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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3123 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
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Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Applications of virtual reality in individuals with alcohol misuse: A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Alexandra Ghiţă; José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 81
      Author(s): Alexandra Ghiţă, José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
      Background Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. Method We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as “alcohol” and its derivates, and virtual reality. Results We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. Conclusions The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.036
      Issue No: Vol. 81 (2018)
       
  • Electronic cigarettes for adults with tobacco dependence enrolled in a
           tobacco treatment program: A pilot study
    • Authors: Stephen R. Baldassarri; Steven L. Bernstein; Geoffrey L. Chupp; Martin D. Slade; Lisa M. Fucito; Benjamin A. Toll
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Stephen R. Baldassarri, Steven L. Bernstein, Geoffrey L. Chupp, Martin D. Slade, Lisa M. Fucito, Benjamin A. Toll
      Introduction Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have emerged as a potential harm-reducing alternative for tobacco smokers. However, the role ECs might play in treatment settings is unclear. We conducted an exploratory study of treatment-seeking smokers enrolling in a standard tobacco treatment program who were provided with either a nicotine or non-nicotine EC to use as needed to cease tobacco smoking. Methods Treatment-seeking smokers received standard tobacco treatment for 8weeks and were given nicotine transdermal patch therapy, behavioral counseling, and either a nicotine or non-nicotine EC to use as needed. Smoking and EC use patterns were tracked longitudinally to week 24. Results 40 subjects were enrolled into the study. At week 24, 6 subjects (15%) were abstinent, and the mean reduction in reported cigarettes smoked per day was 6.8±12. There were no significant differences in smoking outcomes between those who received a nicotine or non-nicotine EC (proportion abstinent at 24weeks: nicotine EC=4/20 (20%); non-nicotine EC=2/20 (10%); p=0.66). Among subjects assessed at follow-up, 62.5% were EC non-users. Conclusions The addition of a 2nd generation EC to outpatient tobacco treatment among tobacco smokers is feasible. Among those who quit smoking, half were still using the EC at 6-month follow-up. Appeal of the EC among smokers was variable, and those who had quit smoking tended to switch to lower strength nicotine solutions. Further research is needed to determine whether ECs can reduce harm and be an effective adjunct to existing tobacco treatment interventions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.033
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Difficulties in emotion regulation in treatment-seeking alcoholics with
           and without co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders
    • Authors: Clara M. Bradizza; Whitney C. Brown; Melanie U. Ruszczyk; Kurt H. Dermen; Joseph F. Lucke; Paul R. Stasiewicz
      Pages: 6 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Clara M. Bradizza, Whitney C. Brown, Melanie U. Ruszczyk, Kurt H. Dermen, Joseph F. Lucke, Paul R. Stasiewicz
      Emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) are known to underlie mental health conditions including anxiety and depressive disorders and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Although AUD, mood, and anxiety disorders commonly co-occur, no study has examined the association between these disorders and ERD among AUD outpatients. In the current study, emotion regulation (ER) scores of AUD individuals with no co-occurring mental health condition were compared to the ER scores of individuals who met diagnostic criteria for co-occurring mood and/or anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking AUD individuals (N =77) completed measures of emotion regulation, alcohol use and psychological functioning prior to beginning a 12-week outpatient cognitive-behaviorally oriented alcohol treatment program. Individuals were classified as having no co-occurring mood or anxiety disorder (AUD-0, n =24), one co-occurring disorder (AUD-1, n =34), or two or more co-occurring disorders (AUD-2, n =19). Between-group differences in emotion regulation, quantity/frequency of alcohol consumption, positive and negative affect, affective drinking situations, negative mood regulation expectancies, distress tolerance, alexithymia, trait mindfulness, and psychological symptom severity were examined. Compared with the AUD-0 group, the AUD-2 group reported significantly greater ERD, psychiatric distress and alcohol consumption, more frequent drinking in response to negative affect situations, greater interference from negative emotions, and less use of mindfulness skills. The AUD-1 group differed from AUD-0 group only on the DERS lack of emotional awareness (Aware) subscale. Emotion regulation scores in the AUD-0 group were comparable to those previously reported for general community samples, whereas levels of ERD in the AUD-1 and AUD-2 were similar to those found in other clinical samples. Implications for the inclusion of ER interventions among AUD patients who might most benefit from such an intervention are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Resilience as a moderating factor between stress and alcohol-related
           consequences in the Army National Guard
    • Authors: Jessica Kelley Morgan; Janice Brown; Robert M. Bray
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jessica Kelley Morgan, Janice Brown, Robert M. Bray
      Due to the current prolonged conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, members of the United States National Guard and Reserve have shifted from a historically support-based role to an integral segment of combat efforts. Clinical and epidemiological research studies conducted on both civilian and military populations have documented high rates of comorbidity of stress disorders and substance use disorders. It is widely understood that excessive alcohol use is an issue among military personnel. The aim of this paper is to describe risk factors for alcohol-related serious consequences in a study of Army National Guard service members, as well as the role of resilience in protecting against these risks. Members of the National Guard (N=320) participated in the survey. We conducted a multiple regression to predict alcohol-related serious consequences and a simple moderation analysis was performed. After controlling for race, education, and deployment history, several variables emerged as significant predictors of alcohol-related consequences. Higher stressors, lower resilience, younger age, being unmarried and not living as married, being male, and identifying as non-Hispanic were associated with higher levels of serious alcohol-related consequences. Results revealed that resilience significantly moderated the relationship between stress and alcohol-related consequences. This study furthers our understanding of the alcohol-stress relationship by contextualizing it in terms of behaviors related to alcohol, as opposed to measuring consumption only. Most importantly, our work extends prior research in its examination of resilience as a moderator of the relationship between stress and serious alcohol-related consequences.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Influence of military sexual assault and other military stressors on
           substance use disorder and PTS symptomology in female military veterans
    • Authors: Matthew M. Yalch; Claire L. Hebenstreit; Shira Maguen
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Matthew M. Yalch, Claire L. Hebenstreit, Shira Maguen
      Servicewomen exposed to traumatic stressors over the course of their military service are at increased risk of developing symptoms of substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). They are also at risk for exposure to military sexual assault (MSA), which is also associated with SUD and PTS symptomology. Research is unclear about the incremental contributions of different forms of traumatic stressors on co-occurring SUD and PTS symptomology. In this study we examined the independent and combined effects of MSA and other military stressors on SUD and PTS symptomology in a sample of female veterans (N =407). Results indicate that MSA and other military stressors exhibit incremental effects on SUD and PTS symptomology. Results further suggest that women exposed to both MSA and other military stressors are at increased risk for developing co-occurring SUD and PTSD. These findings extend previous research on comorbid SUD and PTSD, highlighting the cumulative effects of traumatic stressors on posttraumatic psychopathology, and have implications for future research and clinical practice with female veterans.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Association of serotonergic pathway genes with smoking cessation in a
           Chinese rural male population
    • Authors: Qiang Wang; Suyun Li; Huijie Li; Chongqi Jia
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Qiang Wang, Suyun Li, Huijie Li, Chongqi Jia
      Introduction Previous studies have found serotonergic pathway genes have inhibitory effects on dopamine system which may influence smoking addiction. This study examined the associations of serotonergic pathway genes (serotonergic receptor genes, solute carrier family 6 member4 and tryptophan hydroxylase gene) with smoking cessation. Materials and methods Male current and former smokers (n =819) were recruited from 17 villages of three counties in Shandong province, China. DNA was extracted from the blood samples. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in serotonergic pathway genes were genotyped. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations between SNPs and smoking cessation. Pearson's χ2 test was performed to explore associations of haplotypes with smoking cessation. Multiple logistic regression was used to detect the interaction between SNPs on smoking cessation. Results In multiple logistic regression, rs1042173 of Solute carrier family 6 member 4 was significantly related to smoking cessation in additive and dominant model (p =0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Rs4570625 of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 was significantly associated with smoking cessation in dominant model (p =0.03). Nine significant interactions were detected between SNPs in serotonergic pathway genes. Conclusions The present study reveals that serotonergic pathway genes were significantly related to smoking cessation. Future research should expand upon these findings to confirm them.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • The relative strength of attitudes versus perceived drinking norms as
           predictors of alcohol use
    • Authors: Angelo M. DiBello; Mary Beth Miller; Clayton Neighbors; Allecia Reid; Kate B. Carey
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Angelo M. DiBello, Mary Beth Miller, Clayton Neighbors, Allecia Reid, Kate B. Carey
      Social cognitive factors such as perceived norms and personal attitudes toward alcohol consumption are reliable predictors of alcohol use and related problems. The current study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of one's attitude toward alcohol use as a unique and important predictor of drinking related outcomes when directly compared to perceived descriptive and injunctive norms. Participants were mandated students (n =568; 28% female) who violated a campus alcohol policy and received a Brief Motivational Intervention. Analyses included the use of linear regression for prospective predictions to evaluate the relative importance of predictors which included perceived descriptive norms and injunctive norms, and attitudes toward moderate and heavy alcohol use. Overall, the results indicate that one's attitude toward heavy alcohol use is a stronger predictor of drinks per week, binge frequency, as well as alcohol related problems when directly compared to norms. Thus, the findings of the current study provide a compelling rationale for incorporating attitudes in the development and refinement of intervention strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Resistance to peer influence moderates the relationship between perceived
           (but not actual) peer norms and binge drinking in a college student social
           network
    • Authors: Graham T. DiGuiseppi; Matthew K. Meisel; Sara G. Balestrieri; Miles Q. Ott; Melissa J. Cox; Melissa A. Clark; Nancy P. Barnett
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Graham T. DiGuiseppi, Matthew K. Meisel, Sara G. Balestrieri, Miles Q. Ott, Melissa J. Cox, Melissa A. Clark, Nancy P. Barnett
      Introduction Adolescent and young adult binge drinking is strongly associated with perceived social norms and the drinking behavior that occurs within peer networks. The extent to which an individual is influenced by the behavior of others may depend upon that individual's resistance to peer influence (RPI). Methods Students in their first semester of college (N =1323; 54.7% female, 57% White, 15.1% Hispanic) reported on their own binge drinking, and the perceived binge drinking of up to 10 important peers in the first-year class. Using network autocorrelation models, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between participant's binge drinking frequency and the perceived and actual binge drinking frequency of important peers. We then tested the moderating role of RPI, expecting that greater RPI would weaken the relationship between perceived and actual peer binge drinking on participant binge drinking. Results Perceived and actual peer binge drinking were statistically significant predictors of participant binge drinking frequency in the past month, after controlling for covariates. RPI significantly moderated the association between perceptions of peer binge drinking and participant's own binge drinking; this association was weaker among participants with higher RPI compared to those with lower RPI. RPI did not interact with the actual binge drinking behavior of network peers. Conclusions RPI may function to protect individuals from the effect of their perceptions about the binge drinking of peers, but not from the effect of the actual binge drinking of peers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Exposure to workplace smoking bans and continuity of daily smoking
           patterns on workdays and weekends
    • Authors: Michael S. Dunbar; Saul Shiffman; Siddharth Chandra
      Pages: 53 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Michael S. Dunbar, Saul Shiffman, Siddharth Chandra
      Introduction Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. Methods 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans). Mixed modeling and generalized estimating equations assessed effects of time of day, weekday (vs weekend), and workplace policy on mean cigarettes per hour (CPH) and reports of changing location to smoke. Results Individuals were most likely to change locations to smoke during business hours, regardless of work policy, and frequency of EMA reports of restrictions at work was associated with increased likelihood of changing locations to smoke (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.16; p <0.0001). Workplace smoking policy, time block, and weekday/weekend interacted to predict CPH (p <0.01), such that individuals with partial work bans –but not those with full bans - smoked more at night (9pm – bed) on weekdays compared to weekends. Conclusions There was little evidence that full bans interfered with subjects' smoking during business hours across weekdays and weekends. Smokers largely compensate for exposure to workplace smoking bans by escaping restrictions during business hours. Better understanding the effects of smoking bans on smoking behavior may help to improve their effectiveness and yield insights into determinants of smoking in more restrictive environments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Effects of six weeks of electronic cigarette use on smoking rate, CO,
           cigarette dependence, and motivation to quit smoking: A pilot study
    • Authors: Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer W. Tidey; Rosemarie A. Martin; Suzanne M. Colby; Thomas Eissenberg
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Damaris J. Rohsenow, Jennifer W. Tidey, Rosemarie A. Martin, Suzanne M. Colby, Thomas Eissenberg
      Objectives Switching from combustible tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) may or may not help smokers to reduce cigarette consumption and toxicant exposure. This pilot study investigated the effects of asking smokers to switch to e-cigs for 6weeks on smoking, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, dependence, and motivation to quit smoking. Methods Non-treatment seeking daily smokers (n=18) were given free e-cigs and instructed to use them instead of smoking cigarettes for 6weeks. Smokers were assessed at baseline, weekly for 6weeks, and at 8 and 10weeks for cigarettes/day, e-cig use, CO, cigarette dependence, and Contemplation Ladder. Results All participants completed 6weeks; 17 completed 10weeks. At Week 6, cigarettes/day were reduced by two-thirds and CO by 45% from baseline (p's<.001), with reductions maintained at Week 10 (p's<.005). Cigarette dependence scores were a third lower at Weeks 6 (p<.002) and 10 (p<.001) than at baseline. Contemplation Ladder scores were higher at Weeks 6 and 10 (p's<.001) than at baseline. All these statistical effect sizes were large. At Week 6, number of reasons not to use e-cigs increased (p<.011). Conclusions Results show preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of short-term switching to e-cigs by non-treatment seeking smokers in terms of reduced smoke toxicant exposure and cigarette dependence, and increased motivation to quit, all maintained at least 4weeks after free e-cigs were no longer provided.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • In pursuit of a self-sustaining college alcohol intervention: Deploying
           gamified PNF in the real world
    • Authors: Andrew M. Earle; Joseph W. LaBrie; Sarah C. Boyle; Daniel Smith
      Pages: 71 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Andrew M. Earle, Joseph W. LaBrie, Sarah C. Boyle, Daniel Smith
      Our recent work (Boyle, Earle, LaBrie, & Smith, 2017) showed that the efficacy of personalized normative feedback-based (PNF) college alcohol interventions can be improved through the addition of gamified elements including points, chance, competition, and personal avatars. However, participants in that study were compensated with subject pool credit. In the current study, we piloted an upgraded, smartphone-based version of the game, which was designed to be truly self-sustaining (i.e., engaging enough that students play voluntarily without the presence of external motivators). First-year students were invited to play the game weekly for six rounds, with participants submitting and voting on their own questions each week and receiving a novel type of feedback in addition to standard descriptive PNF: opposite peers' judgments of participants' self-reported drinking behavior, or reflective norms. With no play-based incentives, 222 first-year college students voluntarily played the game, CampusGANDR. ANCOVA models revealed that, relative to participants randomized to receive feedback on control topics during the three intervention rounds, those who received both descriptive and reflective feedback on peer alcohol use had significantly reduced normative perceptions and reduced alcohol use two months post intervention. This was especially true among heavy drinkers. The results suggest that our gamified “GANDR” approach shows promise as a self-sustaining intervention and, further, that high-risk drinkers may benefit disproportionately from this methodology. Thus, self-sustaining interventions represent an encouraging avenue for future research and development and may hold the potential to impact risky college drinking on a large scale.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Affect and cortisol mechanisms through which acute exercise attenuates
           cigarette cravings during a temporary quit attempt
    • Authors: Stefanie De Jesus; Harry Prapavessis
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Stefanie De Jesus, Harry Prapavessis
      Introduction A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how exercise attenuates cravings among temporarily abstinent smokers; however, research has presented mixed findings. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanistic role of positive and negative affect and cortisol in the exercise-craving reduction relationship. Methods Adult smokers (N =110, male=56, M age=33.1, M cigarettes/day=15.4) provided baseline affective and cortisol data (T1). After an 18-h period of abstinence, participants were randomized to a passive sitting (PSG) or moderate exercise group (MEG; 40–68% of heart rate reserve) for 10min. Affect and cortisol data were also collected immediately before (T2) and after (T3) the condition. Results The smoking abstinence manipulation increased cravings (p <0.001, eta=0.40) and negative affect (p <0.001, eta=0.17), as well as decreased positive affect (p <0.001, eta=0.08) and cortisol (trending, p =0.07, η2=0.04). As expected, a significant reduction in cravings from T2 to T3 was found for MEG but not PSG (p <0.001, eta=0.25). Mediation was tested using Sobel and bootstrapping tests with residual change scores of mediators and cravings. Findings showed that both positive and negative affect, but not cortisol, mediated the relationship between exercise and cravings. Conclusions Understanding the mechanisms by which exercise induces craving reductions will better allow researchers and healthcare professionals to infer causality and implement interventions guided by the processes that yield such desirable outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Alcohol-induced blackouts, subjective intoxication, and motivation to
           decrease drinking: Prospective examination of the transition out of
           college
    • Authors: Elise N. Marino; Kim Fromme
      Pages: 89 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Elise N. Marino, Kim Fromme
      Objective We prospectively examined whether subjective intoxication serves as a risk factor for experiencing alcohol-induced blackouts. We then examined whether subjective intoxication and/or blackouts predicted motivation to decrease their drinking, and whether this motivation to change would promote future changes in drinking behavior. Method Participants (N =1854, 62.1% female, 53.2% Caucasian, M age =21.8) were recruited the summer prior to matriculating into a large, public university to complete a 6-year longitudinal study. Self-reported motivation to decrease their drinking behavior, their frequency of blackouts, quantity of alcohol consumption, and subjective intoxication (i.e., feeling drunk) were assessed annually during the transition out of college (Years 4–6). Results In a cross-lagged model, subjective intoxication (i.e., feeling drunk) prospectively predicted experiencing blackouts (p <0.001). Controlling for both objective (e.g., quantity) and subjective intoxication, blackouts at Year 4 predicted greater motivation to decrease drinking behavior at Year 5 (p <0.01), but this motivation did not predict less quantity of alcohol use by Year 6 (p =0.076). Conclusions Subjective intoxication is a robust predictor of blackouts across time. Additionally, blackouts are modest, developmentally-limited predictors of motivation to change drinking behavior, but blackouts do not predict future behavior change.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Contingency management for college student smokers: The role of drinking
           as a moderator and mediator of smoking abstinence during treatment
    • Authors: Rachel N. Cassidy; Kristina M. Jackson; Damaris J. Rohsenow; Jennifer W. Tidey; Tracy O'.L. Tevyaw; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Mollie E. Miller; Suzanne M. Colby
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Rachel N. Cassidy, Kristina M. Jackson, Damaris J. Rohsenow, Jennifer W. Tidey, Tracy O'.L. Tevyaw, Nancy P. Barnett, Peter M. Monti, Mollie E. Miller, Suzanne M. Colby
      Introduction Contingency management (CM) is effective for promoting smoking abstinence; however, moderators and mediators of CM treatment efficacy in young adult populations are under-explored. We leveraged fine-grained data from a large randomized controlled trial: 1) to determine whether early attainment of sustained abstinence mediated the effect of treatment on abstinence; 2) to test whether heavy drinking moderated the effect of treatment on abstinence; and 3) to test a serial mediation model of the effects of drinking during early treatment on sustained smoking abstinence. Methods College student smokers (N=110) were randomized to receive either CM treatment or noncontingent reinforcement (NR) over a 21-day treatment period. All participants received $5 for providing twice-daily breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. In CM, additional money was provided for samples that indicated smoking reduction (Initial Phase; first 7days), and for samples ≤5ppm (Abstinence Phase; following 14days). Results CM treatment led to greater sustained abstinence relative to NR. Longer sustained abstinence in the Initial Phase partially mediated the effect of treatment on sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. Heavier pretreatment drinkers had shorter periods of sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase; this effect was greater in CM. A serial mediation model determined that increased drinking during the Initial Phase led to decreased sustained abstinence, which then led to decreased sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. Conclusions These data provide a greater understanding of how heavy drinking and early sustained abstinence may affect success during treatment in young adults undergoing contingency management treatment for smoking.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Motives and perceptions regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems
           (ENDS) use among adults with mental health conditions
    • Authors: Claire Adams Spears; Dina M. Jones; Scott R. Weaver; Terry F. Pechacek; Michael P. Eriksen
      Pages: 102 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Claire Adams Spears, Dina M. Jones, Scott R. Weaver, Terry F. Pechacek, Michael P. Eriksen
      Background Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. Methods Among adult current ENDS users (n =550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status. Results There were no significant associations between MHC status and ENDS motives or perceptions in the overall sample. However, current smokers with MHC indicated thinking more about how ENDS might improve their health, and former smokers with MHC reported thinking less about how ENDS might harm their health, compared to their counterparts without MHC. Former smokers with MHC rated several reasons for ENDS use (e.g., less harmful than regular cigarettes; to quit smoking; appealing flavors) as more important than did those without MHC. Conclusions Current and former smokers with MHC may be especially optimistic about health benefits of ENDS. However, they might also be prone to health risks of continued ENDS use or concurrent use with traditional cigarettes. It will be important for public health messaging to provide this population with accurate information about benefits and risks of ENDS.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Factors associated with successful vs. unsuccessful smoking cessation:
           Data from a nationally representative study
    • Authors: Fabienne El-Khoury Lesueur; Camille Bolze; Maria Melchior
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Fabienne El-Khoury Lesueur, Camille Bolze, Maria Melchior
      Introduction A substantial proportion of smokers who attempt to stop smoking relapse in the first months. Yet to date, there is limited understanding of the predictors of smoking attempts and their success. We examine the role of tobacco use characteristics, other substance-related factors, as well as socio-demographic characteristics in relation to successful and unsuccessful smoking cessation. Methods DePICT (Description des Perceptions, Images, et Comportements liés au Tabagisme) is a nationally representative sample of adults aged between 18 and 64years residing in metropolitan France, who were interviewed by telephone survey (n =4342). Among current or former smokers (n =2110) we distinguished participants characterized by: a) no quit attempt or quit <6months; b) unsuccessful smoking cessation (current smokers who previously quit smoking ≥6months); c) successful smoking cessation (≥6months). Factors associated with successful vs. unsuccessful smoking cessation were studied using multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Successful and unsuccessful smoking cessation share some predicting factors including no cannabis use, older age, and intermediate or high occupational grade. Factors specifically associated with successful smoking cessation included no e-cigarette use, no environmental tobacco exposure, fear of the health consequences of smoking, perceived harmfulness of smoking, and high educational attainment and a good overall health. Conclusions Smokers' environmental tobacco exposure, concurrent cannabis use, and the perception of the health consequences of smoking should be taken into account in efforts aiming to promote smoking cessation at the individual as well as collective levels. Our data also suggest that e-cigarette use is associated with unsuccessful rather than successful smoking cessation, which should be verified in additional, longitudinal, studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Drinking to cope mediates the relationship between depression and alcohol
           risk: Different pathways for college and non-college young adults
    • Authors: Shannon R. Kenney; Bradley J. Anderson; Michael D. Stein
      Pages: 116 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Shannon R. Kenney, Bradley J. Anderson, Michael D. Stein
      Background It is well-established that drinking to cope with negative affective states mediates the relationship between depressed mood and alcohol risk outcomes among college students. Whether non-college emerging adults exhibit a similar pathway remains unknown. In the current study, we compared the mediating role of coping motives in the relationship between depressive symptoms and drinking risk outcomes (heavy episodic drinking and alcohol problems) in college and non-college emerging adult subgroups. Methods Participants were three hundred forty-one community-recruited 18–25year olds reporting past month alcohol use. We used a structural equation modeling (SEM) for our primary mediation analysis and bias-corrected bootstrap resampling for testing the statistical significance of mediation. Results Participants averaged 20.8 (±1.97) years of age, 49% were female, 67.7% were White, 34.6% were college students, and 65.4% were non-college emerging adults. College and non-college emerging adults reported similar levels of drinking, alcohol problems, and drinking to cope with negative affect, and drinking to cope was associated with alcohol-related problems in both samples. However, while drinking to cope mediated the relationship between depressed mood and alcohol problems among students, it did not mediate the pathway among non-college emerging adults. Conclusions These findings caution against extending college-based findings to non-college populations and underscore the need to better understand the role of coping motives and other intervening factors in pathways linking depressed mood and alcohol-related risk in non-college emerging adults.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Sociodemographic and psychopathological predictors of criminal behavior in
           women with gambling disorder
    • Authors: Gemma Mestre-Bach; Trevor Steward; Roser Granero; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; María Teresa Talón-Navarro; Àngel Cuquerella; Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez; Neus Aymamí; Mónica Gómez-Peña; Núria Mallorquí-Bagué; Teresa Mena-Moreno; Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz; Marta Baño; Laura Moragas; Pablo Magaña; José Manuel Menchón; Susana Jiménez-Murcia
      Pages: 124 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Teresa Talón-Navarro, Àngel Cuquerella, Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Pablo Magaña, José Manuel Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
      Introduction Women have been underrepresented in the empirical research of gambling disorder (GD), a psychiatric condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5). More specifically, no studies to date have been carried out exploring the clinical phenotype of women with GD who have committed gambling-related illegal acts. Aims In this study, we sought to delineate the clinical, personality and psychopathological differences between treatment-seeking women with GD, with and without a criminal record. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the variables that best predict the presence of illegal acts in this clinical group. Material and methods Data corresponded to n =273 treatment-seeking women who met criteria for GD. Two groups were compared: women with a history of criminal behavior (n =61, 22.34%) to those who did not (n =212, 77.66%) taking psychopathology, clinical and personality data into account. Results Women who engaged in criminal acts were younger and endorsed higher psychopathology, GD severity, and novelty seeking levels than the other clinical group. Regarding the predictive model, women with higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of reward dependence were at higher risk of having a criminal record. Discussion, conclusions and implications for practice and/or policy Our findings uphold that women with GD and a history of illegal acts are especially vulnerable in terms of comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional personality traits. Therefore, this population could potentially benefit from public policies that target their mental health needs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Associations between coping and marijuana use in a nationally
           representative sample of adolescents in the United States
    • Authors: Angela E. Lee-Winn; Tamar Mendelson; Renee M. Johnson
      Pages: 130 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Angela E. Lee-Winn, Tamar Mendelson, Renee M. Johnson
      Maladaptive coping strategies have been linked with substance use. Little is known, however, about associations between coping and marijuana use in the general U.S. adolescents. We used nationally representative data to examine associations between coping and marijuana use among U.S. adolescents. We hypothesized that marijuana use would be positively associated with both avoidance and distraction coping and negatively associated with problem solving. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios and odds ratios to assess associations of three coping styles (avoidance, distraction, problem solving) and six coping profiles based on combinations of the styles (adaptive, low on all styles, distracted, high on all styles, avoidant, maladaptive) with lifetime marijuana use and past 12-month frequency of use using data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n =8476, ages 14–18years). Avoidance and distraction coping were positively and problem solving was negatively associated with lifetime marijuana use. Avoidance coping was positively associated, and problem solving negatively associated, with past 12-month frequency of use. Compared to the adaptive coping profile (low avoidance and distraction, high problem solving), maladaptive profile (high avoidance and distraction, low problem solving) and avoidance profile (high avoidance, low distraction and problem solving) were each positively associated with lifetime marijuana use and past 12-month frequency of use. Avoidance coping, especially in combination with limited problem solving, was positively associated with lifetime marijuana use and past 12-month frequency of use. Our findings have potential to inform interventions for reducing adolescent marijuana use.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Menthol cigarette smoking among individuals in treatment for substance use
           disorders
    • Authors: Noah R. Gubner; Denise D. Williams; Anna Pagano; Barbara K. Campbell; Joseph Guydish
      Pages: 135 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Noah R. Gubner, Denise D. Williams, Anna Pagano, Barbara K. Campbell, Joseph Guydish
      There are higher rates of menthol cigarette smoking within certain population subgroups. Limited research has examined menthol use among individuals in treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a population with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking, poor smoking cessation outcomes, and high tobacco disease burden. Survey data were collected from 863 smokers sampled from 24 SUD treatment programs affiliated with the NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) in the United States. Prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking was examined for the sample. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine demographic and tobacco use characteristics associated with menthol cigarette smoking. Overall, the prevalence of menthol smoking among individuals in SUD treatment was 53.3%. Smoking menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes was associated with being female (AOR=1.61, p=0.003), African American (AOR=7.89, p<0.001), Hispanic/Latino (AOR=3.39, p<0.001), and lower odds of having a college degree (AOR=0.49, p=0.015). Controlling for demographic factors, menthol smokers were more likely to report marijuana (AOR=3.33, p<0.007) as their primary drug compared to alcohol. Lastly, menthol smokers were more likely to report interest in getting help for quitting smoking (AOR=1.53, p=0.01), although they were not more likely to report making a past year quit attempt. In conclusion, use of menthol cigarettes was higher among smokers in SUD treatment than in general population smokers. Regulatory policies targeting the manufacture, marketing, or sale of menthol cigarettes may benefit vulnerable populations, including smokers in SUD treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Alcohol expectancies pre-and post-alcohol use disorder treatment: Clinical
           implications
    • Authors: Jason M. Coates; Matthew J. Gullo; Gerald F.X. Feeney; Ross McD. Young; Genevieve A. Dingle; Jason P. Connor
      Pages: 142 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Jason M. Coates, Matthew J. Gullo, Gerald F.X. Feeney, Ross McD. Young, Genevieve A. Dingle, Jason P. Connor
      Background and aims Modification of elevated positive expectations of alcohol consumption (alcohol outcome expectancies; AOEs) is a key feature of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approaches to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Despite extensive research supporting the efficacy of CBT for AUD, few studies have examined AOE change. This study aimed to assess AOE change following completion of CBT for AUD and its association with drinking behaviour. Method One-hundred and seventy-five patients who completed a 12-week CBT program for AUD were administered the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) at pre-treatment assessment and upon completion of treatment. Abstinence was achieved by 108 (61.7%) of completing patients. For patients who lapsed, the mean proportion of abstinent days was 93%. Results DEQ scales assessing expectations of positive alcohol effects on tension reduction, assertiveness, and cognitive enhancement were significantly lower post-treatment (p <0.001). Expectations of negative effects on mood were higher post-treatment (p <0.001). The largest AOE change occurred on the tension reduction scale. Greater percentage of abstinent days over treatment was associated with lower pre-and post-treatment tension reduction expectancy scores (p <0.05). Drinking during treatment was associated with smaller changes in expectations of negative effects of alcohol on mood (p <0.05). Conclusions Individuals who completed CBT treatment for AUD showed significant AOE change. Tension reduction and affective change expectancies may be particularly important for abstinence and useful markers of lapse risk.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.029
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Predictive validity of the tobacco marketing receptivity index among
           non-smoking youth
    • Authors: Sandra Braun; Erika Nayeli Abad-Vivero; Raúl Mejía; Inti Barrientos; James D. Sargent; James F. Thrasher
      Pages: 150 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Sandra Braun, Erika Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Raúl Mejía, Inti Barrientos, James D. Sargent, James F. Thrasher
      Introduction In a previous cross-sectional study of early adolescents, we developed a marketing receptivity index (MRI) that integrates point-of-sale (PoS) marketing exposures, brand recall, and ownership of branded merchandise. The MRI had independent, positive associations with smoking susceptibility among never smokers and with current smoking behavior. The current longitudinal study assessed the MRI's predictive validity among adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes Methods Data come from a longitudinal, school-based survey of 33 secondary schools in Argentina. Students who had never smoked at baseline were followed up approximately 17months later (n=1700). Questions assessed: PoS marketing exposure by querying frequency of going to stores where tobacco is commonly sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages from dominant brands but with the brand name removed; and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level MRI was derived: 1.low PoS marketing exposure only; 2. high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; 3. recall of 2 or more brands; and 4. ownership of branded merchandise. Logistic regression models regressed smoking initiation by follow up survey on the MRI, each of its components, and students' willingness to try a brand, adjusting for sociodemographics, social network smoking, and sensation seeking. Results The MRI had an independent positive association with smoking initiation. When analyzed separately, each MRI component was associated with outcomes except branded merchandise ownership. Conclusions The MRI and its components were associated with smoking initiation, except for branded merchandise ownership, which may better predict smoking progression than initiation. The MRI appears valid and useful for future studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Cognitive deficits in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Stéphane Potvin; Julie Pelletier; Stéphanie Grot; Catherine Hébert; Alastair Barr; Tania Lecomte
      Pages: 154 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 80
      Author(s): Stéphane Potvin, Julie Pelletier, Stéphanie Grot, Catherine Hébert, Alastair Barr, Tania Lecomte
      Background Methamphetamine has long been considered as a neurotoxic substance causing cognitive deficits. Recently, however, the magnitude and the clinical significance of the cognitive effects associated with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) have been debated. To help clarify this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of the cognitive deficits associated with MUD. Methods A literature search yielded 44 studies that assessed cognitive dysfunction in 1592 subjects with MUD and 1820 healthy controls. Effect size estimates were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, for the following 12 cognitive domains: attention, executive functions, impulsivity/reward processing, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal fluency/language, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuo-spatial abilities and working memory. Results Findings revealed moderate impairment across most cognitive domains, including attention, executive functions, language/verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, visual memory and working memory. Deficits in impulsivity/reward processing and social cognition were more prominent, whereas visual learning and visuo-spatial abilities were relatively spared cognitive domains. A publication bias was observed. Discussion These results show that MUD is associated with broad cognitive deficits that are in the same range as those associated with alcohol and cocaine use disorder, as recently shown by way of meta-analysis. The prominent effects of MUD on social cognition and impulsivity/reward processing are based on a small number of studies, and as such, these results will need to be replicated. The functional consequences (social and occupational) of the cognitive deficits of methamphetamine will also need to be determined.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 80 (2018)
       
  • Psychometric assessment of the marijuana adolescent problem inventory
    • Authors: Ashley A. Knapp; Steven F. Babbin; Alan J. Budney; Denise D. Walker; Robert S. Stephens; Emily A. Scherer; Catherine Stanger
      Pages: 113 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ashley A. Knapp, Steven F. Babbin, Alan J. Budney, Denise D. Walker, Robert S. Stephens, Emily A. Scherer, Catherine Stanger
      Cannabis is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent cannabis use has multiple consequences including academic, health, and psychiatric problems. The Marijuana Adolescent Problem Inventory (MAPI) is a 23-item scale adapted from the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and used in the current literature to assess cannabis use problem severity. Psychometric testing for the MAPI has yet to be reported. The current investigation assessed the psychometric characteristics of the MAPI with cannabis-using adolescents (n=727) from school and outpatient settings who enrolled in five separate randomized clinical trials focused on treatment of substance use. Findings suggested that the MAPI is internally consistent and reliable. Factor structure analyses suggested that the MAPI measures one latent construct, with no differences in factor structure between the outpatient and school settings, supporting a one-factor model. External validity of the MAPI was also demonstrated as evidenced by significant relations with concurrent diagnosis of cannabis dependence and abuse, longitudinal frequency of cannabis use, and mean times used per day. Overall, this initial test of the psychometric characteristics of the MAPI suggests that it can be considered a reliable and valid measure of problems associated with cannabis use among adolescents. Future work is now needed to replicate these findings by testing the psychometric properties of the MAPI in more diverse samples and developing a short version to be used as a brief assessment tool.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Guilt-proneness is associated with the use of protective behavioral
           strategies during episodes of alcohol use
    • Authors: Matt S. Treeby; Simon M. Rice; Fiona Cocker; Amy Peacock; Raimondo Bruno
      Pages: 120 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Matt S. Treeby, Simon M. Rice, Fiona Cocker, Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno
      Introduction Shame and guilt are closely related emotions with diverging implications for the development, and potential treatment, of substance use disorders. Accumulating research indicates that a guilt-prone affect style buffers individuals against the development of problematic alcohol use, while shame-proneness appears to offer no protective function. However, little is known about the manner in which guilt-prone individuals avoid the experience of alcohol use-related harms. The present study aimed to extend the shame, guilt, and substance use literature by examining whether these two self-conscious affect styles are differentially related to the use of protective behavioral strategies which reduce the risk of harms during drinking episodes. Methods Participants (N =281; female n=207) completed pen-and-paper measures of shame and guilt-proneness, level of alcohol use, and the habitual use of protective behavioral strategies during drinking episodes. Part-correlation analysis isolated shame-free guilt and guilt-free shame residuals in exploring relationships between self-conscious affect style and the use of protective behavioral strategies during drinking episodes. Results Guilt-proneness was consistently associated with the routine use of protective behavioral strategies during episodes of alcohol intake. In contrast, shame-proneness was unrelated to the use of such protective and harm avoidance strategies when drinking. Conclusion Findings provide additional support for the argument that guilt and shame need to be considered separately in both research and substance use treatment settings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Emotion dysregulation and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers
    • Authors: Andrew H. Rogers; Jafar Bakhshaie; Andres G. Viana; Kara Manning; Nubia A. Mayorga; Lorra Garey; Amanda M. Raines; Norman B. Schmidt; Michael J. Zvolensky
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Andrew H. Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Andres G. Viana, Kara Manning, Nubia A. Mayorga, Lorra Garey, Amanda M. Raines, Norman B. Schmidt, Michael J. Zvolensky
      Introduction There has been increased scholarly interest in advancing the study of emotion dysregulation and substance use. However, there is limited study of emotion dysregulation in the context of smoking. The current study examined the emotion dysregulation global construct and sub facets in relation to negative affect reduction expectancies, coping motives, perceived barriers for quitting, and the severity of problems experienced during quit attempts. Method Treatment seeking smokers (n =469; 48.2% female, M age =36.59, SD =13.58) enrolled in a smoking cessation trial and completed baseline measures of smoking cognitions and emotion dysregulation. Results Results indicated that the emotion dysregulation global score was significantly associated with each of the smoking dependent variables. Additionally, difficulty accessing emotion regulation strategies and difficulty engaging in goal-directed behavior were significantly associated with the dependent variables. Conclusion Overall, this is the first study to evaluate relations between multidimensional facets of emotion dysregulation and clinically relevant smoking variables. Emotion dysregulation may be an important treatment target for changing smoking.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students:
           Identifying the roles of negative and positive affect lability in a daily
           diary study
    • Authors: Nicole H. Weiss; Krysten W. Bold; Ateka A. Contractor; Tami P. Sullivan; Stephen Armeli; Howard Tennen
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Nicole H. Weiss, Krysten W. Bold, Ateka A. Contractor, Tami P. Sullivan, Stephen Armeli, Howard Tennen
      Trauma exposure is linked to heavy drinking and drug use among college students. Extant research reveals positive associations between negative affect lability and both trauma exposure and alcohol use. This study aimed to extend past research by using daily diary methods to test whether (a) individuals with (versus without) trauma exposure experience greater negative and positive affect lability, (b) negative and positive affect lability are associated with heavy drinking and drug use, and (c) negative and positive affect lability mediate the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use. Participants were 1640 college students (M age=19.2, 54% female, 80% European American) who provided daily diary data for 30days via online surveys. Daily diaries assessed negative and positive affect and substance use (i.e., percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, total number of drugs used). Individuals with (versus without) a history of trauma exposure demonstrated higher levels of negative and positive affect lability. Negative, but not positive, affect lability was associated with percent days of heavy drinking, percent days of drug use, and total number of drugs used, and mediated the associations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use outcomes. Findings provide support for the underlying role of negative affect lability in the relations between trauma exposure and heavy drinking and drug use among college students, suggesting that treatments targeting negative affect lability may potentially serve to reduce heavy drinking and drug use among trauma-exposed college students.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Identity as a cannabis user is related to problematic patterns of
           consumption among emerging adults
    • Authors: Claire E. Blevins; Ana M. Abrantes; Bradley J. Anderson; Celeste M. Caviness; Debra S. Herman; Michael D. Stein
      Pages: 138 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Claire E. Blevins, Ana M. Abrantes, Bradley J. Anderson, Celeste M. Caviness, Debra S. Herman, Michael D. Stein
      Introduction Cannabis use has become a more normative, socially-acceptable behavior in the United States, despite research indicating that frequent use may become problematic for some individuals. Emerging adulthood, a time of identity development, is the most common time for cannabis use. Cannabis self-concept, or one's identification with cannabis as part of their personality or identity, is one factor that may influence use behavior. This study extends previous research that reported a link between self-concept, motivational factors, and normative beliefs by evaluating relationships between cannabis self-concept, motives for use, motivation to change, perceived descriptive norms, as well as cannabis-related outcomes (use, using alone, and cannabis-related problems). Methods Emerging adults who used cannabis in the previous month (n =345, 53.9% male, mean age 21.0, 67.5% Non-Latino White) were recruited from a community sample for a health behaviors study. Participants were assessed for explicit cannabis self-concept, frequency of use, problems associated with use, motives for use, motivation to change, and normative beliefs about others' use. Results Participants reported using cannabis on an average of 17.9 (SD=11.1) days of the previous month. Correlational analyses revealed that cannabis self-concept was positively associated with frequency of use, use-related problems, several motives for use, descriptive norms, and with using cannabis alone. Multivariate analyses revealed that rates of use, problems, and social and enhancement motives were independently and positively associated (p <0.05) with cannabis self-concept, while self-concept was negatively associated with desire to reduce cannabis use. Conclusions Cannabis self-concept may be a marker for more problematic patterns of use.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Effects of alcohol and cigarette use on the initiation, reinitiation, and
           persistence of cannabis use from adolescence to emerging adulthood
    • Authors: Sanjana Pampati; Anne Buu; Yi-Han Hu; Carlos F. Mendes de Leon; Hsien-Chang Lin
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Sanjana Pampati, Anne Buu, Yi-Han Hu, Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, Hsien-Chang Lin
      Objective Adolescent cannabis use has been associated with several negative outcomes. A previous study on an adult sample found alcohol and cigarette use to be associated with three cannabis use stages: initiation, reinitiation, and persistence, which represent distinct periods of use regarding progression and severity. Yet, the risk factors associated with these important stages have never been examined in a longitudinal study spanning adolescence to emerging adulthood. Methods Using longitudinal data from Add Health Waves 1–3, 1775 nonusers, 200 prior users, and 384 current users of cannabis were identified who were at risk of cannabis use initiation, reinitiation, and persistence, respectively. Three logistic regressions were conducted to examine the effects of prior cigarette and alcohol use on the three cannabis use stages, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results Early onset of cigarette use (OR=2.04, p =0.006) and higher alcohol use frequency (OR=1.40, p <0.001) were associated with cannabis use initiation. Greater cigarette use quantity was associated with a lower likelihood of reinitiation of cannabis use (OR=0.58, p =0.02). Increased cannabis use frequency (OR=1.72, p =0.006) and higher alcohol use frequency (OR=1.32, p =0.048) were associated with persistence of cannabis use. Sociodemographic factors such as household income, sex, and being older adolescents were associated with different cannabis use stages. Conclusions Prior cigarette and alcohol use affect the risk of initiation, reinitiation, and persistence of cannabis use. The specific risk factors vary across different cannabis use stages. Interventions to prevent adolescent cannabis use should recognize these different risk factors and tailor to the stages of cannabis use.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • The effects of alcohol on heartbeat perception: Implications for anxiety
    • Authors: Kenneth Abrams; Kate Cieslowski; Stacey Johnson; Sam Krimmel; Gabby Bierlein-De La Rosa; Kirstie Barton; Pombie Silverman
      Pages: 151 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Kenneth Abrams, Kate Cieslowski, Stacey Johnson, Sam Krimmel, Gabby Bierlein-De La Rosa, Kirstie Barton, Pombie Silverman
      Introduction It is well established that some individuals self-medicate their anxiety with alcohol. Though much evidence exists that alcohol consumption can be negatively reinforcing, there remains uncertainty regarding what mediates the relationship between alcohol and anxiety. An unexplored possibility is that, for some, alcohol impairs interoceptive sensitivity (the ability to accurately perceive one's physiological state), thereby decreasing state anxiety. Consistent with this, highly accurate heartbeat perception is a risk factor both for elevated trait anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, the direct impact of alcohol on cardioceptive accuracy has not to our knowledge been previously examined. Methods Sixty-one social drinkers came to the lab in groups of 4–6 on two days spaced a week apart. Each participant was randomly assigned to receive alcoholic drinks targeting a BAC of 0.05% on one testing day and placebo drinks on the other, with the order counter-balanced. On both testing days, participants engaged in a Schandry heartbeat perception task on three occasions: at baseline, after an alcohol absorption period, and after physiological arousal was raised via exercise. Results For men only, alcohol significantly impaired cardioceptive accuracy relative to a placebo at both low and high levels of arousal, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Though preliminary, this finding is consistent with the proposed hypothesis linking alcohol consumption and anxiety, at least for men. Future studies should directly examine whether, among individuals with anxiety disorders, cardioceptive sensitivity mediates the relationship between alcohol consumption and state anxiety.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2018)
       
  • Interpersonal and intrapersonal emotional processes in individuals treated
           for alcohol use disorder and non-addicted healthy individuals
    • Authors: Maciej Kopera; Elisa M. Trucco; Andrzej Jakubczyk; Hubert Suszek; Aneta Michalska; Aleksandra Majewska; Natalia Szejko; Agata Łoczewska; Aleksandra Krasowska; Anna Klimkiewicz; Kirk J. Brower; Robert A. Zucker; Marcin Wojnar
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Maciej Kopera, Elisa M. Trucco, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Hubert Suszek, Aneta Michalska, Aleksandra Majewska, Natalia Szejko, Agata Łoczewska, Aleksandra Krasowska, Anna Klimkiewicz, Kirk J. Brower, Robert A. Zucker, Marcin Wojnar
      Introduction Prior work largely confirms the presence of various emotional processing deficits among individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, their specificity and relevance still warrant investigation. The aim of the current study was to compare selected aspects of emotional processing (i.e., mental state recognition, alexithymia, and emotional intelligence) between individuals treated for an AUD and healthy individuals. Methods The AUD sample consisted of 92 abstinent men with AUD who were participating in an 8-week inpatient abstinence-based treatment program in Warsaw, Poland. The healthy control (HC) group consisted of 86 men recruited from the Medical University of Warsaw and the Nowowiejski Hospital administrative staff. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. Mental states recognition was assessed using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) was used to measure emotional intelligence (EI). Results and conclusions After accounting for potentially confounding variables (demographics, severity of depression, anxiety symptoms) in MANCOVA models, patients with AUD presented deficits in identification and description of their own emotional states, as well as lower emotion regulation skills when compared to HCs. No between-group differences were observed in self-reported recognition of other people's emotions, social skills, and a behavioral measure of mental states recognition. Specific rather than general emotion-processing deficits in participants with AUD were identified, suggesting problems with processing of intrapersonal emotional signals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Improvement of the association between self-reported pill count and
           varenicline levels following exclusion of participants with misreported
           pill count: A commentary on Peng et al. (2017)
    • Authors: Annie R. Peng; Bernard Le Foll; Mark Morales; Caryn Lerman; Robert Schnoll; Rachel F. Tyndale
      Pages: 14 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Annie R. Peng, Bernard Le Foll, Mark Morales, Caryn Lerman, Robert Schnoll, Rachel F. Tyndale
      Introduction We previously reported poor associations between salivary varenicline and pill counts, and a substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts in “Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence” (Peng et al., 2017). We have since conducted supplementary analyses characterizing, and then excluding, individuals with established inaccurate pill count recall. Methods Based on published varenicline pharmacokinetics (including drug levels, and the long half-life) and our detection limits, conservatively we should be able to detect varenicline in anyone who took at least one pill during the 48h prior to saliva collection; thus, those reporting 1 or more pills in this time frame but who had undetectable salivary varenicline were deemed to have inaccurate pill count recall. Correlations between pill counts and salivary varenicline, and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were conducted following exclusion of participants with inaccurate pill count recall. Results Nearly 20% of our participants (N=67/376) had inaccurate self-reported pill counts. These participants were younger, non-white, lower income, and unmarried (evaluated using chi-square or Mann-Whitney U test). Following exclusion of these individuals, the correlations between salivary varenicline and pill count improved and the area under the curve (AUC) of pill counts for discriminating adherence improved modestly. Conclusion When the 20% of individuals with inaccurate pill count recall were excluded, an improved association between self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline was observed, albeit still weak. A substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts relative to salivary varenicline is still observed even after exclusion of almost 20% of the group having established inaccurate reporting suggesting that these individuals, with identifiable inaccuracies, were only part of the overestimation of adherence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.032
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Does misuse lead to a disorder' The misuse of prescription
           tranquilizer and sedative medications and subsequent substance use
           disorders in a U.S. longitudinal sample
    • Authors: C.J. Boyd; B. West; S.E. McCabe
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): C.J. Boyd, B. West, S.E. McCabe
      Objectives We used two waves of National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data and examined whether the misuse of prescription tranquilizers or sedatives at Wave 1 was associated with either continued misuse, tranquilizer/sedative use disorder, or other substance use disorder (SUD) at Wave 2. Methods Prospective data were analyzed from structured diagnostic interviews using the Alcohol Use disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule: DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-DSM-IV). A nationally representative sample of 34,653 of U.S. adults, 18years or older at Wave 1 (2001−2002), were re-interviewed at Wave 2 (2004–2005). After applying the survey weights, the sample represented a population that was 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian and 2% Native American or other. Results An estimated 79% of adults who engaged in tranquilizer or sedative misuse at Wave 1 had stopped using these drugs at Wave 2. Only a small percentage (4.3%) of misusers at Wave 1 had a tranquilizer or sedative use disorder at Wave 2. However, 45% (45.0%) of misusers at Wave 1 had at least one other SUD at Wave 2. Among those in remission from a sedative or tranquilizer use disorder at Wave 1, 4.8% had a tranquilizer or sedative use disorder while 34.7% had at least one other SUD at Wave 2. Conclusions Most adults who engaged in the misuse of prescription tranquilizers or sedatives ceased using within 3years; however, their prior misuse was associated with higher prevalence of having a SUD three years later.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.042
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on cocaine use,
           craving and inhibition in regular cocaine users: correspondence of lab
           assessments and Ecological Momentary Assessment
    • Authors: Mieke H.J. Schulte; Reinout W. Wiers; Wouter J. Boendermaker; Anna E. Goudriaan; Wim van den Brink; Denise S. van Deursen; Malte Friese; Emily Brede; Andrew J. Waters
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Mieke H.J. Schulte, Reinout W. Wiers, Wouter J. Boendermaker, Anna E. Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S. van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J. Waters
      Introduction Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data. Methods Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day intervention with 2400mg/day NAC or placebo and WM-training as well as two lab-visits assessing cocaine use, craving and inhibition (Stop Signal task). Additionally, cocaine use, craving and cognition (Stroop task) were assessed using EMA during treatment, with 26 participants completing 819 assessments. Results Cocaine problems according to the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) decreased more after NAC than after placebo, and the proportion of cocaine-positive urines at lab-visit 2 was lower in the NAC group. No NAC effects were found on craving. For cocaine use and craving, results from the lab data were generally similar to EMA results. NAC also showed some effects on cognitive control: improved inhibition assessed with the Stop Signal task in the lab, and decreased classic Stroop performance during EMA. There were no significant effects of number of completed WM-training sessions. Conclusions Overall this study revealed mixed findings regarding the treatment of cocaine use disorders with NAC and WM-training. The effect of NAC on inhibition should be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.044
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Early-onset tobacco use and suicide-related behavior – A prospective
           study from adolescence to young adulthood
    • Authors: Tellervo Korhonen; Elina Sihvola; Antti Latvala; Danielle M. Dick; Lea Pulkkinen; John Nurnberger; Richard J. Rose; Jaakko Kaprio
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Tellervo Korhonen, Elina Sihvola, Antti Latvala, Danielle M. Dick, Lea Pulkkinen, John Nurnberger, Richard J. Rose, Jaakko Kaprio
      Background Developmental relationships between tobacco use and suicide-related behaviors (SRB) remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations of tobacco use in adolescence and SRB in adulthood. Methods Using a prospective design, we examined whether tobacco use in adolescence is associated with SRB (intentional self-injury, suicide ideation) in young adulthood in a population-based sample of 1330 twins (626 males, 704 females). The baseline and follow-up data were collected by professionally administered semi-structured poly-diagnostic interviews at ages 14 and 22, respectively. Results After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, those who reported early-onset of regular tobacco use had a significantly increased risk for intentional self-injury, such as cutting or burning, at age 22 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.57, 95% CI 1.93–10.8) in comparison to those who had not at all initiated tobacco use. Also, daily cigarette smoking at baseline was associated with future intentional self-injury (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.04–9.70). Early-onset tobacco use was associated with suicidal ideation in females (AOR 3.69, 95% CI 1.56–8.72) but not in males. Considering any SRB, baseline daily smokers (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12–4.07) and females with early onset of regular tobacco use (AOR 3.97, 95% CI 1.73–9.13) had an increased likelihood. Within-family analyses among twin pairs discordant for exposure and outcome controlling for familial confounds showed similar, albeit statistically non-significant, associations. Conclusion Early-onset tobacco use in adolescence is longitudinally associated with SRB (intentional self-injury and/or suicide ideation) in young adulthood, particularly among females. Further investigation may reveal whether this association has implications for prevention of SRB in adolescence and young adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • College students' perceived benefit-to-risk tradeoffs for nonmedical use
           of prescription stimulants: Implications for intervention designs
    • Authors: Melissa M. Ross; Amelia M. Arria; Jessica P. Brown; C. Daniel Mullins; Jason Schiffman; Linda Simoni-Wastila; Susan dosReis
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Melissa M. Ross, Amelia M. Arria, Jessica P. Brown, C. Daniel Mullins, Jason Schiffman, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Susan dosReis
      Objectives Few studies have examined the benefit-to-risk tradeoffs undergraduate students perceive when engaging in the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS). This study examined the variation in college students' perceived risks and benefits for NPS. Methods An online survey was administered to 259 college students (ages 18–25) at six public universities who had engaged in NPS in the past year. A best-worst scaling (BWS) instrument assessed the relative importance of 12 perceived benefits and risks of NPS. Probabilities of selection of each factor and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the aggregate sample and latent preference subgroups were derived using latent class analysis (LCA). Results For the aggregate sample, the strongest motivators for NPS were better grades (m=2.33, p<0.05) and meeting deadlines (m=1.62, p<0.05). The LCA generated four subgroups: 1) assuredly performance-driven (n=64; 25%), who prioritized academic performance and nonacademic responsibilities; 2) cautiously grade/career-oriented (n=117; 45%), who balanced academic improvements with expulsion and limiting future career opportunities; 3) risk-averse (n=64; 25%), who prioritized expulsion above academic improvements; and 4) recreational (n=14; 5%), who most valued having fun partying. Conclusions These findings identify subgroups of college NPS users that could have vastly different trajectories in terms of future drug use and college performance. Given this heterogeneity among students regarding perceived risks and benefits of NPS, interventions should be designed to assess motives and provide personalized feedback. Further research is needed with larger, more diverse samples and to assess the prospective stability of perceived risks and benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • The efficacy of computerized interventions to reduce cannabis use: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Alexandre Olmos; Judit Tirado-Muñoz; Magí Farré; Marta Torrens
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Alexandre Olmos, Judit Tirado-Muñoz, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
      Background and aims Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit drug. Although it is too early to confirm the impact of legalization, the use of cannabis appears to be on the rise in some countries due to its authorization for medical/recreational purposes. Among different types of therapeutic approaches to reduce cannabis use, computerized interventions are becoming a new treatment option. To assess their efficacy, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed employing randomized controlled clinical trials indexed in MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The principal outcome measure was cannabis use, and the secondary one was the use of other substances during interventions. A subgroup analysis was conducted by length of follow-up, number of sessions, age group, type of analysis, and type of control condition. Results The meta-analysis included nine studies with 2963 participants. Computerized interventions resulted in significant reductions in the use of cannabis (standardized mean difference [SMD]: −0.19; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.11) and other substances (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.08). Conclusions Computerized interventions examined in the present study reduced the frequency of cannabis and other substance use. Limitations included the recalculation of dichotomous and continuous data as SMD and the lower number of studies included in the secondary outcome. Computerized interventions could be a viable option to reduce cannabis use.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.045
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Examination of approach and avoidance inclinations on the reinforcing
           value of alcohol
    • Authors: Emily T. Noyes; Robert C. Schlauch
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Emily T. Noyes, Robert C. Schlauch
      Although behavioral economics tends to focus on environmental factors (i.e., price, availability) that act to influence valuation of alcohol, recent research has begun to address how motivational and cognitive factors influence an individual's demand for alcohol. Motivational states, including craving, are one possible mechanism underlying the value based decision making that demand represents. Using a multidimensional model of craving (Ambivalence Model of Craving), the current study examined the relationships between indices of alcohol demand (i.e., reinforcing value of alcohol) and craving (i.e., approach inclinations), and the ways in which competing desires moderate that relationship (i.e., avoidance inclinations). Individuals who reported consuming alcohol in the past month were recruited for the study using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. A total of 529 participants (mean age=33.03years, SD =8.85) completed a series of surveys assessing their drinking behavior and other alcohol-related measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that while approach significantly predicted intensity (i.e., consumption at zero cost), Omax (i.e., the maximum alcohol expenditure) and breakpoint (i.e., the first price that seizes consumption), avoidance moderated the relationship between approach and Omax and breakpoint. Specifically, follow up analyses demonstrated that higher avoidance inclinations attenuated the effect of approach inclinations on these demand indices. Finally, despite conceptual overlap between approach, avoidance, and alcohol demand, regression analyses indicated that these constructs account for unique variance in alcohol outcomes. These results illustrate the importance of considering the effects of both approach and avoidance inclinations on an individual's valuation of alcohol.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Therapeutic community graduates cluster together in social networks:
           Evidence for spatial selection as a cooperative mechanism in therapeutic
           communities
    • Authors: Benjamin W. Campbell; Skyler Cranmer; Carole Harvey; Keith Warren
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Benjamin W. Campbell, Skyler Cranmer, Carole Harvey, Keith Warren


      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Parents' concordant and discordant alcohol use and subsequent child
           behavioral outcomes
    • Authors: Stephanie A. Godleski; Cory A. Crane; Kenneth E. Leonard
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Stephanie A. Godleski, Cory A. Crane, Kenneth E. Leonard
      Alcohol problems have variable outcomes for marital relationships depending on whether drinking patterns are concordant or discordant among the members of the dyad; however, it is unclear what impact these variations in drinking patterns have on children. The current study was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the parent heavy drinking literature. In particular, the prospective associations over 3years between parent heavy drinking, parenting, and child externalizing behavior were investigated in an integrated model to examine the influence of concordant and discordant drinking within couples on subsequent outcomes for their children. The study consisted of 180 couples recruited by mailings with children primarily between the ages of 4 and 11years old (52% male children). Parent-report of marital conflict, parenting, alcohol use, and child externalizing behavior were measured in a longitudinal study. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses were conducted. Higher levels of maladaptive parenting were associated with higher externalizing for children of concordant drinking couples as opposed to discordant drinking couples. Implications for research and practice are discussed, including investigating mediators and moderators of the current findings such as quality of the parent-child relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.026
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Mobile contingency management as an adjunctive treatment for co-morbid
           cannabis use disorder and cigarette smoking
    • Authors: Jean C. Beckham; Kelsie A. Adkisson; Jeffrey Hertzberg; Nathan A. Kimbrel; Alan J. Budney; Robert S. Stephens; Scott D. Moore; Patrick S. Calhoun
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Jean C. Beckham, Kelsie A. Adkisson, Jeffrey Hertzberg, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Alan J. Budney, Robert S. Stephens, Scott D. Moore, Patrick S. Calhoun
      Introduction Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the U.S. with 19.8 million current users. Population-based data indicate that almost all cannabis users (90%) have a lifetime history of tobacco smoking and the majority (74%) currently smoke tobacco. Among cannabis users, smoking tobacco is associated with increased frequency of cannabis use, increased morbidity, and poorer cannabis cessation outcomes. There is a lack of research, however, focused on addressing cessation of both substances simultaneously. The purpose of the current pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component tobacco/cannabis abstinence treatment. Methods Five participants completed Abstinence Reinforcement Therapy, an intervention that included five sessions of cognitive-behavioral telephone counseling for tobacco/cannabis, pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, and five weeks of mobile contingency management to remain abstinent from tobacco and cannabis. Results Feasibility of recruitment, retention and treatment completion was high. Satisfaction with the treatment was also high. Conclusion Results support the feasibility and acceptability of this approach with dual cannabis and tobacco users and suggest that further research examining the efficacy of this approach is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • User-identified electronic cigarette behavioral strategies and device
           characteristics for cigarette smoking reduction
    • Authors: Eric K. Soule; Sarah F. Maloney; Mignonne C. Guy; Thomas Eissenberg; Pebbles Fagan
      Pages: 93 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Eric K. Soule, Sarah F. Maloney, Mignonne C. Guy, Thomas Eissenberg, Pebbles Fagan
      Background There is limited evidence on how cigarette smokers use electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) for smoking cessation and reduction. This study used concept mapping, a participatory mixed-methods research approach, to identify ECIG use behaviors and device characteristics perceived to be associated with cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. Methods Current ECIG users aged 18–64 were recruited from seven cities selected randomly from U.S. census tract regions. Participants were invited to complete concept mapping tasks: brainstorming, sorting and rating (n =72). During brainstorming, participants generated statements in response to a focus prompt (“A SPECIFIC WAY I HAVE USED electronic cigarettes to reduce my cigarette smoking or a SPECIFIC WAY electronic cigarettes help me reduce my cigarette smoking is…”) and then sorted and rated the statements. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to generate a cluster map that was interpreted by the research team. Results Eight thematic clusters were identified: Convenience, Perceived Health Effects, Ease of Use, Versatility and Variety, Advantages of ECIGs over Cigarettes, Cigarette Substitutability, Reducing Harms to Self and Others, and Social Benefits. Participants generated several statements that related to specific behavioral strategies used when using ECIGs for smoking reduction/complete switching behaviors such as making rapid transitions from smoking to ECIG use or using certain ECIG liquids or devices. Former smokers rated the Perceived Health Effects cluster and several behavioral strategy statements higher than current smokers. Conclusions These results help to identify ECIG use behaviors and characteristics perceived by ECIG users to aid in cigarette smoking cessation or reduction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Daily conformity drinking motivations are associated with increased odds
           of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks
    • Authors: Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael; Cathy Lau-Barraco
      Pages: 102 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Ashley N. Linden-Carmichael, Cathy Lau-Barraco
      Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
  • Transitions into young adulthood: Extent to which alcohol use, perceived
           drinking norms, and consequences vary by education and work statuses among
           18–20year olds
    • Authors: Christine M. Lee; Jennifer M. Cadigan; Anne M. Fairlie; Melissa A. Lewis
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Christine M. Lee, Jennifer M. Cadigan, Anne M. Fairlie, Melissa A. Lewis
      Introduction With many young adults pursuing post-secondary education and many working, understanding the importance of education and work roles on alcohol use are of developmental and clinical importance. Utilizing a sample of 18–20year-olds transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood, the current study examined how social role statuses in education (i.e., not in school, 2-year students, 4-year students) and work status (i.e., unemployed, employed part-time, employed full-time) were associated with alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and perceived drinking norms. Method Participants were 18–20year old young adults (54% female) participating in a one-time online survey about alcohol use and sexual behavior. Regression models were conducted to examine associations between school status and work status with alcohol related outcomes. Results Individuals who were unemployed had a significantly lower likelihood of any heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the past month, consumed fewer drinks per week, and experienced fewer alcohol-related consequences compared to individuals who worked full-time. Individuals who worked part-time consumed fewer drinks per week and had lower perceived drinking norms compared to individuals who worked full-time. No significant associations were found for alcohol use and consequences by education status. Discussion Working full-time is a risk factor for HED, greater weekly drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences when compared to young adults who are unemployed, and to a lesser extent with young adults working part-time. Workplace interventions may be one approach to reach heavy drinking young adults.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T06:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
       
 
 
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