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AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role
           of offspring gambling expectancies and motives
    • Authors: N.A. Dowling; E. Oldenhof; K. Shandley; G.J. Youssef; S. Vasiliadis; S.A. Thomas; E. Frydenberg; A.C. Jackson
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): N.A. Dowling, E. Oldenhof, K. Shandley, G.J. Youssef, S. Vasiliadis, S.A. Thomas, E. Frydenberg, A.C. Jackson
      Introduction The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Methods Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. Results The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. Conclusions The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana
           co-users and single product users in a college student population
    • Authors: Matthew N. Masters; Regine Haardörfer; Michael Windle; Carla Berg
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Matthew N. Masters, Regine Haardörfer, Michael Windle, Carla Berg
      Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18–25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p's<0.05) of cigarette-only versus co-use included attending public or technical colleges (vs. private) and not using little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), e-cigarettes, and alcohol. Correlates of marijuana-only versus co-use included being Black or Hispanic (vs. White), not attending technical school, and not using LCCs and e-cigarettes. Importance was rated higher for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana, but confidence was rated lower for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). Co-users were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). While 23.26% of marijuana-only and 15.13% of cigarette-only users reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers
    • Authors: Robert J. Wellman; Erin K. O’Loughlin; Erika N. Dugas; Annie Montreuil; Hartley Dutczak; Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Robert J. Wellman, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Annie Montreuil, Hartley Dutczak, Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Background Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. Methods In 2011–12, 311 current smokers (age 22–28, M =24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Results Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Conclusions Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even “light” smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effect of brief exercise on urges to smoke in men and women smokers
    • Authors: Alicia M. Allen; Nermine M. Abdelwahab; Samantha Carlson; Tyler A. Bosch; Lynn E. Eberly; Kola Okuyemi
      Pages: 34 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alicia M. Allen, Nermine M. Abdelwahab, Samantha Carlson, Tyler A. Bosch, Lynn E. Eberly, Kola Okuyemi
      Introduction Although smoking urges have been demonstrated to vary by gender and also be influenced by exercise, it is unknown if exercise has a differential effect on smoking urges by gender. This study aimed to explore gender-specific effects of an acute bout of exercise on cessation-related symptoms in men and women smokers during acute abstinence. Methods We enrolled smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) who were 18–40years old for a study on exercise and smoking behavior. Participants abstained from smoking for at least 3h, prior to measurement of their maximal oxygen consumption tested, which was the acute bout of exercise. Prior to and after the exercise, participants completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges – Brief and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Results Participants (n=38; 61% women) were, on average, 30.0±0.9years old and smoked 13.0±0.8 cigarettes/day. All measured aspects of cessation-related symptoms significantly improved after the exercise in both men and women. In women there was a significant decline in anticipated relief from negative affect after the exercise (women: −0.45±0.20, p=0.0322; men: −0.41±0.26, p=0.1312). In men there was a significant decline in the intention to smoke after the exercise (men: −0.77±0.23, p=0.0053; women: −0.66±0.37, p=0.0909). Conclusions An acute bout of exercise reduced smoking urges in both men and women smokers during an acute state of abstinence. Additional research is needed to replicate these observations in a larger, more diverse sample, and to explore the implication of these observations on cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Item Response Theory analysis of Fagerström Test for Cigarette
    • Authors: Andrea Svicher; Fiammetta Cosci; Marco Giannini; Francesco Pistelli; Karl Fagerström
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Andrea Svicher, Fiammetta Cosci, Marco Giannini, Francesco Pistelli, Karl Fagerström
      Introduction The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) are the gold standard measures to assess cigarette dependence. However, FTCD reliability and factor structure have been questioned and HSI psychometric properties are in need of further investigations. The present study examined the psychometrics properties of the FTCD and the HSI via the Item Response Theory. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in 862 Italian daily smokers. Confirmatory factor analysis was run to evaluate the dimensionality of FTCD. A Grade Response Model was applied to FTCD and HSI to verify the fit to the data. Both item and test functioning were analyzed and item statistics, Test Information Function, and scale reliabilities were calculated. Mokken Scale Analysis was applied to estimate homogeneity and Loevinger's coefficients were calculated. Results The FTCD showed unidimensionality and homogeneity for most of the items and for the total score. It also showed high sensitivity and good reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence, although problems related to some items (i.e., items 3 and 5) were evident. HSI had good homogeneity, adequate item functioning, and high reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence. Significant Differential Item Functioning was found for items 1, 4, 5 of the FTCD and for both items of HSI. Conclusions HSI seems highly recommended in clinical settings addressed to heavy smokers while FTCD would be better used in smokers with a level of cigarette dependence ranging between low and high.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Trajectories of risk behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: The
           role of race and ethnicity
    • Authors: Eunhee Park; Thomas P. McCoy; Jennifer Toller Erausquin; Robin Bartlett
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Eunhee Park, Thomas P. McCoy, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Robin Bartlett
      Introduction Despite important advances of longitudinal research in substance use behaviors, most studies stratify analyses by gender or race, which limits the ability to directly compare the likelihood of a particular developmental pathway across demographic groups. Thus, there is critical need for well-designed research to examine the associations of race/ethnicity with developmental trajectories of substance use behaviors across adolescence through adulthood. Methods Using an accelerated longitudinal design, we examined behaviors across ages 12–31 from Waves I–IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We performed growth mixture modeling, resulting in estimated trajectories over time. Next, we assessed the association between race/ethnicity and trajectory membership using multinomial logistic regression. Results Five trajectories resulted for marijuana use, four for cigarette smoking, three for smokeless tobacco use and number of days drunk, and two trajectories for heavy episodic drinking. Controlling for gender and family socioeconomic status, African Americans and Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to use cigarettes or smokeless tobacco early or to use alcohol heavily. Conclusions Substance use behavior development follows different pathways for US adolescents and young adults, with some individuals experimenting earlier in adolescence and others beginning to use later in adolescence or in early adulthood. We extend developmental knowledge about these behaviors by demonstrating that the patterns of behavior vary by race/ethnicity; members of lower-risk trajectories (those involving later or no initiation of substance use) are more likely to be African American or Hispanic than to be non-Hispanic White.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Frequency and correlates of sleep disturbance in methadone and
           buprenorphine-maintained patients
    • Authors: Kelly E. Dunn; Patrick H. Finan; D. Andrew Tompkins; Eric C. Strain
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Kelly E. Dunn, Patrick H. Finan, D. Andrew Tompkins, Eric C. Strain
      Background Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem, and opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on methadone or buprenorphine is a common approach. This study characterized sleep impairment in patients maintained on methadone or buprenorphine, and evaluated its association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Methods Participants (N=185) maintained on methadone (N=125) or buprenorphine (N=60) for OUD completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS) to provide a point-prevalence assessment of sleep impairment. Measures of lifetime problems and current functioning were also examined and compared as both a function of OMT and level of sleep impairment. Results Participants reported high levels of sleep impairment on the MOS, including not getting the amount of sleep they needed (42.9%), not sleeping enough to feel rested (39.6%) and trouble falling asleep (23.3%) or falling back asleep after waking (25.8%). Few differences were observed between OMT groups, and psychiatric dysfunction emerged as the most robust predictor of sleep impairment ratings. Patients with sleep impairment, independent of OMT medications, also reported current opioid withdrawal, psychiatric impairment, negative affect, and pain. Conclusions Results demonstrate substantial and clinically-significant impairments in sleep that are associated with a variety of current problems that could impact OMT outcomes and decrease quality of life. Outcomes support the development of methods to improve sleep in OMT patients, and to examine the degree to which sleep improvements may be associated with improvements in mood and other health-related measures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Injection drug use and overdose among young adults who use prescription
           opioids non-medically
    • Authors: Elliott J. Liebling; Traci C. Green; Scott E. Hadland; Brandon D.L. Marshall
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Elliott J. Liebling, Traci C. Green, Scott E. Hadland, Brandon D.L. Marshall
      Introduction Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a critical public health problem in the United States, with 2.1 million new initiates annually. Young adult NMPO users are at high risk for initiating injection drug use. We assessed correlates of injection drug use among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by opioid overdose. Methods We used data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which recruited 199 residents aged 18–29 who reported past-30-day NMPO use (65.3% male). We compared individuals who reported ever having injected with individuals who reported never injecting, using logistic regression to identify independent correlates of injection. Results Among eligible participants, the mean age was 24.6years and 61.3% were white. Over one-quarter (n=59, 29.6%) of the sample had ever injected drugs. The majority (n=46, 78.0%) of participants who had ever injected drugs reported injecting heroin as her/his first drug; the majority also reported previously snorting her/his first drug that was injected (n=46, 78.0%). In multivariable analyses, white race, older age, lifetime homelessness, and ever having overdosed or seen someone overdose were independently associated with an increased likelihood of ever injecting drugs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of lifetime injection drug use among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically. Given the observed associations between injection drug use and witnessing as well as experiencing overdose, interventions are urgently needed to improve overdose education and naloxone distribution to young adult NMPO users who inject drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Perceived academic benefit is associated with nonmedical prescription
           stimulant use among college students
    • Authors: Amelia M. Arria; Irene M. Geisner; M. Dolores Cimini; Jason R. Kilmer; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Angelica L. Barrall; Kathryn B. Vincent; Nicole Fossos-Wong; Jih-Cheng Yeh; Isaac Rhew; Christine M. Lee; Geetha A. Subramaniam; David Liu; Mary E. Larimer
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Amelia M. Arria, Irene M. Geisner, M. Dolores Cimini, Jason R. Kilmer, Kimberly M. Caldeira, Angelica L. Barrall, Kathryn B. Vincent, Nicole Fossos-Wong, Jih-Cheng Yeh, Isaac Rhew, Christine M. Lee, Geetha A. Subramaniam, David Liu, Mary E. Larimer
      Introduction College students are at higher than average risk for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS). A commonly identified motive among students who engage in NPS is to improve grades. Several research studies have observed that NPS most likely does not confer an academic advantage, and is associated with excessive drinking and other drug use. This study documents the proportion of the general college student population who believe that NPS will lead to improvements in academic performance. Methods This study gathered online survey data from a large, demographically diverse sample of college students to document the prevalence of perceived academic benefit of NPS for improving grades and to examine the association between such belief and NPS. Results Overall, 28.6% agreed or strongly agreed that NPS could help students earn higher grades, and an additional 38.0% were unsure. Students with a higher level of perceived academic benefit of NPS and more frequent patterns of drinking and marijuana use were more likely to engage in NPS, even after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Conclusions The results underscore the need for interventions that simultaneously correct misperceptions related to academic benefit and target alcohol and marijuana use to reduce NPS.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Perceived barriers for cannabis cessation: Relations to cannabis use
           problems, withdrawal symptoms, and self-efficacy for quitting
    • Authors: Michael J. Zvolensky; Daniel J. Paulus; Lorra Garey; Kara Manning; Julianna B.D. Hogan; Julia D. Buckner; Andrew H. Rogers; R. Kathryn McHugh
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Michael J. Zvolensky, Daniel J. Paulus, Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Julianna B.D. Hogan, Julia D. Buckner, Andrew H. Rogers, R. Kathryn McHugh
      Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. Regular cannabis use appears to be a dynamic, chronic process consisting of multiple quit attempts, periods of reduction, periods of abstinence, and periods of continual use. Cannabis-related processes, including withdrawal, problematic consequences of use, and self-efficacy for quitting each contribute to the cycle of use and, in part, are maintained and reinforced by perceived barriers for cannabis cessation. Yet, no work has examined the association between perceived barriers for cannabis cessation and clinically-relevant processes related to cannabis use. To address this gap, the current study recruited a racially diverse sample (N =145, 63.4% Black or African American) of cannabis users from the community to test the hypothesis that greater perceived barriers for quitting cannabis was related to more cannabis use problems, more cannabis withdrawal symptoms, and lower self-efficacy for quitting cannabis. Structural equation modeling suggested that greater perceived barriers for quitting cannabis was uniquely associated with cannabis use problems (β =0.50, 95%CI [0.39, 0.65], p <0.001), greater withdrawal symptoms (β =0.39, 95%CI [0.30, 0.50], p <0.001), and lower self-efficacy for quitting (β =−0.17, 95%CI [−0.21, −0.02], p =0.028). The results of this study indicate perceived barriers for cannabis cessation may help in better understanding an array of clinically significant cannabis use processes. Indeed, the observed pattern of findings add to current theoretical models of substance use that aim to identify unique risk processes that may maintain substance use and provide valuable information that can be used to inform treatment for cannabis users.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Positive and negative affect following marijuana use in naturalistic
           settings: An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Craig S. Ross; Daniel R. Brooks; Ann Aschengrau; Michael B. Siegel; Janice Weinberg; Lydia A. Shrier
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Craig S. Ross, Daniel R. Brooks, Ann Aschengrau, Michael B. Siegel, Janice Weinberg, Lydia A. Shrier

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of continuing nicotine replacement after a lapse: A
           randomized trial
    • Authors: John R. Hughes; Laura J. Solomon; Catherine E. Peasley-Miklus; Peter W. Callas; James R. Fingar
      Pages: 68 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): John R. Hughes, Laura J. Solomon, Catherine E. Peasley-Miklus, Peter W. Callas, James R. Fingar
      Introduction Four post-hoc analyses of prior trials found smokers using nicotine patch following a lapse were less likely to progress to relapse compared to those using a placebo patch following a lapse. We attempted a conceptual replication test of these results via a randomized trial of instructions to continue vs. stop nicotine patch after a lapse. Methods Smokers trying to quit (n =701) received nicotine patch (21/14/7mg) and brief phone counseling (six 15-min sessions). We randomized smokers to receive instructions for and rationale for stopping vs. continuing patch after a lapse. The messages were repeated before and after cessation and following lapses via counseling, phone and written instructions. Results Among those who lapsed, those told to Continue Patch did not have a greater incidence of 7-day abstinence at 4months (primary outcome) than those told to Discontinue Patch (51% vs. 46%). Most (81%) participants in the Discontinue condition stopped patch for only 1–2days and then resumed abstinence and patch use. Analyses based on all participants randomized were similar. Adverse events were as expected and did not differ between conditions. Conclusion Instructions to continue nicotine patch after a lapse did not increase return to abstinence. These negative results may have occurred because actual use of patch after a lapse was similar in the two conditions. Also, allowing patch use while smoking may have reduced motivation to stay abstinent.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics
           and drinking in late adolescence
    • Authors: Craig R. Colder; Kathleen Shyhalla; Seth E. Frndak
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Craig R. Colder, Kathleen Shyhalla, Seth E. Frndak
      The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Explicit drinking identity and alcohol problems: The mediating role of
           drinking to cope
    • Authors: Angelo M. DiBello; Mary Beth Miller; Chelsie M. Young; Clayton Neighbors; Kristen P. Lindgren
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Angelo M. DiBello, Mary Beth Miller, Chelsie M. Young, Clayton Neighbors, Kristen P. Lindgren
      Drinking identity, or the tendency to view one's self as a drinker, is a unique predictor of alcohol use and related consequences among young adults; yet the mechanism by which it leads to alcohol problems is poorly understood. Based on self-presentation and self-verification perspectives, we examined drinking to cope as a mediator of the association between explicit drinking identity and alcohol-related problems among two samples of young adults. Study data come from two large, longitudinal studies. Participants from Sample 1 and Sample 2 included undergraduates (55% and 59% female, respectively) who reported drinking in the previous three months. Tests of the indirect effects indicated that 3-month drinking to cope significantly mediated the positive association between baseline drinking identity and 6-month alcohol-related problems in both samples. In contrast, 3-month drinking identity did not mediate the association between baseline drinking to cope and 6-month alcohol-related problems. Findings indicate that individuals with a stronger drinking identity are more likely to use alcohol to cope and, subsequently, experience more problems. Thus, drinking identity may be an important intervention target for college students as it appears to temporally proceed drinking to cope in the prediction of alcohol-related problems.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Evaluating the utility of subjective effects measures for predicting
           product sampling, enrollment, and retention in a clinical trial of a
           smokeless tobacco product
    • Authors: Richard J. O'Connor; Bruce R. Lindgren; Liane M. Schneller; Peter G. Shields; Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Richard J. O'Connor, Bruce R. Lindgren, Liane M. Schneller, Peter G. Shields, Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Introduction Subjective effects of drugs, representing pharmacological and non-pharmacological effects, have been shown to be associated with future use and abuse. This also is the case for tobacco products and so measuring subjective effects, such as liking, satisfaction, and aversion, is crucial to gaining an understanding of consumer perception leading to increased use. This study examined the predictive validity of subjective drug and product effects with respect to product adoption. Methods Smokers (N=151) were enrolled in Minneapolis, Columbus, and Buffalo. Participants were shown two snus products (Camel Snus Winterchill and Robust), asked to try each of the products for 5min and to rate them using the Product Evaluation Scale (PES) and Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ). This was followed by a one-week use period of their preferred product and those who used at least 1 unit of Camel Snus per day (or at least 7 pouches total) were eligible to enroll in the Clinical Trial Phase assessing the impact of complete switching or dual use with smoking. Key outcomes for this study were product evaluation, extent of product use, and Clinical Trial enrollment. Results We noted no relationships between participant characteristics such as gender, age, prior smokeless use, baseline cigarettes per day (CPD), or PES and DEQ scores with any of these outcome variables. Subjective effects were weak predictors of product use, which totaled approximately 3units of snus per day. Conclusions Regardless of product, it appears that PES and DEQ ratings were uniformly poor predictors of trial enrollment and retention, though they do predict the amount of snus used during the sampling phase. Findings indicate that while subjective effects predict product preference in the short-term, they did not consistently predict extent of use or enrollment in the trial, suggesting that these initial measures have limited implications for long-term behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Predicting risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers as a
           function of event-level drinking motives and alcohol use
    • Authors: Tess M. Kilwein; Alison Looby
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Tess M. Kilwein, Alison Looby
      Background Risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections, sexual coercion, sex with unknown partners) are common among college students. To effectively decrease these behaviors, it is necessary to further understand factors associated with their occurrence. Drinking motives are a known predictor of both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, which may theoretically include risky sex. This study aimed to understand how drinking motivation interacts with alcohol use to predict risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers. Methods One-hundred and eight primarily female (83.3%) college students (age: M =19.09, SD =1.16) who endorsed past-month alcohol use and lifetime history of sexual activity completed up to four weekly Internet surveys assessing daily quantity of alcohol use, drinking motives (i.e., social, enhancement, coping, conformity), and engagement in risky sexual behavior. From 403 reported drinking episodes, four Generalized Estimating Equations were used to predict risky sex from person-centered drinking quantity and drinking motives. Results Strong social motives significantly increased the odds of engaging in risky sexual behaviors (p =0.004). Additionally, there was a significant interaction, such that the relationship between risky sex and drinking depends on enhancement motives (p =0.021). Conclusions Interventions targeting social and enhancement motives for drinking may be particularly effective in reducing the occurrence of risky sexual behaviors among college students, which may result in a reduction of the negative physical and psychological health outcomes accompanying these behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Then and now: Consumption and dependence in e-cigarette users who formerly
           smoked cigarettes
    • Authors: Matthew Browne; Daniel G. Todd
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Matthew Browne, Daniel G. Todd
      Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption. Nicotine dependence appears to reduce markedly when smokers transition to vaping. However, ‘decoupling’ is observed in the relationship between consumption and dependence in vaping, and the FTND-V showed inadequate psychometric properties. Older and female vapers tend to employ a low-power, higher nicotine-concentration style of vaping. Overall, nicotine concentration tended to increase over time, although this effect was moderated by users' intentions to reduce their intake. Indicators of smoking addiction do not appear to be applicable to vaping, with respect to both internal consistency and relationship to consumption. This suggests that motivations for vaping are less dominated by nicotine delivery (negative reinforcement), and may be driven more by positive reinforcement factors. Nevertheless, e-liquid nicotine concentration was associated, albeit weakly, with dependence among e-cigarette users. Finally, vapers are heterogeneous group with respect to style of consumption, with a high-power/lower nicotine set-up more common among younger men.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.034
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Goal commitment predicts treatment outcome for adolescents with alcohol
           use disorder
    • Authors: Yifrah Kaminer; Christine McCauley Ohannessian; James R. McKay; Rebecca H. Burke; Kaitlin Flannery
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Yifrah Kaminer, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, James R. McKay, Rebecca H. Burke, Kaitlin Flannery
      Objective Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator and mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a reliable and valid 2-scale measure developed to assess the adolescent's commitment to either abstinence or harm reduction (HR) that includes consumption reduction as a stated treatment goal. The objective of this study was to examine the ASAGC's ability to predict alcohol use treatment outcome. Method During sessions three and nine of a 10-week treatment program, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 adolescents 13–18years of age with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Drinking behaviors were assessed during and after a continued-care phase until 12-month from study onset. Results Analysis of Variance results indicated that adolescents who reported no alcohol use had significantly higher scores on the commitment to abstinence scale than adolescents who reported alcohol use. None of the ANOVA models were significant for commitment to HR. When treatment outcome was examined, commitment to abstinence consistently predicted number of drinking days, number of heavy drinking days, and the maximum number of drinks post-treatment. In contrast, commitment to HR did not predict any of the drinking outcomes. These results suggest that the more adolescents were committed to abstinence during treatment, the less they used and abused alcohol after treatment completion. Conclusions In addition to the ASAGC's ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence and commitment to HR, study findings demonstrate that goal commitment consistently predicts AUD treatment outcome.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.035
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical
           cannabis patients
    • Authors: Kipling M. Bohnert; Erin E. Bonar; J. Todd Arnedt; Deirdre A. Conroy; Maureen A. Walton; Mark A. Ilgen
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Kipling M. Bohnert, Erin E. Bonar, J. Todd Arnedt, Deirdre A. Conroy, Maureen A. Walton, Mark A. Ilgen
      Background Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. Methods Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n =1116). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate properties of the CMMQ. Multiple regressions were used to estimate associations between motives and cannabis use, physical health functioning, and mental health functioning. Results Fit indices were acceptable, and factor loadings ranged from 0.57 to 0.94. Based on regression analyses, motives accounted for 7% of the variance in recent cannabis use, and independent of cannabis use, accounted for 5% and 19% of physical and mental health functioning, respectively. Regression analyses also revealed that distinct motives were associated with cannabis use and physical and mental health functioning. Conclusions Among adults seeking medical cannabis certification, the factor structure of the CMMQ was supported, and consistent with prior studies of adolescents and young adults using cannabis recreationally. Thus, individuals who use cannabis medically may have diverse reasons for use that extend beyond the management of medical symptoms. In addition, coping and sleep-related motives may be particularly salient for this population. Findings support the utility of the CMMQ in future research on medical cannabis use; however, expansion of the scale may be needed to address medical motives for use.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of cocaine dependence: A
           review of the literature
    • Authors: Fady Rachid
      Pages: 145 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Fady Rachid
      Objective Cocaine use disorder is a very common condition that represents a substantial public health problem, and no effective pharmacological or psychological therapies have been identified to date. Urgent therapeutic alternatives are therefore needed such as neurostimulation techniques. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these techniques for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods The electronic literature on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, theta-burst stimulation, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, cranial electro-stimulation, and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of cocaine addiction were reviewed. Results Most of these studies which are few in numbers and with limited sample sizes found that some of these neurostimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation are safe and potentially effective in the reduction of craving to cocaine. Although deep brain stimulation showed some good results in one patient, no conclusion can be drawn so far concerning the efficacy and safety of this approach. Conclusion Given the somewhat promising results of some of the studies, future controlled studies with larger samples, and optimal stimulus parameters should be designed to confirm the short- and long-term safety and efficacy of neurostimulation techniques to treat cocaine addiction.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Caffeine's influence on gambling behavior and other types of impulsivity
    • Authors: Jon E. Grant; Samuel R. Chamberlain
      Pages: 156 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jon E. Grant, Samuel R. Chamberlain
      Background Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. Methods Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Caffeine intake over the preceding month was quantified using the Caffeine Use Questionnaire. Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between caffeine intake and demographic, gambling symptom, and neurocognitive measures were evaluated using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Results Average weekly caffeine intake in the gamblers was 1218.5mg (a figure higher than previously reported in the general population). PLS yielded an optimal model with one latent factor, which explained 14.8% of variation in demographic/clinical/cognitive measures and 32.3% of variation in caffeine intake. In this model, higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with earlier age at first gambling, higher personality-related impulsiveness, more nicotine consumption, older age, and more impulsive decision-making. Conclusions These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between caffeine intake, earlier age of first gambling, and certain types of impulsivity in gamblers. Providing education about healthy caffeine use may be especially valuable in gamblers. Future work should explore whether the relationship between caffeine use and gambling is due to a common predisposing factor (impulsive tendencies) or, rather, constitutes a form of self-medication in gamblers (or a means of sustaining gambling habits for longer).

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Depression and marijuana use disorder symptoms among current marijuana
    • Authors: Lisa Dierker; Arielle Selya; Stephanie Lanza; Runze Li; Jennifer Rose
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Lisa Dierker, Arielle Selya, Stephanie Lanza, Runze Li, Jennifer Rose
      Background Depression is one of the most consistent risk factors implicated in both the course of escalating substance use behaviors and in the development of substance dependence symptoms, including those associated with marijuana use. In the present study, we evaluate if depression is associated with marijuana use disorder symptoms across the continuum of marijuana use frequency. Methods Data were drawn from six annual surveys of the National Survey of Drug Use and Health to include adults who reported using marijuana at least once in the past 30days (N=28,557). Results After statistical control for sociodemographic characteristics and substance use behaviors including marijuana use, alcohol use, smoking, and use of illicit substances other than marijuana, depression was positively and significantly associated with each of the marijuana use disorder symptoms as well as the symptom total score. Adult marijuana users with depression were consistently more likely to experience marijuana use disorder symptoms and a larger number of symptoms, with the magnitude and direction of the relationship generally consistent across all levels of marijuana use frequency from 1day used in the past month to daily marijuana use. Conclusions Depression is a consistent risk factor for marijuana use disorder symptoms over and above exposure to marijuana suggesting that depressed individuals may represent an important subgroup in need of targeted substance use intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young
           adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems
    • Authors: Florencia Caneto; Ricardo Marcos Pautassi; Angelina Pilatti
      Pages: 174 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Florencia Caneto, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Angelina Pilatti
      The mechanisms that underlie the greater prevalence of alcohol use disorders in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of alcohol abuse are still under investigation. These subjects may exhibit differential sensitivity to alcohol's effects on psychomotor stimulation and impulsivity. Alcohol-induced psychomotor stimulation, measured as the heart rate (HR) response, is a proxy for the positive rewarding effects of the drug. We analyzed alcohol-induced effects on time perception (Time Production Task), risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]), and HR in FH+ and FH− participants. In the FH+ and FH− groups, women and men received 0.6 and 0.7g/kg alcohol, respectively. The alcohol dose yielded a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% throughout the experiment. The control groups received placebo, and the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication was assessed. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased HR and the adjusted average number of pumps on the BART (a measure of risk taking) in FH+ men and women but not in FH− participants. Behavioral impulsivity was unaffected by alcohol or a FH of alcohol abuse. FH− but not FH+ participants who received alcohol reported significantly greater subjective perception of alcohol's effects than their placebo counterparts. These results indicate that FH+ individuals presented heightened sensitivity to alcohol-induced HR stimulation and alcohol-induced risk taking compared with their FH− counterparts. FH+ subjects, however, were insensitive to the subjective effects of alcohol. This idiosyncratic response pattern may be a likely pathway by which a FH of alcohol problems promotes alcohol drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Drinking to cope with depression mediates the relationship between social
           avoidance and alcohol problems: A 3-wave, 18-month longitudinal study
    • Authors: Jamie-Lee Collins; Kara Thompson; Simon B. Sherry; Maria Glowacka; Sherry H. Stewart
      Pages: 182 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jamie-Lee Collins, Kara Thompson, Simon B. Sherry, Maria Glowacka, Sherry H. Stewart
      Undergraduates with high social anxiety have increased alcohol problems, despite lower or equivalent alcohol use levels. Drinking motives mediate the cross-sectional relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems, with coping and conformity motives being the most commonly observed mediators. Our study extended prior research by using a longitudinal design, examining coping with anxiety motives (CAM) and coping with depression motives (CDM) separately using path analysis, simultaneously considering a variety of drinking motives in the model, and focusing on a particularly severe form of social anxiety – namely, social avoidance. We collected data from 219 undergraduates (72.6% women, mean age of 20.59years) over three waves spaced six months apart. Results indicated CDM mediated the prospective relationship between social avoidance and alcohol problems. Findings suggest socially avoidant students' escalations in CDM explain their increased alcohol problems over time. Future research should examine involvement of depression and social isolation in contributing to this pathway to alcohol problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use
           disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse
    • Authors: Emily R. Dworkin; Sonya Wanklyn; Paul R. Stasiewicz; Scott F. Coffey
      Pages: 188 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Emily R. Dworkin, Sonya Wanklyn, Paul R. Stasiewicz, Scott F. Coffey
      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Perception of intoxication in a field study of the night-time economy:
           Blood alcohol concentration, patron characteristics, and event-level
    • Authors: Christine E. Kaestle; Nicolas Droste; Amy Peacock; Raimondo Bruno; Peter Miller
      Pages: 195 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Christine E. Kaestle, Nicolas Droste, Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno, Peter Miller
      Objective Determine the relationship of subjective intoxication to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and examine whether patron and event-level characteristics modify the relationship of BAC to subjective intoxication. Methods An in-situ systematic random sample of alcohol consumers attending night-time entertainment districts between 10pm and 3am on Friday and Saturday nights in five Australian cities completed a brief interview (n=4628). Participants reported age, sex, and pre-drinking, energy drink, tobacco, illicit stimulant and other illicit drug use that night, and their subjective intoxication and BAC were assessed. Results Male and female drinkers displayed equally low sensitivity to the impact of alcohol consumption when self-assessing their intoxication (BAC only explained 19% of variance). The marginal effect of BAC was not constant. At low BAC, participants were somewhat sensitive to increases in alcohol consumption, but at higher BAC levels that modest sensitivity dissipated (actual BAC had less impact on self-assessed intoxication). The slope ultimately leveled out to be non-responsive to additional alcohol intake. Staying out late, pre-drinking, and being young introduced biases resulting in higher self-assessed intoxication regardless of actual BAC. Further, both energy drinks and stimulant use modified the association between BAC and perceived intoxication, resulting in more compressed changes in self-assessment as BAC varies up or down, indicating less ability to perceive differences in BAC level. Conclusions The ability of intoxicated patrons to detect further intoxication is impaired. Co-consumption of energy drinks and/or stimulant drugs is associated with impaired intoxication judgment, creating an additional challenge for the responsible service and consumption of alcohol.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Incremental predictive validity of the Addiction Severity Index
           psychiatric composite score in a consecutive cohort of patients in
           residential treatment for drug use disorders
    • Authors: Birgitte Thylstrup; Kim Bloomfield; Morten Hesse
      Pages: 201 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Birgitte Thylstrup, Kim Bloomfield, Morten Hesse
      Background The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is a widely used assessment instrument for substance abuse treatment that includes scales reflecting current status in seven potential problem areas, including psychiatric severity. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the psychiatric composite score to predict suicide and psychiatric care after residential treatment for drug use disorders after adjusting for history of psychiatric care. Methods All patients treated for drug use disorders in residential treatment centers in Denmark during the years 2000–2010 with complete ASI data were followed through national registers of psychiatric care and causes of death (N=5825). Competing risks regression analyses were used to assess the incremental predictive validity of the psychiatric composite score, controlling for previous psychiatric care, length of intake, and other ASI composite scores, up to 12years after discharge. Results A total of 1769 patients received psychiatric care after being discharged from residential treatment (30.3%), and 27 (0.5%) committed suicide. After adjusting for all covariates, psychiatric composite score was associated with a higher risk of receiving psychiatric care after residential treatment (subhazard ratio [SHR]=3.44, p<0.001), and of committing suicide (SHR=11.45, p<0.001). Conclusions The ASI psychiatric composite score has significant predictive validity and promises to be useful in identifying patients with drug use disorders who could benefit from additional mental health treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • A biosocial cognitive model of cannabis use in emerging adulthood
    • Authors: Zoe E. Papinczak; Jason P. Connor; Paul Harnett; Matthew J. Gullo
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Zoe E. Papinczak, Jason P. Connor, Paul Harnett, Matthew J. Gullo
      Objectives The aim of this study was to test a new theoretical model of cannabis use incorporating biologically-based personality traits and social cognition. This biosocial cognitive theory (bSCT) has robust support in alcohol studies, but has not been applied to cannabis. The model proposes two pathways linking dimensions of impulsivity to cannabis use. The first predicts that the association between Reward Sensitivity (SR) and cannabis use is mediated by positive outcome expectancies. The second predicts that the relationship between Rash Impulsiveness (RI) and cannabis use is mediated by cannabis refusal self-efficacy. An extended version of this model was also tested and included a third pathway linking Punishment Sensitivity (SP) to cannabis use via higher negative outcome expectancies. Method Participants were 252 18-to-21-year-olds who completed questionnaires assessing cannabis use, personality and social cognition. Theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling. Results The bSCT model provided a good fit to the data (CFI=0.95; RMSEA=0.07; SRMR=0.06). Positive cannabis expectancies and refusal self-efficacy partially mediated the association between SR and cannabis use (p <0.05). Cannabis refusal self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between RI and cannabis use (p <0.05). The addition of a third SP pathway did not improve model fit. Conclusions Consistent with alcohol studies, the association between impulsivity and cannabis use is largely mediated by social cognition. The bSCT may provide novel insights to inform prevention and treatment of problematic cannabis use.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Use of hormonal contraceptives and smoking cessation: A preliminary report
    • Authors: Alicia M. Allen; Samantha Carlson; Lynn E. Eberly; Dorothy Hatsukami; Megan E. Piper
      Pages: 236 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Alicia M. Allen, Samantha Carlson, Lynn E. Eberly, Dorothy Hatsukami, Megan E. Piper
      Although endogenous sex hormones influence smoking-related outcomes, little is known about the effect of exogenous sex hormones. Therefore, the goal of this preliminary study was to examine differences in withdrawal symptoms and cessation between women using hormonal contraceptives (HC), women not using hormonal contraceptives (no-HC) and men. Utilizing data from two recently completed smoking cessation randomized clinical trials, we selected participants who were between the ages of 18–35years old. Participants were classified based on use of hormonal contraceptives and gender, then matched based on pharmacotherapy randomization assignment and baseline cigarettes per day. Participants provided self-reported assessments on withdrawal, craving and negative affect, and smoking status was assessed for 52weeks after quit date. Participants (N=130) were 28.7±0.4years old and smoked 16.8±0.6 cigarettes/day. Compared to both no-HC and men, the HC group had significantly greater withdrawal one week prior to the quit date, on the quit date and one week after the quit date. During the first week of attempted abstinence, craving declined in HC and in men, but increased in no-HC. At end of treatment, the HC group was at 3.73 times higher odds of being abstinent compared to men (95% confidence interval: 1.12–12.40). There were no group differences in abstinence rates at Week 26 or 52. These data suggest that HC users may experience more adverse levels of withdrawal, though may be more likely to achieve short-term abstinence. Future research is needed to replicate our observations and explore mechanisms of action.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • The association between multidimensional feminine norms, binge drinking
           and alcohol-related problems among young adult college women
    • Authors: Derek Kenji Iwamoto; William Corbin; Stephanie Takamatsu; Jeanett Castellanos
      Pages: 243 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Derek Kenji Iwamoto, William Corbin, Stephanie Takamatsu, Jeanett Castellanos
      Alcohol consumption among women has steadily increased over the past 30years, and women's drinking behavior is now similar to that of men's. The escalation of alcohol use among women highlights the critical need to examine gender issues and motivational factors that contribute to binge drinking and related problems within this population. Feminine norms or the socially constructed beliefs, messages and attitudes about what it means to be a woman may contribute to within-group differences in drinking patterns among women. The current study examined the relationship between multidimensional feminine norms and binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among 1910 college women. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, conformity to feminine norms, alcohol expectancies and descriptive norms. Controlling for the covariates descriptive norms, positive alcohol expectancies, and sorority membership, adherence to feminine norms related to sexual fidelity and belief that one needs to be sweet and nice were negatively associated to binge drinking, while adhering to investment in appearance was positively associated to binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Distinct feminine norms also had a significant indirect effect on alcohol-related problems through binge drinking. This study significant contributes to the literature by elucidating the theoretically gender-relevant risk and protective aspects of feminine norms in relation to binge drinking and related problems, and provides important information that might be used in clinical and prevention efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm among a vulnerable group: college women.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • How acceptable are intoxicated behaviors' Discrepancy between personal
           versus perceived approval
    • Authors: Ashley D. Lowery; Jennifer E. Merrill; Kate B. Carey
      Pages: 258 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Ashley D. Lowery, Jennifer E. Merrill, Kate B. Carey
      Introduction College students report high rates of binge drinking yet they reliably endorse elevated perceptions of drinking by their peers. However, the drinking norms literature offers little insight into how college students think about behaviors exhibited while intoxicated. This study aims to determine (a) if the predicted self-other differences (SODs) are seen among college students with respect to approval of intoxicated behaviors and (b) whether gender and race/ethnicity moderate these differences. We hypothesized that students would perceive others as more approving of intoxicated behaviors than they were themselves, resulting in significant SODs. We also predicted that women would have larger SODs relative to their male counterparts, and minority students would have larger SODs relative to their white counterparts. Methods Participants (N =233, 63% female) were recruited from an introductory psychology course at a large public northeastern university. They completed online surveys that assessed demographics, and responded to a list of intoxicated behaviors with ratings of personal approval and perceived peer approval. Results Perceived others' approval ratings exceeded personal approval ratings for 42 of the 44 different intoxicated behaviors. Women had significantly higher SODs relative to men and differed on personal approval. Non-white students had significantly higher SODs relative to white students, and differed both on personal approval and perceptions of others' approval of intoxicated behaviors. Conclusions Consistent SODs were observed in the approval of intoxicated behaviors. These findings may help to inform normative feedback interventions by revealing the potential for normative pressure, especially for non-white students.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Association of childhood abuse and prescription opioid use in early
    • Authors: Anna E. Austin; Meghan E. Shanahan; Bharathi J. Zvara
      Pages: 265 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Anna E. Austin, Meghan E. Shanahan, Bharathi J. Zvara
      Introduction Previous research has examined the association of childhood abuse with opioid misuse and dependence in adulthood. However, little research has focused specifically on prescription opioids, and no studies have examined associations with prescription opioid use, a potential pathway to later opioid misuse and dependence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse with prescription opioid use in early adulthood. Methods We used data from Waves I (12–18years) and IV (24–32years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. At Wave IV, respondents reported experiences of childhood abuse occurring prior to age 18years and prescription opioid use in the last four weeks. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of childhood abuse with recent prescription opioid use. Results In multivariable models adjusted for respondent sex, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, childhood emotional abuse (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.29, 1.90), physical abuse (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.14, 1.87), and any childhood abuse (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.24, 1.82) were significantly associated with recent prescription opioid use. Conclusions Given continued increases in prescription opioid use and opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S., understanding upstream social and environmental factors associated with prescription opioid use is important to strengthening and expanding current prevention and intervention strategies. Future research is needed to examine factors potentially mediating the association between childhood abuse and prescription opioid use in order to provide additional insights for prevention and intervention efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.033
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Changing social norms: The impact of normative feedback included in
           motivational enhancement therapy on cannabis outcomes among heavy-using
    • Authors: Claire E. Blevins; Denise D. Walker; Robert S. Stephens; Kelsey E. Banes; Roger A. Roffman
      Pages: 270 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Claire E. Blevins, Denise D. Walker, Robert S. Stephens, Kelsey E. Banes, Roger A. Roffman
      Introduction Heavy cannabis use is a problematic behavior, particularly among some adolescents. Adolescents are particularly prone to social influence. As such, injunctive norms (perceptions of others' approval of cannabis use) and descriptive norms (perception of frequency of others' cannabis use) influence cannabis behavior. Given that norms are not always accurate, motivational enhancement therapy aims to reduce cannabis use through normative feedback and correction of normative misconceptions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) and cannabis-related outcomes (use, cannabis-related problems, and cannabis use disorder symptoms) in a heavy cannabis-using adolescent population receiving motivational enhancement therapy. Methods Heavy cannabis-using individuals (n=252, 68% male, mean age 13.38, 59% Caucasian) were recruited from six Seattle high schools for a motivational enhancement therapy-based intervention involving normative feedback. Results Participants perceived higher rates of cannabis use among close friends than other same age teens and reported a higher perception of approval for cannabis use from close friends as compared to perceived approval of other same aged peers. Personal approval and the perceived approval of other same age teens were reduced following the intervention but there was no evidence of change in normative perceptions for close friends following the normative feedback interventions. Changes in normative perceptions were related to decreases in cannabis use and -related outcomes. Conclusions Results suggest the importance of normative feedback in changing behavior in adolescent cannabis users, but also highlight the ongoing influence of close friends.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.030
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Change in college students' perceived parental permissibility of alcohol
           use and its relation to college drinking
    • Authors: Brian H. Calhoun; Jennifer L. Maggs; Eric Loken
      Pages: 275 - 280
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Brian H. Calhoun, Jennifer L. Maggs, Eric Loken
      College students who perceive their parents to hold permissive views about their alcohol use engage in heavier drinking. However, few studies have assessed perceived parental permissibility of alcohol use (PPP) longitudinally across the later college years, and few have assessed variation in changes in PPP and whether or not these changes differentially predict drinking. This study assessed whether PPP changed across college and used two approaches to determine whether PPP predicted binge drinking frequency and peak drinking. Data on college students' daily lives and risk behaviors were collected from 687 students (51% female) in a large university in the Northeast United States over four years. Perceived parental permissibility of alcohol use increased from the last year of high school through the third year of college with males reporting significantly higher PPP by the third year of college. From 12th grade through the third year of college, between-person differences in mean PPP were positively associated with binge drinking frequency and peak drinking, and patterns of PPP change differentially predicted both drinking outcomes through fourth year. These findings suggest that PPP is a dynamic construct that may evidence important developmental changes across college and the transition to adulthood. More broadly, the results indicate that aspects of the parent-child relationship continue to change after high school and may be important as they are linked with college student risk behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Solitary drinking is associated with specific alcohol problems in emerging
    • Authors: Matthew T. Keough; Roisin M. O'Connor; Sherry H. Stewart
      Pages: 285 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Matthew T. Keough, Roisin M. O'Connor, Sherry H. Stewart
      Hazardous drinking in emerging adulthood is associated with multiple domains of alcohol problems, which range in type and severity. Alcohol problems at the severe end of the spectrum (e.g., impaired control) may be early warning signs of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among emerging adults. However, given the emphasis in the literature on predictors of overall problem risk, we still know very little about predictors of these specific (and severe) domains of alcohol problems in emerging adults. Many emerging adults drink at social events (e.g., parties), but an estimated 15% engage in solitary drinking. Solitary drinking – a developmentally atypical behavior in emerging adulthood – may be especially risky. Data suggests that frequent solitary drinking may reflect a loss of control over drinking, leading to hazardous use and subsequent problems. Accordingly, we expected that frequent solitary drinking among emerging adults would predict severe alcohol problems that map onto diagnostic criteria for AUDs and these effects would be mediated by hazardous alcohol use. Undergraduates (N =118) completed self-report measures as a part of a larger study on motivation and alcohol use. As predicted, path analysis showed that solitary drinking positively predicted hazardous alcohol use, and this in turn predicted severe alcohol problems associated with diagnostic criteria for AUDs, particularly risky behaviors and blackout drinking. Solitary drinking also positively predicted less severe problems of diminished self-perception and poor self-care through hazardous use. Though comparatively smaller, some indirect effects were observed from social drinking (at parties, but not at bars) to alcohol problems, via hazardous alcohol use. Overall, our results suggest that solitary drinking is particularly harmful in emerging adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Personality, marijuana norms, and marijuana outcomes among college
    • Authors: Matthew R. Pearson; John T.P. Hustad; Clayton Neighbors; Bradley T. Conner; Adrian J. Bravo
      Pages: 291 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Matthew R. Pearson, John T.P. Hustad, Clayton Neighbors, Bradley T. Conner, Adrian J. Bravo
      Based on the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, we examined distal and proximal antecedents to marijuana-related outcomes in this population. Specifically, we examined three marijuana-related perceptions (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and internalization of college marijuana use culture) as potential mediators of the associations between four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and marijuana-related outcomes (marijuana use, negative marijuana-related consequences). In a large sample of college student marijuana users (n =2129), our path analysis revealed marijuana-related perceptions to significantly mediate the associations between personality and marijuana-related outcomes. Specifically, internalization of college marijuana use culture mediated the effects of both impulsivity and sensation seeking on marijuana-related outcomes. Not only do our findings suggest the importance of distinct types of marijuana-related norms in predicting marijuana involvement, but also the possibility that such normative beliefs could be targeted as part of personality-tailored interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Implicit and explicit internalized stigma: Relationship with risky
           behaviors, psychosocial functioning and healthcare access among people who
           inject drugs
    • Authors: Courtney von Hippel; Loren Brener; Robyn Horwitz
      Pages: 305 - 311
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Courtney von Hippel, Loren Brener, Robyn Horwitz
      Introduction People who inject drugs (PWID) are stigmatized by society. Over time people may begin to internalize the stigma about their group. This research examines how implicit and explicit internalized stigma among PWID relates to health care and treatment access, psychosocial functioning, and engagement in risky behaviors. Methods PWID were recruited from a needle and syringe program (NSP) located in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed a survey examining explicit and implicit internalized stigma, risky behaviors (e.g., sharing injecting equipment, unprotected sex), health care and treatment access (e.g., comfort attending NSPs), and psychosocial functioning (e.g., mental health). Detailed demographic variables were also collected. Results A total of 115 clients completed the measures. To the degree that participants had internalized the stigma about their group (measured explicitly), they felt less comfortable attending NSPs, had greater severity of dependence, and experienced more depressive symptoms. The implicit measure of internalized stigma was related to treatment engagement and needle sharing, although the direction of these effects was unexpected. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of ongoing research into the implications of internalized stigma for PWID. Assessing both explicit and implicit internalized stigma appears to be beneficial as these are related to different health and behavioral outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.036
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Why narcissists are at risk for developing Facebook addiction: The need to
           be admired and the need to belong
    • Authors: Silvia Casale; Giulia Fioravanti
      Pages: 312 - 318
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Silvia Casale, Giulia Fioravanti
      Building upon previous research establishing a positive association between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and problematic social networking use, the present study tests a model that explains how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists might develop Facebook (Fb) addiction symptoms through the need for admiration and the need to belong. A sample of 535 undergraduates (50.08% F; mean age 22.70±2.76years) completed measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, Fb addiction symptoms, and two brief scales measuring the need for admiration and the need to belong. Results from structural equation modelling show that the association between grandiose narcissism and Fb addiction levels was completely mediated by the need for admiration and the need to belong. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism was not found to be associated either directly or indirectly with Fb addiction levels. The variables in the model accounted for 30% of the variance in Fb addiction levels. The present study represents a step toward a better understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying the link between grandiose narcissism and problematic Fb use.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.038
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Communicating accurate and complete information
    • Authors: David T. Levy
      Pages: 386 - 387
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): David T. Levy

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
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