentina.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of repetitive imagination of alcohol consumption on craving in
           alcohol-dependent patients: A pilot study

    • Authors: Olga Geisel; Julia Behnke; Michael Schneider; Klaus-Dieter Wernecke; Christian A. Müller
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Olga Geisel, Julia Behnke, Michael Schneider, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Christian A. Müller
      Background In the majority of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical course is characterized by multiple relapses to drinking, frequently preceded by intense craving for alcohol. The present pilot study aimed to assess the effects of a repetitive imaginary cue-exposure protocol in reducing craving in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Methods Sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to six intervention groups and were instructed to repetitively imagine: i) drinking a glass of their preferred alcoholic drink (low vs. high number of repetitions); or ii) drinking a glass of water (low vs. high number of repetitions); or iii) performing an analogous movement or performed no imagination. Additionally, 10 healthy controls were instructed to repetitively imagine drinking a glass of their preferred alcoholic drink (high number of repetitions). The levels of craving before and after intervention were measured using the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ) and the Visual Analogue Scale for Craving (VASC). Results Repetitive imagination of alcohol consumption did not lead to a significant decrease in craving in alcohol-dependent patients as measured by the AUQ and VASC. In contrast, healthy controls showed a nearly significant decrease of the urge to drink alcohol after applying the protocol with a high number of repetitions. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study might indicate an aberrant ability to habituate to alcohol-related stimuli in patients with AUD compared to healthy subjects. Future studies in larger samples are needed to further explore the effectiveness of imaginary cue-exposure interventions in alcohol dependence.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Internet use and problematic Internet use among adolescents in Japan: A
           nationwide representative survey

    • Authors: Satoko Mihara; Yoneatsu Osaki; Hideki Nakayama; Hiroshi Sakuma; Maki Ikeda; Osamu Itani; Yoshitaka Kaneita; Hideyuki Kanda; Takashi Ohida; Susumu Higuchi
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Satoko Mihara, Yoneatsu Osaki, Hideki Nakayama, Hiroshi Sakuma, Maki Ikeda, Osamu Itani, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Hideyuki Kanda, Takashi Ohida, Susumu Higuchi
      Introduction Japan is assumed to have serious health and social problems due to Internet overuse, but little is known about the actual conditions. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) and associated Internet use in adolescents in Japan. Methods A nationwide survey of adolescent Internet use was conducted in 2012 and 2013. The participants were 100,050 students from randomly selected junior and senior high schools nationwide who gave valid responses to a self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on Internet use and the Japanese version of the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) as well as other questions related to lifestyle habits. Internet users were classified by gender according to three categories on the basis of their YDQ scores: adaptive use, maladaptive use, and PIU. Results The estimated prevalence of PIU was 6.2% in males, 9.8% in females, and 7.9% in total; it closely correlated with female gender, school grades, and number of Internet hours. The following common and gender-specific applications that conferred a risk of PIU were identified: downloading (both genders), online gaming (males), social networking services, blogs, and bulletin boards (females). Conclusions A cross-sectional survey using YDQ of a large number of high school students yielded a PIU prevalence of 7.9% in Japan. This study showed that problems associated with Internet overuse have already become serious; therefore, planning and implementation of prevention and control measures is urgently required.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Hopelessness and alcohol use: The mediating role of drinking motives and
           outcome expectancies

    • Authors: Laura Baines; Andrew Jones; Paul Christiansen
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Laura Baines, Andrew Jones, Paul Christiansen
      Introduction Heavy drinking is a considerable public health concern. There is a broad evidence-base examining the separate contributions of personality characteristics, motives and alcohol-expectancies on subsequent alcohol use to identify those at risk. However, little is known about the complex relationships by which these variables may interact to predict drinking behavior. Feelings of hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity are hypothesized to be distal predictors of alcohol use, with outcome expectancies and drinking motives more proximal. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity influenced alcohol use via drinking to cope and alcohol - outcome expectancies. Methods We recruited 230 participants to complete an online questionnaire consisting of the brief drinking motives questionnaire, the Substance Use Risk Profile scale and Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol scale. We conducted path analyses using structural equation modelling. Results We demonstrated a significant direct effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol use, and a significant serial indirect effect of hopelessness through coping motives and alcohol outcome expectancies. Conclusions These findings suggest feelings of hopelessness may predict alcohol consumption through a complex pathway and future research should use these findings to identify individuals at risk of increased alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Associations between social identity diversity, compatibility, and
           recovery capital amongst young people in substance use treatment

    • Authors: E. Mawson; D. Best; D.I. Lubman
      Pages: 70 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): E. Mawson, D. Best, D.I. Lubman
      This study explored associations between group memberships and recovery capital amongst 20 young adults aged 18 to 21years in residential alcohol and drug treatment. Method Participants completed an interviewer administered research interview based on measures of recovery capital and a social networks assessment mapping group memberships, group substance use, and relationships between groups. Results Higher personal and social recovery capital was associated with lower diversity of group memberships, a higher number of positive links between groups, and greater compatibility of lower substance-using groups with other groups in the network. Higher compatibility of heavier-using groups was also associated with having a higher number of negative, antagonistic ties between groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that it is higher compatibility of a lower substance-using social identity and lower-using group memberships that contributes to recovery capital. Further, positive ties between groups and lower diversity of group memberships appear to be key aspects in how multiple social identities that are held by young adults relate to personal and social recovery capital.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • The importance of social identities in the management of and recovery from
           ‘Diabulimia’: A qualitative exploration

    • Authors: Amy Hastings; Niamh McNamara; Jacqueline Allan; Mike Marriott
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Amy Hastings, Niamh McNamara, Jacqueline Allan, Mike Marriott
      Introduction A significant barrier to recovery for individuals with co-morbid eating disorders and type 1 diabetes is the way in which group members self-categorise. Nonetheless, identity issues are neglected during the recovery process. The aim of this paper is to explore how group memberships (and the associated identities) both contribute to and hinder recovery in this cohort. Method Transcripts from five online focus groups with 13 members of an online support group for individuals with ‘Diabulimia’ were thematically analysed. Results Findings suggested that those with whom one shares a recovery identity can be well placed to provide psychological resources necessary for successful recovery although such connections can be damaging if group norms are not managed. Members recognised that other important relationships (including family and friends and health professionals) are also key to recovery; these other group memberships (and the associated identities) can be facilitated through the recovery identity group membership, which allows for external validation of the recovery identity, provides encouragement to disclose the illness to supportive others, and provides information to facilitate positive service interactions. Conclusions While clinical interventions typically focus on eliminating disordered behaviours, we suggest that these should also include strengthening important group memberships that promote recovery.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking
           identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    • Authors: Kristen P. Lindgren; Jason J. Ramirez; Nauder Namaky; Cecilia C. Olin; Bethany A. Teachman
      Pages: 87 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Kristen P. Lindgren, Jason J. Ramirez, Nauder Namaky, Cecilia C. Olin, Bethany A. Teachman
      Introduction Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Methods Two studies were conducted (Ns=360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. Results In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. Conclusions These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • People Control Their Addictions

    • Authors: Stanton Peele
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Stanton Peele
      The world, led by the United States, is hell bent on establishing the absence of choice in addiction, as expressed by the defining statement that addiction is a “chronic relapsing brain disease” (my emphasis). The figure most associated with this model, the director of the American National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nora Volkow, claims that addiction vitiates free will through its effects on the brain. In reality, while by no means a simple task, people regularly quit their substance addictions, often by moderating their consumption, usually through mindfulness-mediated processes (Peele, 2007). Ironically, the brain disease model's ascendance in the U.S. corresponds with epidemic rises in opiate addiction, both painkillers (Brady et al., 2016) and heroin (CDC, n.d.), as well as heroin, painkiller, and tranquilizer poisoning deaths (Rudd et al., 2016). More to the point, the conceptual and treatment goal of eliminating choice in addiction and recovery is not only futile, but iatrogenic. Indeed, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's epidemiological surveys, while finding natural recovery for both drug and alcohol disorders to be typical, has found a decline in natural recovery rates (Dawson et al., 2005) and a sharp increase in AUDs (Grant et al., 2015).

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Strong-willed but not successful: The importance of strategies in recovery
           from addiction

    • Authors: Anke Snoek; Neil Levy; Jeanette Kennett
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Anke Snoek, Neil Levy, Jeanette Kennett
      Introduction Philosophers, cognitive and social psychologists and laypeople often subscribe to the view that willpower is central to recovery from addiction. But there are reasons to suspect that willpower is much less important to explaining recovery than this view suggests. Methods Here we report findings from a qualitative longitudinal study on how substance dependent people see their agency and self-control, and how their self-control develops over time. 69 opioid, alcohol and methamphetamine dependent people were interviewed over a 3year period. Results Most of the participants described themselves as strong willed; in fact, as very strong willed. However, there seemed no correlation between having a (self-assessed) strong will and recovery status. Rather, the number of strategies cited by participants distinguished those in stable recovery from those who were not. Participants in recovery were also more enthusiastic about strategies than those who have not succeeded in controlling substance use. Willpower remained important, but was itself used strategically. Conclusions People with addiction seem not to be short on willpower; rather, recovery is dependent on developing strategies to preserve willpower by controlling the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Gender differences in felt stigma and barriers to help-seeking for problem

    • Authors: Alison Baxter; Christina Salmon; Kristen Dufresne; Alexandra Carasco-Lee; Flora I. Matheson
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Alison Baxter, Christina Salmon, Kristen Dufresne, Alexandra Carasco-Lee, Flora I. Matheson
      Background Men and women differ in their patterns of help-seeking for health and social problems. For people experiencing problem gambling, feelings of stigma may affect if and when they reach out for help. In this study we examine men's and women's perceptions of felt stigma in relation to help-seeking for problematic gambling. Methods Using concept mapping, we engaged ten men and eighteen women in group activities. We asked men and women about their perceptions of the pleasurable aspects and negative consequences of gambling; they generated a list of four hundred and sixteen statements. These statements were parsed for duplication and for relevance to the study focal question and reduced to seventy-three statements by the research team. We then asked participants to rate their perceptions of how much felt stigma (negative impact on one's own or family's reputation) interfered with help-seeking for gambling. We analyzed the data using a gender lens. Findings Men and women felt that shame associated with gambling-related financial difficulties was detrimental to help-seeking. For men, the addictive qualities of and emotional responses to gambling were perceived as stigma-related barriers to help-seeking. For women, being seduced by the ‘bells and whistles’ of the gambling venue, their denial of their addiction, their belief in luck and that the casino can be beat, and the shame of being dishonest were perceived as barriers to help-seeking. Conclusions Efforts to engage people who face gambling problems need to consider gendered perceptions of what is viewed as stigmatizing.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Age of first use of energy beverages predicts future maximal consumption
           among naval pilot and flight officer candidates

    • Authors: Thomas E. Sather; Conrad L. Woolsey; Ronald D. Williams; Marion W. Evans; Fred Cromartie
      Pages: 9 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Thomas E. Sather, Conrad L. Woolsey, Ronald D. Williams, Marion W. Evans, Fred Cromartie
      Background Energy drinks are popular beverages that can have adverse long-term health effects when consumed by children and adolescents. This study sought to determine if the age of first energy drink use in a U.S. military population is predictive of the maximum number of energy drinks consumed during a single day and/or single occasion (operationally defined as a couple of hours; e.g., a night out, during studying or sport session). Method Student U.S. naval aviator and naval flight officers who reported past-year use of energy drinks (N=239) were surveyed to determine various measures of energy drink consumption. Results Age of first consumption was predictive of the maximum number of energy drinks consumed during a single occasion within the past year. Within this sample, the age range between 13 and 16years appeared to be a critical period with results indicating that people who began consuming energy drinks during this period were 4.88 times more likely to consume high quantities (four or more) of energy drinks during a single occasion when compared to those who started consuming energy drinks between the ages of 20–23. Likewise, persons who began to consume energy drinks between the ages of 13–16 are 2.48 times more likely to consume high quantities of energy drinks during a single occasion than those who started between the ages of 17–19. There was no difference between 17 and 19year olds and 20–23year olds. Age of first use was not correlated to daily average intake or daily maximal intake of energy drinks. Conclusions A lower age of first energy drink use suggests higher risk of single-occasion heavy episodic consumption in this military population. Researchers should further explore the relationship of early onset energy drink consumption and potential future health risks.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Booze and butts: A content analysis of the presence of alcohol in tobacco
           industry lifestyle magazines

    • Authors: Nan Jiang; Daniel K. Cortese; M. Jane Lewis; Pamela M. Ling
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Nan Jiang, Daniel K. Cortese, M. Jane Lewis, Pamela M. Ling
      Background Advertising influences people's health behaviors. Tobacco companies have linked tobacco and alcohol in their marketing activities. We examined how depictions of alcohol were placed in lifestyle magazines produced by tobacco companies, and if these references differed depending on the magazine’s orientation, if it was towards men, women, or if it was unisex. Methods Content analysis of 6 different tobacco industry lifestyle magazines (73 issues), including 73 magazine covers, 1558 articles, 444 tobacco ads, and 695 non-tobacco ads. Results 14 of 73 (19%) magazine covers featured alcohol; 581 of 1558 (37%) magazine articles mentioned alcohol; 119 of 444 (27%) tobacco ads showed alcohol images; and 57 of 695 (8%) non-tobacco ads portrayed alcohol. Male-oriented magazines (Unlimited, CML, and Real Edge) contained the most alcohol references, and the references were mainly beer, mixed drinks, and liquor or spirits. Female-oriented magazines (All Woman and Flair) contained the fewest alcohol references, and wine and mixed drinks were the major types of alcoholic beverage portrayed. For the unisex magazine (P.S.), the frequency of alcohol references fell between the male- and female-oriented magazines, and the magazine most frequently mentioned mixed drinks. Conclusions Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in social settings, and tailor anti-tobacco messaging by gender.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Pilot outcome results of culturally adapted evidence-based substance use
           disorder treatment with a Southwest Tribe

    • Authors: Kamilla L. Venner; Brenna L. Greenfield; Kylee J. Hagler; Jeremiah Simmons; Donna Lupee; Everett Homer; Yvette Yamutewa; Jane Ellen Smith
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Kamilla L. Venner, Brenna L. Greenfield, Kylee J. Hagler, Jeremiah Simmons, Donna Lupee, Everett Homer, Yvette Yamutewa, Jane Ellen Smith
      Introduction Although American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have exhibited high rates of alcohol and drug use disorders, there is a paucity of substance use disorder treatment outcome research. In addition, there exists controversy about whether evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are culturally appropriate given that they were derived mainly by and for non-Hispanic White populations and do not explicitly include aspects of AI/AN culture and worldview. Methods In this pilot study, we collaboratively culturally adapted two EBTs, Motivational Interviewing and Community Reinforcement Approach (MICRA), and evaluated substance use and psychological outcomes at 4- and 8-months post-baseline assessment. In preparation for a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT), eight tribal members (75% male) participated in this pilot treatment study. Measures included substance use, urine screens, self-efficacy, psychological distress, and hopelessness. All participants completed follow-up assessments at 4- and 8-months. Due to small sample size, effect sizes were calculated to evaluate outcomes pre- and post-treatment. Results Despite high rates of abstinence at baseline, percent days abstinent (PDA) increased at the 8-month time point for the most commonly used substances (alcohol, Hedges's g =0.59, and marijuana, g =0.60) and for all substances combined (excluding tobacco, g =0.56). Improvements in psychological distress (g =−0.66) and 5 of the 7 Addiction Severity Index domains (range of g =−0.42 to −0.98) also emerged. Conclusions Results suggest that culturally adapted EBTs yield significant improvements in alcohol use, psychological distress, and legal problems among AI/ANs. Future research using RCT methodology is needed to examine efficacy and effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Exercise addiction in CrossFit: Prevalence and psychometric properties of
           the Exercise Addiction Inventory

    • Authors: Mia Beck Lichtenstein; Tanja Tang Jensen
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Tanja Tang Jensen
      Introduction CrossFit is a mix of aerobic and anaerobic exercise regimes with the stated goal of improving fitness and physical performance. It is growing in popularity and has a strong community known to motivate and push the participants to maximal performance. The negative consequences of these extreme exercise patterns have rarely been described. The prevalence of injuries in CrossFit is high but exercise addiction and harmful exercise attitudes have not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of exercise addiction in CrossFit and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in a CrossFit population. Methods We invited crossfitters to participate in an online survey using Facebook groups. A total of 603 regular crossfitters completed the EAI and additional questions concerning exercise amounts and negative exercise attitudes and beliefs. We used principal component analyses and structural equation models to test the psychometric properties of the EAI and to describe the characteristics of the addicted crossfitters. Results We found that 5% of the crossfitters were addicted to exercise and that young males had a higher risk. The EAI had good internal reliability (0.73) and construct validity. Thus we found significant positive associations between exercise addiction and the tendency to exercise in spite of injury, feelings of guilt when unable to exercise, passion turning into obsession and taking medication to be able to exercise. Conclusions Exercise addiction is prevalent in CrossFit and needs further exploration. The EAI is recommended for research in CrossFit communities and applied settings.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Heavy cannabis use and attentional avoidance of anxiety-related stimuli

    • Authors: T.D.W. Wilcockson; N.E.M. Sanal
      Pages: 38 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): T.D.W. Wilcockson, N.E.M. Sanal
      Objectives Cannabis is now the most widely used illicit substance in the world. Previous research demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with dysfunctional affect regulation and anxiety. Anxiety is characterised by attentional biases in the presence of emotional information. This novel study therefore examined the attentional bias of cannabis users when presented with anxiety-related stimuli. The aim was to establish whether cannabis users respond to anxiety-related stimuli differently to control participants. Methods A dot-probe paradigm was utilised using undergraduate students. Trials contained anxiety-related stimuli and neutral control stimuli. Eye-tracking was used to measure attention for the stimuli. Results Results indicated that cannabis users demonstrated attentional-avoidance behaviour when presented with anxiety-related stimuli. Conclusions The findings suggest a difference in processing of emotional information in relation to neutral information between groups. It would appear that cannabis users avoid anxiety provoking stimuli. Such behaviour could potentially have motivational properties that could lead to exacerbating anxiety disorder-type behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of evaluative context in implicit cognitions associated with
           alcohol and violent behaviors

    • Authors: Ezemenari M. Obasi; Lucia Cavanagh; Delishia M. Pittman; Jessica J. Brooks
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Ezemenari M. Obasi, Lucia Cavanagh, Delishia M. Pittman, Jessica J. Brooks
      Introduction A large body of literature has substantiated the relationship between alcohol use and violent behaviors, but little consideration has been given to implicit interactions between the two. This study examines the implicit attitudes associated with alcoholic drinks and violent behaviors, and their relationship to explicit reports of problematic behaviors associated with alcohol use. Methods The Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) was used to test the effect of distracters (noise) on implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic drinks and violent behaviors. Data was collected from 148 students enrolled in a Midwestern university. Results Irrespective of contextual distractions, participants consistently exhibited negative implicit cognitions associated with violent behaviors. However, context impacted the valence of cognitions associated with alcoholic beverages. Implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic beverages were negative when nonalcoholic beverages were used as distracters, but were positive when licit and illicit drugs were used as distracters. Implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic drinks were correlated with implicit cognitions associated with violent behaviors and explicit measures of problem drinking, problem drug-related behaviors, and measures of craving, to name a few. Conclusion Evaluative context can have an effect on the expressed appraisal of implicit attitudes. Implications, limitations, and future directions for using the GNAT in addictions research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2016.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • One-year abstinence improves ADHD symptoms among patients with
           polysubstance use disorder

    • Authors: Egon Hagen; Aleksander H. Erga; Sverre M. Nesvåg; James R. McKay; Astri J. Lundervold; Espen Walderhaug
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Egon Hagen, Aleksander H. Erga, Sverre M. Nesvåg, James R. McKay, Astri J. Lundervold, Espen Walderhaug
      Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD). Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The present study investigates whether individuals with polysubstance use disorder who remain abstinent for a year after entering treatment have a more substantial reduction in ADHD symptoms than those who relapsed and controls. Material and methods Subjects were SUD patients (N=115) and healthy controls (N=34). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were defined as having relapsed if they had an AUDIT score≥8 or a DUDIT score≥2 for women and≥6 for men. Results Patients who remained abstinent for one year reported a substantial reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to patients who relapsed and controls. Conclusions Abstinence alleviates ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder. We suggest that confirmation of an ADHD diagnosis should follow a period of abstinence to avoid identification of false-positive cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T18:28:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.005
  • A qualitative exploration of social support during treatment for severe
           alcohol use disorder and recovery

    • Authors: Alyssa T. Brooks; Miriam Magaña Lòpez; Alexandra Ranucci; Michael Krumlauf; Gwenyth R. Wallen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Alyssa T. Brooks, Miriam Magaña Lòpez, Alexandra Ranucci, Michael Krumlauf, Gwenyth R. Wallen
      Introduction Severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) affects multiple aspects of an individual's life as well as their loved ones' lives. Perceived social support has the potential to help or hinder recovery efforts. Methods In this analysis we seek to understand the changes of social networks among individuals with severe AUD (n=33) throughout their recovery process and the potential relationship between the quality and nature of those networks and sustained sobriety as they transition from an inpatient research facility providing rehabilitation treatment back to the community. Interviews were conducted in 2014 and 2015. We conducted in-depth thematic analysis of themes related to social support using an exploratory approach. Results The most common types of social support mentioned in both inpatient and outpatient settings were instrumental and emotional. Participants most frequently mentioned Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), an abstinence-based support system, as a source of support and often used the inpatient program as an exemplar when describing their ideal social networks. Conclusion These data provide insight into the complexity of the issues and barriers that individuals in recovery may be facing across “transition periods.” From an intervention standpoint, it may be beneficial to focus on helping people choose environments and their accompanying social contexts and networks that are most conducive to recovery. Further elucidating the concept of social support and its role in recovery could provide information on unique needs of individuals and guide clinicians in engaging patients to develop new or sustain healthy existing social networks that result in continued sobriety.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T17:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.08.002
  • The direct and indirect effect of loneliness on the development of
           adolescent alcohol use in the United Kingdom

    • Authors: Michael T. McKay; Svenja Konowalczyk; James R. Andretta; Jon C. Cole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Michael T. McKay, Svenja Konowalczyk, James R. Andretta, Jon C. Cole
      Alcohol use among adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK) remains relatively high compared to those in other European countries. The present study sought to examine both the direct and indirect effect of loneliness on drinking behavior. Participants were school children (mean age 13.5years at Time 1) participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial in the UK, who completed a battery of questionnaires examining alcohol-use indicators, loneliness, self-efficacy and sensation seeking at Time 1 and at +12months. Loneliness at Time 1 had a substantive, though largely indirect (i.e., via self-efficacy and sensation seeking covariates), impact on alcohol-related harm at +12months. Furthermore, Loneliness interacted with gender in the prediction of context of alcohol use, where being female and experiencing loneliness put an individual at a greater risk of unsupervised drinking. Females experiencing loneliness were also 2.5 times as likely to have had a drink in the past 30days, and around 2.5 times as likely to have ever consumed a full drink, when compared to their male peers. The current results indicate that loneliness is an important but complex factor in adolescent drinking. There are important implications for the development of interventions to prevent underage drinking, not least that it is not appropriate to consider all underage drinkers as socially marginalised. However, for those that are, the self-medication hypothesis is potentially relevant through emotional self-efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.003
  • Strong preference for mint snus flavor among research participants

    • Authors: Liane M. Schneller; Bruce R. Lindgren; Peter G. Shields; Dorothy K. Hatsukami; Richard J. O'Connor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Liane M. Schneller, Bruce R. Lindgren, Peter G. Shields, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Richard J. O'Connor
      Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 allows the US FDA to regulate tobacco products, including the banning of characterizing flavors, such as fruit and candy, cigarettes. The availability of mint flavored snus may facilitate the use of the product if consumers find it more palatable with respect to taste, odor, pleasantness, and intensity. Methods This study assessed product evaluation (PES), odor identification, odor intensity, and odor hedonics among 151 smokers enrolled in a clinical trial of snus substitution for cigarettes. Results Far more participants selected Winterchill (N=110) than Robust (N=41), regardless of their menthol cigarette smoking status. Nicotine dependence was higher among those who selected Winterchill (4 vs 3 on Fagerstrom scale, p=0.017). Those who found Winterchill to be more satisfying, less aversive, and having a more intense, more pleasant odor than Robust were substantially more likely to select Winterchill for their one week trial. Conclusions Findings indicate that subjective effect measures such as the PES and DEQ are capable of differentiating products in terms of flavor preference, and that smokers express a strong preference for mint flavored snus.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T17:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.004
  • Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    • Authors: Éilish Duke; Christian Montag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Éilish Duke, Christian Montag
      The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N =262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T16:25:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.002
  • Adolescent drinking in different contexts: What behaviors do parents

    • Authors: Sharon Lipperman-Kreda; Paul J. Gruenewald; Melina Bersamin; Christina F. Mair; Joel W. Grube
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Sharon Lipperman-Kreda, Paul J. Gruenewald, Melina Bersamin, Christina F. Mair, Joel W. Grube
      Previous research suggests that the context in which drinking occurs contribute to specific alcohol-related problems. In the current study we assessed how often adolescents attended different contexts in which they could drink, how often they drank in those contexts, and whether drinking patterns and parental monitoring were related to alcohol use in those contexts. We collected survey data from 1217 adolescents 15–18years of age in 24 midsized California cities. Measures included past-year frequencies of attending and drinking in restaurants, bars/nightclubs, and outdoor places, typical hours spent at home (i.e., own home or someone else's home), perceptions of parental control and disclosure to parents about free time activities, and demographics. Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to assess associations between drinking patterns, parental control, and disclosure and frequency of attending and drinking in specific contexts. There were large variations in attending contexts in which drinking could take place. More frequent drinking was related to less time spent at home, while heavier drinking was associated with more time spent at home. Parental control was related to less frequent attendance at bars/nightclubs, and disclosure to less frequent involvement in outdoor activities and spending more time at home. Among drinkers, frequencies of attendance were strongly related to frequencies of drinking in all contexts except the home. Parental control and disclosure were related to more frequent drinking at restaurants and exposure to bars/nightclubs and drinking at outdoor activities. Parental monitoring may reduce exposure to risks by shifting adolescent contexts for alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T18:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.003
  • Is the concept of compulsion useful in the explanation or description of
           addictive behaviour and experience?

    • Authors: Nick Heather
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Nick Heather
      The concept of compulsion, in which addictive behaviour is said to be carried out against the will, is central to the disease theory of addiction and ubiquitous in modern definitions. The aims of this article are: (i) to describe various meanings of compulsion in the literature; (ii) to compare the part thought to be played by compulsion in addiction with its suggested role in obsessive-compulsive disorder; (iii) to critically examine the place of compulsion in influential neurobiological accounts of addiction; (iv) to summarise the empirical evidence bearing on the usefulness of the compulsion concept, evidence that seems at first sight incompatible with the notion of compulsion. This is followed by a discussion of which possible meanings of compulsion can survive an empirical test and what role they might play in understanding addiction, paying particular attention to a distinction between strong and weak senses of compulsion. A conclusion is that addictive behaviour cannot be considered compulsive at the time it is carried out, though other possible meanings of compulsion as an explanation or description of addictive behaviour and experience are discussed. Among other conclusions, it is suggested that, although in some senses of the term it may seem arbitrary whether or not ‘compulsion’ should be retained, its use has important consequences for the public understanding of addiction, and is likely to deter people's attempts to overcome their addictions and their chances of success.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T16:33:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.002
  • Pharmacogenomics-guided policy in opioid use disorder (OUD) management: An
           ethnically-diverse case-based approach

    • Authors: Edwin Chapman; Earl B. Ettienne; Mary Maneno; Adaku Ofoegbu; Bradford Wilson; Beverlyn Settles-Reaves; Melissa Clarke; Georgia Dunston; Kevin Rosenblatt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Edwin Chapman, Earl B. Ettienne, Mary Maneno, Adaku Ofoegbu, Bradford Wilson, Beverlyn Settles-Reaves, Melissa Clarke, Georgia Dunston, Kevin Rosenblatt
      Introduction Opioid use disorder (OUD) is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically-significant impairment or distress. Opioid agonist treatment is an integral component of OUD management, and buprenorphine is often utilized in OUD management due to strong clinical evidence for efficacy. However, interindividual genetic differences in buprenorphine metabolism may result in variable treatment response, leaving some patients undertreated and at increased risk for relapse. Clinical pharmacogenomics studies the effect that inherited genetic variations have on drug response. Our objective is to demonstrate the impact of pharmacogenetic testing on OUD management outcomes. Methods We analyzed a patient who reported discomfort at daily buprenorphine dose of 24mg, which was a mandated daily maximum by the pharmacy benefits manager. Regular urine screenings were conducted to detect the presence of unauthorized substances, and pharmacogenetic testing was used to determine the appropriate dose of buprenorphine for OUD management. Results At the 24mg buprenorphine daily dose, the patient had multiple relapses with unauthorized substances. Pharmacogenetic testing revealed that the patient exhibited a cytochrome P450 3A4 ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype, which necessitated a higher than recommended daily dose of buprenorphine (32mg) for adequate OUD management. The patient exhibited a reduction in the number of relapses on the pharmacogenetic-based dose recommendation compared to standard dosing. Conclusion Pharmacogenomic testing as clinical decision support helped to individualize OUD management. Collaboration by key stakeholders is essential to establishing pharmacogenetic testing as standard of care in OUD management.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T15:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.05.001
  • Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient
           or pregnancy characteristics

    • Authors: Kristen A. Schmidt; Andrew J. Lancia; Saad Alvi; Jean C. Aldag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Kristen A. Schmidt, Andrew J. Lancia, Saad Alvi, Jean C. Aldag
      Introduction Studies show alcohol-preferring mice reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy; this study questions if the same is true for humans. The current investigation compares women's pre-pregnancy and first trimester alcohol consumption, examines if women with problem drinking diminish their alcohol intake during pregnancy, and determines if prenatal alcohol reduction is associated with characteristics of pregnancy, patients or smoking. Methods 126 participants in weeks 1–12 of pregnancy, recruited from Obstetric and Family Practices, completed a survey during their initial prenatal visit including two gender-specific AUDITs (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tests) querying current and pre-pregnancy alcohol use. AUDIT-C (AUDIT items 1–3) scores measuring pre-pregnancy and first trimester alcohol consumption were compared, analyzed and tested using general linear model repeated. A p≤0.05 was accepted as significant. Results Most participants were multiparous, Caucasian high school graduates experiencing nausea and vomiting. Pre-pregnancy alcohol use was significantly (p=0.019, Fisher's exact) higher among women seeing obstetricians. Pre-pregnancy AUDIT-C scores (m (mean)=2.22, sd (standard deviation)=2.19) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than first trimester scores (m=0.143, sd=0.532). Among 49 with pre-pregnancy AUDIT-C scores≥3, 45/49 (92%) reduced their alcohol use to zero during the first trimester. Age, race, education, marital status, parity, nausea and vomiting, gestational age and smoking were non-factors in score reduction. Conclusions Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T13:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.04.003
  • Predicting early onset of intoxication versus drinking—A
           population-based prospective study of Norwegian adolescents

    • Authors: Enstad Willy; Pedersen Wendy Nilsen Tilmann von Soest
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Frøydis Enstad, Willy Pedersen, Wendy Nilsen, Tilmann von Soest
      Aims Recent research suggests that early onset of intoxication (EOI) may be of greater importance for a wide range of subsequent adverse outcomes than early drinking experiences without intoxication. However, research on antecedents of EOI is scarce. The present study identifies predictors of EOI and whether they differ from those of early onset of drinking (EOD). Methods Data was drawn from the prospective Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study of Norwegian families (n =382), which followed up mothers and their children with six data collections from childhood (age 1.5) to adolescence (age 14.5). Self-reports from the adolescents (parenting practices, adolescent's conduct problems and friends' deviant behaviour) and their mothers (adolescent temperament, socio-economic factors and household alcohol problems) were used to identify predictors of EOI and EOD. Findings A variety of temperamental, socio-economic, and family factors predicted EOI, whereas EOD was predicted of substantially fewer variables. Particularly, when controlling for relevant covariates, low levels of shyness, own conduct problems and having friends with deviant behaviour prospectively predicted EOI, but not EOD. Conclusions Future research and prevention efforts should take into consideration that EOI and EOD without getting drunk appear to be predicted by different risk factors in childhood and adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:28:46Z
  • Free will in addictive behaviors: A matter of definition

    • Authors: W. Miles Cox; Eric Klinger; Javad Salehi Fadardi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): W. Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
      Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance. People who are at such risk are likely to choose to use addictive substances even though doing so entails negative consequences. In the sense of complete freedom from being determined by causal factors, we believe that there is no such thing as free will, but defined as ability to make choices from among multiple options, even though the choices are ultimately governed by natural processes, addicted individuals are free to choose. Although they might appear unable to exercise this kind of free will in decisions about their substance use, addictive behaviors are ultimately always goal-directed and voluntary. Such goal pursuits manifest considerable flexibility. Even some severely addicted individuals can cease their use when the value of continuing the use abruptly declines or when the subjective cost of continuing the use is too great with respect to the incentives in other areas of their lives. Formal treatment strategies (e.g., contingency management, Systematic Motivational Counseling, cognitive training) can also be used to facilitate this reversal.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T15:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.03.001
  • Smoke signals: The decline of brand identity predicts reduced smoking
           behaviour following the introduction of plain packaging

    • Authors: Hugh Webb; Benjamin M. Jones; Kathleen McNeill; Li Lim; Andrew J. Frain; Kerry J. O'Brien; Daniel P. Skorich; Peta Hoffmann; Tegan Cruwys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Hugh Webb, Benjamin M. Jones, Kathleen McNeill, Li Lim, Andrew J. Frain, Kerry J. O'Brien, Daniel P. Skorich, Peta Hoffmann, Tegan Cruwys
      This study tests a social identity based mechanism for the effectiveness of plain tobacco packaging legislation, introduced in Australia in December 2012, to reduce cigarette smoking. 178 Australian smokers rated their sense of identification with fellow smokers of their brand, positive brand stereotypes, quitting behaviours and intentions, and smoking intensity, both before and seven months after the policy change. Mediation analyses showed that smokers, especially those who initially identified strongly with their brand, experienced a significant decrease in their brand identity following the introduction of plain packaging and this was associated with lower smoking behaviours and increased intentions to quit. The findings provide the first quantitative evidence that brand identities may help maintain smoking behaviour, and suggest the role of social-psychological processes in the effectiveness of public health policy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T19:35:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.003
  • Individual differences in implicit learning abilities and impulsive
           behavior in the context of Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder
           under the consideration of gender

    • Authors: Rayna Sariyska; Bernd Lachmann; Sebastian Markett; Martin Reuter; Christian Montag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Sebastian Markett, Martin Reuter, Christian Montag

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.002
  • Do addicts have free will? An empirical approach to a vexing question

    • Authors: Gene M. Heyman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Gene M. Heyman
      Introduction This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods I propose two testable versions of free will. First, activities that vary as a function of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) are widely accepted as voluntary activities. Thus, we can ask if drug use in addicts is susceptible to its consequences. For instance, do laws that promise legal sanctions for drug use reduce drug use in addicts? Second, the philosopher Harry Frankfurt proposed a definition of free will that takes into account desires and self-reflection. I propose that addicts who do not want to desire drugs and successfully stop craving drugs pass his test. Results Dependence on illicit drugs typically ends after about four to six years. Dependence on cigarettes and alcohol persists for much longer, but most smokers and alcoholics eventually voluntarily quit using. Smokers and heroin addicts can voluntarily regulate their drug cravings as a function of the availability of their drug of choice. They have the capacity to pass Frankfurt's test of free will. Conclusions Addicts have free will as defined by the capacity to voluntary quit using drugs and to voluntarily regulate their cravings.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T18:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.02.001
  • Social determinants of HIV/HCV co-infection: A case study from people who
           inject drugs in rural Puerto Rico

    • Authors: Roberto Abadie; Melissa Welch-Lazoritz; Khan Bilal; Kirk Dombrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Khan Bilal, Kirk Dombrowski

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T17:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.004
  • Addiction, cigarette smoking, and voluntary control of action: Do
           cigarette smokers lose their free will?

    • Authors: Roy F. Baumeister
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Roy F. Baumeister
      Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T07:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.003
  • Ordinary people associate addiction with loss of free will

    • Authors: Andrew J. Vonasch; Cory J. Clark; Stephan Lau; Kathleen D. Vohs; Roy F. Baumeister
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): Andrew J. Vonasch, Cory J. Clark, Stephan Lau, Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister
      Introduction It is widely believed that addiction entails a loss of free will, even though this point is controversial among scholars. There is arguably a downside to this belief, in that addicts who believe they lack the free will to quit an addiction might therefore fail to quit an addiction. Methods A correlational study tested the relationship between belief in free will and addiction. Follow-up studies tested steps of a potential mechanism: 1) people think drugs undermine free will 2) people believe addiction undermines free will more when doing so serves the self 3) disbelief in free will leads people to perceive various temptations as more addictive. Results People with lower belief in free will were more likely to have a history of addiction to alcohol and other drugs, and also less likely to have successfully quit alcohol. People believe that drugs undermine free will, and they use this belief to self-servingly attribute less free will to their bad actions than to good ones. Low belief in free will also increases perceptions that things are addictive. Conclusions Addiction is widely seen as loss of free will. The belief can be used in self-serving ways that may undermine people's efforts to quit.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T08:20:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.002
  • Hangover resistance in a Canadian University student population

    • Authors: L. Darren Kruisselbrink; Adriana C. Bervoets; Suzanne de Klerk; Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo; Joris C. Verster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports
      Author(s): L. Darren Kruisselbrink, Adriana C. Bervoets, Suzanne de Klerk, Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo, Joris C. Verster
      Background Resistance to alcohol hangover may be a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. Previous research to establish the prevalence of hangover resistance in a drinking population has either not used comparable intoxication levels or has considered hangover resistance over a limited time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of lifetime hangover negative (LHN) drinkers across comparable eBAC values ranging from 0 to 500mg/dl. Methods Students at an eastern Canadian university were surveyed about their heaviest drinking episode in the past month and indicated whether they had ever experienced a hangover in their lifetime (LHN) and, if they had, the hangover severity they experienced the next day. eBACs were calculated and the percentage of LHN drinkers was computed at each 10mg/dl eBAC increment from 0 to 500mg/dl. Results Most LHN drinkers (58% female, 71% male) had an eBAC on their heaviest drinking occasion below 80mg/dl. Above eBACs of 80mg/dl, 5.8% of female and 5.1% of male drinkers were lifetime hangover negative. Conclusions The results suggest that only a small percentage of heavy drinkers lay claim to being lifetime hangover negative.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T23:14:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.001
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