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Showing 1 - 200 of 3048 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 361, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 361, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • The role of distress tolerance in the relationship between cognitive
           schemas and alcohol problems among college students
    • Authors: Raluca M. Simons; Rebecca E. Sistad; Jeffrey S. Simons; Jamie Hansen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Raluca M. Simons, Rebecca E. Sistad, Jeffrey S. Simons, Jamie Hansen
      Introduction The current study tested the role of distress tolerance in the relationship between three early maladaptive cognitive schemas (Abandonment, Defectiveness/Shame, and Insufficient Self-Control) and alcohol problems among college students (N=364). Previous research suggests that maladaptive cognitive schemas may be a risk factor for alcohol-related problems. However, the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. One's tolerance for emotional distress may play an important role in understanding the nature of this association. Methods We tested a structural equation model where distress tolerance was expected to explain or moderate associations between early maladaptive schemas and alcohol outcomes. Results Results indicated distress tolerance partially mediated the relationships between schemas of Abandonment and Insufficient Self-Control and alcohol problems. Distress tolerance also significantly moderated the relationship between the Defectiveness/Shame schema and alcohol-related problems, reducing the strength of the association. Conclusions Distress tolerance is a modifiable risk factor and the results of this study support the inclusion of emotional regulation strategies in the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems among young adults.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Decreased pain tolerance before surgery and increased postoperative
           narcotic requirements in abstinent tobacco smokers
    • Authors: Ling Shen; Kai Wei; Qianbo Chen; Haibo Qiu; Yong Tao; Qiang Yao; Jinchao Song; Chengjian Li; Liang Zhao; Yantao Liu; Zhijie Lu
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Ling Shen, Kai Wei, Qianbo Chen, Haibo Qiu, Yong Tao, Qiang Yao, Jinchao Song, Chengjian Li, Liang Zhao, Yantao Liu, Zhijie Lu
      Introduction The clinical influence of smoking cessation on pain tolerance before surgery and postoperative pain perception is not fully understood. This clinical study investigated the effect of smoking cessation on pain threshold during the perioperative period in patients undergoing hepatic resection. Methods We enrolled 148 male patients (68 non-smokers and 80 abstinent smokers) who underwent hepatic resection and received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. Patients were tested for preoperative pain thresholds in response to electrical stimuli. We recorded the cumulative amount of extra morphine equivalent required during the first 48h after surgery. Pain intensity was evaluated at 1h, 6h, 24h and 48h after surgery using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Additionally, button-pressing consumption was recorded by a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Results The groups did not differ with respect to baseline clinical characteristics. Compared with non-smokers, abstinent smokers exhibited lower pain thresholds before surgery and demanded a larger quantity of extra morphine equivalent during the first 48h after surgery. Abstinent smokers also exhibited more severe postoperative pain than non-smokers. Postoperative complications, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, and respiratory depression, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions In this study, smokers deprived of cigarettes exhibited decreased pain tolerance before surgery and required a larger quantity of postoperative extra morphine equivalent than non-smokers. Health care providers must be aware of the potential for increased narcotic requirements in smokers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • A detailed examination of the longitudinal associations between individual
           and team sports and alcohol use
    • Authors: Anne-Sophie Denault; François Poulin
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Anne-Sophie Denault, François Poulin
      This study examined the longitudinal associations between participation in individual and team sports and indicators of alcohol use during the high school years and beyond. A total of 310 youths were surveyed over six waves of data collection (ages 12, 14 to 17, and 19). Participation in individual and team sports was measured through phone interviews, whereas frequency of alcohol use, frequency of intoxication, and problematic alcohol use were self-reported. Control variables included participation in other types of organized activities, sex, family income and structure, parental education and knowledge, problem behaviors, deviant peers, and peer status. The results of autoregressive latent trajectory models revealed reciprocal associations between time spent in individual sports and frequency of alcohol use and intoxication. The results also revealed that time spent in team sports predicted an increase in frequency of alcohol use in middle adolescence. Lastly, the only significant finding at age 19 suggested that the initial number of hours spent in individual sports predicted lower scores on alcohol intoxication. These findings suggest that team sports act as a risk factor for less severe forms of alcohol use in middle adolescence, whereas individual sports act as a protective factor against more severe forms of alcohol use during adolescence and beyond.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • An examination of heavy drinking, depressed mood, drinking related
           constructs, and consequences among high-risk college students using a
           person-centered approach
    • Authors: Irene M. Geisner; Kimberly Mallett; Lindsey Varvil-Weld; Sarah Ackerman; Bradley M. Trager; Rob Turrisi
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Irene M. Geisner, Kimberly Mallett, Lindsey Varvil-Weld, Sarah Ackerman, Bradley M. Trager, Rob Turrisi
      Introduction Research has identified college students who experience depressed mood and consume alcohol are at an increased risk for experiencing alcohol problems. The present study identified profiles of differential alcohol use, depression, key psychosocial indicators of drinking (e.g., normative perceptions) and examined the relationship between these profiles and alcohol-related consequences. Method Students with a history of risky drinking and elevated depressed mood (n=311; 62.4% female) completed a web-based survey assessing typical and peak drinking, depressive symptoms, descriptive norms, drinking to cope motives, protective behavioral strategies, and alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct profiles focusing on alcohol use patterns and level of depressed mood and drinking related constructs. Profiles were then compared based on their association with reported rates of alcohol-related consequences. Four profiles emerged: 1) Mild Depression, Heavy Drinkers; 2) Mild Depression, Severe Drinkers; 3) Moderate Depression, Heavy Drinkers; and 4) Moderate Depression, Severe Drinkers. Findings revealed significant differences between the four profiles on both risky drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Conclusion These findings suggest the importance of assessing and addressing depressive symptoms among college students in order to reduce rates of risky drinking and alcohol-related consequences.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • An ecological momentary intervention for smoking cessation: The
           associations of just-in-time, tailored messages with lapse risk factors
    • Authors: Emily T. Hébert; Elise M. Stevens; Summer G. Frank; Darla E. Kendzor; David W. Wetter; Michael J. Zvolensky; Julia D. Buckner; Michael S. Businelle
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Emily T. Hébert, Elise M. Stevens, Summer G. Frank, Darla E. Kendzor, David W. Wetter, Michael J. Zvolensky, Julia D. Buckner, Michael S. Businelle
      Background Smartphone apps can provide real-time, tailored interventions for smoking cessation. The current study examines the effectiveness of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application that assessed risk for imminent smoking lapse multiple times per day and provided messages tailored to current smoking lapse risk and specific lapse triggers. Methods Participants (N=59) recruited from a safety-net hospital smoking cessation clinic completed phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times/day for 3 consecutive weeks (1week pre-quit, 2weeks post-quit). Risk for smoking lapse was estimated in real-time using a novel weighted lapse risk estimator. With each EMA, participants received messages tailored to current level of risk for imminent smoking lapse and self-reported presence of smoking urge, stress, cigarette availability, and motivation to quit. Generalized linear mixed model analyses determined whether messages tailored to specific lapse risk factors were associated with greater reductions in these triggers than messages not tailored to specific triggers. Results Overall, messages tailored to smoking urge, cigarette availability, or stress corresponded with greater reductions in those triggers than messages that were not tailored to specific triggers (p's=0.02 to <0.001). Although messages tailored to stress were associated with greater reductions in stress than messages not tailored to stress, the association was non-significant (p=0.892) when only moments of high stress were included in the analysis. Conclusions Mobile technology can be used to conduct real-time smoking lapse risk assessment and provide tailored treatment content. Findings provide initial evidence that tailored content may impact users' urge to smoke, stress, and cigarette availability.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Prospective prediction of arrests for driving under the influence from
           relationship patterns with family and friends in adolescence
    • Authors: William E. Pelham; Thomas J. Dishion
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): William E. Pelham, Thomas J. Dishion
      Driving under the influence (DUI) is dangerous and costly, yet there are few prospective studies on modifiable risk and protective processes that would inform prevention. Middle adolescence, when most individuals are first learning to drive and first using alcohol, may be a particularly salient period for family and friendship influences on DUI risk. In the present study, youth's family and friendship environments were observed and measured at age 16 in a diverse community sample (n =999), and then court records were used to document arrest for DUI through the age of 32years. We first examined the univariate effects of family and friendship variables on later DUI and then fit more comprehensive structural equation models to test predictive effects on the level of construct (e.g., parental monitoring) and environment (e.g., family). Results indicate that parental monitoring (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.77), positive family relations (OR=0.84), prosocial peer affiliation (OR=0.77), and deviant peer affiliation (OR=1.43) at age 16 were individually predictive of arrests for DUI from ages 16 to 32, even after controlling for both teen and parent alcohol use. The comprehensive, multivariate models indicated that the friendship environment was most predictive of arrests for DUI during the follow-up period. Together, these results are consistent with a model in which attenuated family ties contribute to substance-use-based friendships at age 16, which in turn contribute to an increased likelihood of arrest for DUI in later adolescence and early adulthood. Implications for prevention are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Trends in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges among homeless smokers
           participating in a smoking cessation RCT
    • Authors: Erika Ashley Pinsker; Deborah Jane Hennrikus; Darin J. Erickson; Kathleen Thiede Call; Jean Lois Forster; Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Erika Ashley Pinsker, Deborah Jane Hennrikus, Darin J. Erickson, Kathleen Thiede Call, Jean Lois Forster, Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
      Introduction In the U.S., approximately 73% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes and they experience difficulty quitting. Homeless smokers report low self-efficacy to quit and that smoking urges are a barrier to quitting. Self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges are dynamic and change throughout smoking cessation treatment. This study examines changes in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges throughout a smoking cessation intervention among the homeless and identifies predictors of change in these characteristics. Methods Homeless smokers (n=430) participating in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial in the U.S. completed surveys at baseline, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 26 on demographic and smoking characteristics (i.e., confidence to quit, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, and smoking urges). A growth curve analysis was conducted by modeling change in the smoking characteristics over time and examining the variability in the change in smoking characteristics by demographic characteristics and treatment group. Results Among the full sample, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking increased linearly over time, confidence to quit increased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently decreased, and smoking urges decreased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently increased. There were race differences in these trajectories. Racial minorities experienced significantly greater increases in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking than Whites and Blacks had higher confidence to quit than Whites. Conclusions White participants experienced less increase in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking and lower confidence to quit and therefore may be a good target for efforts to increase self-efficacy to quit as part of homeless-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Sustaining high confidence to quit and low smoking urges throughout treatment could be key to promoting higher cessation rates among the homeless.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use
           among young adults
    • Authors: Pallav Pokhrel; Pebbles Fagan; Thaddeus A. Herzog; Linnea Laestadius; Wayne Buente; Crissy T. Kawamoto; Hye-Ryeon Lee; Jennifer B. Unger
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Pallav Pokhrel, Pebbles Fagan, Thaddeus A. Herzog, Linnea Laestadius, Wayne Buente, Crissy T. Kawamoto, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Jennifer B. Unger
      A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or ‘offline’ social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive “smoking” experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Tobacco and alcohol use disorders: Evaluating multimorbidity
    • Authors: R. Ross MacLean; Mehmet Sofuoglu; Robert Rosenheck
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): R. Ross MacLean, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Robert Rosenheck
      . There is growing interest in applying the multimorbidity model for mental health disorders – i.e. the interactive effects of co-occurring diagnoses. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and tobacco use disorder (TUD) often occur together, but distinctive correlates of their co-occurrence have not been studied. Veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nationally in FY 2012 with diagnoses of both AUD and TUD were compared to those with only AUD or only TUD on socio-environmental factors, medical and psychiatric diagnoses, and service use. Multimorbid effects were defined as those in which patients with both AUD and TUD had more serious problems greater likelihood of specific co-occurring conditions than those with either AUD alone or TUD alone. Veterans with concurrent AUD and TUD (N=153,397), as compared to those with AUD only (N=191,900) or with TUD only (N=643,377), had significantly higher rates of homelessness [odd ratios (ORs)=1.24, 1.68], hepatic disease (ORs=1.11, 2.18), substance use disorders (ORs=1.42, 3.14), receipt of a VA disability pension (ORs=1.26, 1.30) and use of substance and mental health outpatient services (ORs=1.04, 1.12). Veterans with AUD and TUD appear to have more severe problems in some, but not all, socio-environmental, medical, psychiatric, and service use domains than veterans with either of these diagnoses alone. The combination of AUD and TUD yield generally more adverse effects in diverse areas and thus reflect an emergent phenomenon that may a require a distinctive treatment approach.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • E-cigarette marketing exposure and combustible tobacco use among
           adolescents in the United States
    • Authors: Rehab Auf; Mary Jo Trepka; Moaz Selim; Ziyad Ben Taleb; Mario De La Rosa; Miguel Ángel Cano
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Rehab Auf, Mary Jo Trepka, Moaz Selim, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Mario De La Rosa, Miguel Ángel Cano
      E-cigarette advertising has been shown to be associated with use of e-cigarettes, but its association with tobacco use has not been studied. Therefore, we examined the association between e-cigarettes advertisement and tobacco use. Data from nationally representative 22,007 middle and high school students (grades 6–12) were used to conduct the analysis. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of ever and current use of cigarette, hookah, cigar, and polytobacco use. Odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for study design, non-response rates, school level, gender, race/ethnicity, e-cigarette use, and smoking at home. E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with ever use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5), hookah (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2–1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4–1.6), and polytobacco (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8). Likewise, E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with current use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6), hookah (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03–1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6), and polytobacco use (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5–2.1). The results suggest that e-cigarette advertisement is associated with use of cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and polytobacco products. These results add to the evidence about the risks of e-cigarette marketing and highlight the need for stricter regulation of e-cigarette advertisements.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Prevalence and motives for drugged driving among emerging adults
           presenting to an emergency department
    • Authors: Erin E. Bonar; Brooke J. Arterberry; Alan K. Davis; Rebecca M. Cunningham; Frederic C. Blow; R. Lorraine Collins; Maureen A. Walton
      Pages: 80 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Erin E. Bonar, Brooke J. Arterberry, Alan K. Davis, Rebecca M. Cunningham, Frederic C. Blow, R. Lorraine Collins, Maureen A. Walton
      Objectives Drugged driving [DD] is a public health concern, particularly among emerging adults who have the highest rates of drug use. Understanding involvement with DD could inform prevention efforts for this population. We evaluated the prevalence of, motives for, and correlates of past-year DD among emerging adults from an urban, under-resourced community. Methods Emerging adults (N =586) ages 18–25years (54% male, 56% African American, 34% European American) seeking care in an urban emergency department completed past-year surveys of demographics, frequency of DD within 4h of substance use, reasons for DD, and substance use. Results DD was reported by 24% of participants (with 25% of those engaging in high frequency DD). DD after cannabis use was most common (96%), followed by prescription opioids, sedatives, and stimulants (9%–19%). Common reasons for DD were: needing to go home (67%), not thinking drugs affected driving ability (44%), not having to drive far (33%), and not feeling high (32%). Demographics were not associated with DD, but, as expected, those with DD had riskier substance use. Conclusions In this clinical sample, using a conservative measure, DD, particularly following cannabis use, was relatively common among emerging adults. Based on these data, clinical interventions for cannabis and other drug use should include content on prevention of DD, with particular attention to motives such as planning ahead for alternatives to get home safely and weighing benefits and risks of DD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Polysubstance use profiles among electronic dance music party attendees in
           New York City and their relation to use of new psychoactive substances
    • Authors: Fermín Fernández-Calderón; Charles M. Cleland; Joseph J. Palamar
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M. Cleland, Joseph J. Palamar
      Background Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. Method Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18–40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City. We queried past-year use of common illegal drugs and 98 NPS. We conducted latent class analysis to identify polysubstance use profiles of use of eight common drugs (i.e., ecstasy, ketamine, LSD, mushrooms, powder cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine, benzodiazepines). Relationships between drug classification membership and sociodemographics and use of drugs within six NPS categories were examined. Results We identified four profiles of use of common drugs: non-polysubstance use (61.1%), extensive polysubstance use (19.2%), moderate polysubstance use/stimulants (12.8%), and moderate polysubstance use/psychedelics (6.7%). Those in the moderate/psychedelic group were at higher odds of using NPS with psychedelic-type effects (2C, tryptamines, and other “new” psychedelics; Ps<0.05). Extensive polysubstance users were at increased odds of reporting use of 2C drugs, synthetic cathinones (“bath salts”), tryptamines, other new (non-phenethylamine) psychedelics, new dissociatives, and synthetic cannabinoids (Ps<0.05). Conclusion NPS preference is linked to the profile of use of common drugs among individuals in the EDM scene. Most participants were identified as non-polysubstance users, but findings may help inform preventive and harm reduction interventions among those at risk in this scene.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • The impact of a brief cessation induction intervention for waterpipe
           tobacco smoking: A pilot randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Eleanor L.S. Leavens; Ellen Meier; Alayna P. Tackett; Mary Beth Miller; Noor N. Tahirkheli; Emma I. Brett; Dana M. Carroll; Leslie M. Driskill; Michael P. Anderson; Theodore L. Wagener
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Eleanor L.S. Leavens, Ellen Meier, Alayna P. Tackett, Mary Beth Miller, Noor N. Tahirkheli, Emma I. Brett, Dana M. Carroll, Leslie M. Driskill, Michael P. Anderson, Theodore L. Wagener
      Background Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. Methods Participants (N=109) were recruited as they entered WP lounges and completed a questionnaire and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) testing before entering the WP lounge. Participants were cluster-randomized to assessment-only control (AOC) or intervention conditions. The intervention condition received health risk information and personalized feedback on pre- and post-WP session eCO levels. Participants completed a survey at the end of the WP session and at 3-month follow-up. Results Compared to control, the intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of WP-related harms, correcting risk perceptions, increasing importance of quitting WP smoking, and increasing confidence in ability to quit WP smoking at post-WP session (p<0.05). Differences were maintained for knowledge of WP-related harms, risk perceptions, and commitment to quitting WP at 3-month follow-up; however, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in WP smoking (i.e., days smoked and number of WPs smoked) at 3-month follow-up between the intervention (M =3.97days, SD =9.83; M =6.45 bowls, SD =19.60) and control conditions (M =3.32days, SD =5.24; M =3.49 bowls, SD =5.10). Conclusions The current research supports the use of personalized feedback as a useful intervention method to increase commitment to quit WP, but suggests more intensive interventions may be necessary to achieve WP cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role
           of offspring gambling expectancies and motives
    • Authors: N.A. Dowling; E. Oldenhof; K. Shandley; G.J. Youssef; S. Vasiliadis; S.A. Thomas; E. Frydenberg; A.C. Jackson
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): N.A. Dowling, E. Oldenhof, K. Shandley, G.J. Youssef, S. Vasiliadis, S.A. Thomas, E. Frydenberg, A.C. Jackson
      Introduction The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Methods Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. Results The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. Conclusions The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana
           co-users and single product users in a college student population
    • Authors: Matthew N. Masters; Regine Haardörfer; Michael Windle; Carla Berg
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Matthew N. Masters, Regine Haardörfer, Michael Windle, Carla Berg
      Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18–25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p's<0.05) of cigarette-only versus co-use included attending public or technical colleges (vs. private) and not using little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), e-cigarettes, and alcohol. Correlates of marijuana-only versus co-use included being Black or Hispanic (vs. White), not attending technical school, and not using LCCs and e-cigarettes. Importance was rated higher for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana, but confidence was rated lower for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). Co-users were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). While 23.26% of marijuana-only and 15.13% of cigarette-only users reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers
    • Authors: Robert J. Wellman; Erin K. O’Loughlin; Erika N. Dugas; Annie Montreuil; Hartley Dutczak; Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Robert J. Wellman, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Annie Montreuil, Hartley Dutczak, Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Background Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. Methods In 2011–12, 311 current smokers (age 22–28, M =24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Results Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Conclusions Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even “light” smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effect of brief exercise on urges to smoke in men and women smokers
    • Authors: Alicia M. Allen; Nermine M. Abdelwahab; Samantha Carlson; Tyler A. Bosch; Lynn E. Eberly; Kola Okuyemi
      Pages: 34 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alicia M. Allen, Nermine M. Abdelwahab, Samantha Carlson, Tyler A. Bosch, Lynn E. Eberly, Kola Okuyemi
      Introduction Although smoking urges have been demonstrated to vary by gender and also be influenced by exercise, it is unknown if exercise has a differential effect on smoking urges by gender. This study aimed to explore gender-specific effects of an acute bout of exercise on cessation-related symptoms in men and women smokers during acute abstinence. Methods We enrolled smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) who were 18–40years old for a study on exercise and smoking behavior. Participants abstained from smoking for at least 3h, prior to measurement of their maximal oxygen consumption tested, which was the acute bout of exercise. Prior to and after the exercise, participants completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges – Brief and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Results Participants (n=38; 61% women) were, on average, 30.0±0.9years old and smoked 13.0±0.8 cigarettes/day. All measured aspects of cessation-related symptoms significantly improved after the exercise in both men and women. In women there was a significant decline in anticipated relief from negative affect after the exercise (women: −0.45±0.20, p=0.0322; men: −0.41±0.26, p=0.1312). In men there was a significant decline in the intention to smoke after the exercise (men: −0.77±0.23, p=0.0053; women: −0.66±0.37, p=0.0909). Conclusions An acute bout of exercise reduced smoking urges in both men and women smokers during an acute state of abstinence. Additional research is needed to replicate these observations in a larger, more diverse sample, and to explore the implication of these observations on cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Item Response Theory analysis of Fagerström Test for Cigarette
    • Authors: Andrea Svicher; Fiammetta Cosci; Marco Giannini; Francesco Pistelli; Karl Fagerström
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Andrea Svicher, Fiammetta Cosci, Marco Giannini, Francesco Pistelli, Karl Fagerström
      Introduction The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) are the gold standard measures to assess cigarette dependence. However, FTCD reliability and factor structure have been questioned and HSI psychometric properties are in need of further investigations. The present study examined the psychometrics properties of the FTCD and the HSI via the Item Response Theory. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in 862 Italian daily smokers. Confirmatory factor analysis was run to evaluate the dimensionality of FTCD. A Grade Response Model was applied to FTCD and HSI to verify the fit to the data. Both item and test functioning were analyzed and item statistics, Test Information Function, and scale reliabilities were calculated. Mokken Scale Analysis was applied to estimate homogeneity and Loevinger's coefficients were calculated. Results The FTCD showed unidimensionality and homogeneity for most of the items and for the total score. It also showed high sensitivity and good reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence, although problems related to some items (i.e., items 3 and 5) were evident. HSI had good homogeneity, adequate item functioning, and high reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence. Significant Differential Item Functioning was found for items 1, 4, 5 of the FTCD and for both items of HSI. Conclusions HSI seems highly recommended in clinical settings addressed to heavy smokers while FTCD would be better used in smokers with a level of cigarette dependence ranging between low and high.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Transitioning from adequate to inadequate sleep duration associated with
           higher smoking rate and greater nicotine dependence in a population sample
    • Authors: Freda Patterson; Michael A. Grandner; Alicia Lozano; Aditi Satti; Grace Ma
      Pages: 47 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Freda Patterson, Michael A. Grandner, Alicia Lozano, Aditi Satti, Grace Ma
      Introduction Inadequate sleep (≤6 and ≥9h) is more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers but the extent to which sleep duration in smokers relates to smoking behaviors and cessation outcomes, is not yet clear. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we investigated the extent to which sleep duration predicted smoking behaviors and quitting intention in a population sample. Methods Data from current smokers who completed the baseline (N=635) and 5-year follow-up (N=477) assessment in the United Kingdom Biobank cohort study were analyzed. Multivariable regression models using smoking behavior outcomes (cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, difficulty not smoking for a day, quitting intention) and sleep duration (adequate (7–8h) versus inadequate (≤6 and ≥9h) as the predictor were generated. All models adjusted for age, sex, race, and education. Results Worsening sleep duration (adequate to inadequate) predicted a more than three-fold higher odds in increased cigarettes per day (OR=3.18; 95% CI=1.25–8.06), a more than three-fold increased odds of not smoking for the day remaining difficult (OR=3.90; 95% CI=1.27–12.01), and a >8-fold increased odds of higher nicotine dependence (OR=8.98; 95% CI=2.81–28.66). Improving sleep duration (i.e., inadequate to adequate sleep) did not predict reduced cigarette consumption or nicotine dependence in this population sample. Conclusion Transitioning from adequate to inadequate sleep duration may be a risk factor for developing a more “hard-core” smoking profile. The extent to which achieving healthy sleep may promote, or optimize smoking cessation treatment response, warrants investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of nicotine on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Palmisano; Eleanor C. Hudd; Courtney M. McQuade; Harriet de Wit; Robert S. Astur
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alexandra N. Palmisano, Eleanor C. Hudd, Courtney M. McQuade, Harriet de Wit, Robert S. Astur
      Nicotine has been shown to enhance the reinforcement and reward-responsiveness of non-nicotine stimuli. To determine whether nicotine enhances the strength of conditioning to context, undergraduate participants with varying levels of nicotine dependence were recruited for a two-day study and tested on a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On day one, participants explored two virtual rooms where they received multiple pairings of M&M rewards in one room and no rewards in the other room, followed by a free-access test session with no rewards. On day two, participants received three test sessions to assess extinction. Subsequently, participants received M&Ms. in a novel context and were then tested for reinstatement. Prior to testing on each day, subjects were administered either nicotine (4mg) or placebo lozenges, in a between-subjects, four-group, 2×2 design (nicotine or placebo on days 1 and 2). After conditioning on day one, only participants who received placebo exhibited a CPP by spending significantly more time in the room previously-paired with M&Ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, nicotine-treated participants did not display a significant CPP, and there were no significant differences between treatment groups. However, post hoc analysis indicated that in a subset of participants with greater nicotine dependence, the nicotine group displayed a CPP by rating the M&M-paired room as significantly more enjoyable than those who received placebo. Additionally, while neither treatment group showed significant place preferences during the first two extinction sessions on Day 2, individuals who received nicotine on Day 1 or placebo on Day 2 spent significantly more time in the M&M-paired room during the final extinction session. Finally, those who received nicotine on Day 2 exhibited significantly greater reinstatement compared to placebo-treated participants. These results partially support preclinical evidence that nicotine can affect learning, extinction, and reinstatement.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness and
           affective outcomes among adult daily smokers
    • Authors: Christina M. Luberto; Alison C. McLeish
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Christina M. Luberto, Alison C. McLeish
      Brief, single session mindfulness training has been shown to reduce emotional distress, craving, and withdrawal symptoms among smokers when they are nicotine-deprived. However, no research has examined the efficacy of brief mindfulness training for non-nicotine-deprived smokers, or explored its effects on smokers' ability to tolerate emotional distress. Smokers progress differently through various stages as they attempt to change their smoking behavior and evidence-based strategies are needed for smokers at all levels of nicotine deprivation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness, distress, distress tolerance, and smoking urges following a distressing laboratory task among 86 non-nicotine-deprived adult daily smokers (M age =46years, 55% male, 74% African-American) who completed behavioral tasks and self-report measures before and after randomization to a 10-min mindfulness or control exercise. As hypothesized, the mindfulness exercise significantly increased state mindfulness [F =14.24, p =0.00, η 2 partial =0.15] and demonstrated a non-significant small to medium effect on decreased distress levels [F =3.22, p =0.08, η 2 partial =0.04]. Contrary to prediction, it was not associated with improvements in self-reported [F =2.68, p =0.11, η 2 partial =0.03] or behavioral distress tolerance [F(1)=0.75, p =0.39, η 2 partial =0.01], or smoking urges following a stressor [F =0.22, p =0.64, η 2 partial =0.00.] These findings suggest that brief mindfulness exercises successfully induce states of mindfulness in non-nicotine-deprived smokers. These exercises might also improve current moment levels of distress, but they do not appear to improve self-report or behavioral indices of distress tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief
           intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal
           drinking age: A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Thomas Ganz; Michael Braun; Marion Laging; Karin Schermelleh-Engel; Johannes Michalak; Thomas Heidenreich
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Thomas Ganz, Michael Braun, Marion Laging, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Johannes Michalak, Thomas Heidenreich
      Background Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. Methods A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n =514], AO [n =467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =194], AO [n =231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =146], AO [n =200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Results Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. Conclusions The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Organizational downsizing and alcohol use: A national study of U.S.
           workers during the Great Recession
    • Authors: Michael R. Frone
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Michael R. Frone
      Organizational downsizing, which represents the reduction of an organization's workforce, results in a stressful work environment for those who survive the downsizing. However, we know little about the association between surviving an organizational downsizing and employee alcohol use. This study explored the association between exposure to organizational downsizing and four dimensions of alcohol use during the Great Recession. Also explored were the moderating influences of length of recession exposure, state drinking culture, gender, age, education, family income, and financial demands. Data for this study came from a national telephone survey of U.S. workers that was conducted from December 2008 to April 2011 (N =2296). The results revealed that exposure to organizational downsizing was positively associated with usual frequency of drinking, number of drinks consumed per usual drinking occasion, and both the frequency of binge drinking and drinking to intoxication. Length of exposure to the recession moderated the association between organizational downsizing exposure and usual number of drinks consumed. The conditional effects revealed that this association became stronger as length of exposure to the recession increased. Furthermore, age moderated the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and the usual number of drinks consumed and the frequency of binge drinking and intoxication. The conditional effects revealed that these associations were positive and significant among young survivors (ages 40 or younger), but were nonsignificant among middle-aged survivors (over 40years of age). State drinking culture, gender, education, family income, and financial demands did not moderate the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • When the party continues: Impulsivity and the effect of employment on
           young adults' post-college alcohol use
    • Authors: I.M. Geisner; J. Koopmann; P. Bamberger; M. Wang; M.E. Larimer; I. Nahum-Shani; S. Bacharach
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): I.M. Geisner, J. Koopmann, P. Bamberger, M. Wang, M.E. Larimer, I. Nahum-Shani, S. Bacharach
      Background The transition from college to work is both an exciting and potentially high risk time for young adults. As students transition from academic settings to full-time employment, they must navigate new social demands, work demands, and adjust their drinking behaviors accordingly. Research has shown that there are both protective factors and risk factors associated with starting a new job when it comes to alcohol use, and individual differences can moderate these factors. Method 1361 students were recruited from 4 geographically diverse universities and followed 1month pre- and 1month post-graduation. Drinking frequency, quantity, consequences, and impulsivity were assessed. Results Full-time employment was related to increased drinking quantity but not related to changes in other drinking outcomes. However, impulsivity moderated the relationship between employment and drinking. For those reporting higher levels of impulsivity at baseline, full-time employment was associated with an increase in drinking variables (quantity and frequency), whereas drinking was unaffected by full-time employment status among those reporting lower levels of impulsivity. Implications for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Smoking and drinking behaviors of military spouses: Findings from the
           Millennium Cohort Family Study
    • Authors: Daniel W. Trone; Teresa M. Powell; Lauren M. Bauer; Amber D. Seelig; Arthur V. Peterson; Alyson J. Littman; Emily C. Williams; Charles C. Maynard; Jonathan B. Bricker; Edward J. Boyko
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Daniel W. Trone, Teresa M. Powell, Lauren M. Bauer, Amber D. Seelig, Arthur V. Peterson, Alyson J. Littman, Emily C. Williams, Charles C. Maynard, Jonathan B. Bricker, Edward J. Boyko
      Introduction: The associations between stressful military experiences and tobacco use and alcohol misuse among Service members are well documented. However, little is known about whether stressful military experiences are associated with tobacco use and alcohol misuse among military spouses. Methods: Using 9872 Service member–spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we employed logistic regression to estimate the odds of self-reported cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking among spouses by Service member deployment status, communication regarding deployment, and stress associated with military-related experiences, while adjusting for demographic, mental health, military experiences, and Service member military characteristics. Results: Current cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking were reported by 17.2%, 36.3%, and 7.3% of military spouses, respectively. Current deployment was not found to be associated with spousal smoking or drinking behaviors. Communication about deployment experiences with spouses was associated with lower odds of smoking, but not with risky or problem drinking. Spouses bothered by communicated deployment experiences and those who reported feeling very stressed by a combat-related deployment or duty assignment had consistently higher odds of both risky and problem drinking. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that contextual characteristics about the deployment experience, as well as the perceived stress of those experiences, may be more impactful than the simple fact of Service member deployment itself. These results suggest that considering the impact of deployment experiences on military spouses reveals important dimensions of military community adaptation and risk.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Testing weight motives and guilt/shame as mediators of the relationship
           between alcohol use and physical activity
    • Authors: Tonya Dodge; Paige Clarke
      Pages: 131 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Tonya Dodge, Paige Clarke
      Objectives Test whether weight motives and guilt/shame mediate the positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use among college-attending young adults. Design A longitudinal design was employed. Method Young adults who were attending college (N =371) completed two self-administered questionnaires separated by approximately one month. Heavy episodic drinking was assessed at Time 1. Vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, weight motives, and guilt/shame were assessed at Time 2. Results Results are consistent with weight motives as a mediator of the positive relationship between heavy episodic drinking and vigorous physical activity. Results were inconsistent with guilt/shame as a mediator of this relationship. There was no statistically significant relationship between heavy episodic drinking and moderate physical activity. Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking was related to vigorous but not to moderate physical activity in the subsequent 30-days. Furthermore, the results are consistent with weight motives as a mediator of the relationship between alcohol use and vigorous physical activity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • E-cigarette use among treatment-seeking smokers: Moderation of abstinence
           by use frequency
    • Authors: Emily N. Subialka Nowariak; Rebecca K. Lien; Raymond G. Boyle; Michael S. Amato; Laura A. Beebe
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Emily N. Subialka Nowariak, Rebecca K. Lien, Raymond G. Boyle, Michael S. Amato, Laura A. Beebe
      Introduction Emerging literature suggests that frequency of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. However, few studies have focused specifically on treatment-seekers, a group that may differ in important ways from smokers in the general population. This study looks at the relationship between e-cigarette use frequency and abstinence among a sample of treatment-seeking tobacco users. Methods Seven-month follow-up survey data from N =2760 treatment-seeking tobacco users who utilized statewide tobacco quitlines in three states were used to assess the relationship between 30-day point prevalence abstinence and e-cigarette use frequency at follow-up. E-cigarette use was examined in two ways. First, we looked at any use in the past 30days versus no use. Additionally, past 30-day e-cigarette use frequency was categorized into four groups: 0days, 1–5days – infrequent, 6–29days – intermediate, 30days – daily. Logistic regression models were constructed predicting 30-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence. Results Both infrequent (AOR=0.35; CI=0.20–0.59) and intermediate (AOR=0.50; CI=0.32–0.80) past 30-day e-cigarette use were associated with lower rates of tobacco abstinence versus no past 30-day use. However, daily e-cigarette users (AOR=1.16; CI=0.71–1.70) had similar 30-day abstinence when compared to non-users. Conclusions Results from this study of treatment-seekers support findings from studies of general population tobacco users that suggest frequency of e-cigarette use is an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and tobacco cessation. Future studies should employ more refined measures of e-cigarette use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a
           nationally representative sample of adolescents: Prevalence and correlates
    • Authors: Dennis H. Li; Blair C. Turner; Brian Mustanski; Gregory L. Phillips
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Dennis H. Li, Blair C. Turner, Brian Mustanski, Gregory L. Phillips
      Objective Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. Method Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use. Results Adjusting for grade and race/ethnicity, female SMA and gay and unsure males had significantly elevated odds of ever misusing a prescription drug compared to heterosexual adolescents (ORs from 1.7–2.5). Most sexual orientation disparities among females remained significant with the addition of victimization and mental health covariates but attenuated completely after controlling for other illicit drug use. The effect for unsure males attenuated when victimization variables were included, but the effect for gay males remained significant through the final model. Controlling for other illicit drug use, mental health variables remained significant correlates for females whereas only forced sex was significant for males. Conclusion These results suggest experiences of victimization and mental health partially account for the disparities in prescription drug misuse between SMA and heterosexual adolescents, and their effects may differ by sex. A combination of structural, individual coping, and universal drug prevention approaches should be used to make the largest impact on reducing these disparities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Predictors of short-term change after a brief alcohol intervention for
           mandated college drinkers
    • Authors: Kate B. Carey; Jennifer E. Merrill; Jennifer L. Walsh; Sarah A. Lust; Seth C. Kalichman; Michael P. Carey
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Kate B. Carey, Jennifer E. Merrill, Jennifer L. Walsh, Sarah A. Lust, Seth C. Kalichman, Michael P. Carey
      Objective Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce problematic drinking for some, but not all, college students. Identifying those students who are less responsive can help to guide intervention refinement. Therefore, we examined demographic, personality, and cognitive factors hypothesized to influence change after a BMI. Method Students mandated for intervention following a campus alcohol violation (N =568; 28% female, 38% freshmen) completed a baseline assessment, then received a BMI, and then completed a 1-month follow-up. At both assessments, alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, typical BAC, binge frequency) and alcohol-related problems were measured. Results Latent change score analyses revealed significant decrease in both alcohol use and problems 1month after the BMI. In the final model that predicted change in alcohol use, four factors (male sex, a “fun seeking” disposition, more perceived costs and fewer perceived benefits of change) predicted smaller decreases in alcohol use over time. In the final model that predicted change in alcohol-related problems, three factors (stronger beliefs about the centrality of alcohol to college life, more perceived costs and fewer perceived benefits of change) predicted smaller decreases in problems over time. Conclusions Participation in a BMI reduced alcohol use and problems among mandated college students at 1-month follow-up. We identified predictors of these outcomes, which suggest the need to tailor the BMI to improve its efficacy among males and those students expressing motives (pro and cons, and fun seeking) and beliefs about the centrality of drinking in college.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Adolescent substance use: Latent class and transition analysis
    • Authors: Hye Jeong Choi; Yu Lu; Marya Schulte; Jeff R. Temple
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Hye Jeong Choi, Yu Lu, Marya Schulte, Jeff R. Temple
      Background The prevention and intervention of adolescent substance use is a public health priority. Most adolescents will engage in some form of substance use, and a sizeable minority will transition to using multiple substances. An emerging body of research takes a person-centered approach to model adolescent substance use over time; however, the findings have been equivocal. Our study modeled adolescent substance use transition patterns over three years based on a comprehensive list of substances and examined gender as a moderator. Methods We used three annual waves of data (Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4) from an ongoing longitudinal study of an ethnically diverse sample of 1042 adolescents originally recruited from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Participants were 56% female, 32% Hispanics, 30% Whites, 29% African Americans, and 9% other with an average of 16.1years (SD=0.79) at Time 2. Data were analyzed using latent transition analyses. Results The study identified three substance use statuses (Mild Alcohol Use, Alcohol and Moderate Marijuana Use, and Polysubstance Use) and suggested that adolescents generally remained in the same statuses over time. When they did transition, it was typically to a more harmful substance use status. Further, males were more likely than females to be polysubstance users and had higher probabilities of transiting to and remaining in a more harmful drug use status. Conclusions The study identifies overall and gender specific adolescent substance use transition patterns, which are vital to informing intervention development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Factors associated with alcohol consumption among medical cannabis
           patients with chronic pain
    • Authors: Alan K. Davis; Maureen A. Walton; Kipling M. Bohnert; Carrie Bourque; Mark A. Ilgen
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alan K. Davis, Maureen A. Walton, Kipling M. Bohnert, Carrie Bourque, Mark A. Ilgen
      Introduction Chronic pain is the most common reason for medical cannabis certification. Data regarding alcohol use and risky drinking among medical cannabis patients with pain is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use and risky drinking in this population. Methods Participants completed surveys regarding demographics, pain-related variables, anxiety, cannabis use, and past six-month alcohol consumption. Alcohol use groups were defined using the AUDIT-C [i.e., non-drinkers, low-risk drinkers, and high-risk drinkers (≥4 for men and ≥3 for women)] and compared on demographic characteristics, pain measures, anxiety, and cannabis use. Results Overall, 42% (n=330/780) were non-drinkers, 32% (n=251/780) were low-risk drinkers, and 26% (n=199/780) were high-risk drinkers. Compared to non-drinkers, low- and high-risk drinkers were significantly younger whereas a larger proportion of low-risk drinkers reported being African-American compared to non- or high-risk drinkers. High-risk drinkers reported significantly lower pain severity/interference compared to the other groups; high-risk drinkers were also less likely to be on disability compared to other groups. A multinomial logistic regression showed that patients reporting lower pain severity and less disability had greater odds of being classified a high-risk drinker. Conclusions High-risk drinking appears common among medical cannabis patients. Future research should examine whether such use is concurrent or consecutive, and the relationship of such co-use patterns to consequences. Nevertheless, individuals treating patients reporting medical cannabis use for pain should consider alcohol consumption, with data needed regarding the efficacy of brief alcohol interventions among medical cannabis patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T23:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Alcohol expectancies longitudinally predict drinking and the alcohol
           myopia effects of relief, self-inflation, and excess
    • Authors: Andrew Lac; Nathaniel Brack
      Pages: 172 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Andrew Lac, Nathaniel Brack
      Introduction Alcohol myopia theory posits that alcohol consumption attenuates information processing capacity, and that expectancy beliefs together with intake level are responsible for experiences in myopic effects (relief, self-inflation, and excess). Methods Adults (N =413) averaging 36.39 (SD =13.02) years of age completed the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol questionnaire at baseline, followed by alcohol use measures (frequency and quantity) and the Alcohol Myopia Scale one month later. Three structural equation models based on differing construct manifestations of alcohol expectancies served to longitudinally forecast alcohol use and myopia. Results In Model 1, overall expectancy predicted greater alcohol use and higher levels of all three myopic effects. In Model 2, specifying separate positive and negative expectancy factors, positive but not negative expectancy predicted greater use. Furthermore, positive expectancy and use explained higher myopic relief and higher self-inflation, whereas positive expectancy, negative expectancy, and use explained higher myopic excess. In Model 3, the seven specific expectancy subscales (sociability, tension reduction, liquid courage, sexuality, cognitive and behavioral impairment, risk and aggression, and self-perception) were simultaneously specified as predictors. Tension reduction expectancy, sexuality expectancy, and use contributed to higher myopic relief; sexuality expectancy and use explained higher myopic self-inflation; and risk and aggression expectancy and use accounted for higher myopic excess. Across all three predictive models, the total variance explained ranged from 12 to 19% for alcohol use, 50 to 51% for relief, 29 to 34% for self-inflation, and 32 to 35% for excess. Conclusions Findings support that the type of alcohol myopia experienced is a concurrent function of self-fulfilling alcohol prophecies and drinking levels. The interpreted measurement manifestation of expectancy yielded different prevention implications.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T23:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Relationship between empathic processing and drinking behavior in project
    • Authors: Charles S.H. Robinson; Kathryn Fokas; Katie Witkiewitz
      Pages: 180 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Charles S.H. Robinson, Kathryn Fokas, Katie Witkiewitz
      Introduction Family relationships, social connectedness and a greater network of supportive others each predict better drinking outcomes among individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The association between social factors and drinking may be related to the ability of individuals to take the perspectives of others' mental and emotional states, defined as empathic processing (EP). As such, it may be the case that EP is associated with social support (SS) and drinking behavior among individuals with AUD, yet few prior studies have attempted to define EP in an AUD sample. Methods The current study was a secondary data analysis of Project MATCH (N =1726) using structural equation modeling to model EP as a latent factor. The study also sought to test the baseline associations between EP, SS, and drinking behavior, as well as sex differences in the associations between EP, SS, and drinking. It was hypothesized that EP would be positively associated with SS and negatively associated with drinking behavior. Results Results suggested adequate model fit of the EP construct. Structural equation models indicated significant associations between EP, SS, and both drinking consequences and percent drinking days, but only for males. Males reported significantly lower EP and SS from friends, but more SS from family, compared to females. EP was not related to drinking among females. Conclusions The current study validated a model of EP in a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with alcohol use disorder. Future work may consider EP as a treatment-modifiable risk factor for drinking frequency and consequences in males.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T23:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Hormonal contraceptive use in smokers: Prevalence of use and associations
           with smoking motives
    • Authors: Alicia M. Allen; Kim Lundeen; Lynn E. Eberly; Sharon S. Allen; Mustafa al'Absi; Myra Muramoto; Dorothy Hatsukami
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alicia M. Allen, Kim Lundeen, Lynn E. Eberly, Sharon S. Allen, Mustafa al'Absi, Myra Muramoto, Dorothy Hatsukami
      Introduction While endogenous sex hormones influence smoking-related outcomes, little is known about the role of hormonal contraceptives (HCs). This is despite dated estimates suggesting that HC use is prevalent among female smokers. Therefore, we sought to update estimates of the prevalence of HC use among female smokers and explore the association of HC use with various smoking motives (SMs). Methods This online cross-sectional survey recruited female smokers between the ages of 18–35. Survey questions assessed smoking behavior, SMs, use of HCs, and menstrual cycle regularity. Results Participants (n=734) were, on average (±standard deviation), 20.7±2.7 years old and smoked 7.3±6.7 cigarettes/day. The majority of females reported a history of HC use (85%) and half reported current use (48%). Cyclical HC users (n=227) scored significantly lower on three SMs compared to naturally-cycling women in the follicular phase (n=62) and significantly higher on 15 SMs compared to naturally-cycling women in the luteal phase (n=29). Women on cyclical HCs differed from women on long-acting HCs (n=128) on two SMs. Further, the naturally-cycling women in the follicular phase scoring significantly higher on 15 SMs compared to those in the luteal phase. Discussion These observations indicate that HC use remains prevalent in female smokers and may influence SMs. Additional research should replicate these observations and explore the implications on smoking cessation outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T23:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Measuring alcohol use across the transition to adulthood: Racial/ethnic,
           sexual identity, and educational differences
    • Authors: Jessica N. Fish; Amanda M. Pollitt; John E. Schulenberg; Stephen T. Russell
      Pages: 193 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Jessica N. Fish, Amanda M. Pollitt, John E. Schulenberg, Stephen T. Russell
      Background Patterns of alcohol use change from adolescence to adulthood and may differ based on race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and education. If alcohol use measures do not operate consistently across groups and developmental periods, parameter estimates and conclusions may be biased. Objectives To test the measurement invariance of a multi-item alcohol use measure across groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education during the transition to adulthood. Methods Using three waves from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we tested configural, metric, and scalar invariance of a 3-item alcohol use measure for groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education at three points during the transition to adulthood. We then assessed longitudinal measurement invariance to test the feasibility of modeling developmental changes in alcohol use within groups defined by these characteristics. Results Overall, findings confirm notable variability in the construct reliability of a multi-item alcohol use measure during the transition to adulthood. The alcohol use measure failed tests of metric and scalar invariance, increasingly across ages, both between- and within-groups defined by race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and college education, particularly among females. Conclusions Measurement testing is a critical step when utilizing multi-item measures of alcohol use. Studies that do not account for the effects of group or longitudinal measurement non-invariance may be statistically biased, such that recommendations for risk and prevention efforts could be misguided.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T23:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Electronic medical record reminders and smoking cessation activities in
           primary care
    • Authors: Jaeyong Bae; Eric W. Ford; Hadi H.K. Kharrazi; Timothy R. Huerta
      Pages: 203 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Jaeyong Bae, Eric W. Ford, Hadi H.K. Kharrazi, Timothy R. Huerta
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess electronic medical record (EMR) automatic reminder use in relation to smoking cessation activities among primary-care providers. Background Primary-care physicians are in the frontline of efforts to promote smoking cessation. Moreover, doctors' prescribing privileges give them additional tools to help patients successfully quit smoking. New EMR functions can provide automated reminders for physicians to counsel smokers and provide prescriptions to support quit attempts. Sample and methods Logit regression is used to analyze the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Variables related to the EMR's clinical reminder capability, patient's smoking status, the provision of cessation counseling and the prescribing of drugs that support quitting are analyzed. Results For primary care visit documents, smoking status was recorded 77.7% of the time. Smoking cessation counseling was ordered/provided 16.4% of the time in physicians' offices using electronic reminders routinely compared to 9.1% in those lacking the functionality. Smoking cessation medication was ordered/prescribed for 3.7% of current smokers when reminders were routinely used versus 2.1% when no reminder was used. All the differences were statistically significant. Conclusions The presence of an EMR equipped with automated clinical reminders is a valuable resource in efforts to promote smoking cessation. Insurers, regulators, and organizations promulgating clinical guidelines should include the use of EMR technology as part of their programs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T17:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The assessment and treatment of adult heterosexual men with self-perceived
           problematic pornography use: A review
    • Authors: Luke Sniewski; Panteá Farvid; Phil Carter
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Luke Sniewski, Panteá Farvid, Phil Carter
      Self-Perceived Problematic Porn Use (SPPPU) refers to an individual who self-identifies as addicted to porn because they feel they are unable to regulate their porn consumption, and that use interferes with everyday life. Although porn addiction has not been formally classified as its own distinct behavioral addiction, therapists and clinicians are advised to educate themselves on the current state of literature pertaining to pornography consumption given the widespread availability and consumption of sexually explicit material online. This review article begins with a general overview of pornography and porn use so that therapists and researchers can discern between non-intrusive and problematic pornography consumption patterns within their practice and understand the common characteristics of those that most commonly present with SPPPU. Thereafter, an overview and examination of therapeutic interventions for SPPPU will be identified and analysed. Finally, the review concludes with recommendations for therapists, clinicians, and future research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T17:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Cannabis use moderates the relationship between pain and negative affect
           in adults with opioid use disorder
    • Authors: Marian Wilson; Hannah Y. Gogulski; Carrie Cuttler; Teresa L. Bigand; Oladunni Oluwoye; Celestina Barbosa-Leiker; MaryLee A. Roberts
      Pages: 225 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Marian Wilson, Hannah Y. Gogulski, Carrie Cuttler, Teresa L. Bigand, Oladunni Oluwoye, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, MaryLee A. Roberts
      Introduction Adults in Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction are at risk for substance use relapse and opioid overdose. They often have high rates of cannabis use and comorbid symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Low levels of self-efficacy (confidence that one can self-manage symptoms) are linked to higher symptom burdens and increased substance use. The effects of cannabis use on symptom management among adults with MAT are currently unclear. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to examine whether cannabis use moderates the relationships between pain and negative affect (i.e., depression and anxiety) and whether self-efficacy influences these interactions. Methods A total of 150 adults receiving MAT and attending one of two opioid treatment program clinics were administered a survey containing measures of pain, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and cannabis use. Results Cannabis use frequency moderated the relationships between pain and depression as well as pain and anxiety. Specifically, as cannabis use frequency increased, the positive relationships between pain and depression and pain and anxiety grew stronger. However, cannabis use was no longer a significant moderator after controlling for self-efficacy. Conclusions Results suggest that cannabis use strengthens, rather than weakens, the relationships between pain and depression and pain and anxiety. These effects appear to be driven by decreased self-efficacy in cannabis users. It is important to understand how self-efficacy can be improved through symptom self-management interventions and whether self-efficacy can improve distressing symptoms for people in MAT.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T17:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Defining the phenotype of young adults with family histories of alcohol
           and other substance use disorders: Studies from the family health patterns
    • Authors: Ashley Acheson; Andrea S. Vincent; Andrew J. Cohoon; William R. Lovallo
      Pages: 247 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Ashley Acheson, Andrea S. Vincent, Andrew J. Cohoon, William R. Lovallo
      Individuals with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders themselves relative to those with no such histories (FH−). Here we sought to identify key characteristics associated with FH+ status and alcohol and other drug use disorder status in a large cohort of FH+ and FH− young adults. We conducted principal component analyses on demographic, temperament, and cognitive measures differentiating 506 FH+ and 528 FH− young adults. Three principal components were identified, and these component scores were then used to predict the odds of being FH+ and the odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder. Component 1 consisted of measures indexing internalizing traits, with higher component scores indicating greater depressive, anxious, and emotional instability tendencies. Component 2 consisted of measures of externalizing traits as well as exposure to early life adversity (ELA), with higher scores indicating less impulse control, more antisocial behavior, and greater ELA exposure. Component 3 consisted of estimated intelligence, delay discounting, and demographic characteristics, with higher scores indicating lower estimated intelligence, greater discounting of delayed rewards, less education, and lower childhood socioeconomic status. For each 1-point increase in the Component 1, 2, and 3 scores, the odds of being classified FH+ increased by 2%, 8%, and 4%, respectively. Similar findings were observed when individuals with alcohol or other drug use disorders were removed from the analyses. Finally, greater Component 2 scores were also associated with increased odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder. Collectively, these findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of the FH+ phenotype in young adults and help form a basis for further studies on biological mechanisms underlying risk for substance use disorders. The present findings also provide further support for a prominent role of ELA in promoting risk for problem alcohol and other drug use.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of cocaine dependence: A
           review of the literature
    • Authors: Fady Rachid
      Pages: 145 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Fady Rachid
      Objective Cocaine use disorder is a very common condition that represents a substantial public health problem, and no effective pharmacological or psychological therapies have been identified to date. Urgent therapeutic alternatives are therefore needed such as neurostimulation techniques. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these techniques for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods The electronic literature on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, theta-burst stimulation, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, cranial electro-stimulation, and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of cocaine addiction were reviewed. Results Most of these studies which are few in numbers and with limited sample sizes found that some of these neurostimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation are safe and potentially effective in the reduction of craving to cocaine. Although deep brain stimulation showed some good results in one patient, no conclusion can be drawn so far concerning the efficacy and safety of this approach. Conclusion Given the somewhat promising results of some of the studies, future controlled studies with larger samples, and optimal stimulus parameters should be designed to confirm the short- and long-term safety and efficacy of neurostimulation techniques to treat cocaine addiction.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Rethinking indicators of problematic cannabis use in the era of medical
           cannabis legalization
    • Authors: Sharon Sznitman; Robin Room
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Sharon R. Sznitman, Robin Room
      Introduction Recent rapid changes in medical cannabis policies and increases in medical use of cannabis have raised new research questions related to potential effects of medical cannabis legalization on cannabis use problems. In order to investigate such effects there is a need for screening tools that are sensitive to the fact that people may be using for medical and/or recreational purposes. This article critically assesses whether screening tools designed to measure cannabis use problems in recreational users are meaningful as measures of problems resulting from medical use. Results and conclusions It is possible that existing cannabis problem screening tools are not equally valid across medical and recreational users, since individual screening items have different implications for recreational and medical users. For instance, items that measure use that deviates from common patterns of recreational use (use before midday and use alone) reflect normative assumptions that non-problematic recreational use will occur in contexts of parties or social gatherings. However, use before midday and alone are how people typically take medication for chronic medical health problems. There is thus a need to develop and validate criteria for problematic use in medical cannabis patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Emerging role for the medial prefrontal cortex in alcohol-seeking
    • Authors: Paul Klenowski
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Paul M. Klenowski
      The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in high-order executive processes and sends highly organized projections to sub-cortical regions controlling mood, motivation and impulsivity. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated alcohol-induced effects on the activity and composition of the PFC which are implicated in associative learning processes and may disrupt executive control over impulsivity, leading to an inability to self-limit alcohol intake. Animal studies have begun to dissect the role of the mPFC circuitry in alcohol-seeking behavior and withdrawal, and have identified a key role for projections to sub-cortical sites including the extended amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Importantly, these studies have highlighted that alcohol can have contrasting effects on the mPFC compared to other addictive substances and also produce differential effects on the structure and activity of the mPFC following short-term versus long-term consumption. Because of these differences, how the mPFC influences the initial aspects of alcohol-seeking behavior and how we can better understand the long-term effects of alcohol use on the activity and connectivity of the mPFC need to be considered. Given the lack of preclinical data from long-term drinking models, an increased focus should be directed towards identifying how long-term alcohol use changes the mPFC, in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Efficacy and outcomes of a mobile app targeting alcohol use in young
    • Authors: Leanne Hides; Catherine Quinn Wendell Cockshaw Stoyan Stoyanov Oksana Zelenko
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Leanne Hides, Catherine Quinn, Wendell Cockshaw, Stoyan Stoyanov, Oksana Zelenko, Daniel Johnson, Dian Tjondronegoro, Lake-Hui Quek, David J. Kavanagh
      Mobile apps provide a highly accessible way of reducing alcohol use in young people. This paper determines the 1-month efficacy and 2, 3 and 6month outcomes of the Ray's Night Out app, which aims to increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol use in young people. User-experience design and agile development processes, informed by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and evidence-based motivational interviewing treatment approaches guided app development. A randomized controlled trial comparing immediate versus 1-month delayed access to the app was conducted in 197 young people (16 to 25years) who drank alcohol in the previous month. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 6months. Alcohol knowledge, alcohol use and related harms and the severity of problematic drinking were assessed. App quality was evaluated after 1-month of app use. Participants in the immediate access group achieved a significantly greater increase in alcohol knowledge than the delayed access group at 1-month, but no differences in alcohol use or related problems were found. Both groups achieved significant reductions in the typical number of drinks on a drinking occasion over time. A reduction in maximum drinks consumed was also found at 1month. These reductions were most likely to occur in males and problem drinkers. Reductions in alcohol-related harm were also found. The app received a high mean quality (M =3.82/5, SD=0.51). The Ray app provides a youth-friendly and easily-accessible way of increasing young people's alcohol knowledge but further testing is required to determine its impact on alcohol use and related problems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Simultaneous alcohol &amp; tobacco use expectancies in young adult
    • Authors: Ryan Trim; Neal Doran
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Ryan S. Trim, Neal Doran

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
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