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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3042 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation
           of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia
           thailandensis, and Burkholderia cepacia complex
    • Authors: Irina Zakharova; Natalya Teteryatnikova; Andrey Toporkov; Dmitry Viktorov
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Irina Zakharova, Natalya Teteryatnikova, Andrey Toporkov, Dmitry Viktorov
      Two species of Burkholderia pseudomallei complex (Bpc), B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause severe life-threatening infections. Rapidly discerning individual species within the group and separating them from other opportunistic pathogens of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and for epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay based on the detection of an individual set of chromosomal beta-lactamase genes for single-step identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis, and Bcc was developed. Two pairs of primers specific to a distinct class of B metallo-beta-lactamase genes and a pair of primers specific to the oxacillin-hydrolyzing class D beta-lactamase gene were demonstrated to successfully discriminate species within Bpc and from Bcc. The assay sensitivity was 9561 genomic equivalents (GE) for B. pseudomallei, 7827 GE for B. mallei, 8749 GE for B. thailandensis and 6023 GE for B. cepacia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Investigating unlicensed retail drug vendors’ preparedness and knowledge
           about malaria: An exploratory study in rural Uganda
    • Authors: Eric Liow; Rosemin Kassam; Richard Sekiwunga
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
      Background Despite major efforts to increase the uptake of preventive measures and timely use of the first line antimalarial treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), Uganda continues to fall short of meeting its national malaria control targets. One of the challenges has been scaling up effective measures in rural and remote areas where the unlicensed private retail sector remains the first point of contact and a common source of treatment. The current paper discusses unlicensed vendors’ (1) training related to malaria case management for children aged five and under, and (2) knowledge related to the cause of malaria, preventive measures, common signs, and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and best treatment options. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in the rural district of Butaleja, Uganda in 2011. All 88 unlicensed drug outlets enumerated in the study area were visited by six locally recruited research assistants, with one vendor from each outlet invited to participate. The transcripts were analyzed using acceptable qualitative research protocols. Results About half of the 75 vendors interviewed had received some sort of formal training on malaria at a post-secondary institution, although only 6.7% had qualifications which met licensure requirements. The study found widespread misconceptions relating to the cause, as well as prevention and treatment of malaria. A large majority of the vendors relied primarily on non-specific symptoms and limited physical exams for diagnoses, with less than one-tenth of the vendors recognizing that rapid or microscopic blood testing was necessary to confirm a clinical diagnosis of malaria. While most recognized mosquitoes as the primary vector for malaria, over two-fifths of the vendors held misconceptions about the factors that could increase the risk of malaria, and nearly a third believed that malaria could not be prevented. With respect to acute case management, three-quarters viewed as the best option a medicine other than the government’s first-line antimalarial, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). Almost three-fifths specified quinine as their preferred option, with about one-fifth recommending quinine injection. Conclusion Findings from this study confirm significant gaps in unlicensed vendors’ knowledge related to malaria. With increased utilization of unlicensed drug outlets in rural and remote settings such as Butaleja, findings from this study strongly supports the need to implement strategies to improve the quality of care delivered at these outlet.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in
           Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011–2016: How to detect
           tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy'
    • Authors: Kadek Swastika; Toni Wandra; Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan; I. Made Sudarmaja; John Master Saragih; Luh Putu Eka Diarthini; Luh Ariwati; Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti; Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi; Nengah Kapti; Putu Sutisna; Tetsuya Yanagida; Akira Ito
      Pages: 19 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Kadek Swastika, Toni Wandra, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I. Made Sudarmaja, John Master Saragih, Luh Putu Eka Diarthini, Luh Ariwati, Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi, Nengah Kapti, Putu Sutisna, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akira Ito
      From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan®, Bayer). A total of 39 T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20 T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three
           locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies
    • Authors: Pompei Bolfa; Isaac Jeon; Amanda Loftis; Teresa Leslie; Silvia Marchi; Fortune Sithole; Cecile Beck; Sylvie Lecollinet; Stephan Zientara; Aymeric Hans; Charles J. Issel
      Pages: 24 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Pompei Bolfa, Isaac Jeon, Amanda Loftis, Teresa Leslie, Silvia Marchi, Fortune Sithole, Cecile Beck, Sylvie Lecollinet, Stephan Zientara, Aymeric Hans, Charles J. Issel
      Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.023
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
           of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of
           Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission
    • Authors: Emmanouil A. Fotakis; Alexandra Chaskopoulou; Linda Grigoraki; Alexandros Tsiamantas; Stella Kounadi; Loukas Georgiou; John Vontas
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Emmanouil A. Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
      Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications. We determined the mosquito species composition and population dynamics in areas of increased vulnerability to vector borne disease transmission, as well as investigated the resistance status of major nuisance and disease vectors to insecticides. High mosquito densities were recorded in Thessaloniki and Evros, with Aedes caspius, a nuisance species, Culex pipiens, a known vector of WNV and Anopheles hyrcanus a potential vector of malaria being among the most prevalent species. Both vector species populations reached their peak in late summer. Aedes albopictus was recorded at high densities in Thessaloniki, but not in Evros. Notably, Cx. pipiens hybrids, which show an opportunistic biting behavior and are suspected to be involved in the transmission of the WNV, were recorded in considerable numbers in Thessaloniki and Attica. Culex pipiens and An. hyrcanus, but not Ae. caspius mosquitoes, showed moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin. The presence of resistance in areas not exposed to vector control indicates that other factors could be selecting for resistance, i.e. pesticide applications for agriculture. Both L1014F and L101C kdr mutations were detected in Cx. pipiens populations. Anopheles hyrcanus resistance was not associated with mutations at the L1014 site. The Ace-1 mutations conferring insensitivity to organophosphates and carbamates were detected at low frequencies in all Cx. pipiens populations. Increased activity of P450s and esterases was found in Cx. pipiens individuals from Thessaloniki. Our study contributes evidence for sustainable and efficient vector control strategies and the prevention of disease outbreaks.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Toxoplasmosis: Seroprevalence in pregnant women, and serological and
           molecular screening in neonatal umbilical cord blood
    • Authors: Mahshad Shieh; Mojtaba Didehdar; Reza Hajihossein; Farzam Ahmadi; Zahra Eslamirad
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Mahshad Shieh, Mojtaba Didehdar, Reza Hajihossein, Farzam Ahmadi, Zahra Eslamirad
      Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease that can also be transmitted from the mother to the embryo, with the risk of congenital infection varying around the world. The aim of this study was to screen pregnant women and their neonates for toxoplasmosis by serologic and molecular methods and assess the impact of risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis on the rate of congenital infection. This study was conducted at a regional maternity hospital in Arak, the capital of the Markazi Province in Iran, during a period of six months. All selected pregnant women (n=261) and the corresponding cord blood samples were serologically screened for toxoplasmosis, with seropositive samples also undergoing molecular testing. Demographic data, as well as information related to the risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease, were collected from mothers and their neonates. The detection of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and the extraction of DNA from blood samples were conducted using commercial kits. Results showed that the sera of 87 maternal blood samples (33.3%) and 40 cord blood samples (15.3%) were positive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and/or IgM). Molecular screening of the seropositive samples only identified one positive cord blood sample. In other words, the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was definitive in only one neonate. There was no significant association between the risk of parasite transmission and neonatal seropositivity (p >0.05). Therefore, the results showed that the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in the studied area was consistent with the global rate and suggest that the implementation of newborn screening and follow-up testing could help reduce the disease risk.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • First molecular detection of Leishmania infantum in Sergentomyia minuta
           (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Alentejo, southern Portugal
    • Authors: S. Pereira; D. Pita-Pereira; T. Araujo-Pereira; C. Britto; T. Costa-Rego; J. Ferrolho; M. Vilhena; E.F. Rangel; M.L. Vilela; M.O. Afonso
      Pages: 45 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): S. Pereira, D. Pita-Pereira, T. Araujo-Pereira, C. Britto, T. Costa-Rego, J. Ferrolho, M. Vilhena, E.F. Rangel, M.L. Vilela, M.O. Afonso
      Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas. After the identification of the insect species, PCR molecular tests were used to assess L. infantum infection rate in the sand fly captured females, together with the analysis of blood meal sources of the insect vectors. One Sergentomyia minuta female was positive for L. infantum infection and another for human blood as a meal source. The occurrence of this phlebotomine species infected with L. infantum may suggest that, in the Mediterranean basin, leishmaniasis epidemiology is changing. Also, if the importance of S. minuta for the zoonotic and anthroponotic cycle of leishmaniasis is later proven, the strategies to control its vector will inevitably to be rethought.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal
           protozoa infections with variable test band intensity
    • Authors: Sören L. Becker; Ivan Müller; Pascal Mertens; Mathias Herrmann; Leyli Zondie; Lindsey Beyleveld; Markus Gerber; Rosa du Randt; Uwe Pühse; Cheryl Walter; Jürg Utzinger
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Sören L. Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
      Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of ‘trace’ results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate ‘true’ infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9–10 months in cohort 1 and 2–3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and
           
    • Authors: Johirul Islam; Kamaruz Zaman; Varun Tyagi; Sanjukta Duarah; Sunil Dhiman; Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
      Pages: 56 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Johirul Islam, Kamaruz Zaman, Varun Tyagi, Sanjukta Duarah, Sunil Dhiman, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
      Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED50) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco-friendly, acceptable and safer alternative to the existing harmful repellents for personal protection against different hematophagous mosquito species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.024
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis
    • Authors: Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Laís Fernanda Machado; Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti; Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd; Alan Ferreira Chagas; João Paulo Assolini; Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Francine Nesello Melanda
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Laís Fernanda Machado, Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd, Alan Ferreira Chagas, João Paulo Assolini, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
      Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Betulinic acid induces cell death by necrosis in Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Paloma Leão Sousa; Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza; Louise Donadello Tessarolo; Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes; Tiago Lima Sampaio; Jader Almeida Canuto; Alice Maria Costa Martins
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Paloma Leão Sousa, Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Jader Almeida Canuto, Alice Maria Costa Martins
      Chagas’ disease is a neglected disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and constitutes a serious health problem worldwide. The treatment is limited, with variable efficacy of benznidazole and nifurtimox. Betulinic Acid (BA), a triterpene, can be found in medicinal herbs and has a wide variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The objective was to evaluate betulinic acid effects on the cell death mechanism in Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y. BA inhibited the growth of epimastigotes in periods of 24h (IC50 =73.43μM), 48h (IC50 =119.8μM) and 72h (IC50 =212.2μM) of incubation; of trypomastigotes (IC50 =51.88μM) in periods of 24h and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 =25.94μM) in periods of 24 and 48h of incubation, no toxicity on LLC-MK2 cells at the concentrations used. Analysis of the possible mechanism of parasite cell death showed alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, alterations in cell membrane integrity, an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species and increase swelling of the reservosomes. In conclusion, betulinic acid was be able to inhibition all developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain with necrotic mechanism and involvement of mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and increase in reactive oxygen species.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Morphological and physiological characteristics of a virulent and zoonotic
           assemblage A Giardia duodenalis canine strain
    • Authors: Camila Henriques Coelho; Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva; Adriana Oliveira Costa; Ana Paula Fernandes
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Camila Henriques Coelho, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Ana Paula Fernandes
      Giardiasis is an intestinal parasitosis that affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a zoonotic disease. Frequently in contact with humans, dogs are the main host involved in this zoonotic transmission. Here, we compared some aspects of Giardia duodenalis biology between two strains: a recently isolated dog strain (BHFC1) and a human reference strain (Portland-1). Growth curve analysis revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites multiply faster than the human isolate Portland-1 in axenic culture, but has a lower rate of cysts formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites have the same conventional shape and morphological structures expected for G. duodenalis trophozoites, but presented a more prominent flange. For the best of our knowledge, this work is the first description of morphological aspects and encystation process of a G. duodenalis strain isolated from a dog. Since BHFC1 and Portland-1 have been maintained in axenic cultures for different periods of time, differences observed in growth, encystation rates and flange size may be attributed to adaptation of Portland-1 to axenic culture and lack of the environmental pressures. BHFC1 can be useful as tool for better understanding of Giardia duodenalis biology.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two
           regions of the Brazilian Amazon
    • Authors: Herbert S. Soares; Arlei Marcili; Amália R.M. Barbieri; Antonio H.H. Minervino; Antonio F. Malheiros; Solange M. Gennari; Marcelo B. Labruna
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Herbert S. Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R.M. Barbieri, Antonio H.H. Minervino, Antonio F. Malheiros, Solange M. Gennari, Marcelo B. Labruna
      During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms, including potentially new Ehrlichia species, circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014
    • Authors: Daría Camacho; Jesús Reyes; Ana Negredo; Lourdes Hernández; María Sánchez-Seco; Guillermo Comach
      Pages: 88 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Daría Camacho, Jesús Reyes, Ana Negredo, Lourdes Hernández, María Sánchez-Seco, Guillermo Comach
      Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; John C. Beier
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, John C. Beier
      The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance, presence of behavioral avoidance, high vector biodiversity, competitive and food web interactions, lack of insights on mosquito dispersal and mating behavior, and the impact of environmental changes on mosquito ecological traits. Overall, the trans-disciplinary cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists is crucial to ensure proper evaluation of the epidemiological impact triggered by novel mosquito vector control strategies.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Larval stress alters dengue virus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti (L.)
           adult females
    • Authors: David S. Kang; Yehonatan Alcalay; Diane D. Lovin; Joanne M. Cunningham; Matthew W. Eng; Dave D. Chadee; David W. Severson
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): David S. Kang, Yehonatan Alcalay, Diane D. Lovin, Joanne M. Cunningham, Matthew W. Eng, Dave D. Chadee, David W. Severson
      In addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. Here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolate of Aedes aegypti to dengue virus serotype-2. Interestingly, female mosquitoes from larvae subjected to a stressed regime exhibited significantly reduced susceptibility to disseminated dengue infection 14days post infection compared to those subjected to optimal regimes. Short term survivorship post-infected blood feeding was not significantly different. As with body size, dengue virus susceptibility of a mosquito population is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is likely maintained by balancing selection. Here, we provide evidence that under different environmental conditions, the innate immune response of field-reared mosquitoes exhibits a large range of phenotypic variability with regard to dengue virus susceptibility. Further, as with body size, our results suggest that mosquitoes reared under optimal laboratory conditions, as employed in all mosquito-pathogen studies to date, may not always be realistic proxies for natural populations.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Breeding protocol for the sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae)
           in laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Thais Marchi Goulart; Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva; Vicente Estevam Machado; Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira; Camila Feitosa de Castro; Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues; Mara Cristina Pinto
      Pages: 102 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Thais Marchi Goulart, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Vicente Estevam Machado, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues, Mara Cristina Pinto
      The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals. Currently, our colony is at F22 generation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Proteasomal degradation of T. gondii ROP18 requires Derlin2
    • Authors: Yuewen Tang; Meijuan Zheng; Ran An; Lijian Chen; Lingli Gong; Haijian Cai; Kang Liu; Li Yu; Jilong Shen; Jian Du
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Yuewen Tang, Meijuan Zheng, Ran An, Lijian Chen, Lingli Gong, Haijian Cai, Kang Liu, Li Yu, Jilong Shen, Jian Du
      T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, belonging to the Phylum Apicomplexa, infecting all warm-blooded animals including humans. During host cell invasion, specialized cytoskeletal and secretory organelles play a pivotal role. ROP18, as a member of the ROP2 family, has been identified as a key virulence factor mediating pathogenesis in T. gondii. Here, we identify an ER-resident protein, Derlin2, a factor implicated in the removal of misfolded proteins from the ER for cytosolic degradation, as a component of the machinery required for ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We identified Derlin2 interacting with ROP18 by yeast two-hybrid screening system. The interaction between ROP18 and Derlin2 was further confirmed through in vitro GST pull-down and in vivo immunoprecipitation assays. By immunofluorescence assay, we found that ROP18 co-localized with Derlin2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using overexpression and knockdown approaches, we demonstrated that Derlin2 was required for T. gondii ROP18 degradation. Consistently, cycloheximide chase experiments showed that the degradation of ROP18 relied on the Derlin2, but not Derlin1. These results indicate that interaction between Derlin2 and ROP18 is functionally relevant and leads ultimately to degradation of ROP18. The finding provides the basis for future studies on Derlin2-dependent ERAD of T. gondii ROP18 and subsequent antigen generation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Field evaluation of a new light trap for phlebotomine sand flies
    • Authors: Gabriella Gaglio; Ettore Napoli; Luigi Falsone; Salvatore Giannetto; Emanuele Brianti
      Pages: 114 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Gabriella Gaglio, Ettore Napoli, Luigi Falsone, Salvatore Giannetto, Emanuele Brianti
      Light traps are one of the most common attractive method for the collection of nocturnal insects. Although light traps are generally referred to as “CDC light traps”, different models, equipped with incandescent or UV lamps, have been developed. A new light trap, named Laika trap 3.0, equipped with LED lamps and featured with a light and handy design, has been recently proposed into the market. In this study we tested and compared the capture performances of this new trap with those of a classical light trap model under field conditions. From May to November 2013, a Laika trap and a classical light trap were placed biweekly in an area endemic for sand flies. A total of 256 sand fly specimens, belonging to 3 species (Sergentomyia minuta, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus) were collected during the study period. The Laika trap captured 126 phlebotomine sand flies: P. perniciosus (n=38); S. minuta (n=88), a similar number of specimens (130) and the same species were captured by classical light trap which collected also 3 specimens of P. neglectus. No significant differences in the capture efficiency at each day of trapping, neither in the number of species or in the sex of sand flies were observed. According to results of this study, the Laika trap may be a valid alternative to classical light trap models especially when handy design and low power consumption are key factors in field studies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
       
  • Relationship between exposure to malaria and haemoglobin level of children
           2–9 years old in low malaria transmission settings
    • Authors: Zewdie Birhanu; Yemane Ye-ebiyo Yihdego; Daniel Emana; Damtew Feyissa; Silashi Kenate; Estifanos Kebede; Kefelegn Getahun; Delenasaw Yewhalaw
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Zewdie Birhanu, Yemane Ye-ebiyo Yihdego, Daniel Emana, Damtew Feyissa, Silashi Kenate, Estifanos Kebede, Kefelegn Getahun, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
      In the context of reduced transmission of malaria, it is essential to examine the association between exposure to malaria and haemoglobin level. This study measured the Haemoglobin level of children 2–9 years of age and examined its association with malariometric indices. A cross sectional study was conducted, during June 2016, on 763 children 2–9 years old, recruited from ten sites representing different malaria transmission settings in Ethiopia. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using HemoCue analyzer. Malariometric indices (splenomegaly rate, parasite rate and serological marker) were measured. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 17.3% (95% CI: 14.6–19.9) in the study population. Mild, moderate and severe anaemia accounted for 7.3%, 7.2% and 2.8% respectively. Of the children with anaemia (132), only 7 (5.3%) had malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 3.6% (2/56), 9.1% (5/55) and 0.0% (0/21) among children with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. Malaria reactive antibody and anaemia co-occurred in 3.13% (21/672) of the samples. Seroprevalence and parasitaemia did not have significant association with anaemia (p>0.05). However, splenomegaly was significantly associated with increased risk of anaemia (AOR=14.93; p=0.001). Anaemia was significantly higher among children 2–4 years old (22.2%), and children living in households without any insecticide treated bed net (34.0%). The prevalence of anaemia was lower by 55.0% among children living in households with at least one net (AOR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.21–0.96). Repeated exposure to malaria infections (seropositive) and parasitaemia was less likely to contribute to development of anaemia among children 2–9 years in this study setting. Thus, in low malaria endemic settings, anaemia prevention and control program required to reconsider the historical evidence that suggests malaria is one of the major risk factor for anaemia.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • New epidemiological pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in two pre-Saharan
           arid provinces, southern Morocco
    • Authors: Mouad Ait Kbaich; Idriss Mhaidi; Abdelkacem Ezzahidi; Nouredine Dersi; Adil El Hamouchi; Myriam Riyad; Khadija Akarid; Meryem Lemrani
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Mouad Ait Kbaich, Idriss Mhaidi, Abdelkacem Ezzahidi, Nouredine Dersi, Adil El Hamouchi, Myriam Riyad, Khadija Akarid, Meryem Lemrani
      Three Leishmania species are responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Morocco. Zoonotic CL due to Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum, the first is known as established in the eastern arid regions, whereas the latter evolves sporadically, especially in the North. While Leishmania tropica, classically considered anthroponotic, is endemic in the semi-arid regions and is largely distributed throughout the country. The aim of this study was to identify the Leishmania species causing CL in two Provinces in arid pre-Saharan region known as zoonotic CL foci, and to contribute an update to the national data concerning the distribution of Leishmania species in both regions. The recruitment of patients was done in six localities in Ouarzazate and Zagoura provinces in 2015 and 2016. Out of 81 samples collected, 66 were positive (81%) by ITS1-PCR amplification of Leishmania DNA extracted from stained smears. The highest rate of Leishmania infection was registered in children aged 9 years or less (71,2%). The ITS1-PCR- RFLP analysis revealed the predominance of L. major infecting 52 patients (79%), followed by L. tropica in 12 patients (18%) and L. infantum in 2 patients who had no history of travel outside the studied area (3%). The sequencing of the ITS1 of both L. infantum, showed 100% similarities with L. infantum strains isolated from dogs and visceral leishmaniasis patients from the south and north of Morocco. The coexistence of the 3 Leishmania species in the same focus, and the difficult distinction of infections associated to the different Leishmania species based only on clinical lesions’ aspects complicate the diagnosis and then the national control strategy, as well as the therapeutic management. The epidemiological pattern of CL in the studied areas appears to have changed during the last decades, from a predominant zoonotic CL caused by L. major to a polymorphic disease that can be due to any of the 3 Leishmania species. The expansion of L. infantum and L. tropica in southern parts of Morocco, calls for in depth epidemiological investigations for a better understanding of the CL situations in Southern parts of the country and for an assessment of the climate impact and environment changes on the leishmaniasis transmission system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Associations of tumor necrosis factor-α-308 polymorphism with dengue
           infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Noel Pabalan; Suwit Chaisri; Sompong Tabunhan; Mayuri Tarasuk; Hamdi Jarjanazi; Theodore Steiner
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Noel Pabalan, Suwit Chaisri, Sompong Tabunhan, Mayuri Tarasuk, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Theodore Steiner
      Inconsistency of reported associations between the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308 (TNFα-308) polymorphism (rs1800629) and dengue virus infection prompted a meta-analysis, to obtain more precise estimates. A literature search yielded 14 case-control studies. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in three groups according to severity, dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue (DEN) using standard genetic models. Pooled ORs were subjected to modifier treatment where re-analysis was confined to Hardy-Weinberg compliant (HWC) studies. Heterogeneity of outcomes warranted examining their sources with outlier treatment. In subgroup analysis, we compared Asian and South/Central American (SCA)/Brazilian effects. Overall pooled outcomes yielded no significant effects (OR 0.66-1.44, P =0.08–0.96). In the dominant-codominant model, pooled effects were heterogeneous (I2 =47%–71%) which was lost/reduced (I2 =0%–43%) when outlier treatment was applied. This also yielded significant associations (OR 0.68-0.77, P =0.02–0.05). Our results are best seen in the Asian subgroup, which in itself already yielded significant effects in DEN (OR 0.62–0.67, P =0.01–0.02). These reduced risk findings were significant from the tests of interaction (P =0.001–0.02) which highlights the protective effects of TNFα-308 among Asians. TNFα-308 effects on dengue are based on significance and non-heterogeneity of the post-outlier outcomes in the dominant and codominant models. Here, pooled effects may also be ethnic specific, where Asians are protected but not SCA. Both modified and Asian effects are up to 38% protective.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Molluscicidal potential of Heterorhabditis baujardi (Rhabditida:
           Heterorhabditidae), strain LPP7, on Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda:
           Pulmonata): An alternative for biological control of fasciolosis
    • Authors: Victor Menezes Tunholi; P.O. Lorenzoni; Ygor Henrique da Silva; Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves; Jankerle Neves Boeloni; Maria Aparecida da Silva; Caio Oliveira Monteiro; M.C.A. Prata; J. Pinheiro; Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Victor Menezes Tunholi, P.O. Lorenzoni, Ygor Henrique da Silva, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Jankerle Neves Boeloni, Maria Aparecida da Silva, Caio Oliveira Monteiro, M.C.A. Prata, J. Pinheiro, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
      This study elucidated for the first time, under laboratory conditions, the susceptibility of Lymnaea columella to infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7. Exposure to the nematodes induced an average mortality rate of 66.66% in the population of L. columella, with the highest values attained from the second week after exposure onward. In addition, all the reproductive parameters analyzed (total number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs laid/snail, embryo hatching rate and content of galactogen stored in the albumen gland) changed as a result of the infection. The results indicate the occurrence of the phenomenon of parasitic castration in L. columella infected by H. baujardi LPP7, probably through depletion of energy reserves such as galactogen, necessary to meet the intense metabolic demands of the nematode’s larval stages. Finally, histopathological analysis demonstrated an intense process of cell disorganization, characterized by the occurrence of granulomatous inflammatory reactions in tissues of exposed snails, induced by the spoliative action of the bacteria/nematode. The results suggest the use of H. baujardi LPP7 as an alternative for biological control of the population of this intermediate host, and thus of the diseases in whose epidemiological chain it participates, especially fasciolosis, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato
           (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State,
           Brazil
    • Authors: Arannadia Barbosa Silva; Myrian Morato Duarte; Robson da Costa Cavalcante; Stefan Vilges de Oliveira; Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni; Ana Íris de Lima Duré; Felipe Campos de Melo Iani; Erik Machado-Ferreira; Gilberto Salles Gazêta
      Pages: 30 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Arannadia Barbosa Silva, Myrian Morato Duarte, Robson da Costa Cavalcante, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni, Ana Íris de Lima Duré, Felipe Campos de Melo Iani, Erik Machado-Ferreira, Gilberto Salles Gazêta
      In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Morphological identification and DNA barcoding of a new species of
           Parabrachiella (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) with aspects of their
           intraspecific variation
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; R. Castro-Romero; S.R. Martorelli
      Pages: 34 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): M.M. Montes, R. Castro-Romero, S.R. Martorelli
      We present a detailed morphological description and a DNA barcoding of Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. collected from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Samborombon Bay (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This new species was compared with two Parabrachiella species parasitic on mugilids: Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino, 1956) and Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut et Ben Hassine, 1971). Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. differs from those species in the shape of posterior processes, the anal slit with two pairs of bipartite papillae, the size of cephalothorax, the trunk, the maxilla, the microhabitat on the host, and the lack of caudal rami. On the host, the new species was in the nostrils (a new site for a species of the genus Parabrachiella) and in the fins base. Some minor morphological differences were observed in relation to the locations on the host. The molecular analysis conducted based on mtDNA-COI between specimens of the new species on the fins and nostrils showed a genetic similarity of 99.8%. This percentage supports that the specimens found in nostrils and fins base could represent a single species. New studies on P. platensis n. sp., including infection of the same fish with the two forms, could bring some new information. Anyway according to the genetic information provided and the minimal morphological differences spotted we conclude that the two forms are a single specie. The differences observed are possibly influenced by the place of the host where the two forms of copepods were found, nostrils and fins. The new species was also molecularly compared to other five species of Parabrachiella including P. exilis (parasitizing mugilid from Chile), Parabrachiella anisotremis, Parabrachiella auriculata, Parabrachiella merluccii, and P. hugu (the last two sequences were taken from the GenBank). The genetic distance of 9% among P. platensis n. sp. and P. exilis, which is the close morphological related species, allow to states that these two copepods on mugilids belong to different species and then validating the morphological differences found between them.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Naturally acquired immune responses to thrombospondin-related adhesion
           protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium vivax in patients from areas of unstable
           malaria transmission
    • Authors: Saeed Nazeri; Sedigheh Zakeri; Akram Abouie Mehrizi; Navid Dinparast Djadid
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Saeed Nazeri, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Navid Dinparast Djadid
      A key tool for the control, elimination, and eradication of Plasmodium vivax is the development of an effective vaccine. The thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) is one of the major sporozoite antigens that plays an important role in the invasion of mosquito salivary glands and hepatocytes by sporozoites. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the naturally acquired antibodies to the P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) in patients from malaria-endemic areas of Iran (n=116), Afghanistan (n=50), and Pakistan (n=50). The PvTRAP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)-pET23a and used as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The profile of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype and the avidity of IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 to PvTRAP, as well as the association between anti-PvTRAP isotype responses and host age were evaluated. Only 42.24% of Iranian, 38% of Afghani, and 44% of Pakistani patients infected with P. vivax had positive anti-PvTRAP IgG, and the prevalence of responders in the three countries did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). Moreover, the prevalence of IgG1 and IgG3 antibody responses to PvTRAP showed no significant correlation with age (P> 0.05). Individuals exposed to vivax malaria in the unstable malaria transmission areas are able to produce antibodies to the TRAP antigen at all ages in response to P. vivax infections. Finally, the presence of mature IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with high to intermediate avidity against PvTRAP antigen (>60%) provide more information to understand the interactions between the host and P. vivax parasite. In summary, the present study provides data that support the rational development of an effective pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine based on PvTRAP antigen.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Experimental Theileria lestoquardi infection in sheep: Biochemical and
           hematological changes
    • Authors: Saeed Yaghfoori; Mehrdad Mohri; Gholamreza Razmi
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Saeed Yaghfoori, Mehrdad Mohri, Gholamreza Razmi
      Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks’ post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40 °C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P ≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P ≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.029
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Insecticidal activity of Stemona collinsiae root extract against
           Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    • Authors: Aurapa Sakulpanich; Siriluck Attrapadung; Wandee Gritsanapan
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Aurapa Sakulpanich, Siriluck Attrapadung, Wandee Gritsanapan
      In Thai indigenous knowledge, Stemona plant has traditionally been used as insecticide on plantations. Recently, S. collinsiae extract was showed to be an anti-feedant and growth inhibitor and to exert strong insecticidal activity. Here, the insecticidal activity of S. collinsiae root extract against Parasarcophaga ruficornis is studied. The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of the ethanolic root extract of S. collinsiae were tested using contact toxicity tests, and adulticidal activity was tested using the topical contact toxicity and sugar bait methods The ethanolic extract at concentration ranging of 0.3–320mg/larva for the direct contact toxicity test and from 0.3 to 3.2mg/cm2/larva for the secondary contact toxicity test showed 3.0–51.0 and 1.0–94.0% corrected mortality, respectively. Against third-instar larvae, the LD50 concentrations of the ethanolic extract were 31.7±0.0mg/larva and 1.4±0.0mg/cm2/larva for direct and secondary contact toxicity tests, respectively. Pupae were not eliminated at all concentrations of the ethanolic extract. Against adult flies, which were killed via oral administration, the LD50 concentration of the ethanolic extract was 0.145±0.070g extract/g glucose. Thus, the ethanolic extract of S. collinsiae was capable of eliminating P. ruficornis in larval and adult stages via topical and ingestion administration, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.027
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptomic analysis of porcine PBMCs in response to FMDV infection
    • Authors: Fu-Rong Zhao; Yin-Li Xie; Ze-Zhong Liu; Jun-Jun Shao; Shi-Fang Li; Yong-Guang Zhang; Hui-Yun Chang
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Fu-Rong Zhao, Yin-Li Xie, Ze-Zhong Liu, Jun-Jun Shao, Shi-Fang Li, Yong-Guang Zhang, Hui-Yun Chang
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a significant zoonotic infectious disease. It has an important economic impact throughout the world. As well, it is a considerable threat to food security. At present, the molecular mechanism of FMDV infection is not clear to a large extent. Innate immune response is the first line of defense against infectious diseases. The systematic analysis of the host immune response to infection has an important role in understanding the pathogenesis of infection. However, there are few reports about effect of immune regulation on virus replication in the interaction of virus and host cellular. High-throughput RNA-seq technology as a powerful and efficient means for transcript analysis provides a new insight into FMDV study. In this study, RNA extracted from pig PBMCs infected with O subtype FMDV at 4 dpi. A total of 29942658 and 31452917 Illumina read pairs were obtained from the non-infected (NI) group and infected (I) group, respectively. The clean bases for all samples are 3.61G (NI group) and 3.79G (I group), respectively. The clean reads of the NI and I group that mapped to pig genome data were 47195073 (81.82%) and 46556714 (76.85%), respectively. Most of the clean reads were distributed in the exon region, followed by intron region and intergenic region. Differently expressed (DE) genes were analyzed using edgeR software. 451 genes were differentially expressed between the infected and the non-infected groups. According to the comparison analysis, more genes were down-regulated in the non-infected samples than in those infected with FMDV.66 out of 451 genes were down-regulated, 385 out of 451 genes were up-regulated following FMDV infection. For function classification and pathway analysis, among 17741 assembled unigenes, there are 349 genes which are different genes of GO notes. Moreover, 49 genes were down-regulated, 300 genes were up-regulated associate with GO term. 1621 were successfully annotated by GO assignments, belonging to one or more of the three categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. According to KEGG analysis,the main pathway was represented including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, phagosome, cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. Some key DE genes related to immune process and signaling pathways were analyzed and quantified by RT-PCR. This is the first systematical transcriptome analysis of pig PBMCs infected by FMDV. These findings will help us better understand the host Cell-FMDV interaction and its relationship to pathogenesis, as well as contribute to the prevention and control of FMDV.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis – Induced
           meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1
    • Authors: An-Chih Chen; Ling-Yuh Shyu; Yue-Loong Hsin; Ke-Min Chen; Shih-Chan Lai
      Pages: 76 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): An-Chih Chen, Ling-Yuh Shyu, Yue-Loong Hsin, Ke-Min Chen, Shih-Chan Lai
      Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood–brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Seroepidemiological study and associated risk factors of Toxocara canis
           infection among preschool children in Osun State, Nigeria
    • Authors: Oluyomi A. Sowemimo; Yueh-Lun Lee; Samuel O. Asaolu; Ting-Wu Chuang; Olaoluwa P. Akinwale; Bolaji O. Badejoko; Vincent P. Gyang; Timothy Nwafor; Emmanuel Henry; Chia-Kwung Fan
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Oluyomi A. Sowemimo, Yueh-Lun Lee, Samuel O. Asaolu, Ting-Wu Chuang, Olaoluwa P. Akinwale, Bolaji O. Badejoko, Vincent P. Gyang, Timothy Nwafor, Emmanuel Henry, Chia-Kwung Fan
      Human toxocariasis is caused by the nematode, Toxocara canis and it is a poorly understood phenomenon in Nigeria. Seroepidemiological studies have not been previously carried out among the preschool aged children in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted in pre-school children in four communities from Osun State, Nigeria between January and July 2016. A total of 308 children Aged 9 months and 5 years were studied comprising 53.2% (164/308) male and 46.8% (144/308) female. Blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies by Western blot analysis based on the excretory-secretory antigens of larva T. canis (TcES), targeting low molecular weight bands of 24 − 35kDa specific for T. canis. Questionnaires were given to parents/guardians of the studied children to collect information regarding relationship between infection and host factors. The overall seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was 37.3%. The seroprevalence in the studied preschool children ranged from 18.2% in children less than one year old to a max of 57.6% in children aged 3 years and above. The logistic regression analysis of risk factors showed that children’s age (odds ratio (OR)=6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25–29.90, p =0.02), contact with dogs (OR=3.17, 95% CI=1.40–7.20, p =0.01) and parent’s religion (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.32–0.91, p =0.02) were the risk factors associated with Toxocara infection. However, after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis, contact with dogs (p =0.02) remained the only statistically significant risk factor. Preschool children were exposed early in life to T. canis infection as 18.18% of children less than one year old were infected. This is the first serological investigation of T. canis infection among preschool children in Nigeria. The results show high levels of exposure to T. canis infection among the studied group and contact with the dog plays the predominant risk factor. It indicates high transmission with the consequent of visceral or ocular larva migrans and neurologic disorder in these children. The results also provide baseline data for effective prevention strategies of toxocariasis in Southwest Nigeria and the study recommends prompt interventional measures, particularly health education on personal hygiene.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.030
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by
           Leishmania donovani in Turkey
    • Authors: Ahmet Özbilgin; Mehmet Harman; Mehmet Karakuş; Aldert Bart; Seray Töz; Özgür Kurt; İbrahim Çavuş; Erdal Polat; Cumhur Gündüz; Tom Van Gool; Yusuf Özbel
      Pages: 90 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Ahmet Özbilgin, Mehmet Harman, Mehmet Karakuş, Aldert Bart, Seray Töz, Özgür Kurt, İbrahim Çavuş, Erdal Polat, Cumhur Gündüz, Tom Van Gool, Yusuf Özbel
      In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for understanding its tropism in in vivo conditions. Clinical samples (lesion aspirations and bone marrow) obtained from CL/VL patients were investigated using parasitological (smear/NNN) and DNA-based techniques. For species identification, a real time ITS1-PCR was performed using isolates and results were confirmed by hsp70 PCR-N/sequencing and cpb gene PCR/sequencing in order to reveal Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum discrimination. Clinical materials from CL and VL patients were also inoculated into two experimental groups (Group CL and Group VL) of Balb/C mice intraperitoneally for creating clinical picture of Turkish L. donovani strains. After 45days, the samples from visible sores of the skin were taken, and spleens and livers were removed. Measurements of the internal organs were done and touch preparations were prepared for checking the presence of amastigotes. The strains were isolated from all patients and amastigotes were seen in all smears of the patients, and then isolates were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen. In real time ITS1-PCR, the melting temperatures of all samples were out of range of L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major. Sequencing of hsp70 PCR-N showed that all isolates highly identical to previously submitted L. donovani sequences in GenBank, and cpb gene sequencing showed five isolates had longer cpbF allele, whereas one isolate contained a mixed sequence of both cpbF and cpbE. All mice in both experimental groups became infected. Compared to controls, the length and width of both liver and spleen were significantly elevated (p<0.001) in both groups of mice. However, the weight of the liver increased significantly in all mice whereas the weight of spleen increased only in VL group. Amastigotes were also seen in all touch preparations prepared from skin sores, spleen and liver. L. donovani strain was isolated from autocutaneous a VL patient first time in Turkey. Animal models using clinical samples were successfully established and important clinical differences of the isolated strains were observed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.032
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Parkinson’s disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection: Sero-molecular
           assess the possible link among patients
    • Authors: Shirzad Fallahi; Ali Rostami; Mehdi Birjandi; Nozhat Zebardast; Farnaz Kheirandish; Adel Spotin
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Mehdi Birjandi, Nozhat Zebardast, Farnaz Kheirandish, Adel Spotin
      We investigated the possible association between Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and Toxoplasma gondii infection, the most common neurotropic protozoan parasitic infection, using serological and molecular techniques. One hundred and fifteen patients with confirmed PD and 115 healthy subjects in the same age and sex distribution were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken from each participant and the sera was screened for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and IgM). PCR assay was performed in duplicate using the primer pair targeting the B1 gene of Toxoplasma. Amplicons were directly sequenced to conduct the phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection based on IgG titer was 53% in case and 55.6% in the control groups, revealing no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and PD (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.54–1.51; P =0.691). According to PCR assay, the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections was 19.3% in the case and 10.4% in control groups which the difference was statistically significant (OR=3.02; 95% CI=1.46–6.27; P =0.002). Multiple sequence alignment of Toxoplasma gondii isolates manifested a common haplotype by the identity: 93.6–100% and divergence: 0–6.7%. We concluded that T. gondii infection not only could not be a risk factor to PD, but even it could be concluded that patients with PD are in more risk to acquisition of infection. These results provide fresh insights into the ambiguous association between T. gondii infection and PD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Topical treatment with nanoliposomal Amphotericin B reduces early lesion
           growth but fails to induce cure in an experimental model of cutaneous
           leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana
    • Authors: Sanjay Varikuti; Steve Oghumu; Noushin Saljoughian; Marissa S. Pioso; Bren E Sedmak; Ali Khamesipour; Abhay R. Satoskar
      Pages: 102 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Sanjay Varikuti, Steve Oghumu, Noushin Saljoughian, Marissa S. Pioso, Bren E Sedmak, Ali Khamesipour, Abhay R. Satoskar
      Leishmania mexicana infection causes localized skin lesions that can lead to tissue damage and permanent disfigurement if not resolved. Currently, recommended treatments include intravenous administration of Amphotericin B, which is undesirable due to the associated cost and patient burden related to receiving regular injections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical treatment with a nanoliposomal formulation of Amphotericin B that is penetrable to the skin (SinaAmphoLeish 0.4%) in mice infected with L. mexicana by using ulcerated (BALB/c) and non-ulcerated (129SVE) models. BALB/c mice received a 4 week treatment following ulcerated lesion development, while 129SVE mice received a 10 week treatment beginning at week 5 post-infection. Although mice from both models showed comparable susceptibility to L. mexicana infection after topical treatment with SinaAmphoLeish relative to controls, 129SVE mice displayed a transient decrease in lesion sizes which eventually became similar to control mice. On other hand this treatment resulted in no reduction in the lesion sizes in BALB/c mice. 129SVE treated mice exhibited greater IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokine levels and higher T-cell proliferation in re-stimulated draining lymph node cells. BALB/c mice showed no differences in cytokine responses between treated and control mice. These findings indicate that topical SinaAmphoLeish treatment is not likely to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular
           identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale
    • Authors: Norhidayu Sahimin; Yvonne Ai Lian Lim; Benacer Douadi; Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid; John-James Wilson; Jerzy M. Behnke; Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Benacer Douadi, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, John-James Wilson, Jerzy M. Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
      Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant workers for hookworm infections, particularly those working in food-related services and industries.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Cytotoxicity of Cerastes cerastes snake venom: Involvement of imbalanced
           redox status
    • Authors: Hayet Kebir-Chelghoum; Fatima Laraba-Djebari
      Pages: 116 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Hayet Kebir-Chelghoum, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
      Envenomation caused by Cerastes cerastes snake venom is characterized by a local and a systemic tissue damage due to myonecrosis, hemorrhage, edema and acute muscle damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the pro/anti-oxidants status and the cytotoxicity of C. cerastes snake venom. The in vivo cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken by the injection of C. cerastes venom (48μg/20g body weight) by i.p. route, mice were then sacrificed at 3, 24 and 48h post injection, organs were collected for further analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis was investigated on cultured PBMC, hepatocytes and isolated liver. The obtained results showed a significant cell infiltration characterized by a significant increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxidase (EPO) activities. These results showed also a potent oxidative activity of C. cerastes venom characterized by increased levels of residual nitrites and lipid peroxidation associated with a significant decrease of glutathione and catalase activity in sera and tissues (heart, lungs, liver and kidneys). The in vitro cytotoxicity of C. cerastes venom on PBMC seems to be dose-dependent (IC50 of 21μg/ml/106 cells) and correlated with an imbalanced redox status at high doses of venom. However, in the case of cultured hepatocytes, the LDH release and oxidative stress were observed only at high doses of the venom. The obtained results of in vivo study were confirmed by the culture of isolated liver. Therefore, these results suggest that the venom induces a direct cytotoxic effect which alters the membrane integrity causing a leakage of the cellular contents. This cytotoxic effect can lead indirectly to inflammatory response and oxidative stress. These data suggest that an early anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment could be useful in the management of envenomed victims.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T12:34:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Point of care diagnosis of multiple schistosome parasites:
           Species-specific DNA detection in urine by loop-mediated isothermal
           amplification (LAMP)
    • Authors: Nilanjan Lodh; Kei Mikita; Kwabena M. Bosompem; William K. Anyan; Joseph K. Quartey; Joseph Otchere; Clive J. Shiff
      Pages: 125 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Nilanjan Lodh, Kei Mikita, Kwabena M. Bosompem, William K. Anyan, Joseph K. Quartey, Joseph Otchere, Clive J. Shiff
      Schistosomes are easily transmitted and high chance of repeat infection, so if control strategies based on targeted mass drug administration (MDA) are to succeed it is essential to have a test that is sensitive, accurate and simple to use. It is known and regularly demonstrated that praziquantel does not always eliminate an infection so in spite of the successes of control programs a residual of the reservoir survives to re-infect snails. The issue of diagnostic sensitivity becomes more critical in the assessment of program effectiveness. While serology, such as antigen capture tests might improve sensitivity, it has been shown that the presence of species-specific DNA fragments will indicate, most effectively, the presence of active parasites. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can amplify and detect DNA from urine residue captured on Whatman No. 3 filter paper that is dried after filtration. Previously we have detected S. mansoni and S. haematobium parasite-specific small repeat DNA fragment from filtered urine on filter paper by PCR. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of detection of 86 urine samples for either or both schistosome parasites by PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) that were collected from a low to moderate transmission area in Ghana. Two different DNA extraction methods, standard extraction kit and field usable LAMP-PURE kit were also evaluated by PCR and LAMP amplification. With S. haematobium LAMP amplification for both extractions showed similar sensitivity and specificity when compared with PCR amplification (100%) verified by gel electrophoresis. For S. mansoni sensitivity was highest for LAMP amplification (100%) for standard extraction than PCR and LAMP with LAMP-PURE (99% and 94%). The LAMP-PURE extraction produced false negatives, which require further investigation for this field usable extraction kit. Overall high positive and negative predictive values (90% − 100%) for both species demonstrated a highly robust approach. The LAMP approach is close to point of care use and equally sensitive and specific to detection of species-specific DNA by PCR. LAMP can be an effective means to detect low intensity infection due to its simplicity and minimal DNA extraction requirement. This will enhance the effectiveness of surveillance and MDA control programs of schistosomiasis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Molecular characterization of Blastocystis from pigs in Shaanxi province
           of China
    • Authors: Jun-Ke Song; Rui-Si Hu; Xian-Cheng Fan; Sha-Sha Wang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Guang-Hui Zhao
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Jun-Ke Song, Rui-Si Hu, Xian-Cheng Fan, Sha-Sha Wang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
      Blastocystis is an enteric eukaryote of mystery for its ubiquitous presence in animals and humans worldwide and a broad diversity genetically. The animals have been suggested to be an important reservoir to transmit Blastocystis to humans because of high colonization frequency and the presence of zoonotic subtypes. In the present study, the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis in pigs in Shaanxi province of China were determined using the molecular technique based on the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragment. Of 560 pig faecal samples collected from different geographical origins, 419 (74.8%) were positive for Blastocystis colonization. The prevalence was significant affected by the age and the geographical origin. Four subtypes, including three zoonotic (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and one animal specific (ST10) subtypes, were identified. To our knowledge, this study provides the first run-through information for colonization of Blastocystis in pigs in China.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T12:34:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of synonymous codon usage in Zika virus
    • Authors: Snawar Hussain; Sahibzada Tasleem Rasool
      Pages: 136 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Snawar Hussain, Sahibzada Tasleem Rasool
      Zika virus is a zoonotic pathogen, which have made frequent incursion into the human population in Africa and South East Asia over the course of several decades but never reached to the pandemic proportions until the most recent outbreak. Viruses are solely dependent on host synthetic machinery for their replication cycle; therefore, replication and persistence in a host species of different genetic background requires certain degree of adaptation. These adaptations are necessary to avoid detection from host immune surveillance and maximize the utilization of available resources for efficient viral replication. Study of genomic composition and codon usage pattern not only offer an insight into the adaptation of viruses to their new host, but may also provide some information about pathogenesis and spread of the virus. To elucidate the genetic features and synonymous codon usage bias in ZIKV genome, a comprehensive analysis was performed on 80 full-length ZIKV sequences. Our analyses shows that the overall extent of codon usage bias in ZIKV genome is low and affected by nucleotide composition, protein properties, natural selection, and gene expression level.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Epidemiological investigation and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus
           in yaks (Bos grunniens), Tibetan pigs and Tibetans on Qinghai Tibetan
           plateau
    • Authors: Kun Li; Lihong Zhang; Hui Zhang; Zhixin Lei; Houqiang Luo; Khalid Mehmood; Muhammad Shahzad; Yanfang Lan; Meng Wang; Jiakui Li
      Pages: 147 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Kun Li, Lihong Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixin Lei, Houqiang Luo, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Shahzad, Yanfang Lan, Meng Wang, Jiakui Li
      Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a diverse zoonotic parasite and causes Cystic echinococcosis (CE) disease in humans and livestock. However, scare information is available about the epidemic situation of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and native Tibetans on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Therefore, a study was carried out to find prevalence and risk factors of E. granulosus in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetans. Serum samples from yaks (1371), Tibetan pigs (454) and Tibetans (600) were collected and assessed by commercial ELISA kits. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to find the variables possibly associated with exposure of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetan. The overall prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks was 6.49%. In different regions, the prevalence were ranged from 3.43% to 11.79%. In male and female yaks, the prevalence was 5.67% and 7.04%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 2.20% to 10.9%. While, in different years, the prevalence was 3.61% in 2014, 9.66% in 2015, and 6.33% in 2016. According to the conditional stepwise logistic regression, three factors (region, age and year) were demonstrated to be risk factors influencing the prevalence of E. granulosus in yaks significantly (P<0.05). A total 33/454 of Tibetan pigs were positive for E. granulosus with the distribution of 5.47, 5.70 and 13.27% prevalence in Gongbo'gvamda, Mainling, and Nyingchi region, respectively. In male and female Tibetan pigs, the prevalence was 7.12% and 7.49% respectively, while region was considered as a significant (P<0.05) risk factor influencing the E. granulosus infection in Tibetan pigs. The total prevalence of E. granulosus infection in Tibetans was 1.83%, while in male and female Tibetans, the prevalence was 1.41% and 2.21%, respectively. In different ages, the prevalence were ranged from 0 to 3.21%. In Tibetans contacting animals or not was 2.41% and 0.54% respectively, and breeding dogs or not was 3.0% and 1.09%, respectively. Risk factors (gender age, contact animal and breed dog) were not significant (P>0.05). The present results reported the prevalence and associated risk factors of E. granulosus in yaks, Tibetan pigs and native Tibetans. These findings could have important epidemiological significance and a direct influence on the remote plateau.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.019
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Phylogenetic analysis of G1P[8] and G12P[8] rotavirus A samples obtained
           in the pre- and post-vaccine periods, and molecular modeling of VP4 and
           VP7 proteins
    • Authors: Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida; Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa; Roosevelt Alves da Silva; Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori; Menira Souza; Kareem Rady Badr; Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso
      Pages: 153 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Roosevelt Alves da Silva, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Menira Souza, Kareem Rady Badr, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso
      Reduction in morbimortality rates for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by Rotavirus A (RVA) has been observed after the introduction of vaccines, however the agent continues to circulate. The present study described the genomic characterization of the 11 dsRNA segments of two RVA samples G1P[8] obtained in the pre- and post-vaccination periods and one of G12P[8] sample (post-vaccine), compared to Rotarix™ vaccine. Analysis by molecular sequencing of the samples showed that the three samples belonged to genogroup I. In addition, the analysis of VP7 gene revealed that the samples G1 (pre-vaccine), G1 (post-vaccine) and G12 were characterized as lineages II, I and III, respectively. Regarding to VP4 and NSP4 gene it was observed that all samples belonged to lineage III, whereas for VP6 gene, the sample of the pre- and post-vaccine belonged to the lineage IV and I, respectively. Considering the VP7 gene, it was observed high nucleotide and amino acid identity for the two G1 samples when compared to Rotarix™ vaccine and lesser identity for the G12 sample. In relation to antigenic epitope of VP7 greater modifications were observed for the G12 sample in the 7-2 epitope that was confirmed by molecular modeling. On the other hand, for VP4, some changes in the 8-1 and 8-3 antigenic epitopes was observed for the three samples. This data could be interpreted as a low selective pressure exerted by vaccination in relation to G1P[8] samples and lesser protection in relation to G12P[8]. Thus, the continuous monitoring of RVA circulating samples remains important.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Combination of five diagnostic tests to estimate the prevalence of
           hookworm infection among school-aged children from a rural area of
           colombia
    • Authors: Rafael E. Barreto; Javier Narváez; Natalia A. Sepúlveda; Fabián C. Velásquez; Sandra C. Díaz; Myriam Consuelo López; Patricia Reyes; Ligia I. Moncada
      Pages: 160 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Rafael E. Barreto, Javier Narváez, Natalia A. Sepúlveda, Fabián C. Velásquez, Sandra C. Díaz, Myriam Consuelo López, Patricia Reyes, Ligia I. Moncada
      Background Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. Methods and results We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.028
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Biodiversity of Simulium metallicum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae), a
           complex of Neotropical vectors associated with human onchocerciasis
    • Authors: Peter H. Adler; Art Borkent; Neusa Hamada; John W. McCreadie
      Pages: 171 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Peter H. Adler, Art Borkent, Neusa Hamada, John W. McCreadie
      The polytene chromosomes of 130 larvae of the Neotropical Simulium metallicum complex from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador revealed five cytoforms, including three (‘M’, ‘N’, and ‘O’) that are new and two (‘B’ and ‘J’) that represent range extensions of up to 850km. The discovery of three new cytoforms brings the total number in the complex to 17. Cytoforms ‘B’, ‘J’, and ‘N’ are reproductively isolated from one another, and their species status is corroborated by morphological evidence. None of the three new cytoforms is known from current or historical onchocerciasis foci, although ‘M’ inhabits the periphery of the former Ecuadorian Santiago onchocerciasis focus a mere 30km to the west. The number of fixed chromosomal differences, as many as 24, separating some members of the S. metallicum complex far exceeds that known between members of any other simuliid species complex. Two distinct groupings can be diagnosed within the S. metallicum complex, based on at least eight fixed chromosomal rearrangements and structural characters in the larval stage. Consequently, a recommendation is made to recognize the S. horacioi complex and the S. metallicum complex sensu stricto. Recognition of two separate complexes provides potential phylogenetic content with predictive power for understanding biological phenomena such as vector potential.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.017
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • A multiplex restriction enzyme-PCR for unequivocal identification and
           differentiation of Trichostrongylus species in human samples
    • Authors: Azadeh Mizani; Pooria Gill; Ahmad Daryani; Shahabeddin Sarvi; Afsaneh Amouei; Ali Bakooie Katrimi; Eissa Soleymani; Siavash Mirshafiee; Sara Gholami; Seyed Abdollah Hosseini; Shirzad Gholami; Mohammad-Taghi Rahimi; Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh; Mehdi Sharif
      Pages: 180 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Azadeh Mizani, Pooria Gill, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Ali Bakooie Katrimi, Eissa Soleymani, Siavash Mirshafiee, Sara Gholami, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Shirzad Gholami, Mohammad-Taghi Rahimi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Mehdi Sharif
      Trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. Identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. We evaluated a multiplex RE-PCR for the diagnosis of key Trichostrongylus spp. Genomic DNA amplification of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was achieved as standard sample using specific primers located in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITSII) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The mentioned method was based on isolation of Trichostrongylus ova from human fecal samples using Willis method, the extraction of ova genomic DNA samples, followed by rDNA ITSII PCR and one-step multiplex RE-PCR using three restriction enzymes of HinfI, DraI, and MseI. The multiplex RE-PCR technique provides a useful tool for discriminating all Trichostrongylus spp., being useful for diagnostic, epidemiological, ecological studies, and control programs. This method is rapid, especially when numerous restriction enzymes are required for species differentiation or identification.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Altered distribution of peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets in
           patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis
    • Authors: James Venturini; Ricardo Souza Cavalcante; Daniela Vanessa Moris; Márjorie de Assis Golim; Adriele Dandara Levorato; Karoline Hagatha dos Reis; Maria Sueli Parreira de Arruda; Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
      Pages: 185 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): James Venturini, Ricardo Souza Cavalcante, Daniela Vanessa Moris, Márjorie de Assis Golim, Adriele Dandara Levorato, Karoline Hagatha dos Reis, Maria Sueli Parreira de Arruda, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
      Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by fungi from the genus Paracoccidioides in Latin America. PCM-patients (PCM-p) are classified as having acute/subacute or chronic (CF) clinical forms. CF is responsible for 75%–90% of all cases, affects mainly adults over 30 years old and the clinical manifestation are associated mainly with lungs and mucosa of upper airdigestive tract. In addition, the CF patients exhibit fibrosis of the lungs, oral mucous membranes and adrenals, and pulmonary emphysema. Consequently, CF PCM-p with active disease, as well as those that have been apparently cured, seem to be an interesting model for studies aiming to understand the long-term host-fungi relationship and hypoxia. Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a system that serve as a major link between innate and adaptive immunity composed of several subpopulations of cells including two main subsets: myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs). The present study aimed to access the distribution of PBDC subsets of CF PCM-p who were not treated (NT) or treated (apparently cured – AC). CF PCM-p were categorized into two groups, consisting of 9 NTs and 9 ACs. Twenty-one healthy individuals were used as the control group. The determination of the PBDC subsets was performed by FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) and the dosage of serum TNF-α, IL1β, IL-18, CCL3, IL-10 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A high count and percentage of mDCs was observed before treatment, along with a low count of pDCs in treated patients. Furthermore, the mDC:pDC ratio and serum levels of TNF-α was higher in both of the PCM-p groups than in the control group. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that active PCM influences the distribution of mDCs and pDCs, and after treatment, PCM-p retained a lower count of pDCs associated with pro-inflammatory profile. Therefore, we identified new evidences of persistent immunological abnormalities in PCM-p after treatment. Even these patients showing fungal clearance after successful antifungal treatment; the hypoxia, triggered by the persistent pulmonary sequelae, possibly continues to interfere in the immune response.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Comparison between generalized linear modelling and additive Bayesian
           network; identification of factors associated with the incidence of
           antibodies against Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona in meat workers in New
           Zealand
    • Authors: M. Pittavino; A. Dreyfus; C. Heuer; J. Benschop; P. Wilson; J. Collins-Emerson; P.R. Torgerson; R. Furrer
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): M. Pittavino, A. Dreyfus, C. Heuer, J. Benschop, P. Wilson, J. Collins-Emerson, P.R. Torgerson, R. Furrer
      Background Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) is a graphical model which extends Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM) to multiple dependent variables. The present study compares results from GLM with those from ABN analysis used to identify factors associated with Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (Pomona) infection by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these two methodologies, to corroborate inferences informing health and safety measures at abattoirs in New Zealand (NZ). Methodology and findings In a cohort study in four sheep slaughtering abattoirs in NZ, sera were collected twice a year from 384 meat workers and tested by Microscopic Agglutination with a 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Pomona. The study primarily addressed the effect of work position, personal protective equipment (PPE) and non-work related exposures such as hunting on a new infection with Pomona. Significantly associated with Pomona were “Work position” and two “Abattoirs” (GLM), and “Work position” (ABN). The odds of Pomona infection (OR, [95% CI]) was highest at stunning and hide removal (ABN 41.0, [6.9–1044.2]; GLM 57.0, [6.9–473.3]), followed by removal of intestines, bladder, and kidneys (ABN 30.7, [4.9–788.4]; GLM 33.8, [4.2–271.1]). Wearing a facemask, glasses or gloves (PPE) did not result as a protective factor in GLM or ABN. Conclusions/Significance The odds of Pomona infection was highest at stunning and hide removal. PPE did not show any indication of being protective in GLM or ABN. In ABN all relationships between variables are modelled; hence it has an advantage over GLM due to its capacity to capture the natural complexity of data more effectively.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.034
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Acquittal of Culex quinquefasciatus in transmitting Zika virus during the
           French Polynesian outbreak
    • Authors: Vaea Richard; Tuterarii Paoaafaite; Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau
      Pages: 200 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Vaea Richard, Tuterarii Paoaafaite, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau


      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.036
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Comment on: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of
           Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR
    • Authors: Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa; Adriana Pittella Sudré; Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
      Pages: 202 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny


      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
       
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173


      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
       
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172


      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
       
 
 
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