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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 371, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Molecular detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in phlebotomine
           sandflies from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northwestern of
           São Paulo State, Brazil
    • Authors: Kate Bastos dos Santos Brighente; Andre Antonio Cutolo; Gabriela Motoie; Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch; Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Kate Bastos dos Santos Brighente, Andre Antonio Cutolo, Gabriela Motoie, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      This study identified the natural infection rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies collected in a neighborhood around a kennel, in Dracena, northwestern of São Paulo state. This region is highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Insects were captured during 2–3 nights monthly for 11 months (January–November 2012) using 10 automatic light traps around a kennel in a transition between periurban and urban neighborhood. Capture aimed the determination of the minimal infection rate (MIR) on the area. A total of 1690 Lu. longipalpis were captured during the studied period. Out of them, 292 (17.25%) were females and were grouped in 165 pools containing 1 to five insects for DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Positive results for L. (L) infantum in conventional PCR and real time PCR were shown in 7.28% (12/165) and 4.85% (8/165) of the analysis respectively. These data confirm that Lu. longipalpis captured in the study area were infected by L. (L.) infantum. The MIR of sandflies during the 11 months of captures was 4.10% for female the total of 292 female sandflies collected. A high DNA concentration of L. (L.) infantum was detected on sandflies especially in kennel, chicken coop and neighboring houses, where higher abundance of hosts for blood source were present.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • In vivo treatment with IL-17A attenuates hydatid cyst growth and liver
           fibrogenesis in an experimental model of echinococcosis
    • Authors: Moussa Labsi; Imene Soufli; Lila Khelifi; Zine-Charaf Amir; Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Moussa Labsi, Imene Soufli, Lila Khelifi, Zine-Charaf Amir, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
      We aimed to assess the effect of exogenous Interleukin (IL)-17A in experimental model of echinococcosis. Swiss mice were inoculated intra-peritoneally with viable protoscoleces (PSCs). Then, IL-17A was administered at 100, 125 or 150 pg/mL two weeks after cystic echinococcosis (CE) induction. Cyst development and hepatic damage were macroscopically and histologically analyzed. We observed that in vivo IL-17A treatment at 100, 125, and 150 pg/mL, reduced metacestode growth by 72.3%, 93.8%, and 96.9%, respectively. Interestingly an amelioration of liver architecture was noted at 125 pg/mL without toxic effect. In this context, we showed less fibrosis reaction and reduced expression of iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κb and CD68 in hepatic parenchyma of treated mice by 125 pg/mL of IL-17A. Collectively, our results indicate an antihydatic effect and immunoprotective properties of IL-17A and suggest its potential therapeutic value against Echinococcus granulosus infection.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Leptospirosis in Caspian Sea littoral, Gilan Province, Iran
    • Authors: Vahid Garshasbi; Saied Reza Naddaf; Zohreh Aghighi; Nayerreh Hassan; Mohammad Pooya; Ehsan Mostafavi
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Vahid Garshasbi, Saied Reza Naddaf, Zohreh Aghighi, Nayerreh Hassan, Mohammad Pooya, Ehsan Mostafavi
      In Iran, leptospirosis is endemic to Caspian Sea littoral. The disease appears as a seasonal infection mostly affecting people in rural areas involved in farming. We investigated the prevalence of this infection among suspected patients in Gilan Province by an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and two PCR protocols, a nested-PCR and a real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting rrs and lipL32 genes, respectively. We also identified the common Leptospira species by sequencing a partial sequence of rrs gene. Out of the 128 sera examined by IFA, 25.78% were positive with the antibody titers ≥1/80. The antibody titer in 39.06% of sera ranged from 1/10 to 1/140, and 35. 16% showed no antibodies, all considered negative. Nested PCR and qPCR detected Leptospira DNA in 20.31% and 18.75% of the sera, respectively. The two PCR assays had 98.43% agreement (K = 0.93) and showed an inverse correlation with the IFA titers. Also, three pathogenic Leptospira species, L. kirschneri (n = 10), L. introgans (n = 8), and L. borgpetersenii (n = 2) were identified from the clinical specimens in the study area. In our hands both PCR assays proved very efficient for early diagnosis of illness and could be used in combination with IFA for both diagnosis and epidemiological studies, but nested PCR was cheaper and appeared more appropriate for our laboratories in rural settings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria in people living with
           HIV in rural and urban Ghana
    • Authors: Ewurama D.A. Owusu; Anne Lia Cremers; Charles A. Brown; Petra F. Mens; Martin P. Grobusch
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ewurama D.A. Owusu, Anne Lia Cremers, Charles A. Brown, Petra F. Mens, Martin P. Grobusch
      Background One of the malaria vulnerable groups is people living with HIV. This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards malaria in people living with HIV attending anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics in rural and urban Ghana. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study patients attending the ART clinics in Atibie (rural area) and Accra (urban area) were interviewed on their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding malaria. Finger-prick capillary blood was tested for Plasmodium spp. with rapid diagnostic tests. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the influence of KAP on malaria prevalence. Results Parasitemia was generally more frequent among HIV positive individuals in the rural area (29/116; 25%) in the rural area than in the urban area (35/350; 10%). Inaccurate knowledge of cause of malaria and prevention methods were associated with increased odds of malaria parasitemia; [OR = 1.51 (CI: 1.29–5.12); p < .05] and [OR = 2.59 (CI: 2.53–4.75); p < .05], respectively. There were disparities in socio-economic factors. For instance, low level of education was higher in the rural area (45/116; 38.8%) compared to the urban area (121/350; 34.6%). Conclusions Malaria control efforts may yield further results when the knowledge and socio-economic gap between rural and urban areas is closed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Microparticles as prognostic biomarkers in dengue virus infection
    • Authors: Rucha Patil; Smrati Bajpai; Kanjaksha Ghosh; Shrimati Shetty
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Rucha Patil, Smrati Bajpai, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Shrimati Shetty
      Promising biomarkers which may help predict the risk of developing severe dengue virus infection (DVI) are lacking and will be helpful. Thus the main aim of this study was to analyze the role of cell-derived microparticles (MP) in DVI. Sixty patients with DVI i.e. 18: dengue with warning signs (DWS); 1: DSS and 41: dengue without warning signs (DWOS); along with 15 controls (other febrile illness) were included in the study. The following MPs were assessed: annexinV, platelet (CD41a), red blood cell (RBC) (CD235a) and activated endothelial (CD62e) MPs. Patients with profound thrombocytopenia without bleeding had statistically elevated platelet MP (PMP) levels when compared to patients with profound thrombocytopenia with bleeding (p < .001). RBC MPs were found to be significantly elevated in the 2nd phase in patient with DWS which was seen earliest on day 4 of infection with a cut off of  ≥2200 MPs/μl when compared to patients with DWOS (p < .0001). PMPs may prove to be a promising novel biomarker which helps discriminate patients in need of prophylactic platelet transfusion from those who do not. RBC MPs, on the other hand could be potential biomarkers capable of identifying potentially severe patients who require immediate care. Thus, MPs seem to be a promising important biomarker in many aspects of DVI.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Morphological and ssrDNA sequence based molecular characterization of a
           novel Thelohanellus species (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the fins
           of Goldfish, Carassius auratus L. with special reference to its
           histopathological alteration
    • Authors: Mandira Saha; P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Mandira Saha, P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      A new species of myxozoan, Thelohanellus goldi n. sp. is described using morphological and molecular data, parasitizing the fin filaments from 18 of 25 host specimens (72.5%) of Carassius auratus collected from different ornamental fish farms of India. Mature spore of the new species were oval to spherical in frontal view having rounded posterior ends and tapering anterior end measures 8.7–10.26 (9.50) × 4.10–7.89 (5.84) μm. The single large polar capsule, round to oval in shape but slightly pointed at the anterior end measuring 4.91–7.63 (5.60) × 2.3–3.1 (2.96) μm and located just below the anterior end of the spore. Polar filament only at distal end with 5–6 loose coils. The most differentiating feature from closely related species was carried out by morpho-taxonomic affinities with previously described species which are tremendously supported by molecular taxonomy by partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene resulted in a total of 2124 bp fragment of newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the new species which Exhibit 93–95% homogeneity with other closely related species available in GenBank. The BLAST search and high genetic diversity of distance matrix of Myxobolus sp. did not properly match with any available sequences in GenBank and make sister clade with Thelohanellus caudatus and Thelohanellus habibpuri in the Thelohanellus clade including most of Thelohanellus spp. The study of evolutionary history enables us to understand the evolution of modern species and supports some uncertain topologies which are being presented regarding the morphometric analysis. The severity of myxozoan infection has been assessed in this article by observing the histopathological changes of fins of the C. auratus along with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic description of the new Thelohanellus species with their new host and locality records.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Genetic and haplotype analyses targeting cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium
           knowlesi isolates of Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong; Joveen Wan Fen Neoh; Tiek Ying Lau; Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim; Kek Heng Chua; Ping-Chin Lee
      Pages: 35 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong, Joveen Wan Fen Neoh, Tiek Ying Lau, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua, Ping-Chin Lee
      Malaria is a notorious disease which causes major global morbidity and mortality. This study aims to investigate the genetic and haplotype differences of Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) isolates in Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia based on the molecular analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The cyt b gene of 49 P. knowlesi isolates collected from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia was amplified using PCR, cloned into a commercialized vector and sequenced. In addition, 45 cyt b sequences were retrieved from humans and macaques bringing to a total of 94 cyt b gene nucleotide sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Genetic and haplotype analyses of the cyt b were analyzed using MEGA6 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.01. The haplotype genealogical linkage of cyt b was generated using NETWORK ver. Our phylogenetic tree revealed the conservation of the cyt b coding sequences with no distinct cluster across different geographic regions. Nucleotide analysis of cyt b showed that the P. knowlesi isolates underwent purifying selection with population expansion, which was further supported by extensive haplotype sharing between the macaques and humans from Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia in the median-joining network analysis. This study expands knowledge on conservation of the zoonotic P. knowlesi cyt b gene between Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Malaria control in a tribal area of central India using existing tools
    • Authors: Neeru Singh; Ashok K. Mishra; Kalyan B. Saha; Praveen K. Bharti; Dinesh S. Sisodia; Gagan S. Sonal; Akshay C. Dhariwal; Ravendra K. Sharma
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Neeru Singh, Ashok K. Mishra, Kalyan B. Saha, Praveen K. Bharti, Dinesh S. Sisodia, Gagan S. Sonal, Akshay C. Dhariwal, Ravendra K. Sharma
      Malaria is difficult to control in central India because of geographical terrain, efficient vectors, and perennial transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and socio-cultural practices of ethnic tribes. The objective was to develop a model to prevent and control malaria in hard to reach areas using existing tools. Baigachak (Tribe population 31,900) situated in Dindori district was undertaken for this study. Intervention measures used are indoor residual spray (IRS), long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs), prompt diagnosis and treatment along with intensive Information, Education and Communication (IEC) involving school children as agent of change. Door to door rapid fever surveys were carried out in the study area from 2009 to 14 and finger prick blood smears were made from all fever cases and examined under microscope. Mosquitoes were assayed for the presence of sporozoites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and sibling species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are two highly efficient vectors i.e. Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis. In monsoon season of 2009, the man hour density for An. culicifacies was 36.2 which declined to 10.9 during monsoon season of 2010-14 (t = 6.52; p < 0.0001). Epidemiological results revealed that malaria positivity was declined from 27% in 2009–3% in 2014 (Trend chi2 = 57.21; p < 0.0001) and P. falciparum declined from 23.6 to 2.4% (Trend chi2 = 48.33; p < 0.0001). Spleen rate was declined from 47% in 2009–5% in 2014 (χ2 for trend = 6.1; p = 0.0135). Baigachak has achieved a remarkable 89% reduction in malaria. This study confirms that the control strategies undertaken in this study are useful and should be extended at multiple sites for further validation.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Identification of Toll-like receptor family members in Oncomelania
           hupensis and their role in defense against Schistosoma japonicum
    • Authors: Qin Ping Zhao; Qian Gao; Yan Zhang; Yan Wei Li; Wen Ling Huang; Chun-lian Tang; Hui Fen Dong
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Qin Ping Zhao, Qian Gao, Yan Zhang, Yan Wei Li, Wen Ling Huang, Chun-lian Tang, Hui Fen Dong
      The amphibious snail, Oncomelania hupensis, primarily distributed in the Far East, is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes the most virulent form of schistosomiasis. Obligatory parasitism of snails is the main vehicle for human and livestock infection and depends primarily on parasite infectivity, snail defense capacity and specificity, and parasite-snail compatibility. Therefore, the schistosome-snail interaction is biomedically significant, particularly the molecular mechanisms involved in the innate immune response against S. japonicum. Several immune effectors and signaling pathways have been successfully identified in mollusks, especially in Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate snail host of S. mansoni; however, limited information is available for O. hupensis. Here, we identified 16 Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in O. hupensis. These O. hupensis TLRs (OhTLRs) are highly expressed in haemocytes, the primary immune cell of mollusks. Most of the OhTLRs were more highly expressed in female gonads than in other tissues, which may suggest maternal immune transfer in O. hupensis. After S. japonicum challenge, the expression levels of all of the OhTLRs were significantly up-regulated at 6 h post-challenge; many of the OhTLR expression levels were inhibited at later time points in haemocytes, while they were inhibited and fluctuated to varying degrees in other tissues. Additionally, we further determined the tissue-specific expression and dynamic response against S. japonicum of one of the TLR signaling adaptors, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), from O. hupensis. Three OhMyD88 genes were highly expressed in haemocytes, and were up-regulated in haemocytes and inhibited in the head-foot muscle at the early time-point after S. japonicum challenge; however, these had slower changes and longer durations compared to OhTLRs. These results provide evidence suggesting that immune effectors are involved in innate immune responses of O. hupensis against S. japonicum and may play a role in the activation of different haemocytes, and not limited for the early response to S. japonicum invasion. Further investigation into the varied expression of OhTLRs in other tissues after S. japonicum challenge will improve our understanding of TLR function in innate immunity of O. hupensis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Seroprevalence and risk factor analysis of human leptospirosis in distinct
           climatic regions of Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Luqman Sohail; Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Muhammad Ijaz; Omer Naseer; Zahida Fatima; Abdullah Saghir Ahmad; Waqas Ahmad
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Muhammad Luqman Sohail, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Ijaz, Omer Naseer, Zahida Fatima, Abdullah Saghir Ahmad, Waqas Ahmad
      Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance and large epidemics and epizootics have been reported all over the globe. A cross survey study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in climatically distinct regions of Pakistan and to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. Blood samples from 360 humans were collected through convenient sampling, 120 from each of three study areas. Serological testing was performed using ELISA kit as per manufacturer’s recommendations. The results showed an overall prevalence of 40.83% (95% CI; 35.71–46.11). Statistical analysis showed significant (P < .05) differences in leptospiral seroprevalence in three different geographic locations, with highest in humid sub-tropical climatic region (50.83%; 95% CI; 41.55–60.07), followed by semi-arid region (44.16%; 95% CI; 35.11–53.52) and lowest in hot and dry region (27.50%; 95% CI; 19.75–36.40). After multivariate analysis age, gender, exposure to flooding water, source of water usage, disinfection schedule of surroundings and history of cut and wound were found significantly associated with the seropositivity of Leptospira. The present study, first to uncover seroprevalence of human Leptospira in different climatic regions of Pakistan, alarms about effect of climate on prevalence of Leptospira in the region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Dengue infection in patients with febrile illness and its relationship to
           climate factors: A case study in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the
           period 2010-2014
    • Authors: Anwar M. Hashem; Turki Abujamel; Rowa Alhabbab; Mansour Almazroui; Esam I. Azhar
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Anwar M. Hashem, Turki Abujamel, Rowa Alhabbab, Mansour Almazroui, Esam I. Azhar
      Dengue is an important global arboviral disease with expanding geographical range. It is a major public health concern in Western Saudi Arabia since its first detection in the city of Jeddah in 1994. In this retrospective study, we examined dengue incidence among febrile patients suspected for acute dengue infection at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah from 2010 to 2014 and we tried to determine the effect of climate factors on dengue incidence in the city. Acute dengue incidence rates among clinically suspected patients showed annual variation with a range from 29.3% to 57%. Male gender and 11-30 years age range were found to be risk factors for dengue infection in Jeddah. While dengue infections can be detected throughout the year, most cases occurred between March and July with peaks in May and June. Seasonality of dengue was found to be significantly associated with the decrease in relative humidity and increase in temperature within the range of ∼25 °C to ∼33 °C but not extremely hot temperatures. Moreover, we found that rainfall during winter (November to February) has a significant lag effect on dengue infection among febrile patients in the city. Jeddah is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia and a major hub for pilgrims because of its close proximity to the holy sites in the Kingdom. The observed high rates of acute dengue infections clearly show the endemicity of dengue in Jeddah. The observed higher incidence rates at young age are expected to cause an increase in severe dengue cases in the future especially that multiple dengue serotypes are co-circulating in the city. Furthermore, the significant association between the different climate factors and dengue and their impact on the disease seasonality should help in the effort to implement effective control and management measures to reduce dengue burden in the Kingdom.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on
           hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in
           Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
    • Authors: Jintana Yanola; Woottichai Nachaiwieng; Suwit Duangmano; Mujalin Prasannarong; Pradya Somboon; Sakorn Pornprasert
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Jintana Yanola, Woottichai Nachaiwieng, Suwit Duangmano, Mujalin Prasannarong, Pradya Somboon, Sakorn Pornprasert
      Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6–14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Antimonial susceptibility and in vivo behaviour of Leishmania major
           isolates collected in Algeria before and after treatment
    • Authors: Eddaikra Naouel; Kherachi Djenad Ihcene; Bensegheir Sofiane; Ait Oudhia Khatima; Benikhlef Razika; Oury Bruno; Harrat Zoubir; Sereno Denis
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eddaikra Naouel, Kherachi Djenad Ihcene, Bensegheir Sofiane, Ait Oudhia Khatima, Benikhlef Razika, Oury Bruno, Harrat Zoubir, Sereno Denis
      The repercussions of cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy on the behaviour and drug susceptibility of Leishmania major parasites is poorly documented. This study explored the link between antimonial susceptibility and in vivo behaviour in Leishmania major isolates collected before and after treatment in Algeria. This study was performed on 3 isolates collected from patients prior to treatment and paired with 3 isolates collected from the same patient after treatment failure. Their in vitro susceptibility towards trivalent (SbIII) and pentavalent (SbV) antimony were ascertained, and their in vivo behaviour was evaluated by determining their capacity to disseminate, proliferate and induce lesions in mice. No relationship was observed between in vitro antimony resistance and parasite fitness in the murine model.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Geographical distribution and species identification of human filariasis
           and onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Thuy-Huong Ta; Laura Moya; Justino Nguema; Pilar Aparicio; María Miguel-Oteo; Gema Cenzual; Isabel Canorea; Marta Lanza; Agustín Benito; James Lee Crainey; José Miguel Rubio
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Thuy-Huong Ta, Laura Moya, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, María Miguel-Oteo, Gema Cenzual, Isabel Canorea, Marta Lanza, Agustín Benito, James Lee Crainey, José Miguel Rubio
      Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. In Bioko Island, the specificity and sensitivity of clinical Onchocerca volvulus diagnosis is key. The objective of this work was to update onchocerciasis elimination progress in Bioko Island, after 18 years of mass ivermectin intervention, and the general filariasis situation through a rapid and accurate molecular method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. A total of 543 subjects were included in the study. Whole blood and one skin snip (from lumbar regions) were analysed with a real time PCR assay. Two other skin biopsies were analysed by an expert microscopist. All positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Traditional microscopic examination of the skin biopsies failed to detect any microfilariae. However, 11 (2.03%) infections were detected using PCR assay, including one O. volvulus, two Mansonella streptocerca, seven Mansonella perstans and one Loa loa infections. PCR assays in blood detected 52 filariae-positive individuals (9.6%) which harboured M. perstans or L. loa. The low prevalence of O. volvulus confirms the success of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and suggests that Mass Drug Administration in Bioko Island can be interrupted in the near future. The very high prevalence of M. perstans found in skin snips assays raises doubts about the reliability of microscope-based diagnosis of O. volvulus infections.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • First molecular evidence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis in Pakistan
    • Authors: Sehrish Saleem; Muhammad Ijaz; Shahid Hussain Farooqi; Muhammad Imran Rashid; Amjad Khan; Awais Masud; Amjad Islam Aqib; Kashif Hussain; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Sehrish Saleem, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Muhammad Imran Rashid, Amjad Khan, Awais Masud, Amjad Islam Aqib, Kashif Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
      Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) disease in equines. This pathogen has zoonotic potential, which makes it very important to be detected and controlled as early as possible. This study was aimed to assess the molecular prevalence, associated risk factors of EGA along with its effects on various hematological parameters. This study revealed an overall 10.67% prevalence in equine. Horses showed highest prevalence followed by mules and donkeys presenting 11.86, 10.53 and 9.43% prevalence, respectively. The samples were confirmed for anaplasmosis through sequencing. The BLAST queries confirmed very high homology of our isolates with Chinese and Japanese isolates of A. phagocytophilum (Accession no’s; KX505303, KY242456 and LC002836). The phylogenetic analysis found the study isolates clustered with each other and this cluster closely resembled Chinese isolate of A. bovis (FJ169957), A. phagocytophilum (HQ872464) and A. phagocytophilum (NR_044762) human isolate from northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. The key risk factors identified for occurrence of EGA in equine species on the basis of univariable analysis were sex of animal, housing type, tick infestation, previous tick history and tick control status, type of acaricides used, rearing system and farm hygiene, respectively. The hematological parameters like Hemoglobin (Hb), Total Leukocyte Count (TLC), Total Erythrocytes Count (TEC), and granulocytes were decreased in diseased animals. The mules showed no typical hematological variations which make sense for its nature as carrier of infection to the susceptible species. This is the first molecular evidence of EGA in Pakistan. The disease needs to be handled seriously as it has zoonotic potential. The animals should be properly attended in disease conditions as leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia can aggravate the condition by making the animal prone to secondary infections.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Retrospective active case finding in Cambodia: An innovative approach to
           leprosy control in a low-endemic country
    • Authors: Thomas Fürst; Arielle Cavaliero; Sambath Lay; Chrystel Dayer; Saren Chan; Ajda Smrekar; Visal So; Tanja Barth-Jaeggi; Peter Steinmann
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Thomas Fürst, Arielle Cavaliero, Sambath Lay, Chrystel Dayer, Saren Chan, Ajda Smrekar, Visal So, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Peter Steinmann
      Currently, leprosy control relies on the clinical diagnosis of leprosy and the subsequent administration of multidrug therapy (MDT). However, many health workers are not familiar with the cardinal signs of leprosy, particularly in low-endemic settings including Cambodia. In response, a new approach to early diagnosis was developed in the country, namely retrospective active case finding (RACF) through small mobile teams. In the frame of RACF, previously diagnosed leprosy patients are traced and their contacts screened through “drives”. According to the available records, 984 of the 1,463 (67.3%) index patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2010 and registered in the national leprosy database were successfully traced in the period 2012–2015. Migration (8.4%), death (6.7%), operational issues (1.6%) and unidentified other issues (16.0%) were the main reasons for non-traceability. A total of 17,134 contacts of traced index patients (average: 2.2 household members and 15.2 neighbors) and another 7,469 contacts of the untraced index patients could be screened. Among them, 264 new leprosy patients were diagnosed. In the same period, 1,097 patients were diagnosed through the routine passive case detection system. No change was observed in the relation between the rate at which new patients were identified and the number of years since the diagnosis of the index patient. Similar to leprosy patients diagnosed through passive case detection, the leprosy patients detected through RACF were predominantly adult males. However, the fraction of PB leprosy patients was higher among the patients diagnosed through RACF, suggesting relatively earlier diagnosis. It appears that RACF is a feasible option and effective in detecting new leprosy patients among contacts of previously registered patients. However, a well-maintained national leprosy database is essential for successful contact tracing. Hence, passive case detection in the frame of routine leprosy surveillance is a precondition for efficient RACF as the two systems are mutually enhancing. Together, the two approaches may offer an interesting option for countries with low numbers of leprosy patients but evidence of ongoing transmission. The impact on leprosy transmission could be further increased by the administration of single dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis to eligible contacts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Population based and animal study on the effects of Schistosoma japonicum
           infection in the regulation of host glucose homeostasis
    • Authors: Qiong Duan; Lu Xiong; Chaonan Liao; Zhenzhen Liu; Yi Xiao; Ruixue Huang; Ting Tan; Yanhao Ouyang; Jinxing Cai; Meifang Xiao; Huilan Xu; Zihua Chen; Lizhang Chen; Tianlun Yang; He Huang
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Qiong Duan, Lu Xiong, Chaonan Liao, Zhenzhen Liu, Yi Xiao, Ruixue Huang, Ting Tan, Yanhao Ouyang, Jinxing Cai, Meifang Xiao, Huilan Xu, Zihua Chen, Lizhang Chen, Tianlun Yang, He Huang
      Although parasitic infection affects the glucose homeostasis of mice, only few studies have integrated epidemiological and animal data to determine the effect of Schistosoma japonicum infection on mice metabolism. The current study assessed the effects of S. japonicum infection on blood glucose and other metabolic parameters in both patients and animal models of chronic schistomiasis. A total of 2183 patients with chronic schistosomiasis and age- and gender-matched individuals without schistosomiasis (n = 1798) were enrolled in this study. Fasting blood glucose and other metabolic parameters, including body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol, were compared between the two groups. Mice infected with S. japonicum were used to test the effects of the parasite on glucose tolerance. We found that chronic schistosomiasis patients had significantly lower BMI and fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels than non-schistosomiasis individuals. In the animal studies, both bisexual and unisexual S. japonicum infection improved glucose tolerance in wild-type mice. Additionally, S. japonicum-infected ob/ob mice, a model that spontaneously develops obesity and diabetes, also had decreased body weight and improved glucose tolerance. We further observed that S. japonicum-infected mice had lower inflammatory gene expression in the visceral white adipose tissue than the control mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that S. japonicum infection improved glucose tolerance and other metabolic parameters both in human and animals. Downregulated inflammatory gene expression due to S. japonicum infection might be among the mechanisms for the improved glucose tolerance.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Population structure and genetic diversity of Rhipicephalus microplus in
    • Authors: Marvelous Sungirai; Samantha Baron; Nicolaas A. Van der Merwe; Doreen Zandile Moyo; Patrick De Clercq; Christine Maritz-Olivier; Maxime Madder
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Marvelous Sungirai, Samantha Baron, Nicolaas A. Van der Merwe, Doreen Zandile Moyo, Patrick De Clercq, Christine Maritz-Olivier, Maxime Madder
      Recently there was an expansion in the geographic range of Rhipicephalus microplus in Zimbabwe. In order to understand gene flow patterns and population structure in this highly invasive and adaptable cattle tick, a population genetics study was carried out. Eighty-seven R. microplus tick samples drawn from 5 distinct populations were genotyped using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity (He) was high (0.755–0.802) in all the populations, suggesting high levels of gene flow with 97% of genetic variation found within populations and 3% amongst populations. No isolation by distance was observed with low but significant genetic differentiation amongst the populations (0–0.076). Most of the sampled individuals had admixed genetic backgrounds, except for those from Matabeleland North whose genetic makeup appeared different from the rest. Rhipicephalus microplus was recently recorded in this area and the environmental conditions do not support survival of the tick there. These results confirm recent range expansion of the tick and the lowest genetic diversity recorded in the Matabeleland North population is suggestive of a founder effect, which may lead to genetic drift. Generally, the very low levels of genetic differentiation amongst the populations could be a result of the frequent movement of livestock from one area to another, which will have implications for disease control. This study offers further opportunities to study evolutionary adaptation of R. microplus in Zimbabwe and southern Africa.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Low socioeconomic condition and the risk of dengue fever: A direct
    • Authors: Elaine Cristina Farinelli; Oswaldo Santos Baquero; Celso Stephan; Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      Pages: 47 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Elaine Cristina Farinelli, Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Celso Stephan, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      This study aimed to characterize the first dengue fever epidemic in Várzea Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil, and its spatial and spatio-temporal distribution in order to assess the association of socioeconomic factors with dengue occurrence. We used autochthonous dengue cases confirmed in a 2007 epidemic, the first reported in the city, available in the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration database. These cases where geocoded by address. We identified spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of high- and low-risk dengue areas using scan statistics. To access the risk of dengue occurrence and to evaluate its relationship with socioeconomic level we used a population-based case-control design. Firstly, we fitted a generalized additive model (GAM) to dengue cases and controls without considering the non-spatial covariates to estimate the odds ratios of the occurrence of the disease. The controls were drawn considering the spatial distribution of the household of the study area and represented the source population of the dengue cases. After that, we assessed the relationship between socioeconomic variables and dengue using the GAM and obtained the effect of these covariates in the occurrence of dengue adjusted by the spatial localization of the cases and controls. Cluster analysis and GAM indicated that northeastern area of Várzea Paulista was the most affected area during the epidemic. The study showed a positive relationship between low socioeconomic condition and increased risk of dengue. We studied the first dengue epidemic in a highly susceptible population at the beginning of the outbreak and therefore it may have allowed to identify an association between low socioeconomic conditions and increased risk of dengue. These results may be useful to predict the occurrence and to identify priority areas to develop control measures for dengue, and also for Zika and Chikungunya; diseases that recently reached Latin America, especially Brazil.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water samples
           collected from Black sea, Turkey
    • Authors: Zeynep Koloren; Berivan Basak Gulabi; Panagiotis Karanis
      Pages: 58 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Zeynep Koloren, Berivan Basak Gulabi, Panagiotis Karanis
      The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of Blastocystis sp. and complete a phylogenetic analysis of 268 water samples that were collected from the Samsun, Amasya and Sinop Provinces of the Black Sea in Turkey, between the years 2011 and 2014. Blastocystis sp. was investigated in 48 uncultured sea water samples that were collected from 4 sites within the Sinop Province. A total of 100 river water samples were collected from 37 sites in the Samsun Province and 120 river water samples were collected from 10 sampling sites within the Amasya Province. The small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the detection of Blastocytis sp. and the PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Subsequently, the (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned by Bioedit and phylogenetic trees were constructed for Blastocystis with reference to the genotypes from GenBank. Blastocystis sp. were found in 3 out of the 75 (4%) river water samples that were collected from the Samsun Province. Six of the 120 (5%) river water samples and 1 out of the 48 (2%) seawater samples were positive for Blastocystis in the Amasya and Sinop Provinces. There were two different subtypes (ST; 1 and 3) found from sequencing all of the samples from the investigated sites. Two and one PCR products were found to be positive for ST1 and ST3 from the different samples collected within the Samsun Province. Two and 4 PCR products from the Amasya Province were ST1 and ST3, respectively and only one sample from the Sinop Province was found to be positive for ST1. This is the first report to identify and report the occurrence of Blastocystis subtypes within the Black Sea of Turkey.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Characterization of catalytic and non-catalytic activities of EgGST2-3, a
           heterodimeric glutathione transferase from Echinococcus granulosus
    • Authors: V. Lopez-Gonzalez; S. La-Rocca; P. Arbildi; V. Fernandez
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): V. Lopez-Gonzalez, S. La-Rocca, P. Arbildi, V. Fernandez
      Glutathione transferases (GSTs) perform several catalytic and non-catalytic roles in the defense against toxicities of electrophile compounds and oxidative stress, and therefore are involved in stress-response and cell detoxification. Previously, we have provided evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3, two phylogenetically distant Echinococcus granulosus GSTs, can naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3). In the present work, the recombinant heterodimer GST (rEgGST2-3) is characterized. Hence, rEgGST2-3 was able to conjugate GSH to three substrates: 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, general substrate for GSTs), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (specific substrate for mammalian Mu class) and trans,trans-deca-2,4-dienal (reactive carbonyl). The canonical activity was considerably reduced by all the conventional inhibitors (cybacron blue, triphenylthin chloride and bromosulfophthalein) and by other inhibitors (ellagic acid, alizarin and chenodeoxycholic acid). Besides this, rEgGST2-3 activity was inhibited by a number of anthelmintic drugs, where the halogenated phenolic drugs (mainly bithionol and hexachlorophene) acted as stronger inhibitors, suggesting they may bind to the EgGST2-3. Moreover, rEgGST2-3 exhibited glutathione-peroxidase activity, and its specific constant (kcat /KM ) was calculated. Finally, rEgGST2-3 displayed the ability to bind non-substrate molecules, particularly anthelmintic drugs, suggesting that ligandin activity may have potential to act as a passive protection parasite mechanism. Overall, the rEgGST2-3 behavior was shown to be both complementary and redundant to that reported for rEgGST1, another characterized GST from E. granulosus. It would be appropriate that different enzymes in the same organism do not have exactly the same functional properties to develop a better adaptation to life in the host.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Some facts on south asian schistosomiasis and need for international
    • Authors: M.C. Agrawal; V.G. Rao
      Pages: 76 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): M.C. Agrawal, V.G. Rao
      In this review, we are discussing South Asian schistosomiasis; more specifically species which are responsible for schistosomiasis in India or South Asia –Schistosoma indicum, S. spindale, S. nasale, S. incognitum, S. gimvicum (S.haematobium), Bivitellobilharzia nairi, Orientobilharzia bomfordi, O. dattai, O. turkestanicum and O.harinasutai, their survival strategies such as mild pathology to the host, producing low egg number and utilizing fresh water snails (Indoplanorbis exustus and Lymnaea luteola) in stagnant water bodies like ponds, lakes, ditches, low laying areas, marshy lands and rice fields. Presently, correct identification of blood fluke species, their immature stages, male schistosomes and their intermediate host details like strain variations, susceptibilities, ecologies are not well studied. Species like B. nairi, O. bomfordi, O. harinasutai (Lymnaea rubiginosa intermediate host for O.harinasutai in Thailand) are also not well studied. Moreover, snail species like Oncomalania spp are not from South Asia, but species of Tricula or Neotricula are reported from this geography, which gives indications of S. mekongi like blood fluke presence in the area. Although in humans, cercarial dermatitis is rampant in rural population with occasional reporting of schistosome eggs in stools, human schistosomiasis is considered absent from this region, despite finding a foci (now dead) of urinary schistosomiasis in Gimvi village of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, India. There is great difficulty in diagnosing the infection in man and animals due to low egg production, hence development of a single step antigen detection test is the need of the hour. Interestingly, lethal effect of praziquantel was seen against S.haematobium and S.mansoni. However, this drug failed to cause significant reduction of S. incognitum and S. spindale experimentally suggesting some differences in the biology of two groups of the schistosomes. Triclabendazole showed adulticidal effect at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body against female schistosome worms, but at lower dose (10 mg/kg body wt) of the drug, a dose that is used in treating bovine fascioliasis, it is providing chances of drug resistance of the persisting schistosomes against triclabendazole. Though the South Asian institutes have all the facilities to tackle issues related to existing schistosomes, it is recommended to develop an international collaboration by establishing an international centre on schistosomiasis in India.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Molecular monitoring of dihydrofolatereductase (dhfr) and
           dihydropteroatesynthetase (dhps) associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
           resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates of Palawan, Philippines
    • Authors: Alison Paolo Bareng; Fe Esperanza Espino; Wanna Chaijaroenkul; Kesara Na-Bangchang
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Alison Paolo Bareng, Fe Esperanza Espino, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kesara Na-Bangchang
      The emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax poses problems for malaria control and elimination in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries where individuals are routinely exposed to the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug resistance among P. vivax isolates collected in Palawan, Philippines. Genetic polymorphisms of pvdhps and pvdhfr were analysed by nested PCR. Analysis at specific codons I13P33F57S58T61S117I173 associated with pyrimethamine resistance in the pvdhfr gene revealed that most of the samples (66/87, 75.9%) carried double mutation at positions I13P33F57 R 58T61 N 117I173, while only 18.4% (16/87) of the isolates carried the wild-type haplotype (I13P33F57S58T61S117I173). For the pvdhps gene, the codons involved in sulfadoxine resistance S382A383K512A553V585 were investigated. Single mutation at position S382 G 383K512A553V585 was most observed in 68.0% (68/100) of the samples, whereas wild-type haplotype was found in 26.0% (26/100) of samples. The pvdhps and pvdhfr combination S382A383K512A553V585/I13P33F57S58T61S117I173 (wild-type), S382 G 383K512A553V585/I13P33F57 R 58T61 N 117I173, and S382A383K512A553V585-I13P33F57 R 58T61 N 117I173 were the most frequently observed combination haplotypes from the three study sites. The information on molecular markers associated with antifolate drug-resistance could help better understanding ofthe molecular epidemiology and situation of SP resistant P. vivax malaria in the country. Continuous surveillance of these genetic markers is necessary to monitor the evolution of SP resistance in the Philippines.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Dynamics of spatiotemporal distribution of schistosomiasis in Hubei
           Province, China
    • Authors: Yan-Yan Chen; Jian-Bing Liu; Yong Jiang; Guo Li; Xiao-Wei Shan; Juan Zhang; Shun-Xiang Cai; Xi-Bao Huang
      Pages: 88 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Yan-Yan Chen, Jian-Bing Liu, Yong Jiang, Guo Li, Xiao-Wei Shan, Juan Zhang, Shun-Xiang Cai, Xi-Bao Huang
      Schistosomiasis caused by parasitic flatworms of blood flukes, remains a major public health concern in China. The significant progress in controlling schistosomiasis in China over the past decades has resulted in the remarkable reduction in the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection to an extremely low level. Therefore, the elimination of schistosomiasis has been promoted by the Chinese national government. Hubei Province is the major endemic area, that is, along the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River in the lake and marshland regions of southern China. Eliminating the transmission of schistosomiasis in Hubei Province is challenging. The current issue is to determine the distributions and clusters of schistosomiasis transmission. In this study, we assessed the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and the risk at the county level in Hubei Province from 2011 to 2015 to provide guidance on the elimination of schistosomiasis transmission in lake and marshland regions. Spatial database of human S.japonicum infection from 2011 to 2015 at the county level in the study area was built based on the annual schistosomias is surveillance data. Moran’s I, the global spatial autocorrelation statistics, was utilized to describe the spatial autocorrelation of human S. japonicum infection. In addition, purely spatial scan statistics combined with space-time scan statistics were used to determine the epidemic clusters. Infection rates of S. japonicum decreased in each endemic county in Hubei from 2011 to 2015. Human S. japonicum infection rate showed statistical significance by global autocorrelation analysis during the study period (Moran’s I > 0, P < 0.01). This result suggested that there were spatial clusters present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection for the five years. Purely spatial analysis of human S. japonicum infection showed one most likely cluster and one secondary cluster from 2011 to 2015, which covered four and one counties, respectively. Spatiotemporal clustering analysis determined one most likely cluster and one secondary cluster both in 2011–2012, which appeared in 4 and 5 counties, respectively. However, the number of clustering foci decreased with time, and no cluster was detected after 2013.The clustering foci were both located at the Jianghan Plain, along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and its connecting branch Hanbei River. Spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not change temporally at the county level in Hubei Province. A declining trend in spatiotemporal clustering was observed between 2011 and 2015. However, effective control strategies and integrated prevention should be continuously performed, especially at the Jianghan Plain area along the Yangtze and Hanbei River Basin. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the risk of missing examinations, missing treatment, and unstandardized treatment events. The results showed that age, education level and Sanitary latrines are risk factors for missing examinations (b > 0, OR >1), and treatment times in past and feeding cattle in village group are protective factors (b < 0, OR <1). We also found that age and education level are risk factors for missing treatment (b > 0, OR >1). Study of the risk for un-standardized treatment revealed that occupation is risk factors (b > 0, OR >1), though, education level is protective factors (b < 0, OR <1). Therefore, precise prevention and control should be mainly targeted at these special populations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and
           adults of Biomphalaria glabrata
    • Authors: Hallysson D.A. Araújo; Luanna R.S. Silva; Williams N. Siqueira; Caíque S.M. Fonseca; Nicácio H. Silva; Ana M.M.A. Melo; Mônica C.B. Martins; Vera L.M. Lima
      Pages: 39 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Hallysson D.A. Araújo, Luanna R.S. Silva, Williams N. Siqueira, Caíque S.M. Fonseca, Nicácio H. Silva, Ana M.M.A. Melo, Mônica C.B. Martins, Vera L.M. Lima
      This study reports the molluscicidal activity of usnic acid isolated from Cladonia substellata Vanio (lichen) on embryos at various stages of development and in adult mollusks of Biomphalaria glabrata. The toxicity of usnic acid was also evaluated through Artemia salina larvae mortality. Usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether, isolated, purified, and its structure confirmed by analyzing the spectra of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. LC90 for 24 h of exposure were 1.62, 4.45, 5.36, and 4.49 μg mL−1 for blastula, gastrula, trocophore, and veliger embryonic stages, respectively, and 3.45 μg mL−1 for adult snails; LC50 of usnic acid against A. salina was 2.46 μg mL−1. LC90 assessed 7 days after exposure was 2.56 μg mL−1 for adult mollusks. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that under laboratory conditions usnic acid has teratogenic and molluscicide potential to control the aquatic snail B. glabrata and may prove to be a promising candidate in the search for new molluscicide agents, but further detailed studies on its molluscicidal effect and possible environmental effects are needed.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Tinea capitis-like infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a
           shelter for African Refugee Children in Northern Israel
    • Authors: Avi Peretz; Orna Nitzan; Victoria Freidus; Riad Kassem
      Pages: 44 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Avi Peretz, Orna Nitzan, Victoria Freidus, Riad Kassem
      Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular pigmented yeasts, part of the division Basidiomycota. In this article, we report three cases of refugee children in a day care shelter in northern Israel who were clinically diagnosed and treated empirically as with ringworm infection but with clean and exclusive growth of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in repeated cultures of several skin samples. Skin infections caused by this yeast are rare and there are few reports in the literature, mainly in patients who are immunocompromised. Here we report an infectious process of the scalp in immunocompetent children, caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa mimicking tinea capitis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Repellence of essential oils and selected compounds against ticks—A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Roman Pavela
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Roman Pavela
      Ticks act as vectors of a wide range of infectious agents, far encompassing any other group of bloodsucking arthropods worldwide. The prevention of tick-borne diseases is strictly linked to the successful management of tick vector populations. The employ of repellents can represent a worth solution to avoid tick bites. It is widely adopted to protect travellers and pets exposed to ticks during limited periods of the year. The use of natural products as active ingredients in eco-friendly repellent formulations is currently a prominent research area, due to the wide diversity and high effectiveness of a number of plant-borne compounds, with special reference to essential oils (EOs) extracted from medicinal and aromatic species. Here, we reviewed current knowledge available on EOs tested as repellents against tick species of veterinary importance. Furthermore, we analysed the effectiveness of pure compounds isolated from EOs as tick repellents and their potential implications for practical use in the öreal world”. A quantitative analysis of literature available is this research field was provided, along with its impact (i.e., in terms of citations over time) on the scientific community of researchers in tick control science and natural product chemistry. In the final sections, future outlooks are highlighted. We discussed major challenges to stabilize the most effective EOs and pure molecules, explore the synergistic and antagonistic effects in blends of EOs and/or pure constituents, standardize currently adopted testing methods, and evaluate non-target risks of herbal repellents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.025
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Molluscicidal activity of Arisaema erubescens mixed with fertilizers
           against Oncomelania hupensis and its effect on rice germination and growth
    • Authors: Wenshan Ke; Xi Cheng; Dezhi Cao; Qixiang Sun; Qian Zhang
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Wenshan Ke, Xi Cheng, Dezhi Cao, Qixiang Sun, Qian Zhang
      To explore a new molluscicide with dual effects of fertilization and molluscicidal activity, an organic-inorganic compound fertilizer molluscicide was prepared by mixing the water extract (or powder) of Arisaema erubescens tubers with nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer, and three mixed fertilizers (hereinafter referred to as ANF, APF, AKF and ACF, respectively). Leaching using the mixture was performed to test for molluscicidal activity, and indoor rice germination, seedling growth, and pot experiments were monitored. ANF exhibited superior molluscicidal activity, with respective 24-h and 48-h Oncomelania mortality rates significantly increased, reaching up to 67.7% and 92.3%. ANF, APF, and AKF significantly promoted rice germination and growth of rice, with ANF showing superior effects. The respective 3-day and 5-day germination rate of rice seeds treated with ANF significantly increased by 25% and 21% relative to that of the control group, and the respective 10-day and 20-day growth length of rice seedlings (aboveground part) increased by 106.2% and 33.2%. A positive correlation between ACF molluscicidal activity and concentration and treatment time were observed. The Oncomelania mortality rate at 48 h after treatment with a low ACF concentration (0.25 g/L) was 70.7%, whereas that at 24 h after treatment using a higher concentration (0.5 g/L) was 80.7%. ACF promoted rice seed germination and seedling growth, whereas inhibitory effects were observed using a high ACF concentration. Therefore, the combined application of A. erubescens and chemical fertilizers not only enhances molluscicidal activity, but also promotes rice growth, with the combined application of A. erubescens and nitrogen fertilizer and mixed fertilizer showing superior dual effects (molluscicide and fertilization)
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      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of
           forensic importance
    • Authors: Narin Sontigun; Sangob Sanit; Anchalee Wannasan; Kom Sukontason; Jens Amendt; Tippawan Yasanga; Kabkaew L. Sukontason
      Pages: 61 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Narin Sontigun, Sangob Sanit, Anchalee Wannasan, Kom Sukontason, Jens Amendt, Tippawan Yasanga, Kabkaew L. Sukontason
      Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Serological detection and molecular characterization of piroplasmids in
           equids in Brazil
    • Authors: Maria Isabel Botelho Vieira; Márcio Machado Costa; Mateus Tonial de Oliveira; Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves; Marcos Rogério André; Rosangela Zacarias Machado
      Pages: 81 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Maria Isabel Botelho Vieira, Márcio Machado Costa, Mateus Tonial de Oliveira, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado
      Equine piroplasmosis is a disease caused by the hemoparasites Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and is considered to be the most important parasitic infection affecting Equidae. The objective of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological molecular and serological survey for the presence of these two protozoal organisms in equids from the northwestern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), south Brazil. For this purpose, blood samples were collected from 90 equids in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. Those were animals used for sport activities, outdoor recreational riding, and work including cattle herding and mounted patrol. Anti-T. equi and anti-B. caballi IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of those animals by commercial ELISA kits. The molecular diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi or B. caballi (or both) consisted in the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene by nested PCR followed by sequencing of the amplified PCR product and sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates; 17 (18.9%) and 5 (5.55%) out of the 90 serum samples tested in this study were positive for T. equi and B. caballi, respectively. Piroplasmid 18S rRNA gene fragments were detected by PCR in 24.4% (22/90) of the samples analysed and shared 99–100% identity with sequences of T. equi by BLASTn. Samples for the phylogenetic analysis were divided into 2 groups. In group A, there was close phylogenetic relationship between 4 sequences and sequences previously reported along the US-Mexico border, in South Africa, and in Brazil. There was a phylogenetic proximity between 5 samples from group B and samples tested by other authors in the US and Spain. Variation of the 18S rRNA gene allowed the identification of 9 new T. equi genotypes in the geographical region studied.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Mating behavior of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens – role
           of behavioral asymmetries
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli
      Culex pipiens is a vector of West Nile, Rift Valley fever, Japanese encephalitis and Usutu viruses. In agreement with the criteria of Integrated Vector Management, several research efforts have been devoted to develop behavior-based control tools to fight mosquito vectors. However, our knowledge of mosquito mating biology and sexual communication is still patchy. Despite the high relevance of C. pipiens as a vector of medical and veterinary importance, no studies on its mating behavior and the factors routing mating success have been conducted. In this study, I quantified the mating behavior of an Italian strain of C. pipiens, evaluating the male mating success and its potential connections with population-level lateralized traits occurring during the mating sequence. Mean copula duration exceeded 100 s. Courting males can be straightly accepted by the female after the first genital contact (38.95%), as well as after some rejection kicks performed by females with hind legs (17.89%). No copula duration differences were detected between these two cases. The overall male mating success in laboratory conditions was 56.84%. The females performing rejection kicks preferentially used right hind legs at population-level. This was confirmed over four subsequent testing phases. The number of kicks per rejection event and the rejection success were higher when right legs are used over left ones, showing a functional advantage linked with the employ of right legs. Overall, the present study represents the first quantification of the courtship and mating behavior of C. pipiens. Data on male mating success and the role population-level lateralized mating traits provides basic biological knowledge that can be helpful to optimize autocidal and behavior-based control tools.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Brucellosis in West and Central Africa: A review of the current situation
           in a changing landscape of dairy cattle systems
    • Authors: L. Craighead; A. Meyer; B. Chengat; I. Musallam; J. Akakpo; P. Kone; J. Guitian; B. Häsler
      Pages: 96 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): L. Craighead, A. Meyer, B. Chengat, I. Musallam, J. Akakpo, P. Kone, J. Guitian, B. Häsler
      Brucellosis is a neglected endemic zoonosis in West and Central Africa. In this narrative review, evidence of livestock and human infection is presented along with details of past and current control strategies in 14 selected countries. Data from available literature is combined with expert opinion elicited during a regional workshop on brucellosis diagnostics. Demographic changes that affect both the epidemiology of brucellosis and the success of control or surveillance are also considered. The evidence suggests that brucellosis prevalence in emerging peri-urban dairy cattle systems may be higher than that found in traditional transhumant extensive systems. Accurate microbiological and epidemiological evidence across the region is lacking but it appears there is inherent interest in controlling the disease. There are many data gaps which require collaborative future research to evaluate fully the social and economic impact of the disease in an evolving livestock sector heavily influenced by high rates of urbanisation and regional population growth.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention and
           control of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea
    • Authors: Bernard L. Kouassi; Aboulaye Barry; Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa; Stefanie J. Krauth; Andre Goépogui; Mamadou S. Baldé; Oumar Barry; Marie L. Niamey; Moses J. Bockarie; Benjamin G. Koudou; Jürg Utzinger
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Bernard L. Kouassi, Aboulaye Barry, Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa, Stefanie J. Krauth, Andre Goépogui, Mamadou S. Baldé, Oumar Barry, Marie L. Niamey, Moses J. Bockarie, Benjamin G. Koudou, Jürg Utzinger
      Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people’s general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected through in-depth interviews with 85 respondents. Quantitative data related to strategies for prevention and the knowledge of the causes of the disease were collected by interviewing 429 people. A total of 514 individuals (313 females and 201 males), aged 10–84 years, participated. Most participants were well aware of lymphatic filariasis and they recognized the disease mainly by its disfiguring manifestation, collectively termed “elephantiasis” or “leg-swelling disease”. Morbidity patterns due to filarial infection showed an increase with age (from 30 to 50 years) independent of sex. Most patients with lymphatic filariasis abandoned their jobs (73.9%) or sought other work (21.7%). The main perceived causes of acquiring lymphatic filariasis were of supernatural origin (as stated by 8.7% of patients and 5.7% of healthy subjects), while mosquito bites were mentioned by fewer participants (4.3% of patients and 4.2% of healthy subjects). A number of other causes were reported that relate to both medical and non-medical conceptions. The study also identified socioeconomic impairments and stigmatization due to elephantiasis. Taken together, community perception of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry is influenced by sociocultural conceptions. Appropriate health education campaigns aimed at enhancing community understanding of the transmission of lymphatic filariasis are required to increase the success of mass drug administration implemented for the elimination of this disease. There is a need for a morbidity management programme to alleviate lymphatic filariasis-related physical and emotional burden in Conakry.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2018)
  • Metaperiodate deglycosylation of Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae:
           immunochemical characterization and antigen production for human
           strongyloidiasis diagnosis
    • Authors: Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga; Daniela da Silva Nunes; Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro; Nágilla Daliane Feliciano; Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior; Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga, Daniela da Silva Nunes, Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro, Nágilla Daliane Feliciano, Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Strongyloidiasis is an important helminthiasis affecting million people worldwide. The aim of this study was to use sodium metaperiodate (MP) treatment to immunochemically characterize Strongyloides venezuelensis filariform larvae and use MP-treated heterologous antigen to detect IgG and subclasses in serum. Samples from individuals with definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis (n = 50), other parasitic diseases (n = 60) and negative endemic (n = 50) were tested. TG-ROC and two-way ANOVA were applied. MP-treatment resulted on differential localization of carbohydrates at larval structure and no carbohydrate content in saline extract (SE). Electrophoretic profiles were similar before and after treatment. ELISA sensitivity and specificity were: 90%; 88.2% for SE and 92.0%; 94.6% for MP, respectively. When using MP treated antigen we observed reduction in IgG1 and IgG3 detection in strongyloidiasis group and decrease of cross reactions in control groups. Our data demonstrate the role of carbohydrate residues in cross reactions and on the recognition of anti-Strongyloides IgG and its subclasses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.001
  • Genetic interaction and diversity of the families Libellulidae and
           Gomphidae through COI gene from China and Pakistan
    • Authors: Saif Ul Islam; Muhammad Qasim; Wenzhong Lin; Waqar Islam; Muhammad Arif; Habib Ali; Zujian Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Wenzhong Lin, Waqar Islam, Muhammad Arif, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
      A total of 300 dragonflies (Odonata) were collected from six different localities of China and Pakistan. Sixty seven representative samples were selected to sequence their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). An examination of the resultant sequences identified 21 different dragonfly species, belonging to 15 distinct genera, two families, Libellulidae and Gomphidae. Sequence alignment was executed using Clustal-W in BioEdit v6. The phylogenetic tree was constructed through Neighbor-joining method by using Jukes-Cantor model, and genetic divergence was calculated via Kimura 2-parameter using MEGA7, while Genetic diversity was calculated by DnaSP v5. The maximum genetic divergence was observed for Crocothemis servilia, at 20.49%, followed by Libellulidae sp. with 22.30% while minimum divergence (0.82%) was observed for Melligomphus ardens. Likewise, a significant genetic diversity was observed for all species. However, Crocothemis servilia species presented maximum value (176 mutations) followed by Libellulidae spp. (150 mutations), whereas minimum value (3 mutations) was observed by Orthetrum testaceum. Interestingly, the diversity of C. servilia, all of which are collected from a single location of China, is much higher than those from Pakistan, which were collected from 5 different places with a spatial distance exceeding 500 Kms. Our results are useful in gaining a full appreciation of the global diversity of dragonflies and the development of conservation measures of this insect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.016
  • Characterization of Fungus Microbial Diversity in Healthy and Diarrheal
           Yaks in Gannan Region of Tibet Autonomous Prefecture
    • Authors: Kun Li; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang; Xiong Jiang; Muhammad Shahzad; Xiaoqian Dong; Jiakui Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoqian Dong, Jiakui Li
      Diarrhea is a serious epidemic in yaks on Qinghai Tibet plateau, but the exact pathogen is not confirmed. Diarrhea is related to the changes in diversity of intestinal flora. The current study herein is performed for high-throughput sequencing of fungus microbial diversity in healthy adult yaks, diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total 446726 optimized sequences were achieved. Over 250 OTUs in species level have been indentified for each sample. The Shannon and Simpson index revealed that there was no visible difference in the flora between different yak groups (p > 0.05). However, obvious difference was watched in the principal component of microbial community structure in different yak groups by PCA analysis, especially between healthy adult yak group and diarrheal adult yak groups. There were 248 fungus species shared in three groups. Interestingly, there were 97 fungus species shared in the diarrheal groups (calves and adult yaks), which were not found in the healthy yaks, while there were 212 fungus species only found in the healthy yaks. In the Phylum level, 1 phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) was discovered to have significant difference between healthy yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). In the genus level, 23 genus were found obvious difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal adults yaks (p < 0.05); 28 genus were found significant difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05); 23 genus were found obvious difference between diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). The present study herein first reported an insight of the change of microbial diversity of fungus in diarrhea yaks at altitude regions, which contributed towards the solid prevention of diarrhea in yaks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.017
  • Towards elimination of schistosomiasis after 5000 years of endemicity in
    • Authors: Iman F. Abou-El-Naga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Iman F. Abou-El-Naga
      Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted infectious disease caused by a long lasting infection with a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. S. haematobium and S. mansoni are the species endemic in Egypt. The country has been plagued and seriously suffered from schistosomiasis over the past 5000 years. Great strides had been done in controlling the disease since 1922. The history, epidemiology and the different control approaches were reviewed. Currently, Egypt is preparing towards schistosomiasis elimination by 2020. The new strategy depends on four main axes; large scale treatment in all areas of residual transmission by targeting entire populations with PZQ, intensified snail control, heath education and behavioral changes and expansion of the complementary public health interventions. While on the road towards elimination, we addressed here the important challenges, lessons and the key issues from the different control strategies to help the achievement of our goal. Notably, frangibility of the drug based control, emergence of resistance against PZQ, persistence of some hot spots areas, the need of further control efforts to the high risk individuals and community involvement in the control programs, reconsideration of diagnostic tests used in surveillance, and continous monitoring of the field to detect changes in the snail intermediate host. Importantly, the adaptation between the parasite and its intermediate snail host throughout water bodies in Egypt merits attention as Schistosoma infection can be introduced to the new reclaimed areas. This review may help supplying information for the policy makers to tailor control measures suitable to the local context that could help in the transfer from control to elimination.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.005
  • Babesia bovis in and around Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Bersissa Kumsa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Bersissa Kumsa

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.004
  • A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Genting
           Highlands, Malaysia
    • Authors: Zubaidah Ya’Cob; Hiroyuki Takaoka; Van Lun Low; Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Zubaidah Ya’Cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.007
  • Insecticidal activity, putative binding proteins and histopathological
           effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3(459) toxin on the lepidopteran pest
           Ectomyelois ceratoniae
    • Authors: Hanen Boukedi; Slim Tounsi; Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC50 value of about 28 ng/cm2.The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut. This specific binding caused perturbations in midgut tissues. The histopathology of 20 midguts from Vip3(459)-feeding larvae showed cytoplasm vacuolization, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration. These findings suggested that B. thuringiensis Vip3(459) could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate E. ceratoniae and to prevent emergence of resistance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.006
  • The Biodiversity of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Indonesia
    • Authors: Upik Kesumawati Hadi; Hiroyuki Takaoka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Hiroyuki Takaoka
      Indonesia is one of the megadiversity country in the world endowed with rich and unique biodiversity insects such as blackflies species (Diptera: Simuliidae). Blackflies are found almost anywhere with running water suitable as habitat for the immature stages. This family is one of the most important groups of blood-sucking insects. This study collates the the records of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in previous publications related fauna of Indonesia. Based on the results of this study, there were 124 species of blackflies in Indonesian Archipelago. All species are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille s.l., and are placed into five subgenera, i.e. Gomphostilbia Enderlein, Morops Enderlein, Nevermannia Enderlein, Simulium Latreille s.str. and Wallacellum Takaoka. Further classification into 27 species groups within the subgenera were also made. Checklists of Indonesian Simuliidae are provided including data on the distribution of each species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.013
  • Exploring the impact of house screening intervention on entomological
           indices and incidence of malaria in Arba Minch town, southwest Ethiopia: A
           randomized control trial
    • Authors: Solomon Kinde Getawen; Temesgen Ashine; Fekadu Massebo; Daniel Woldeyes; Bernt Lindtjørn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
      House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia. 92 houses were randomly included in the trial. The baseline entomological and malaria prevalence data were collected. The mosquito sampling was done twice per household per month by Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps for six months. The baseline prevalence of malaria was assessed by testing 396 (83% of the 447 study participants) household members in all the eligible houses. The 92 houses were then randomized into control and intervention groups using mosquito and malaria prevalence baseline data to make the two groups comparable except the intervention. Then, we put wire-mesh on doors and windows of 46 houses. Post-screening mosquito collection was done in each household twice per month for three months. Each household member was visited twice per month for six months to assess malaria episodes. The frequency of damage to different structure of screening was measured twice. In-depth interview was conducted with 24 purposely selected household heads from intervention group. Speciation of Anopheles mosquito was done by morphological key, and the circum-sporozoite proteins (CSPs) analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A generalized estimating equation with a negative binomial distribution was used to assess the impact of the intervention on the indoor density of vectors. Clinical malaria case data were analyzed using Poisson regression with generalized linear model. Screening doors and windows reduced the indoor density of An. arabiensis by 48% (mean ratio of intervention to control = 0.85/1.65; 0.52) (P = 0.001). Plasmodium falciparum CSP rate was 1.6% (3/190) in the intervention houses, while it was 2.7% (10/372) in the control houses. The protective efficacy of screening intervention from CSP positive An. arabiensis was 41% (mean ratio of intervention to control = 1.6/2.7; 0.59, but was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). The EIR of An. arabiensis was1.91 in the intervention group, whereas it was 6.45 in the control group. 477 participants were followed for clinical malaria (50.1% from intervention and 49.9% from the control group). Of 49 RDT positive cases, 45 were confirmed to be positive with microscopy. 80% (n = 36) cases were due to P. falciparum and the rest 20% (n = 9) were due to P. vivax. The incidence of P. falciparum in the intervention group was lower (IRR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.2–0.80; P = 0.01) than in the control group. Using incidence of P. falciparum infection, the protective efficacy of intervention was 61% (95% CI: 18–83; P = 0.007). 97.9% of screened windows and 63.8% of screened doors were intact after eleven months of installation. Malaria mosquito was resistance (mortality rate of 75%) to the insecticide used for bed nets treatment. Almost all participants of intervention arm were willing to continue using screened doors and windows. Screening doors and windows reduced the indoor exposure to malaria vectors. The intervention is effective, durable and well-accepted. Hence, the existing interventions can be supplemented with house screening intervention for further reduction and ultimately elimination of malaria by reducing insecticide pressure on malaria vectors. However, further research could be considered in broad setting on different housing improvement and in the way how to scale-up for wider community. Trial registration number: PACTR201612001891179 (retrospectively registered 13 December, 2016)

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.009
  • The blackfly vectors and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in Mahenge,
           south eastern Tanzania
    • Authors: Adam Hendy; Andreas Krüger; Kenneth Pfarr; Jacobus De Witte; Addow Kibweja; Upendo Mwingira; Jean-Claude Dujardin; Rory Post; Robert Colebunders; Sarah O’Neill; Akili Kalinga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Adam Hendy, Andreas Krüger, Kenneth Pfarr, Jacobus De Witte, Addow Kibweja, Upendo Mwingira, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rory Post, Robert Colebunders, Sarah O’Neill, Akili Kalinga
      The Mahenge Mountains onchocerciasis focus in south eastern Tanzania was historically one of the most heavily infected areas in the country. The vectors of Onchocerca volvulus are mainly Simulium damnosum complex blackflies, but a species of the Simulium neavei group may also contribute to transmission in some areas. The only detailed studies of parasite transmission in Mahenge were conducted in the late 1960s. The taxonomy of the S. damnosum complex has since been revised and onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) commenced in 1997. This study aimed to provide a cytogenetic and molecular update of the S. damnosum complex cytoforms present in Mahenge, and to evaluate the current status of O. volvulus transmission by blackflies following 19 years of annual CDTI. Rivers were surveyed to identify sites of S. damnosum s.l. breeding among the eastern slopes of the mountains, and human landing collections of adult female blackflies were made close to breeding sites. Identification of S. damnosum complex cytoforms was by cytotaxonomy of late-instar larvae and ITS1 amplicon size polymorphisms of larvae and adults. Adult blackflies were pool screened for O. volvulus infection using a triplex real-time PCR. The cytoforms ‘Nkusi’, Simulium kilibanum and ‘Turiani’ were found breeding in perennial rivers. ‘Nkusi’ and S. kilibanum were collected on human bait at 7/7 catch sites and possessed ITS1 profiles most closely resembling the molecular forms ‘Nkusi J’ and S. kilibanum ‘T’. Whereas ‘Turiani’ was present in rivers, it was not collected on human bait and appears to be zoophilic. Simulium nyasalandicum was collected in low numbers on human bait at 3/7 catch sites. In total, 12,452 S. damnosum s.l. were pool screened and O. volvulus infection was detected in 97/104 pools of bodies and 51/104 pools of heads. The estimated percentage of S. damnosum s.l. carrying infective L3 stage parasites was 0.57% (95% CI 0.43%–0.74%). Onchocerca volvulus transmission by S. damnosum s.l. is continuing in the Mahenge Mountains after 19 years of annual CDTI. Infection rates appear similar to those reported in the 1960s, but a more detailed study is required to fully understand the epidemiological significance of the ongoing transmission. These results provide further evidence that annual CDTI may be insufficient to eliminate the parasite in formerly hyperendemic foci.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.009
  • Occurrence of Cryptosporidium in the water basins of nitra region,
    • Authors: Hromada
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): J. Kalinová, A. Valenčáková, E. Hatalová, O. Danišová, M. Trungelová, R. Hromada
      Cryptosporidium species C. parvum and C. hominis are a common cause of human diarrheal infections worldwide. In this study we attempted to detect these parasites in fish ponds and a water reservoirs in the Nitra region of Slovakia. We identified C. parvum genotype IIaA15G1R1 and genotype IIaA16G1R1 and C. hominis genotype IeA11G3T3 in these locations. Occurrence of the same genotype of C. hominis in two different locations indicates that this parasite is most likely present in the river that connects them. These results indicate a serious threat to public health of humans since these locations are used for fishing and for recreational activities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:43:46Z
  • Effects of vector control on the population structure of tsetse (Glossina
           fuscipes fuscipes) in western Kenya
    • Authors: Njelembo J. Mbewe; Rajinder K. Saini; Baldwyn Torto; Janet Irungu; Abdullahi A. Yusuf; Christian Pirk
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Njelembo J. Mbewe, Rajinder K. Saini, Baldwyn Torto, Janet Irungu, Abdullahi A. Yusuf, Christian Pirk
      Displacement rates of tsetse affect performance of targets during vector control. Fly size, one of the indicators of population structure usually obtained from wing measurement, is among the determinants of displacement rates. Although recovery of tsetse in previous intervention areas has been widely reported, the population structure of tsetse that recover is rarely evaluated despite being associated with displacements rates. Previously, intervention trials had reduced tsetse densities by over 90% from >3 flies/trap/day to <1fly/trap/day on Big Chamaunga and Manga islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. In this study, we assessed the recovery in densities of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes on the two islands and evaluated the effects vector control might have on the population structure. A before and after intervention study was undertaken on four islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya; Small and Big Chamaunga, Manga and Rusinga Islands, two of which tsetse control intervention had previously been undertaken. Three years after intervention average G. f. fuscipes catches in biconical traps were estimated on each island. Wing centroid size (CS) (a measurement of fly size) and shape, indicators of the population structure of flies from the four islands were compared using geometric morphometric analyses. CS and shape of available female but not male tsetse wings obtained before the intervention trial on Big and Small Chamaunga islands were compared with those from the same islands after the intervention trial. G. f. fuscipes apparent density on the previous intervention islands were>9 flies/trap/day. Irrespective of sex, wing shape did not isolate tsetse based on their islands of origin. The fly size from Big and Small Chamaunga did not differ significantly before intervention trials (P = 0.728). However, three years after the intervention flies from Big Chamaunga were significantly smaller than those from Small Chamaunga (P < 0.003). Further, there was an increase in the divergence of wing morphology between flies collected from Big Chamaunga and those from Small Chamaunga after tsetse control. In conclusion, even though populations are not isolated, vector control could influence the population structure of tsetse by exerting size and wing morphology differential selection pressures. Therefore, we recommend further studies to understand the mechanism behind this as it may guide future vector control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T12:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Cystic echinococcosis in Jordan: A review of causative species, previous
           studies, serological and radiological diagnosis
    • Authors: Nawal S. Hijjawi; Ali M. Al-Radaideh; Eman M. Rababah; Khaled M. Al-Qaoud; Kamal E. Bani-Hani
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Nawal S. Hijjawi, Ali M. Al-Radaideh, Eman M. Rababah, Khaled M. Al-Qaoud, Kamal E. Bani-Hani
      Cystic echinococcosis (CE)/hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease which occur in human and herbivore animals as a result of infection with the larval stage of the taeniid cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.). In human, CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world including Jordan. The present review will cover CE causative agent: E. granulosus species/genotypes; life cycle of E. granulosus parasite, all published previous studies on CE in Jordan (humans, intermediate hosts, definitive host) as well as its diagnostic methods in human.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T12:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Detection of Latino virus (Arenaviridae: Mammarenavirus) naturally
           infecting Calomys callidus
    • Authors: Jorlan Fernandes; Renata Carvalho de Oliveira; Alexandro Guterres; Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira; Ana Claudia Pereira Terças; Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira; Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva; Gabriela Cardoso Caldas; Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira Coelho; Ortrud Monika Barth; Paulo Sergio D’Andrea; Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino; Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Ana Claudia Pereira Terças, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira Coelho, Ortrud Monika Barth, Paulo Sergio D’Andrea, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
      Mammarenavirus species are associated with a specific rodent host species, although an increasing number of virus has been associated to more than one host, suggesting that co-evolution is less robust than initially thought. There are few eco-epidemiological studies of South America mammarenaviruses in non-endemic areas of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fever, affecting specially our current knowledge about animal reservoirs and virus range and host-virus relations. In Brazil, seven arenavirus species were described in seven different rodent species. Here in we describe a new rodent reservoir species in Brazil related to the previously described Latino mammarenavirus (LATV) MARU strain. Samples of 148 rodents from Mato Grosso state, Brazil were analyzed. Amplification of the glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC) was observed in six Calomys callidus rodents. According to phylogenetic inferences, is observed a well-supported monophyletic clade of LATV from C. callidus and other Clade C mammarenavirus. In addition, the phylogenetic relations of both genes showed a close relation between LATV MARU and Capão Seco strains, two distinct lineages. Additionally, the results obtained in this study point out to a change of scenario and in previously stabilized patterns in the dynamics of South American mammarenaviruses, showing that with more studies in AHF non-endemic or silent areas, more potential hosts for this virus will be discovered.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T12:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Pharmaceutical interactions between antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs
           used in chemoprophylaxis
    • Authors: Andreas Erich Zautner; Ottmar Herchenröder; Awatef El Moussi; Norbert Georg Schwarz; Dorothea Franziska Wiemer; Uwe Groß; Hagen Frickmann
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Andreas Erich Zautner, Ottmar Herchenröder, Awatef El Moussi, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Uwe Groß, Hagen Frickmann
      Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The pandemic is believed to have originated within the Northern Congo basin covering large parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Gabon. Although over decades, HIV-1 has spread throughout the World leaving no country unaffected, sub-Saharan Africa remains the region with more than 80% of all infected individuals. The HIV-2 epidemic has largely remained restricted to West Africa along the Upper Guinean forests. Co-incident with these regions of highest HIV distribution is a part of the malaria belt and therefore, co-infections are common. In this review we carve out the consequences of HIV transmission prevention and synchronous malaria prophylaxis during occupational or leisure travelling activities within this World region. In particular, we elaborate on considering pre-existing drug resistances of both, the malaria parasites and the immunodeficiency viruses, when determining a combination for prophylactic and, if necessary, post-expositional measures with a focus on the compatibility of both medications.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T12:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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