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Showing 1 - 200 of 3044 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • The echinococcoses in Asia: The present situation
    • Authors: Akira Ito; Christine M. Budke
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Akira Ito, Christine M. Budke
      Human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, caused by the accidental ingestion of eggs of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, respectively, are endemic in Asia. Various Echinococcus species are maintained in domesticated and/or wild mammals through predator-prey interactions. Molecular analysis is used to help differentiate infecting parasite species and genotypes, with the goal of better understanding parasite life cycles in order to aid in the planning and implementation of control programs. This paper discusses the various echinococcoses in Asia, with limited reference to neighboring areas, including parts of Central Asia, Russia, Europe and North America.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Distribution pattern of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by
           Leishmania tropica in Western Afghanistan during 2013-2014
    • Authors: Mahdi Fakhar; Mehdi Karamian; Mohammad Amin Ghatee; Walter Robert Taylor; Hossein Pazoki Ghohe; Sayed Abobakar Rasooli
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Mahdi Fakhar, Mehdi Karamian, Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Walter Robert Taylor, Hossein Pazoki Ghohe, Sayed Abobakar Rasooli
      Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by Leishmania tropica, is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Herat province, Western Afghanistan. We investigated the role of environmental factors on ACL distribution in Herat. Epidemiological data from 2457 patients were retrieved from the local WHO sub-office. Shapefile layers of districts, cities, villages, land cover, soil type and digital elevation model (DEM) of the Herat province were used to assess, by logistic regression modelling, the effects of land cover, soil types, elevation, and proximity to the Harirud river on the distribution of ACL. The key determinants of distribution were: (i) close proximity to the Harirud river, (ii) elevation between 700 and 1200m, (iii) intensive and intermittent irrigated cultivated land, and (iv) Haplocalcids with Torriorthents and Torrifluvents soil types. No ACL cases were found below 700m, and a few cases were present at >1200m in irrigated areas around the Harirud river. These findings suggest that moist soil and the humidity from irrigated areas found between 700 and 1200m provide suitable breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the main sandfly vector of L. tropica in Afghanistan. The effect of elevation also explains the predominance of ACL over ZCL in this region. The present study showed that distribution of ACL is strongly associated with environmental factors in West Afghanistan where the political and socio-economic conditions may also affect the epidemiology of CL.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • New insights into the factors affecting synonymous codon usage in human
           infecting Plasmodium species
    • Authors: Shivani Gajbhiye; P.K. Patra; Manoj Kumar Yadav
      Pages: 29 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Shivani Gajbhiye, P.K. Patra, Manoj Kumar Yadav
      Codon usage bias is due to the non-random usage of synonymous codons for coding amino acids. The synonymous sites are under weak selection, and codon usage bias is maintained by the equilibrium in mutational bias, genetic drift and selection pressure. The differential codon usage choices are also relevant to human infecting Plasmodium species. Recently, P. knowlesi switches its natural host, long-tailed macaques, and starts infecting humans. This review focuses on the comparative analysis of codon usage choices among human infecting P. falciparum and P. vivax along with P. knowlesi species taking their coding sequence data. The variation in GC content, amino acid frequencies, effective number of codons and other factors plays a crucial role in determining synonymous codon choices. Within species codon choices are more similar for P. vivax and P. knowlesi in comparison with P. falciparum species. This study suggests that synonymous codon choice modulates the gene expression level, mRNA stability, ribosome speed, protein folding, translation efficiency and its accuracy in Plasmodium species, and provides a valuable information regarding the codon usage pattern to facilitate gene cloning as well as expression and transfection studies for malaria causing species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Morphology and small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of a new Henneguya
           species, infecting the ornamental fish Corydoras leucomelas from the
           Peruvian Amazon
    • Authors: Patrick D. Mathews; Juliana Naldoni; Edson A. Adriano
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Patrick D. Mathews, Juliana Naldoni, Edson A. Adriano
      A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya loreotoensis n. sp. is described parasitizing the gill filaments from 17 of 35 specimens (48.5%) of Corydoras leucomelas (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) caught in the Nanay River, near village Ninarumi, in the Loreto state, Peru. Mature spores were ellipsoidal in shape from the frontal view, measuring 36.2±0.1μm (36.1–36.3) in total length, 14.3±0.1μm (14.2–14.4) in body length, 5.1±0.1μm (4.9–5.3) in width and 21.9±0.1μm (21.8–22.0) in the caudal process. The two polar capsules were symmetrical and elongated, measuring 5.1±0.1μm (4.9–5.3) in length and 2.4±0.2μm (2.1–2.7) in width, containing a polar filament with five coils arranged obliquely to the longitudinal axis. The sporoplasm was binucleate. Partial sequencing of the ssu-rDNA of H. loretoensis n. sp. resulted in a total of 1676 nucleotides, and this sequence did not match any of the myxozoan available in the GenBank. The phylogenetic analysis shows H. loretoensis n. sp. as a sister species of Henneguya paraensis, another amazonian myxozoan parasite of Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Andrographolide induces oxidative stress-dependent cell death in
           unicellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei
    • Authors: Malabika Banerjee; Debaprasad Parai; Pranab Dhar; Manab Roy; Rajib Barik; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Samir Kumar Mukherjee
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Pranab Dhar, Manab Roy, Rajib Barik, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
      African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease in humans and livestock caused by Trypanosoma brucei throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Absence of appropriate vaccines and prevalence of drug resistance proclaim that a new way of therapeutic interventions is essential against African trypanosomiasis. In the present study, we have looked into the effect of andrographolide (andro), a diterpenoid lactone from Andrographis paiculata on Trypanosoma brucei PRA 380. Although andro has been recognized as a promosing anti-cancer drug, its usefulness against Trypanosoma spp remained unexplored. Andro showed promising anti-trypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 8.3μM assessed through SYBR Green cell viability assay and also showed no cytotoxicity towards normal murine macrophages. Cell cycle analysis revealed that andro could induce sub-G0/G1 phase arrest. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed that incubation with andro caused exposure of phosphatidyl serine to the outer leaflet of plasma membrane in T. brucei PCF. This event was preceded by andro-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym) and elevation of cytosolic calcium. Andro also caused elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as lipid peroxidation level, and depletion in reduced thiol levels. Taken together, these data indicate that andro has promising antitrypanosomal activity mediated by promoting oxidative stress and depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential and thereby triggering an apoptosis-like programmed cell death. Therefore, this study merits further investigation to the therapeutic possibility of using andro for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • A hyperendemic focus of Taenia solium transmission in the Banke District
           of Nepal
    • Authors: Keshav Sah; Ishab Poudel; Suyog Subedi; Dinesh Kumar Singh; Jo Cocker; Peetambar Kushwaha; Angela Colston; Meritxell Donadeu; Marshall W. Lightowlers
      Pages: 78 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Keshav Sah, Ishab Poudel, Suyog Subedi, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Jo Cocker, Peetambar Kushwaha, Angela Colston, Meritxell Donadeu, Marshall W. Lightowlers
      Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in countries where Taenia solium is endemic and the parasite is a major cause of food-borne disease globally. Pigs are the natural intermediate host involved in transmission of the parasite. T. solium is known to be endemic in Nepal, however there is limited reliable data about the prevalence of the disease in Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine accurately the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in slaughter age pigs in an area of Nepal where pigs are known to be free-roaming. Pigs were obtained from the Udaypur Village Development Committee (VDC) and Hirminiya & Betahani VDC of the Banke district in Nepal. One hundred and ten animals of slaughter age (approximately 8–16 months old) were purchased, slaughtered and the heart, liver, brain and half the body skeletal musculature were sliced using hand knives and the number and viability of T. solium cysts determined. Thirty two of the 110 animals were found to harbour T. solium cysticerci (29%), of which 30 (27%) were found to have viable cysticerci (93% of the infected animals). This is one of the highest prevalences of porcine cysticercosis that has been reported to date from the results of necropsy on randomly selected animals. This study highlights a high rate of transmission of T. solium in the Banke District of Nepal. It encourages further investigation of human and porcine cysticercosis in Nepal, as well as implementation of efforts to reduce transmission of the parasite and the associated human disease.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Mosquitocidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using local
           isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their
           synergistic effect with a commercial strain of B. thuringiensis subsp.
    • Authors: Anon Thammasittirong; Kanchana Prigyai; Sutticha Na-Ranong Thammasittirong
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Anon Thammasittirong, Kanchana Prigyai, Sutticha Na-Ranong Thammasittirong
      Control of larval stages of Aedes aegypti is considered an effective approach for preventing outbreaks of dengue fever. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using the supernatant and insecticidal proteins from local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Mosquitocidal activity assays against A. aegypti larvae revealed that the highest toxicity was obtained from the Ag NPs synthesized using supernatant of Bti K55 and the inclusion proteins of Bti K46 with a lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 0.001 and 0.008μg/mL, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synergistic studies revealed that the Ag NPs synthesized using supernatant of Bti K55 were synergized with commercial Bti cells with a synergistic factor (SF) of 3.3 and 10.0 for LC50 and LC90, respectively. In addition, the Ag NPs synthesized using inclusion proteins of Bti K46 were synergized with commercial Bti cells with a SF of 1.6 and 4.2 for LC50 and LC90, respectively. This study provided the first report of the synergistic effect between Bti and Ag NPs. Such a combination could represent an effective approach for the control of the dengue vector and possibly reducing the likelihood of increased insect resistance to chemical control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Molecular context of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in the molluscan
           environments: A mini-review
    • Authors: Damilare Olatunji Famakinde
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Damilare Olatunji Famakinde
      Schistosoma mansoni, being transmitted by some freshwater Biomphalaria snails, is a major causative agent of human schistosomiasis. In the absence of effective vaccine and alternative drug designs to fight against the disease, and with the limitations of molluscicide application, developing more efficient strategies to interrupt the snail-mediated parasite transmission is being emphasized as potentially instrumental in the efforts toward schistosomiasis elimination, hence, necessitating thorough and comprehensive understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the transmission process. Based on the current advances, this paper presents a concise exposition of the cellular, biochemical, genetic and immunological dynamics of the complex and statge-by-stage interactions between the parasite and its vector in their aquatic environment. It also highlights the possible crosstalk between the parasite’s intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) during the intramolluscan stage. Undoubtedly, decades of intensive investigation have untangled many S. mansoni-B. glabrata complexities, yet many aspects of the parasite-vector cycle which can help define potential control clues await further elucidation.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Renal carriage of Leptospira species in rodents from Mediterranean Chile:
           The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) as a relevant host in agricultural
    • Authors: Juana P. Correa; Sergio A. Bucarey; Pedro E. Cattan; Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque; Juan Ramírez-Estrada
      Pages: 105 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Juana P. Correa, Sergio A. Bucarey, Pedro E. Cattan, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
      We evaluated the renal carriage of Leptospira species in rodent communities from Mediterranean Chile using a PCR technique. We found that animals inhabiting agricultural areas were almost three times more infected than in wild areas (14.4% vs. 4.4%). The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus), an invasive murid ubiquitous in the country, was the most infected species (38.1%).
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      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in
           areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for
           visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
    • Authors: Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva; Érika Monteiro Michalsky; Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias; Vanessa de Oliveira Pires Fiuza; Edelberto Santos Dias
      Pages: 109 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Érika Monteiro Michalsky, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires Fiuza, Edelberto Santos Dias
      Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World – Lutzomyia longipalpis – is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions – chemical spraying and environmental management – in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.029
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Study of antimicrobial resistance and physiological biomarkers with
    • Authors: Ikramul Haq; Aneela Zameer Durrani; Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq; Imtiaz Ahmad
      Pages: 144 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ikramul Haq, Aneela Zameer Durrani, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Imtiaz Ahmad
      Antimicrobial resistance results in selective colonization in animals. In the present study, 447 diarrheic foals (235 horse foals, 165 donkey foals and 47 mule foal) were selected from Lahore and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Fresh fecal and blood samples from diarrheic foals were collected for isolation and confirmation of Salmonella Polymerase chain reaction. Results revealed that 50 (11.25%) foals (horse n=29, donkey n=12 and mule n=9) were positive. Fifty Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to 7 serovars S. Paratyphi B (15), S. Saintpaul (7), S. Newport (6), S. Typhimu-rium (11), S. Kottbus (4), S. Lagos (2), and S. enterica ssp salamae (5). Salmonella was common in foals that visited veterinary hospital, as compared to those in stud farms and individual foals reared in low income household. Out of the total 50 samples, 92% of isolates were resistant to three or more than three antimicrobials. The highest resistance (86%) was against Sulphamethoxazole (23.75mg) and lowest (4%) against trimethoprime (5mg). The isolates also showed resistance against Doxycycline (30mg), Oxytetracycline (30mg), Streptomycin (10mg), Neomycin (30mg), Amikacin (30mg), chloramphenicol (30mg), Ampicillin (10mg), Amoxicillin (10mg), kanamycin (30mg), Norfloxacin (10mg), Gentamicin 10mg, Cefotaxime (30mg), Ciprofloxacin (5mg) and Ceftriaxone (30mg). Blood analysis of salmonella infected foals showed That Hemoglobin, PCV and TEC were significantly higher and (while) TLC, PCV, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Eosinophil and Neutrophils were significantly lower than normal. Albumin were lower and BNU, Biluribin, ALT and creatinine were higher than normal values.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Leishmaniasis in the major endemic region of Plurinational State of
           Bolivia: Species identification, phylogeography and drug susceptibility
    • Authors: Pablo Bilbao-Ramos; M. Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela; Oscar Cardenas-Alegría; Efraín Salamanca; José Antonio Santalla-Vargas; Cesar Benito; Ninoska Flores; Francisco Bolás-Fernández
      Pages: 150 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Pablo Bilbao-Ramos, M. Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Oscar Cardenas-Alegría, Efraín Salamanca, José Antonio Santalla-Vargas, Cesar Benito, Ninoska Flores, Francisco Bolás-Fernández
      The Plurinational State of Bolivia is one of the Latin American countries with the highest prevalence of leishmaniasis, highlighting the lowlands of the Department of La Paz where about 50% of the total cases were reported. The control of the disease can be seriously compromised by the intrinsic variability of the circulating species that may limit the efficacy of treatment while favoring the emergence of resistance. Fifty-five isolates of Leishmania from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions from patients living in different provinces of the Department of La Paz were tested. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out by 3 classical markers: the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b). These markers were amplified by PCR and their products digested by the restriction endonuclease enzymes AseI and HaeIII followed by subsequent sequencing of Cyt-b gene and ITS-1 region for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The combined use of these 3 markers allowed us to assign 36 isolates (65.5%) to the complex Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 4 isolates (7, 27%) to L. (Viannia) lainsoni. and the remaining 15 isolates (23.7%) to a local variant of L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Concerning in vitro drug susceptibility the amastigotes from all isolates where highly sensitive to Fungizone® (mean IC50 between 0.23 and 0.5μg/mL) whereas against Glucantime® the sensitivity was moderate (mean IC50 ranging from 50.84μg/mL for L. (V.) braziliensis to 18.23μg/mL for L. (L.) mexicana. L. (V.) lainsoni was not sensitive to Glucantime®. The susceptibility to miltefosine was highly variable among species isolates, being L. (L.) mexicana the most sensitive, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) lainsoni (mean IC50 of 8.24μg/mL, 17.85μg/mL and 23.28μg/mL, respectively).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.026
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Effect of cold argon plasma on eggs of the blow fly, Lucilia cuprina
           (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    • Authors: Kwankamol Limsopatham; Dheerawan Boonyawan; Chanchai Umongno; Kabkaew L. Sukontason; Tarinee Chaiwong; Rattana Leksomboon; Kom Sukontason
      Pages: 173 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Kwankamol Limsopatham, Dheerawan Boonyawan, Chanchai Umongno, Kabkaew L. Sukontason, Tarinee Chaiwong, Rattana Leksomboon, Kom Sukontason
      Non-thermal plasma has been used in many medical applications, including treatment of living cells, blood coagulation, wound healing, and sterilization. The process uses an environmentally friendly gas (e.g., argon, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen) to destroy bacteria cells with no serious adverse effect on humans or animals. However, information on the effect of argon plasma on blow fly eggs is lacking. In this study, we explored the ability of cold argon plasma to destroy the eggs of the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830); its larvae are a myiasis-producing agent in both human and animals. We tested the effect of cold argon plasma exposure for 1, 2, 3 and 5min on L. cuprina eggs. Since the temperature of cold Ar plasma is around 30°C, to clarify the effect of temperature on the fly eggs, hot air from an electric dryer was tested for comparison. Cold argon plasma exposure in eggs significantly reduced the survival rates of second instar larvae at all exposures tested; the effects were time dependent, with a stronger effect at longer exposure (32% survival rate after a 1-min treatment; 20%, 2min; 20%, 3min; and 6%, 5min), compared to the control (86%). No significant differences were observed in larval survival rates from eggs treated with hot air (80-84%, after 1- to 5-min treatments) versus the control (86%). These results were supported by observing the treated eggshells under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found noticeable aberrations only in the plasma treated groups. The emission spectrum of the argon gas discharge revealed emission lines of hydroxyl radicals at 309.1nm; these may cause the deterioration of the treated L. cuprina eggs. Our results have shown the possibility of using cold argon plasma in medical applications, in particular treating myiasis wounds.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T02:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Schistosomiasis: Drugs used and treatment strategies
    • Authors: Lidiany da Paixão Siqueira; Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontes; Cindy Siqueira Britto Aguilera; Taysa Renata Ribeiro Timóteo; Matheus Alves Ângelos; Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros Silva; Camila Gomes de Melo; Larissa Araújo Rolim; Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva; Pedro José Rolim Neto
      Pages: 179 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Lidiany da Paixão Siqueira, Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontes, Cindy Siqueira Britto Aguilera, Taysa Renata Ribeiro Timóteo, Matheus Alves Ângelos, Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros Silva, Camila Gomes de Melo, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Pedro José Rolim Neto
      Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect millions of people in different geographic regions, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. Currently NTDs are prevalent in 149 countries, seventeen of these neglected tropical parasitic diseases are classified as endemic. One of the most important of these diseases is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, a disease caused by the genus Schistosoma. It presents several species, such as Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma mansoni, the latter being responsible for parasitosis in Brazil. Contamination occurs through exposure to contaminated water in the endemic region. This parasitosis is characterized by being initially asymptomatic, but it is able to evolve into more severe clinical forms, potentially causing death. Globally, more than 200 million people are infected with one of three Schistosome species, including an estimated 40 million women of reproductive age. In Brazil, about 12 million children require preventive chemotherapy with anthelmintic. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), only about 15% of the at-risk children receive regular treatment. The lack of investment by the pharmaceutical industry for the development and/or improvement of new pharmaceutical forms, mainly aimed at the pediatric public, is a great challenge. Currently, the main forms of treatment used for schistosomiasis are praziquantel (PZQ) and oxaminiquine (OXA). PZQ is the drug of choice because it presents as a high-spectrum anthelmintic, used in the treatment of all known species of schistosomiasis and some species of cestodes and trematodes. OXA, however, is not active against the three Schistosome species. This work presents a literature review regarding schistosomiasis. It addresses points such as available treatments, the role of the pharmaceutical industry against neglected diseases, and perspectives for treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T02:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis
           Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic
           activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance
    • Authors: Joelma Soares-da-Silva; Silmara Gomes Queirós; Jéssica S. de Aguiar; Juliete L. Viana; Maria dos R.A.V. Neta; Maria C. da Silva; Valéria C.S. Pinheiro; Ricardo A. Polanczyk; Gislene A. Carvalho-Zilse; Wanderli P. Tadei
      Pages: 197 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Joelma Soares-da-Silva, Silmara Gomes Queirós, Jéssica S. de Aguiar, Juliete L. Viana, Maria dos R.A.V. Neta, Maria C. da Silva, Valéria C.S. Pinheiro, Ricardo A. Polanczyk, Gislene A. Carvalho-Zilse, Wanderli P. Tadei
      The occurrence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles potentiate the spread of several diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, urban yellow fever, filariasis, and malaria, a situation currently existing in Brazil and in Latin America. Control of the disease vectors is the most effective tool for containing the transmission of the pathogens causing these diseases, and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis has been widely used and has shown efficacy over many years. However, new B. thuringiensis (Bt) strains with different gene combinations should be sought for use as an alternative to Bti and to prevent the resistant insects selected. Aiming to identify diversity in the Bt in different Brazilian ecosystems and to assess the pathogenicity of this bacterium to larvae of Ae. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles darlingi, Bt strains were obtained from the Amazon, Caatinga (semi-arid region), and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) biomes and tested in pathogenicity bioassays in third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The isolates with larvicidal activity to larvae of Ae. aegypti were used in bioassays with the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and An. darlingi and characterized according to the presence of 14 cry genes (cry1, cry2, cry4, cry10, cry11, cry24, cry32, cry44Aa, cry1Ab, cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba), six cyt genes (cyt1, cyt2, cyt1Aa, cyt1Ab, cyt2Aa and cyt2Ba), and the chi gene. Four hundred strains of Bt were isolated: 244 from insects, 85 from Amazon soil, and 71 from the Caatinga biome. These strains, in addition to the 153 strains isolated from Cerrado soil and obtained from the Entomopathogenic Bacillus Bank of Maranhão, were tested in bioassays with Ae. aegypti larvae. A total of 37 (6.7%) strains showed larvicidal activity, with positive amplification of the cry, cyt, and chi genes. The most frequently amplified genes were cry4Aa and cry4Ba, both occurring in 59.4% in these strains, followed by cyt1Aa and cyt2Aa, with 56.7% and 48% occurrence, respectively. Twelve (2.2%) strains that presented 100% mortality within 24h were used in bioassays to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti larvae. Two strains (BtMA-690 and BtMA-1114) showed toxicity equal to that of the Bti standard strain, and the same LC50 value (0.003mg/L) was recorded for the three bacteria after 48h of exposure. Detection of the presence of the Bt strains that showed pathogenicity for mosquito larvae in the three biomes studied was possible. Therefore, these strains are promising for the control of insect vectors, particularly the BtMA-1114 strain, which presents a gene profile different from that of Bti but with the same toxic effect.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Leptospirosis: Molecular trial path and immunopathogenesis correlated with
           dengue, malaria and mimetic hemorrhagic infections
    • Authors: Sivan Padma Priya; S. Sakinah; K. Sharmilah; Rukman A. Hamat; Zamberi Sekawi; Akon Higuchi; Mok Pooi Ling; Syafinaz Amin Nordin; Giovanni Benelli; S. Suresh Kumar
      Pages: 206 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Sivan Padma Priya, S. Sakinah, K. Sharmilah, Rukman A. Hamat, Zamberi Sekawi, Akon Higuchi, Mok Pooi Ling, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Giovanni Benelli, S. Suresh Kumar
      Immuno-pathogenesis of leptospirosis can be recounted well by following its trail path from entry to exit, while inducing disastrous damages in various tissues of the host. Dysregulated, inappropriate and excessive immune responses are unanimously blamed in fatal leptospirosis. The inherent abilities of the pathogen and inabilities of the host were debated targeting the severity of the disease. Hemorrhagic manifestation through various mechanisms leading to a fatal end is observed when this disease is unattended. The similar vascular destructions and hemorrhage manifestations are noted in infections with different microbes in endemic areas. The simultaneous infection in a host with more than one pathogen or parasite is referred as the coinfection. Notably, common endemic infections such as leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, and malaria, harbor favorable environments to flourish in similar climates, which is aggregated with stagnated water and aggravated with the poor personal and environmental hygiene of the inhabitants. These factors aid the spread of pathogens and parasites to humans and potential vectors, eventually leading to outbreaks of public health relevance. Malaria, dengue and chikungunya need mosquitoes as vectors, in contrast with leptospirosis, which directly invades human, although the environmental bacterial load is maintained through other mammals, such as rodents. The more complicating issue is that infections by different pathogens exhibiting similar symptoms but require different treatment management. The current review explores different pathogens expressing specific surface proteins and their ability to bind with array of host proteins with or without immune response to enter into the host tissues and their ability to evade the host immune responses to invade and their affinity to certain tissues leading to the common squeal of hemorrhage. Furthermore, at the host level, the increased susceptibility and inability of the host to arrest the pathogens’ and parasites’ spread in different tissues, various cytokines accumulated to eradicate the microorganisms and their cellular interactions, the antibody dependent defense and the susceptibility of individual organs bringing the manifestation of the diseases were explored. Lastly, we provided a discussion on the immune trail path of pathogenesis from entry to exit to narrate the similarities and dissimilarities among various hemorrhagic fevers mentioned above, in order to outline future possibilities of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coinfections, with special reference to endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Proteomic analysis of Taenia hydatigena cyst fluid reveals unique internal
    • Authors: Yadong Zheng
      Pages: 224 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Yadong Zheng
      Taenia hydatigena is a parasitic flatworm that is widely distributed around the world. Using MS/MS, the proteome of T. hydatigena cyst fluid (CF) was profiled and a total of 520 proteins were identified, 430 of which were of sheep origin. T. hydatigena shared 37 parasite-origin and 109 host-origin CF proteins with Echinococcus granulosus. Compared with E. granulosus, T. hydatigena had much more CF proteins associated with amino acid synthesis and complement cascades. In addition, glutamate metabolism and anti-oxidative reactions were identified as relatively more important events. These results suggest that T. hydatigena metacestodes have internal microenvironment with special immune and oxidative conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Wild populations of Triatoma infestans: Compilation of positive sites and
           comparison of their ecological niche with domestic population niche
    • Authors: Simone Frédérique Brenière; Rosio Buitrago; Etienne Waleckx; Stéphanie Depickère; Victor Sosa; Christian Barnabé; David Gorla
      Pages: 228 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Simone Frédérique Brenière, Rosio Buitrago, Etienne Waleckx, Stéphanie Depickère, Victor Sosa, Christian Barnabé, David Gorla
      Background For several years, the wild populations of Triatoma infestans, main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi causing Chagas disease, have been considered or suspected of being a source of reinfestation of villages. The number of sites reported for the presence of wild T. infestans, often close to human habitats, has greatly increased, but these data are scattered in several publications, and others obtained by our team in Bolivia have not been published yet. Methodology/principal findings Herein is compiled the largest number of wild sites explored for the presence of T. infestans collected with two methods The standardized methods aimed to determine the relationship between wild T. infestans and the ecoregion, and the directed method help to confirm the presence/absence of triatomines in the ecoregions. Entomological indices were compared between ecoregions and an environmental niche modelling approach, based on bioclimatic variables, was applied. The active search for wild T. infestans in Bolivia suggests a discontinuous distribution from the Andean valleys to the lowlands (Chaco), while the models used suggest a continuous distribution between the two regions and very large areas where wild populations remain to be discovered. The results compile the description of different habitats where these populations were found, and we demonstrate that the environmental niches of wild and domestic populations, defined by climatic variables, are similar but not equivalent, showing that during domestication, T. infestans has conquered new spaces with wider ranges of temperature and precipitation. Conclusions/significance The great diversity of wild T. infestans habitats and the comparison of their ecological niches with that of domestic populations confirm the behavioural plasticity of the species that increase the possibility of contact with humans. The result of the geographical distribution model of the wild populations calls for more entomological vigilance in the corresponding areas in the Southern Cone countries and in Bolivia. The current presentation is the most comprehensive inventory of wild T. infestans-positive sites that can be used as a reference for further entomological vigilance in inhabited areas.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Leishmania tropica infected human lesions: Whole genome transcription
    • Authors: Nasrin Masoudzadeh; Amir Mizbani; Yasaman Taslimi; Vahid Mashayekhi; Hossein Mortazavi; Pardis Sadeghipour; Housein Malekafzali Ardekani; Sima Rafati
      Pages: 236 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Nasrin Masoudzadeh, Amir Mizbani, Yasaman Taslimi, Vahid Mashayekhi, Hossein Mortazavi, Pardis Sadeghipour, Housein Malekafzali Ardekani, Sima Rafati
      Leishmania (L.) tropica is the main causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iran. Defining the host inflammatory response in the L. tropica lesions are crucial for the development of new treatment modalities. High-throughput RNA sequencing provides a powerful method for characterization of the human gene expression profile in L. tropica lesions. Comparing the transcription profile of the L. tropica skin lesions with normal skin identified over 5000 differentially regulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated significant activation of key immunological pathways related to antigen processing and presentation. In addition, we observed a substantial upregulation of immunoglobulin genes in lesion samples, highlighting the remarkable involvement of B cells in the infection site. To our knowledge, this study is the first report to build a comprehensive picture of transcriptome changes in acute human skin lesions during infection by L. tropica.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among
           schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands
    • Authors: Chien-Wei Liao; Ting-Wu Chuang; Ying-Chieh Huang; Chia-Mei Chou; Chia-Lien Chiang; Fei-Peng Lee; Yun-Ting Hsu; Jia-Wei Lin; Kennar Briand; Chia-Ying Tu; Chia-Kwung Fan
      Pages: 242 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Chien-Wei Liao, Ting-Wu Chuang, Ying-Chieh Huang, Chia-Mei Chou, Chia-Lien Chiang, Fei-Peng Lee, Yun-Ting Hsu, Jia-Wei Lin, Kennar Briand, Chia-Ying Tu, Chia-Kwung Fan
      Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p< 0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p =0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • New Trypanosoma species, Trypanosoma gennarii sp. nov., from South
           American marsupial in Brazilian Cerrado
    • Authors: Juliana I.G.S. Ferreira; Andréa P. da Costa; Pablo Henrique Nunes; Diego Ramirez; Gislene F.R. Fournier; Danilo Saraiva; Renata Tonhosolo; Arlei Marcili
      Pages: 249 - 255
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Juliana I.G.S. Ferreira, Andréa P. da Costa, Pablo Henrique Nunes, Diego Ramirez, Gislene F.R. Fournier, Danilo Saraiva, Renata Tonhosolo, Arlei Marcili
      Hundreds of trypanosome species have been described in all mammalian orders, on every continent, including with mixed infections. Trypanosomes circulate in the form of sylvatic enzootic infections transmitted by blood-sucking insects that are associated with the host mammals. Small wild mammals were caught in a fragment of Cerrado terrain on an island in the hydroelectric reservoir of Três Marias, in the central region of the state of Minas Gerais, using pitfall and Sherman traps with different means of attraction. DNA samples from these mammals were subjected to the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the full-length genes SSU rDNA and gGAPDH. A total of 232 animals of the orders Didelphimorphia, Rodentia, Chiroptera and Cingulata were caught (total of 17 species). There were also four species of marsupials: Monodelphis domestica, Didelphis albiventris, Gralicinanus agilis and Micoureus paraguaianus. Among these, there were eight positive individuals of Monodelphis domestica. However, nine cultures were established, because one of them was parasitized by two species of trypanosomes: Trypanosoma cruzi and a new trypanosome species. The new species have a large epimastigote forms, and with a well-developed undulating membrane in trypomastigote forms. The new species Trypanosoma gennarii was described in Monodelphis domestica.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • New Haemoproteus parasite of parrots, with remarks on the virulence of
           haemoproteids in naive avian hosts
    • Authors: Gediminas Valkiūnas; Helene Pendl; Philipp Olias
      Pages: 256 - 262
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Gediminas Valkiūnas, Helene Pendl, Philipp Olias
      Haemoproteus infections can cause fatal disease in parrots (Psittaciformes), one of the most endangered groups of birds. The great diversity of parrots in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has been markedly understudied in terms of their parasite diversity. Only two psittacine Haemoproteus species have been described. Here we report a new Haemoproteus parasite, H. (Parahaemoproteus) homohandai n. sp. (lineage hARCHL01) found in erythrocytes of a Red-and-green macaw Ara chloropterus. We morphologically and genetically characterize the parasite based on a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for identification and diagnosis of infection. This is the first Haemoproteus species described from South American parrots and the first genetically characterized psittacine Haemoproteus sp. Haemoproteus homohandai n. sp. can be readily distinguished from other haemoproteids by its growing circumnuclear and close to circumnuclear macrogametocytes, which are strictly associated with erythrocyte nuclei, but do not touch the erythrocyte envelope along their entire margin and do not fill erythrocytes up to their poles. Illustrations of growing and mature gametocytes of the new species are given, and a phylogenetic analysis identifies the position of this parasite lineage in relation to other Haemoproteus parasites. Importantly, H. homohandai n. sp. and all other Haemoproteus lineages reported from parrots cluster with species of the subgenus Parahaemoproteus, indicating the transmission by Culicoides biting midges.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Modulation of transmission success of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes
           (sexual stages) in various species of Anopheles by erythrocytic asexual
           stage parasites
    • Authors: Nirbhay Kumar
      Pages: 263 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Nirbhay Kumar
      During malaria infection, a small proportion of erythrocytic asexual stages undergo sexual differentiation. Male and female gametocytes ingested in the blood meal initiate the sexual development of malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut. During blood feeding on a host, a mosquito ingests, in addition to mature gametocytes, host immune factors present in the blood, as well as large excess of erythrocytic asexual stages. In the current study we addressed the impact of the presence of large excess of asexual stages, hitherto not known or even suspected to influence, on the infectivity of gametocytes in the mosquito. Asexual stages resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of infectiousness of gametocytes, and some of this could be explained by the presumed effect of hemozoin and other unknown asexual-stage components on the mosquito immune system, affecting survival and maturation of parasites in the mosquito midgut. Interactions between asexual and sexual stages, maturity and ratio of male and female gametocytes, host immune factors and mosquito innate immune factors are some of the variables that determine the infectiousness of gametocytes in the mosquitoes and ultimately malaria transmission success. Understanding of determinants affecting malaria transmission will be critical to approaches directly targeting the transmission process for malaria elimination.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.027
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Prevalence and Identity of Taenia multiceps cysts “Coenurus
           cerebralis” in Sheep in Egypt
    • Authors: Said Amer; Ahmed ElKhatam; Yasuhiro Fukuda; Lamia I. Bakr; Shereif Zidan; Ahmed Elsify; Mostafa A. Mohamed; Chika Tada; Yutaka Nakai
      Pages: 270 - 276
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Said Amer, Ahmed ElKhatam, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Lamia I. Bakr, Shereif Zidan, Ahmed Elsify, Mostafa A. Mohamed, Chika Tada, Yutaka Nakai
      Coenurosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (Coenurus cerebralis) of the canids cestode Taenia multiceps. C. cerebralis particularly infects sheep and goats, and pose a public health concerns. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and molecular identity of C. cerebralis infecting sheep in Egypt. Infection rate was determined by postmortem inspection of heads of the cases that showed neurological manifestations. Species identification and genetic diversity were analyzed based on PCR-sequence analysis of nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ND1) gene markers. Out of 3668 animals distributed in 50 herds at localities of Ashmoun and El Sadat cities, El Menoufia Province, Egypt, 420 (11.45%) sheep showed neurological disorders. Postmortem examination of these animals after slaughter at local abattoirs indicated to occurrence of C. cerebralis cysts in the brain of 111 out of 420 (26.4%), with overall infection rate 3.03% of the involved sheep population. Molecular analysis of representative samples of coenuri at ITS1 gene marker showed extensive intra- and inter-sequence diversity due to deletions/insertions in the microsatellite regions. On contrast to the nuclear gene marker, considerably low genetic diversity was seen in the analyzed mitochondrial gene markers. Phylogenetic analysis based on COI and ND1 gene sequences indicated that the generated sequences in the present study and the reference sequences in the database clustered in 4 haplogroups, with more or less similar topologies. Clustering pattern of the phylogenetic tree showed no effect for the geographic location or the host species.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • First genotyping of Blastocystis sp. in dairy, meat, and cashmere goats in
           northwestern China
    • Authors: Jun-Ke Song; Yan-Ling Yin; Ya-Jie Yuan; Huan Tang; Guan-Jing Ren; Hui-Jun Zhang; Zi-Xuan Li; Yan-Ming Zhang; Guang-Hui Zhao
      Pages: 277 - 282
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Jun-Ke Song, Yan-Ling Yin, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Guan-Jing Ren, Hui-Jun Zhang, Zi-Xuan Li, Yan-Ming Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
      Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting in small intestines of human and animals. Although its pathogenicity has been remaining controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission between human and animals was recognized. The goat was one of the most important economic animals supplying people with cashmere, meat, and dairy products. However, few studies were to investigate Blastocystis infection in goats. A total of 789 faecal specimens of goats (including 362 of dairy, 193 of meat and 234 of cashmere goats) were collected from multiple regions of Shaanxi province in northwestern China to investigate the colonization frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis, and to assess the zoonotic potential of these goats. The respective colonization frequencies of Blastocystis in dairy, meat and cashmere goats were 54.1% (196/362), 40.4% (78/193) and 78.6% (184/234). The prevalence of Blastocystis in pre-weaned (0–2-month) goats was significantly lower than that in goats of other age groups, and the highest colonization was observed in goats of 7–11-month age group. Sequence analysis of Blastocystis positive samples indicated the presence of seven subtypes in these goats, including six known subtypes (STs1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14) and one possible novel subtype (isolate Sd26), with the subtype 10 as the predominant one. Additionally, zoonotic subtypes were found in dairy (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and cashmere (ST4 and ST5) goats, but not detected in meat goats. These results showed that Blastocystis is highly prevalent, widely distributed and genetically diverse in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, and zoonotic potential of dairy and cashmere goats to transmit Blastocystis.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.028
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Impact of old Schistosomiasis infection on the use of transient
           elastography (Fibroscan) for staging of fibrosis in chronic HCV patients
    • Authors: Iman Ramzy; Aisha Elsharkawy; Rabab Fouad; Hanan Abdel Hafez; Maissa El Raziky; Wafaa El Akel; Mohammad El-Sayed; Hany khattab; Mohamed Shehata; Marwa Elsharkawy; Amr Radwan; Gamal Esmat
      Pages: 283 - 287
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Iman Ramzy, Aisha Elsharkawy, Rabab Fouad, Hanan Abdel Hafez, Maissa El Raziky, Wafaa El Akel, Mohammad El-Sayed, Hany khattab, Mohamed Shehata, Marwa Elsharkawy, Amr Radwan, Gamal Esmat
      Background and aim In tropical regions, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) − Schistosomiasis coinfection remains one of the health problems. With the new era of HCV treatment and the variety of methods of assessment of liver fibrosis so we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of FibroScan for staging hepatic fibrosis in HCV-Schistosomiasis coinfected patients. Methodology Three groups of patients were enrolled. Group 1: chronic HCV with out antischistosomal antibody (122 patients), Group 2: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and without periportal tract thickening (122 patients), Group 3: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and ultrasonographic picture of periportal tract thickening (108 patients). Routine laboratory workup, serum Antischistosomal antibody, and Schistosomal antigen in serum were performed. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy with histopathological examination; abdominal ultrasound and fibroscan examination were done for all patients. Results The agreement between results of liver biopsy and results of fibroscan in the staging of fibrosis was the best in group 1 (55.7%), Although the agreement was higher among those with no periportal tract thickening (70.7%) and the disagreement was higher among those with positive schistosomal serology (66.5%), yet this relation was not statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disagreement is significantly associated with older age, higher BMI (≥30), and increase in anti Schistosomal antibody titer. Conclusion Fibroscan is a reliable, non-invasive tool for staging hepatic fibrosis among HCV-schistosomiasis co-infected patients with no effect of the induced periportal tract thickening on the readings. Only higher antischistosomal antibody titres may cause disagreement between liver biopsy and fibroscan.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • A benzimidazole derivative (RCB15) in vitro induces the alternative
           energetic metabolism and glycolysis in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci
    • Authors: Guaraciara de Andrade Picanço; Nayana Ferreira de Lima; Carolina Miguel Fraga; Tatiane Luiza da Costa; Eliana Isac; Javier Ambrosio; Rafael Castillo; Marina Clare Vinaud
      Pages: 288 - 292
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Guaraciara de Andrade Picanço, Nayana Ferreira de Lima, Carolina Miguel Fraga, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Eliana Isac, Javier Ambrosio, Rafael Castillo, Marina Clare Vinaud
      The emergence of resistance to albendazole has encouraged the search for effective alternatives for cysticercosis and other parasitosis treatment. RCB15 is a benzimidazole derivative that may be used against such diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of RCB15 on the alternative energetic pathways of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were in vitro exposed to albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) or RCB15 at different concentrations during 24h. The cysticerci extract and the culture medium were analyzed through spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography as to detect glucose, urea, creatinine and organic acids of the energetic metabolism. The drugs did not influence the protein catabolism. Fatty acids oxidation was enhanced through significantly higher acetate concentrations in the groups treated with RCB15 and ABZSO. Beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were decreased which indicates the use of fatty acids towards acetyl-CoA synthesis. There was a decrease in glucose uptake and pyruvate concentrations. The absence of lactate indicates the use of pyruvate in gluconeogenesis. Therefore it is possible to conclude that RCB15 enhanced the alternative energetic pathways of cysticerci in vitro exposed to different concentration, with emphasis on the fatty acids catabolism.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of human
           Trichostrongylus species from an endemic area of Iran
    • Authors: Meysam Sharifdini; Sedigheh Derakhshani; Safar Ali Alizadeh; Laleh Ghanbarzadeh; Hamed Mirjalali; Iraj Mobedi; Mehrzad Saraei
      Pages: 293 - 299
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Meysam Sharifdini, Sedigheh Derakhshani, Safar Ali Alizadeh, Laleh Ghanbarzadeh, Hamed Mirjalali, Iraj Mobedi, Mehrzad Saraei
      Human infections with Trichostrongylus species have been reported in most parts of Iran. The aim of this study was the identification, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human Trichostrongylus species based on ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA from Guilan Province, northern Iran. Stool samples were collected from rural inhabitants and examined by formalin-ether concentration and agar plate culture techniques. After anthelmintic treatment, male adult worms were collected from five infected cases. Genomic DNA was extracted from one male worm of each species in every treated individual and one filariform larva isolated from each case. PCR amplification of ITS2-rDNA region was performed and the products were sequenced. Among 1508 individuals, 46 (3.05%) were found infected with Trichostrongylus species using parasitological methods. Male worms of T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus and T. longispicularis were expelled from five patients after treatment. Out of 41 filariform larvae, 40 were T. colubriformis, and the other one was T. axei. Phylogenetic analysis showed that each species was placed together with reference sequences submitted to GenBank database. Intra-species similarity for all species obtained in the current study was 100%. T. colubriformis was found to be probably the most common species in this region of Iran. For the first time, the authors of the present study report the occurrence of natural human infection by T. longispicularis in the world. Therefore, the number of Trichostrongylus species infecting human in Iran now increased to ten.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:47:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Determination of multiple-clone infection at allelic dimorphism site of
           Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 in the Republic of Korea by
           pyrosequencing assay
    • Authors: Sylvatrie-Danne Dinzouna-Boutamba; Sanghyun Lee; Ui-han Son; Hae Soo Yun; So-Young Joo; Sookwan Jeong; Man Hee Rhee; Dongmi Kwak; Xuenan Xuan; Yeonchul Hong; Dong-Il Chung; Youn-Kyoung Goo
      Pages: 300 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Sylvatrie-Danne Dinzouna-Boutamba, Sanghyun Lee, Ui-han Son, Hae Soo Yun, So-Young Joo, Sookwan Jeong, Man Hee Rhee, Dongmi Kwak, Xuenan Xuan, Yeonchul Hong, Dong-Il Chung, Youn-Kyoung Goo
      Allelic diversity leading to multiple gene polymorphisms of vivax malaria parasites has been shown to greatly contribute to antigenic variation and drug resistance, increasing the potential for multiple-clone infections within the host. Therefore, to identify multiple-clone infections and the predominant haplotype of Plasmodium vivax in a South Korean population, P. vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP-1) was analyzed by pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing of 156 vivax malaria-infected samples yielded 97 (62.18%) output pyrograms showing two main types of peak patterns of the dimorphic allele for threonine and alanine (T1476A). Most of the samples evaluated (88.66%) carried multiple-clone infections (wild- and mutant-types), whereas 11.34% of the same population carried only the mutant-type (1476A). In addition, each allele showed a high frequency of guanine (G) base substitution at both the first and third positions (86.07% and 81.13%, respectively) of the nucleotide combinations. Pyrosequencing of the PvMSP-1 42-kDa fragment revealed a heterogeneous parasite population, with the mutant-type dominant compared to the wild-type. Understanding the genetic diversity and multiple-clone infection rates may lead to improvements in vivax malaria prevention and strategic control plans. Further studies are needed to improve the efficacy of the pyrosequencing assay with large sample sizes and additional nucleotide positions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Molecular detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in acai pulp and sugarcane juice
    • Authors: Elaine Cristina de Mattos; Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch; Maria Aparecida Moraes Marciano; Cristiane Castro Faccini; Angela Maria Lourenço; Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      Pages: 311 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Elaine Cristina de Mattos, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Maria Aparecida Moraes Marciano, Cristiane Castro Faccini, Angela Maria Lourenço, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi affects about 6–8 million people worldwide. Although transmission by triatomine insects has been controlled, other means of transmission maintain the infection. These forms of transmission are responsible for introducing Chagas disease in other non-endemic countries of the world. Thus, Chagas disease, nowadays is a worldwide health problem. In Brazil, acai pulp and sugarcane juice have been associated with Chagas disease outbreaks. The difficulties in isolation of the parasite from foods are hampering source tracking which could allow the confirmation of an implicated food commodity in these outbreak investigations. To address this scientific gap, we evaluated the performance of real-time PCR (qPCR) for detecting T. cruzi in acai pulp and sugarcane juice. All experiments were performed with acai pulp and sugarcane juice samples contaminated with different concentrations of T. cruzi. In assays with qPCR, the results showed that the ideal procedure for T. cruzi identification in acai pulp and sugarcane juice consisted of: i. centrifugation; ii. DNA extraction with a commercial kit for stool matrix; and iii. qPCR using a specific molecular marker for T. cruzi. The seeding in LIT medium of experimentally contaminated foods was effective in detecting the parasitic load by qPCR. The efficacy of qPCR was also verified testing food samples crushed with infected Triatomines. In conclusion, this methodology can be used to perform rapid diagnosis in outbreaks, facilitating measures in disease control.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Assessing the insecticide susceptibility status of field population of
           Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a hyperendemic area of
           zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Esfahan Province, Central Iran
    • Authors: Leila Shirani-Bidabadi; Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani; Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi–Ershadi; Yavar Rassi; Amir Ahmad Akhavan; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Ahmad Ali Enayati; Zahra Saeidi; Reza Jafari; Hassan Vatandoost
      Pages: 316 - 322
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Leila Shirani-Bidabadi, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani, Mohammad Reza Yaghoobi–Ershadi, Yavar Rassi, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Zahra Saeidi, Reza Jafari, Hassan Vatandoost
      Leishmaniasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) and emerging parasitic infection that affect mainly poor regions around the world. This study aimed to determine the baseline susceptibility of Phlebotomus papatasi to commonly used insecticides in a hyper endemic area using WHO standard procedure in central Iran. A total of 4–5 replicates containing 120–200 sand flies were used for each insecticide. Baseline susceptibility to DDT and pyrethroids was assessed on 5326 specimens collected from the study area. The LT50 and LT90 values were measured according to the World Health Organisation test using probit analysis and regression lines. The test results against males P. papatasi revealed that LT50 values to DDT 4%,Permethrin 0.75%, Deltamethrin 0.05%, Cyfluthrin 0.15% and Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were 564.07, 38.08, 1.95, 0.60 and 9.78s and the figures for females were 584.44, 110.10, 11.64, 1.53 and 16.91s, respectively. Our results indicated that P. papatasi as the main cutaneous leishmaniasis vector was susceptible to Cyfluthrin 0.15%, Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%, Permethrin 0.75% and Deltamethrin 0.05% and tolerant to DDT 4%. This study was carried out in one out of many Leishmaniasis foci in Iran. We recommend that future studies incorporate other regions and use the same procedure for monitoring and evaluating sand fly resistance. Also, WHO can provide a specific guideline and create a test kit for sand fly resistance monitoring and for applying susceptibility test because the tubes prepared for mosquitoes are not actually fit for sand flies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.035
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Animal African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria: A long way from
    • Authors: C. Isaac; J.A. Ohiolei; F. Ebhodaghe; I.B. Igbinosa; A.A. Eze
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): C. Isaac, J.A. Ohiolei, F. Ebhodaghe, I.B. Igbinosa, A.A. Eze
      Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a disease of livestock that directly hinders livestock production and therefore impedes the socio-economic development of sub-Saharan Africa. The establishment of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) was to enhance the goal of elimination and eradication of tsetse flies and AAT from endemic countries in Africa. In order to achieve AAT eradication, a five-step progressive control pathway (PCP) model has been proposed. The data presented in this report demonstrates that Nigeria is highly endemic of AAT and that it is yet to comprehensively approach the process of eradication as it is at the infancy stage of data gathering and processing. This review is thus presented to serve as a wake-up call to all relevant stakeholders to intensify efforts in approaching the painstaking process of AAT eradication in Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.032
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Modeling mosquito-borne diseases in complex urban environments
    • Authors: Marco Ajelli
      Pages: 332 - 334
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Marco Ajelli

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Historical overview of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in El Agamy,
           Alexandria, Egypt
    • Authors: Hala A. Kassem; John C. Beier; Bahira M. El Sawaf
      Pages: 335 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Hala A. Kassem, John C. Beier, Bahira M. El Sawaf
      Infantile visceral leishmaniasis (IVL) is considered a rare and neglected disease in Egypt. An outbreak of the disease in El Agamy, Alexandria occurred in 1982 although the disease was previously reported 80 years before. Epidemiological and entomological studies were conducted ever since the 1982 outbreak to identify human cases, the parasite, reservoir host and the sand fly vector. Leishmania infantum MON-98, a new and unique zymodeme, was responsible of the disease. Stray dogs acted as the reservoir host and Phlebotomus langeroni was the proven vector. The parasite isolates from human cases were identical to the parasite isolates from the reservoir host and the sand fly vector. The El Agamy focus in 1982 was basically a rural Bedouin setting of recently built cement houses surrounded by lime stone fences. The numbers of human cases of IVL in this area have been declining, with the last reported case in 2005. This coincides with the completion of irregular urbanization of El Agamy which resulted in the disappearance of P. langeroni. In this review, we characterize the old focus of IVL in El Agamy based on published literature to identify factors underlying the appearance and disappearance of the disease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.034
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Amblyomma ticks and future climate: Range contraction due to climate
    • Authors: Stefan Vilges de Oliveira; Daniel Romero-Alvarez; Thiago Fernandes Martins; Janduhy Pereira dos Santos; Marcelo B. Labruna; Gilberto Salles Gazeta; Luis E. Escobar; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
      Pages: 340 - 348
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Janduhy Pereira dos Santos, Marcelo B. Labruna, Gilberto Salles Gazeta, Luis E. Escobar, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
      Ticks of the Amblyomma cajennense species complex are important vectors of spotted fever in Latin America. Environmental conditions determine the geographic distribution of ticks, such that climate change could influence the distribution of tick-borne diseases. This study aimed to analyze the potential geographic distribution of A. cajennense complex ticks in a Brazil region under present-day and future climate models, assuming dispersal limitations and non-evolutionary adaptation of these tick populations to climate warming. Records of A. cajennense sensu stricto (s.s.) and Amblyomma sculptum were analyzed. Niche models were calibrated using Maxent considering climate variables for 1950–2000 and projecting models to conditions anticipated for 2050 and 2070 under two models of future climate (CCSM4 and HadGEM2-AO). Broad suitable areas for A. cajennense s.s. and A. sculptum were found in present-day climate models, but suitability was reduced when models were projected to future conditions. Our exploration of future climates showed that broad areas had novel climates not existing currently in the study region, including novel extremely high temperatures. Indeed, predicted suitability in these novel conditions would lead to biologically unrealistic results and therefore incorrect forecasts of future tick-distribution. Previous studies anticipating expansions of vectors populations due to climate change should be considered with caution as they assume that model extrapolation anticipates that species would evolve rapidly for adaptation to novel climatic conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T03:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.033
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Profiling gene expression of antimony response genes in Leishmania
           (Viannia) panamensis and infected macrophages and its relationship with
           drug susceptibility
    • Authors: Maria Claudia Barrera; Laura Jimena Rojas; Austin Weiss; Olga Fernandez; Diane McMahon-Pratt; Nancy G. Saravia; Maria Adelaida Gomez
      Pages: 355 - 363
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Maria Claudia Barrera, Laura Jimena Rojas, Austin Weiss, Olga Fernandez, Diane McMahon-Pratt, Nancy G. Saravia, Maria Adelaida Gomez
      The mechanisms of Leishmania resistance to antimonials have been primarily determined in experimentally derived Leishmania strains. However, their participation in the susceptibility phenotype in field isolates has not been conclusively established. Being an intracellular parasite, the activity of antileishmanials is dependent on internalization of drugs into host cells and effective delivery to the intracellular compartments inhabited by the parasite. In this study we quantified and comparatively analyzed the gene expression of nine molecules involved in mechanisms of xenobiotic detoxification and Leishmania resistance to antimonial drugs in resistant and susceptible laboratory derived and clinical L.(Viannia) panamensis strains(n=19). In addition, we explored the impact of Leishmania susceptibility to antimonials on the expression of macrophage gene products having putative functions in transport, accumulation and metabolism of antimonials. As previously shown for other Leishmania species, a trend of increased abcc3 and lower aqp-1 expression was observed in the laboratory derived Sb-resistant L.(V.) panamensis line. However, this was not found in clinical strains, in which the expression of abca2 was significantly higher in resistant strains as both, promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect of drug susceptibility on host cell gene expression was evaluated on primary human macrophages from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=17) infected ex-vivo with the matched L.(V.) panamensis strains isolated at diagnosis, and in THP-1 cells infected with clinical strains (n=6) and laboratory adapted L.(V.) panamensis lines. Four molecules, abcb1 (p-gp), abcb6, aqp-9 and mt2a were differentially modulated by drug resistant and susceptible parasites, and among these, a consistent and significantly increased expression of the xenobiotic scavenging molecule mt2a was observed in macrophages infected with Sb-susceptible L. (V.) panamensis. Our results substantiate that different mechanisms of drug resistance operate in laboratory adapted and clinical Leishmania strains, and provide evidence that parasite-mediated modulation of host cell gene expression of molecules involved in drug transport and metabolism could contribute to the mechanisms of drug resistance and susceptibility in Leishmania.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T03:46:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis
    • Authors: Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Laís Fernanda Machado; Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti; Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd; Alan Ferreira Chagas; João Paulo Assolini; Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Francine Nesello Melanda
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Laís Fernanda Machado, Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd, Alan Ferreira Chagas, João Paulo Assolini, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
      Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from
           Myanmar, and their phylogenetic relationships with related species in the
           S. asakoae species-group
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Takaoka; Wichai Srisuka Van Lun Low Wanchai Maleewong Atiporn
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Van Lun Low, Wanchai Maleewong, Atiporn Saeung
      Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia), S. (G.) myanmarense and S. (G.) monglaense, are described from females, males, pupae and larvae from Myanmar. The two new species are placed in the S. asakoae species-group, and are similar to each other in the female and male but distinguished in the pupa by the presence or absence of an anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, and in the larva by a unique pattern of colored markings on the abdomen. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these species from related species. The COI gene sequences of both species are compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. Both new species are most closely related to each other, further supporting their morphological classification in the S. asakoae species-group.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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