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Showing 1 - 200 of 3048 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 362, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 361, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Scorpion envenoming in Morona Santiago, Amazonian Ecuador: Molecular
           phylogenetics confirms involvement of the Tityus obscurus group
    • Authors: Juan P. Román; Fernanda García; Doris Medina; Manolo Vásquez; José García; Matthew R. Graham; Daniel Romero-Alvarez; Pedro P. de Oliveira Pardal; Edna A.Y. Ishikawa; Adolfo Borges
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Juan P. Román, Fernanda García, Doris Medina, Manolo Vásquez, José García, Matthew R. Graham, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Pedro P. de Oliveira Pardal, Edna A.Y. Ishikawa, Adolfo Borges
      Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented
           dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp.
           infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya
    • Authors: Dasel W.M. Kaindi; Wambui Kogi-Makau; Godfrey N. Lule; Bernd Kreikemeyer; Pierre Renault; Bassirou Bonfoh; Esther Schelling; Jakob Zinsstag; Christophe Lacroix; Leo Meile; Christoph Jans; Jan Hattendorf
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Dasel W.M. Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Godfrey N. Lule, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Pierre Renault, Bassirou Bonfoh, Esther Schelling, Jakob Zinsstag, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile, Christoph Jans, Jan Hattendorf
      Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 108 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7–2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3–15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7–45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Modeling and comparative study of the spread of zoonotic visceral
           leishmaniasis from Northern to Central Tunisia
    • Authors: Belhassen Kaabi; Elyes Zhioua
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Belhassen Kaabi, Elyes Zhioua
      During the last twenty years, zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) spread from the north characterized by humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid bio-climates to the arid areas located in Central Tunisia. In order to understand the eco-epidemiological factors involved in the distribution of ZVL, both a sero-epidemiological and an entomological investigation were performed in two governorates situated in two different bio-geographical areas: Bizerte in the north and Kairouan in the center. A mathematical model for transmission of ZVL was built, describing the disease dynamic in these areas. Among 108 sera collected from clinically healthy owned dogs used for guarding houses in the governorate of Bizerte and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immune-fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), 8.3% were positive. From a total of 191 serum samples collected from clinically healthy owned dogs used for guarding houses in the governorate of Kairouan and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by IFAT, 26.7% were sero-positive. The cumulative incidences of ZVL in humans in the governorates of Bizerte and Kairouan were 39.17/100,000 and 0.2/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The infection rates of sand flies with Leishmania DNA in the governorate of Bizerte and Kairouan were 3.8% and 9.4%, respectively. It is important to point out that ZVL epidemic in humans is preceded or concomitant to a high prevalence of Leishmania infantum in dogs and in sand flies. The model showed also a non-linear relationship between dog infection and ZVL in humans. These results suggest an important force of infection (R0) in emerging foci such as the governorate of Kairouan leading to an increased incidence of ZCL in humans. A high prevalence of L. infantum in dogs will result in high prevalence in the vector and obviously high probability to infect human; that it is a key factor for triggering transmission to humans, and subsequently it is an important parameter in the control of ZVL transmission.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania
           braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American
           tegumenary leishmaniasis patients
    • Authors: Silvana C. Silva; Luiz Henrique Guimarães; Juliana A. Silva; Viviane Magalhães; Lilian Medina; Adriano Queiroz; Paulo Roberto L. Machado; Albert Schriefer
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Silvana C. Silva, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Juliana A. Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Lilian Medina, Adriano Queiroz, Paulo Roberto L. Machado, Albert Schriefer
      Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher’s exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients’ responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like amphotericin B.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Potential exposure of humans to Rickettsia felis in Greece
    • Authors: Dimosthenis Chochlakis; Antonios Germanakis; Georgios Chaliotis; Stefania Kapetanaki; Loukia Kalogeraki; Elliona Gkika; Nikolaos Partalis; Georgia Polymili; Yannis Tselentis; Anna Psaroulaki
      Pages: 40 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Antonios Germanakis, Georgios Chaliotis, Stefania Kapetanaki, Loukia Kalogeraki, Elliona Gkika, Nikolaos Partalis, Georgia Polymili, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
      Rickettsia felis is a flea-transmitted pathogen however, in Greece, much work has been done on another flea-borne pathogen, R. typhi; human cases have been described and high-risk areas have been characterized. Nevertheless, little is known about human infections caused by R. felis in the country since human cases are not routinely tested for antibodies against this pathogen. During the past seven years, we have set up a protocol at the National Reference Centre in order to improve the testing of tick-borne diseases in Greece. Based on this protocol, R. conorii, R. typhi R. slovaca, R. felis, and R. mongolotimonae have been added into the routine analysis; during these last years, eight (8) cases of potential exposure to R. felis were identified by serology. On an environmental investigation carried out at the residences of the patients, the pathogen was detected in C. felis only. The demonstration of R. felis potential presence highlights the need for better testing and surveillance of the pathogen.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Biogenic silver nanoparticles inducing Leishmania amazonensis promastigote
           and amastigote death in vitro
    • Authors: Jacqueline Rodrigues Fanti; Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo; Célia Guadalupe Tardeli de Jesus Andrade; Carolina Panis; Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues; Pryscilla Fanini Wowk; Diogo Kuczera; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Gerson Nakazato; Nelson Durán; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Jacqueline Rodrigues Fanti, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Célia Guadalupe Tardeli de Jesus Andrade, Carolina Panis, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Diogo Kuczera, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Gerson Nakazato, Nelson Durán, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa
      American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania protozoa. The ACL chemotherapy available is unsatisfactory motivating researches to seek alternative treatments. In this study, we investigated the action of biogenic silver nanoparticle (AgNp-bio) obtained from Fusarium oxysporium, against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote forms. The AgNp-bio promastigote treatment results in promastigote death leading to apoptosis-like events due an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial integrity, phosphatidylserine exposure and damage on promastigotes membrane. In L. amazonensis infected macrophages, AgNp-bio treatment was still able to reduce the percentage of infected macrophages and the amount of amastigotes per macrophage, consequently, the amount of promastigotes recovered. This leishmanicidal effect was also accompanied by a decrease in the levels of ROS and nitric oxide. By observing the ultrastructural integrity of the intracellular amastigotes, we found that the AgNp-bio treatment made a significant damage, suggesting that the compound has a direct effect on intracellular amastigotes. These results demonstrated that AgNp-bio had a direct effect against L. amazonensis forms and acted on immunomodulatory ability of infected macrophages, reducing the infection without inducing the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, which continuous stimulation can generate and aggravate leishmaniotic lesions. Overall, our findings suggest that the use of AgNp-bio stands out as a new therapeutic option to be considered for further in vivo investigations representing a possible treatment for ACL.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • KIR-like activating natural killer cell receptors and their association
           with complicated malaria in north India
    • Authors: Swayam Prakash; Prabhat Ranjan; Ujjala Ghoshal; Suraksha Agrawal
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Swayam Prakash, Prabhat Ranjan, Ujjala Ghoshal, Suraksha Agrawal
      Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) genomic regions have been suggested to influence malaria pathogenesis and infection susceptibility. KIRs are known as activating natural killer (NK) cell receptors, which upon binding to their corresponding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands cause lysis of any infected cell. We have examined the potential association of KIR genes with complicated malaria (CM) among north Indians in this study and further evaluated the KIR receptor-HLA ligand association on the severity of the disease considering the uncomplicated malaria (UCM) subjects as control. Molecular profiling of KIR and HLA was carried out using the PCR-SSP method. Susceptible association was found for individuals possessing KIR2DS2 (OR=1.76, p-value=0.0390), KIR2DL1 (OR=2.87, p-value=0.0005) and KIR2DL3 (OR=2.74, p-value=0.0011) genes with CM. This was supported by the strong linkage disequilibrium observed for 2DS2-2DL2 (D́=0.87, r2 =0.54) with CM. Whereas the receptor-ligand association has revealed risk association against KIR2DS2-HLAC1 (OR=2.08, p-value=0.0229), KIR2DL3-HLAC1 (OR=1.79, p-value=0.0301), and KIR2DL1-HLAC2 (OR=2.10, p-value=0.0175) combinations for complicated malaria. The frequency of different KIR genes are more or less similar to that observed in African population showing not much genetic diversity at KIR level in context to malarial infection. In conclusion, our data indicates KIR gene loci differentially influenced the malarial outcome in north Indians and in particular the KIR2DS2 gene appeared to be associated with disease severity.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus in dairy cattle in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Berhanu Sibhat; Gelagay Ayelet; Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin; Eystein Skjerve; Kassahun Asmare
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Eystein Skjerve, Kassahun Asmare
      Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1379 dairy cattle sampled from 149 dairy herds in central, southern and western Ethiopia during September 2011 to May 2012. Serum samples were examined using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data on hypothesised risk factors were collected from farm records where available and semi-structured questionnaire-based interview. The apparent seroprevalence of exposure to SBV was 56.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.9–59.3). True prevalence adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA kit used was 58.3% (95% CI 55.7–60.9). Among the sampled herds, 82.6% (95% CI: 75.5–88.3) had at least one seropositive animal. Seropositive cattle were found in all of the 15 conurbations studied. Adult dairy cows [odds ratio (OR)=1.6] were more commonly affected than young heifers. Dairy cattle kept in commercial (OR=1.6) and breeding farms (OR=3.5) and Midland agroecology (OR=2.5) showed statistically significant seroconversion than cattle kept under small-holder dairy farms and Highland agroecology respectively (p<0.05). Reproductive disorders including abortion, retention of the fetal membranes, and metritis were associated with serostatus of SBV. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of SBV is high and widely distributed in the studied parts of Ethiopia. This being the first study of its kind on SBV in Ethiopia, further longitudinal studies on isolation of the virus and its impact on reproductive disorders are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Triatoma infestans relies on salivary lysophosphatidylcholine to enhance
           Trypanosoma cruzi transmission
    • Authors: Michele Souza Lima; Alan Brito Carneiro; Thaís Souto-Padron; José Jurberg; Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto; Georgia Correa Atella
      Pages: 68 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Michele Souza Lima, Alan Brito Carneiro, Thaís Souto-Padron, José Jurberg, Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto, Georgia Correa Atella
      Triatoma infestans is a mandatory haematophagous vector of Chagas disease in Brazil. Despite a large number of studies on the anti-haemostatic molecules present in its saliva, the role of its salivary components on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that the bioactive lipid molecule, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is present in the salivary gland of T. infestans. We characterized the lipid profiles of each unit of the T. infestans salivary gland. We noticed that LPC is present in the three units of the salivary gland and that the insect feeding state does not influence its proportion. T. infestans saliva and LPC can enhance T. cruzi transmission to mice by dramatically altering the profile of inflammatory cells at the site of inoculation on mouse skin, facilitating the transmission of T. cruzi to the vertebrate host. Consequently, the mortality curves of either saliva- or LPC-injected mice display significant higher mortality rates than the control. Altogether, these results implicate LPC as one of key salivary molecule involved in Chagas disease transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Gold nanoparticles – against parasites and insect vectors
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli
      Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The toxicity of Au NPs against helminths was reviewed, covering Schistosoma mansoni trematodes as well as Raillietina cestodes. Furthermore, I summarized the information available on the antiparasitic role of Au NPs in the fight against malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and microsporidian parasites affecting human and animals health. Besides, I examined the employ of Au NPs as biomarkers, tools for diagnostics and adjuvants for the induction of transmission blocking immunity in malaria vaccine research. In the final section, major challenges and future outlooks for further research are discussed, with special reference to the pressing need of further knowledge about the effect of Au NPs on other arthropod vectors, such as ticks, tsetse flies, tabanids, sandflies and blackflies, and related ecotoxicology assays.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Seasonal distribution of Phlebotomine sandfly in a vulnerable area for
           tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission in Córdoba, Argentina
    • Authors: Iliana M. Ontivero; Mauricio D. Beranek; Juan R. Rosa; Francisco F. Ludueña-Almeida; Walter R. Almirón
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Iliana M. Ontivero, Mauricio D. Beranek, Juan R. Rosa, Francisco F. Ludueña-Almeida, Walter R. Almirón
      Thirty-seven sandfly species are listed for Argentina distributed in 14 provinces and Leishmaniasis cases extend from the north of the country to Unquillo City (Córdoba Province), but potential vectors are found further to the south. This is the first study on diversity, spatial and temporal distribution of sandflies on the outskirts of the temperate Córdoba City, and the factors that influence their presence. Migonemyia migonei, record here for Córdoba City for the first time, and the Evandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi Complex was found, also Ev. cortelezzii males were captured for the first time, these sandflies being more abundant during the warm months due to meteorological factors and the presence of blood meal sources. At least the eastern outskirts of Córdoba City, the second most important city of the country, are at risk of Leishmaniasis transmission if Leishmania spp. enters into the area due to the presence of competent vectors and adequate vertebrate hosts, in a favorable socio-economic context.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.028
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • A multiplex microfluidic loop-mediated isothermal amplification array for
           detection of malaria-related parasites and vectors
    • Authors: Rui Mao; Ge Ge; Zhuo Wang; Rongzhang Hao; Guohao Zhang; Zhenzhou Yang; Bincheng Lin; Yajun Ma; Hongtao Liu; Yuguang Du
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Rui Mao, Ge Ge, Zhuo Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Guohao Zhang, Zhenzhou Yang, Bincheng Lin, Yajun Ma, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du
      Malaria infection poses a great threaten to public health even nowadays. The conventional diagnosis tools of malaria parasites and vectors require systematic training for the observers accompanied by the low throughput. In this study, a new detection system, i.e., multiplex microfluidic loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mμLAMP) array, was developed to provide a convenient, rapid and economical detection system for malaria diagnosis. A microfluidic-based detection chip was designed and developed, targeting the conserved gene of four Anopheles and two Plasmodium species responsible for most of the malaria cases occurred in China. The DNA preparation of Anopheles and Plasmodium samples was realized by using a newly-developed DNA extraction method. For this mμLAMP array system, the detection limit was determined to be 1pg of targeting DNA with high sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (100%). Further, the accuracy of such mμLAMP analysis was evaluated by the analysis of 48 Anopheles mosquito samples, of which 30 were termed to be target Anopheles, displaying high consistency with that by morphological analysis. In conclusion, the mμLAMP detection system was proved to be a visible, sensitive, specific and high-throughput diagnostic tool. Considering the portable manipulation of such detection system, our studies shed light on its potential application of malaria surveillance on the spot.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in birds
           from South Africa
    • Authors: Radka Lukášová; Kateřina Kobédová; Ali Halajian; Eva Bártová; Jean-Benjamin Murat; Kgethedi Michael Rampedi; Wilmien J. Luus-Powell
      Pages: 93 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Radka Lukášová, Kateřina Kobédová, Ali Halajian, Eva Bártová, Jean-Benjamin Murat, Kgethedi Michael Rampedi, Wilmien J. Luus-Powell
      There are not any records on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of wild birds in the African continent. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DNA from these protozoan parasites in brain tissue samples collected in years 2014–2015 from 110 wild and domestic birds of 15 orders. Birds came mainly from the province of Limpopo (n=103); the other seven birds came from other five provinces of South Africa. Parasite DNAs were detected by PCR in animal brains. While all samples were negative for N. caninum, T. gondii DNA was detected in three (2.7%) birds: a Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata), a Laughing Dove (S. senegalensis) and a Southern-Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), all from Limpopo province. Positive samples were selected for genotyping by a 15 microsatellite markers method in a single multiplex PCR assay. Only the sample from the Red-eyed Dove was successfully genotyped and characterized as type II. This is the first detection of T. gondii in tissue of native African wild birds and the first study focusing on N. caninum in birds from South Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.029
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Laboratory assessment of divaricatic acid against Biomphalaria glabrata
           and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
    • Authors: H.A.M.F. Silva; W.N. Siqueira; J.L.F. Sá; L.R.S Silva; M.C.B. Martins; A.L. Aires; F.F. Amâncio; E.C. Pereira; M.C.P.A Albuquerque; A.M.M.A. Melo; N.H. Silva
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): H.A.M.F. Silva, W.N. Siqueira, J.L.F. Sá, L.R.S Silva, M.C.B. Martins, A.L. Aires, F.F. Amâncio, E.C. Pereira, M.C.P.A Albuquerque, A.M.M.A. Melo, N.H. Silva
      In this study, the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activities of divaricatic acid was evaluated, targeting the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata and cercariae of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. In addition, the environmental toxicity of divaricatic acid was assessed by bioassay using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. Divaricatic acid showed high toxicity against both adult snails (5μg/mL) and embryos (20μg/mL after 6h of exposure). Similar activity was observed in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae after only a short exposure time (10μg/mL after 30min of exposure). The divaricatic acid did not show toxicity in the acute test using Artemia salina at concentrations equal to or below 200μg/mL. The divaricatic acid proved to be a promising substance for the elimination of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of schistosomiasis, as well as the cercariae of the pathogen, while being non-toxic to the Artemia salina at the same concentrations. This is the first experimental observation of the molluscicidal and cercaricide activity of divaricatic acid.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • A rapid high-resolution melting method for differentiation of Leishmania
           species targeting lack gene
    • Authors: Ziwei Kuang; Chunying Zhang; Huasheng Pang; Ying Ma
      Pages: 103 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Ziwei Kuang, Chunying Zhang, Huasheng Pang, Ying Ma
      Objectives The aim of this research is to verify that if lack gene can be used for differentiation of Leishmania under HRM assay. Methods Two specific primers were designed targeting polymorphic sites on the lack gene sequence. DNA from promastigotes of six species of Leishmania based on reference strains were tested following a HRM protocol. We also tested ten Chinese isolates in blind to validate our method. Results Combined with amplicon of the two primers, the six reference strains can be easily discriminated without the effect of initial concentration of DNA templates. Ten Chinese isolates detected by our HRM method resulted in full accord with the standard identification results in previous study. Conclusion HRM is a rapid and reproducible method to discriminate different Leishmania species and lack gene is a potential novel biological characteristic for easy differentiation of Leishmania isolates in China.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Reciprocal contribution of clinical studies and the HP10 antigen ELISA for
           the diagnosis of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis
    • Authors: R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Arturo Carpio; Alfredo Campoverde; Patricia Sastre; Glenda Rojas; María Milagros Cortez
      Pages: 119 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): R. Michael E. Parkhouse, Arturo Carpio, Alfredo Campoverde, Patricia Sastre, Glenda Rojas, María Milagros Cortez
      To evaluate diagnosis of active neurocysticercosis, paired cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients and 17 control neurological patients were assayed in the HP10 Taenia antigen (Ag) ELISA. The CSF samples were also tested with an HP10 Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). The HP10 Ag was detected by ELISA in the CSF of 5/5 patients with Definitive extraparenchymal NCC, and in 4/5 of the corresponding sera. In the Definitive parenchymal group, on the other hand, the HP10 Ag was absent in 2/3 CSF (with a very low value in the one positive sample) and all the corresponding serum samples. Samples of CSF from 4/7 patients in the Probable parenchymal group, were also significantly HP10 Ag positive, suggesting the presence of extraparenchymal cysts not identified by the imaging studies. With the possible exception of one patient, the corresponding serum samples of the Probable parenchymal NCC group, were all HP10 Ag negative. Samples of CSF from 9 NCC patients diagnosed with Mixed parenchymal and extraparenchymal NCC were all significantly HP10 Ag positive, confirming the presence of extraparenchymal cysts, with only 7/9 of the corresponding serum samples being HP10 positive. Thus detection of the HP10 Ag indicates extraparenchymal and not parenchymal cyst localization and is more sensitive with CSF than serum. Three neurological patients clinically diagnosed as subarachnoid cyst, hydrocephalus and tuberculoma, respectively, were clearly positive for HP10 Ag. Of these, two were confirmed as NCC by subsequent imaging; the third died prior to further examination. Thus, a total of 8 patients had their clinical diagnosis questioned. Finally, there was good agreement between the HP10 Ag ELISA and LFA with CSF samples giving an optical density ≥0.4 in the ELISA assay. In conclusion, the HP10 Ag assay should provide a valuable and reciprocal tool in the clinical diagnosis and follow up of extraparenchymal NCC.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Regional and seasonal effects on the gastrointestinal parasitism of
           captive forest musk deer
    • Authors: Xiao-Long Hu; Gang Liu; Yu-Ting Wei; Yi-Hua Wang; Tian-Xiang Zhang; Shuang Yang; De-Fu Hu; Shu-Qiang Liu
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Xiao-Long Hu, Gang Liu, Yu-Ting Wei, Yi-Hua Wang, Tian-Xiang Zhang, Shuang Yang, De-Fu Hu, Shu-Qiang Liu
      Parasite infections can cause adverse effects on health, survival and welfare of forest musk deer. However, few studies have quantified the parasite infection status and evaluated the parasite temporal dynamics and differences between breeding centers for captive forest musk deer. The purpose of this study was to assess seasonal and regional effects on the parasite prevalence, shedding capacity, diversity, aggregation and infracommunity to establish baseline data on captive forest musk deer. The McMaster technique was applied to count parasite eggs or oocysts in 990 fecal samples collected at three breeding centers located in Qinling Mountains and Tibetan Plateau during spring, summer, and winter. Five gastrointestinal parasite groups were found in musk deer, and Eimeria spp. were dominant (mean oocysts per gram=1273.7±256.3). A positive correlation between Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. (r=0.336, p<0.001) based on shedding capacity data was found, as well as a negative correlation between Eimeria spp. and Moniezia spp. (r=−0.375, p=0.003). Both seasonal and regional differences in diversity, prevalence, shedding capacity, aggregation and infracommunity were observed for five parasite groups. The low level of aggregation and high shedding capacity of Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. might reflect the contaminated environment, and indicate that host-parasite relationships are unstable. The high degree of aggregation of Trichuris spp., Ascaris spp., and Moniezia spp. also suggests that some individual hosts had less ability to resist pathogens and greater transmission potential than others. These conclusions suggest that a focus on disease control strategies could improve the health of forest musk deer in captivity.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Prevalence, risk factors and vectors identification of bovine anaplasmosis
           and babesiosis in and around Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Nejash Abdela; Nuraddis Ibrahim; Feyissa Begna
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Nejash Abdela, Nuraddis Ibrahim, Feyissa Begna
      Among tick-borne diseases, bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis are considered to be one of the most important in ruminants worldwide, causing significant economic losses in tropical and subtropical areas. This cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objectives to assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis and also to identify the vectors involved in transmission of these diseases in and around Jimma town, south western Ethiopia. A simple random sampling technique was employed for selecting a sampling unit and logistic regression was used to determine the association of hypothesized risk factors with positivity for bovine anaplasmosis and/or babesiosis. A total of 408 bovine blood samples were examined for the presence of either anaplasmosis or babesiosis by Giemsa staining technique and overall prevalence of 11.7% babesiosis and 6.1% anaplasmosis were determined. Two Babesia species (2.2% Babesia bovis and 9.8% B. bigemina) and two anaplasma species (5.1% Anaplasma marginale and 1.2% A. centrale) were identified. Even though risk factors like age, body condition, management system, sex and presence of ticks were considered, only age (p=0.006) and body condition (p=0.039) were found to be significantly associated with anaplasmosis. Moreover, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant association of babesiosis with age (p=0.003), body condition (p=0.012) and presence of ticks (p=0.005). For both infections the mean PCV of infected animals was significantly (p<0.05) lower than non-infected animals. Similarly, the mean body temperature of infected animals was significantly (p<0.05) higher than non-infected animals. The overall 70.8% infestation of cattle with four tick species, namely Amblyomma cohaerens (58.5%) and A. variegatum (44.1%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (50.5%) and R. evertsi evertsi (12.9%) were recorded. A significant positive correlation was observed between the presence of R. evertsi evertsi (p=0.000) and R. (B). decoloratus (p=0.000) on the animals and positivity for bovine anaplasmosis. Besides, R. (B). decoloratus was found to be the only tick species which its presence on the animal was significantly correlated (p=0.000) with babesiosis positivity. Conclusively, the study revealed a moderate prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis in the study area which need further investigations using modern serological and molecular techniques for the identification of the carriers the infections and identification of the potential vectors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Advantages of bioconjugated silica-coated nanoparticles as an innovative
           diagnosis for human toxoplasmosis
    • Authors: Ibrahim Aly; Eman E. Taher; Gehan EL nain; Hoda EL Sayed; Faten A. Mohammed; Rabab S. Hamad; Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Ibrahim Aly, Eman E. Taher, Gehan EL nain, Hoda EL Sayed, Faten A. Mohammed, Rabab S. Hamad, Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Nanotechnology is a promising arena for generating new applications in Medicine. To successfully functionalised nanoparticles for a given biomedical application, a wide range of chemical, physical and biological factors have to be taken into account. Silica-coated nanoparticles, (SiO2NP) exhibit substantial diagnostic activity owing to their large surface to volume ratios and crystallographic surface structure. This work aimed to evaluate the advantage of bioconjugation of SiO2NP with PAb against Toxoplasma lyzate antigen (TLA) as an innovative diagnostic method for human toxoplasmosis. This cross-sectional study included 120 individuals, divided into Group I: 70 patients suspected for Toxoplasma gondii based on the presence of clinical manifestation. Group II: 30 patients harboring other parasites than T. gondii Group III: 20 apparently healthy individuals free from toxoplasmosis and other parasitic infections served as negative control. Detection of circulating Toxoplasma antigen was performed by Sandwich ELISA and Nano-sandwich ELISA on sera and pooled urine of human samples. Using Sandwich ELISA, 10 out of 70 suspected Toxoplasma-infected human serum samples showed false negative and 8 out of 30 of other parasites groups were false positive giving 85.7% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity, while the sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 70% respectively in urine samples. Using Nano-Sandwich ELISA, 7 out of 70 suspected Toxoplasma-infected human samples showed false negative results and the sensitivity of the assay was 90.0%, while 4 out of 30 of other parasites groups were false positive giving 92.0% specificity, while the sensitivity and specificity were 82.6% and 80% respectively in urine samples. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that loading SiO2 nanoparticles with pAb increased the sensitivity and specificity of Nano-sandwich ELISA for detection of T.gondii antigens in serum and urine samples, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Clinical, laboratory, and demographic determinants of hospitalization due
           to dengue in 7613 patients: A retrospective study based on hierarchical
    • Authors: Natal Santos da Silva; Eduardo A. Undurraga; Elis Regina da Silva Ferreira; Cássia Fernanda Estofolete; Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Natal Santos da Silva, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Elis Regina da Silva Ferreira, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
      In Brazil, the incidence of hospitalization due to dengue, as an indicator of severity, has drastically increased since 1998. The objective of our study was to identify risk factors associated with subsequent hospitalization related to dengue. We analyzed 7613 dengue confirmed via serology (ELISA), non-structural protein 1, or polymerase chain reaction amplification. We used a hierarchical framework to generate a multivariate logistic regression based on a variety of risk variables. This was followed by multiple statistical analyses to assess hierarchical model accuracy, variance, goodness of fit, and whether or not this model reliably represented the population. The final model, which included age, sex, ethnicity, previous dengue infection, hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma leakage, and organ failure, showed that all measured parameters, with the exception of previous dengue, were statistically significant. The presence of organ failure was associated with the highest risk of subsequent dengue hospitalization (OR=5·75; CI=3·53–9·37). Therefore, plasma leakage and organ failure were the main indicators of hospitalization due to dengue, although other variables of minor importance should also be considered to refer dengue patients to hospital treatment, which may lead to a reduction in avoidable deaths as well as costs related to dengue.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility test of
           Staphylococcus aureus in Bovine cross breed mastitic milk in and around
           Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Befikadu Seyoum; Hailemariam Kefyalew; Birhanu Abera; Nejash Abdela
      Pages: 32 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Befikadu Seyoum, Hailemariam Kefyalew, Birhanu Abera, Nejash Abdela
      A cross sectional study was undertaken from November 2016 to March 2017 in and around Asella town, Oromia regional state, southern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, in Bovine cross breed mastitis milk. A total of 384 lactating dairy cows were screened for mastitis based on clinical examinations and California mastitis test (CMT). Out of 230 lactating crossbred cows with either clinical or subclinical mastitis examined for the involvement of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated at a rate of 47.2% (N=92) and 42.9% (N=15) of the sub- clinical and clinical cases, respectively. The overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus scored in this study was 46.5% (N=107). Descriptive statistics and chi-square were used in order to assess the magnitude of the difference of comparable variables, as a result, among risk factors considered, Age, parity, and lactation stage were found significantly associated with the occurrence of S. aureus in mastitis milk (p<0.05). The current study revealed that S. aureus has 0% susceptibility to penicillinG, followed by tetracycline (14.2%). However, these randomly selected isolates were found to be totally (100%) susceptible to the Kanamycin. The possible justification for, low antimicrobial susceptibility to these commonly used antimicrobials might be repeated and uncontrolled use of these drugs without veterinarian’s prescription. Proper provention and regular antimicrobial sensitivity testing helps to select effective antibiotics and ultimately reduce the development of resistance towards commonly used antibiotics. To conclude, the study was able to show that, mastitis caused by S. aureus is one of the major problems of dairy cows in milk production and imposing public health hazard in study area. Hence, every possible control and prevention strategies should be implemented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Aspects on the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and natural infection by
           Leishmania hertigi in the Southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil
    • Authors: Sirlei Franck Thies; Roberta Vieira de Morais Bronzoni; Érika Monteiro Michalsky; Emerson Soares dos Santos; David José Ferreira da Silva; Edelberto Santos Dias; Amílcar Sabino Damazo
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Sirlei Franck Thies, Roberta Vieira de Morais Bronzoni, Érika Monteiro Michalsky, Emerson Soares dos Santos, David José Ferreira da Silva, Edelberto Santos Dias, Amílcar Sabino Damazo
      The medical and veterinary importance of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) follow as a result of some species ability to transmit the zoonotic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Of all municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso, Sinop ranks first in reported cases of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Sinop urban zone encompasses three permanent forest preservation areas (APPs) that provide refuge for insects and other vertebrate hosts. We assessed ecological parameters and investigated the natural infection by Leishmania spp. of the phlebotomine fauna from four ecotypes with different levels of urbanization in the urban area of Sinop. A total of 62,745 sand flies were collected, of which 52.34% female. Out of 37 species in this study, nine were found to be constant. Sand flies frequency and diversity were highest in APPs (96.85%; 33 species). Lutzomyia dasypodogeton was the most frequent species and exhibited the greatest abundance (SISA=0.977). The neighborhoods around APPs and completely urbanized neighborhoods presented noteworthy ecological similarity. Moreover, eight vector sand fly species with medicalwere identified, and one L. antunesi sample pool was found to be naturally infected with Le. hertigi. We observed a high frequency and diversity of sand flies, including some species that are known to be major vectors of ACL. Further studies are needed on the natural rates of infection in humans, domestic animals, and sylvatic hosts to better comprehend the leishmaniases dynamics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Sero-epidemiology and hemato-biochemical study of bovine leptospirosis in
           flood affected zone of Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Ijaz; Syed Nazar Abbas; Shahid Hussain Farooqi; Amjad Islam Aqib; Ghulam Ali Anwar; Abdul Rehman; Muhammad Muddassir Ali; Khalid Mehmood; Amjad Khan
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Muhammad Ijaz, Syed Nazar Abbas, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Amjad Islam Aqib, Ghulam Ali Anwar, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Muddassir Ali, Khalid Mehmood, Amjad Khan
      The bovine leptospirosis is an economically important zoonotic disease of flood affected areas worldwide, but scarce information is available about its epidemiology in Pakistan. This is a first study on sero-epidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Pakistan. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine leptospirosis in flood affected zone of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 385 serum samples were randomly collected from four tehsils of district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan. The serum samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-leptospira antibodies. The overall sero-prevalence of leptospirosis was 30.39%. The prevalence was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in cattle (56.25%) than buffaloes (4.66%). The key risk factors identified based on multivariable logistic regression were; confined system of rearing, flooded area, and lesser to graduate level of education as risk factors for leptospirosis. The values of hematological parameters varied significantly (p <0.05) for Hb, TEC and PCV while there was no significant (p >0.05) difference among TLC values among sero-positive and sero-negative animals. The serum biochemical profile revealed significant differences (p< 0.05) in values of ALT, AST and creatinine among the sero-positive and negative animals. Hence, it can be concluded that leptospirosis is an emerging and neglected disease in flood affected zone of Pakistan, and the disease needs to be explored comprehensively in other parts of the country to sort out solid strategies for its control and eradication.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.032
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Natural infection of Ctenodactylus gundi by Leishmania major in Tunisia
    • Authors: Wissem Ghawar; Jihène Bettaieb; Sadok Salem; Mohammed-Ali Snoussi; Kaouther Jaouadi; Rihab Yazidi; Afif Ben-Salah
      Pages: 89 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Wissem Ghawar, Jihène Bettaieb, Sadok Salem, Mohammed-Ali Snoussi, Kaouther Jaouadi, Rihab Yazidi, Afif Ben-Salah
      Incriminating new rodent species, as reservoir hosts of Leishmania parasites is crucial for understanding the transmission cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. Ctenodactylus (C.) gundi was previously described as extremely abundant in all Tunisian Leishmania (L.) tropica foci in south Tunisia besides its presence in L. major endemic area. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania species parasites among C. gundi in two endemic regions in Tunisia: Sidi Bouzid and Tataouine. Total DNA was isolated from the spleens and the livers of 92C. gundi. Leishmaniasis clinical manifestations were detected among 11 rodents (12%). Leishmania parasites were detected in 30 (32.6%) rodents using direct exam method. Leishmania DNA was detected in 40 (43.5%) C. gundi by combining results among spleens and livers using ITS1-PCR. Positive samples were confirmed to be L. major except for only one specimen which was L. tropica. These results demonstrated, for the first time, the high natural infection rate of C. gundi with L. major parasites in Tunisia. Hence, C. gundi should be considered as potential reservoir host of Leishmania parasites causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate - amiodaquine for treating
           uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Ghindae Zonal Referral Hospital,
    • Authors: Abdu O. Mohammed; Seltene Tewolde; Dawit Estifanos; Yohannes Tekeste; Mohammed-hamid Osman
      Pages: 94 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Abdu O. Mohammed, Seltene Tewolde, Dawit Estifanos, Yohannes Tekeste, Mohammed-hamid Osman
      Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) which is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Eritrea. Materials and methods The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 in Ghindae Zonal Referral Hospital in Northern Red Sea Zone. Out of 481 patients screened, 103 were enrolled in the study. The therapeutic efficacy test was done as per the WHO protocol for a period of 28days of follow-up. Results The PCR-uncorrected treatment outcome was classified as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) in 95 patients, which meant the cure rate was 96.0 (95% CI: 89.7%–98.5%) after survival analysis. Conclusions Therapeutic efficacy of AS+AQ still meets the WHO efficacy criteria for its continued use in the study area as the first-line drug against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, further studies are needed using correction with molecular markers to monitor therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs in this area.

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon canis in Mauritius
    • Authors: Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki; Angela Monica Ionică; Keshav Jeetah; Călin Mircea Gherman; Andrei Daniel Mihalca
      Pages: 116 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Angela Monica Ionică, Keshav Jeetah, Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
      In this study, Hepatozoon species was molecularly identified and characterized for the first time on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon isolates were analysed from three naturally infected dogs. The sequences of H. canis were similar to the 18S rRNA partial sequences (JX112783, AB365071 99%) from dog blood samples from West Indies and Nigeria. Our sequences were deposited in the GenBank database.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Investigation of infectious reproductive pathogens of large ruminants: Are
           neosporosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis and BVDV of relevance in Lao
    • Authors: L. Olmo; M.T. Dye; M.P. Reichel; J.R. Young; S. Nampanya; S. Khounsy; P.C. Thomson; P.A. Windsor; R.D. Bush
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): L. Olmo, M.T. Dye, M.P. Reichel, J.R. Young, S. Nampanya, S. Khounsy, P.C. Thomson, P.A. Windsor, R.D. Bush
      N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo are globally significant reproductive pathogens that cause abortion and reproductive loss in large ruminants. Prevalence information is lacking in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) despite the poor reproductive performance of cattle and buffalo. Serological examination of frozen cattle (n =90) and buffalo (n =61) sera by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided the first reported screening of some of these pathogens in Laos. Seroprevalence differed amongst these large ruminant species, with N. caninum, BVDV and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo antibodies found in 68.9% (95% CI±11.6), 4.9% (95% CI±5.4) and 3.3% (95% CI±4.5) of buffalo sera, respectively, and in 7.8% (95% CI±5.5), 10.0% (95% CI±6.2) and 22.2% (95% CI±8.6) of cattle sera, respectively. Buffalo sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of N. caninum compared to cattle (p< 0.001) and cattle sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of L. interrogans serovar Hardjo compared to buffalo (p = 0.003). Variability was also observed across provinces for N. caninum in buffalo (p = 0.007) and for L. interrogans serovar Hardjo in cattle (p = 0.071), suggesting provincial risk factors conducive to pathogen transmission. BVDV and N. caninum seropositivity were negatively associated in buffalo (p = 0.018) and cattle (p = 0.003). In buffalo, L. interrogans serovar Hardjo and BVDV seropositivity were associated (p = 0.035, p =0.039). The identification of antibodies against three major abortifacient pathogens in Laos prompts further research to determine if infection is associated with low reproductive efficiency and the risk factors for infection. This is needed for the development of evidence based prevention strategies for improved large ruminant reproductive management among smallholders in Laos.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • The Akt-like kinase of Leishmania panamensis: As a new molecular target
           for drug discovery
    • Authors: Didier Tirado-Duarte; Marcel Marín-Villa; Rodrigo Ochoa; Gustavo Blandón-Fuentes; Maurilio José Soares; Sara Maria Robledo; Rubén E. Varela-Miranda
      Pages: 171 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Didier Tirado-Duarte, Marcel Marín-Villa, Rodrigo Ochoa, Gustavo Blandón-Fuentes, Maurilio José Soares, Sara Maria Robledo, Rubén E. Varela-Miranda
      The Akt-like kinase of Leishmania spp. is a cytoplasmic orthologous protein of the serine/threonine kinase B-PKB/human-Akt group, which is involved in the cellular survival of these parasites. By the application of a computational strategy we obtained two specific inhibitors of the Akt-like protein of L. panamensis (UBMC1 and UBMC4), which are predicted to bind specifically to the pleckstrin domain (PH) of the enzyme. We show that the Akt-like of Leishmania panamensis is phospho-activated in parasites under nutritional and thermic stress, this phosphorylation is blocked by the UBMC1 and UMBC2 and such inhibition leads to cell death. Amongst the effects caused by the inhibitors on the parasites we found high percentage of hypodiploidy and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Ultrastructural studies showed highly vacuolated cytoplasm, as well as shortening of the flagellum, loss of nuclear membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation. Altogether the presented results suggest that the cell death caused by UMBC1 and UMBC4 may be associated to an apoptosis-like process. The compounds present an inhibitory concentration (IC50) over intracellular amastigotes of L. panamensis of 9.2±0.8μM for UBMC1 and 4.6±1.9μM for UBMC4. The cytotoxic activity for UBMC1 and UBMC4 in human macrophages derived from monocytes (huMDM) was 29±1.2μM and >40μM respectively. Our findings strongly support that the presented compounds can be plausible candidates as a new therapeutic alternative for the inhibition of specific kinases of the parasite.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Estimated seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group
           Rickettsia exposure among herders and livestock in Mongolia
    • Authors: Michael E. von Fricken; Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren; Bazartseren Boldbaatar; Pagbajab Nymadawa; Thomas A. Weppelmann; Bekh-Ochir Baigalmaa; Benjamin D. Anderson; Megan E. Reller; Paul M. Lantos; Gregory C. Gray
      Pages: 179 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Michael E. von Fricken, Sukhbaatar Lkhagvatseren, Bazartseren Boldbaatar, Pagbajab Nymadawa, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Bekh-Ochir Baigalmaa, Benjamin D. Anderson, Megan E. Reller, Paul M. Lantos, Gregory C. Gray
      Background To better understand the epidemiology of tick-borne disease in Mongolia, a comprehensive seroprevalence study was conducted investigating exposure to Anaplasma spp. and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in nomadic herders and their livestock across three provinces from 2014 to 2015. Methods Blood was collected from 397 herders and 2370 livestock, including sheep, goats, cattle, horses and camels. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using commercially available slides coated with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. Logistic regression was used to determine if the odds of previous exposure differed by gender, location, and species, with or without adjustment for age. To examine the association between seroprevalence and environmental variables we used ArcGIS to circumscribe the five major clusters where human and animal data were collected. Results Anaplasma spp. exposure was detected in 37.3% (136/365) of humans and 47.3% (1120/2370) of livestock; SFG Rickettsia exposure was detected in 19.5% (73/374) humans and 20.4% (478/2342) livestock. Compared to the southern province (aimag) of Dornogovi, located in the Gobi Desert, humans were significantly more likely to be exposed to Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in the northern provinces of Tov (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 3.5, 15.1; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.7, 7.5), and Selenge (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.4, 14.0; OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.8). Conclusion The high seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. and SFG Rickettsia in humans and livestock suggests that exposure to tick-borne pathogens may be common in herders and livestock in Mongolia, particularly in the more northern regions of the country. Until more is known about these pathogens in Mongolia, physicians and veterinarians in the countryside should consider testing for Anaplasma and SFG Rickettsia infections and treating clinically compatible cases, while public health authorities should expand surveillance efforts for these emerging infections.

      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Associations of DC-SIGN (CD209) promoter -336G/A polymorphism (rs4804803)
           with dengue infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Noel Pabalan; Suwit Chaisri; Sompong Tabunhan; Achara Phumyen; Hamdi Jarjanazi; Theodore S. Steiner
      Pages: 186 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Noel Pabalan, Suwit Chaisri, Sompong Tabunhan, Achara Phumyen, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Theodore S. Steiner
      Background and aim Dengue virus entry into a host is associated with a cell surface protein, DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin). A common CD209-336G/A (rs4804803) polymorphism in DC-SIGN may affect severity of dengue virus infection (DEN) and incidence of dengue fever (DF) or the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). However, the reported associations of these two outcomes and CD-209 have been inconsistent, which prompted a meta-analysis to obtain more precise estimates. Methods A literature search yielded seven case-control studies. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals using standard genetic models. Outlier treatment examined sources of potential heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was performed for ethnicity and age. Results All significant outcomes for association indicating reduced risk were pegged at P =0.007–0.05. In the homozygous and recessive models, these were observed in the overall analysis (OR 0.52–0.55), and subgroups of South/Central Americans (OR 0.30–0.32) and school-age children (OR 0.44) in the DHF analysis as well as the codominant model among Asians in DF (OR 0.59). These significant outcomes are strengthened by their non-heterogeneity (P > 0.10) and robustness of the effects. Most pooled effects in DF and DEN were variable. Conclusions The DC-SIGN -336G/A polymorphism significantly affects DHF and DF incidence with the effect more pronounced in certain analyzed patient subgroups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Biology of the introduced species Triatoma lecticularia (Hemiptera:
           Reduviidae) to northwestern Mexico, under laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Yunuen Grant-Guillén; Benjamín Nogueda-Torres; Jordi Gascón-Sánchez; Gumercindo Goicochea-Del Rosal; José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
      Pages: 194 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Yunuen Grant-Guillén, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Jordi Gascón-Sánchez, Gumercindo Goicochea-Del Rosal, José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
      The first record of Triatoma lecticularia out of its reported distribution area together with the brief description of the said area is provided in this paper. In addition, some biological parameters related to hatching of eggs, life cycle and feeding and defecation behaviors for each instar of one population of T. lecticularia from its previously reported distribution area (PR) and for each instar of that introduced recently found population (IS) of this species were evaluated and compared. Twenty-eight specimens were collected from IS, mostly (64.29%) from peridomestic areas (mainly chicken coops). No significant (p> 0.05) differences were recorded between the two studied cohorts in their average time to hatch, which was close to 19days. The median egg-to-adult development time, the number of blood meals at each nymphal, the instar mortality rates and median time-lapse for beginning of feeding were significantly (p< 0.05) shorter for the IS cohort. Median feeding time was higher in PR. Defecation delay was shorter than 10min in both studied cohorts. Given these results, the introduced recently found population of T. lecticularia could be considered an important potential vector of Trypanosoma cruzi to human populations and could replace main triatomine species on its new distribution area.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • High frequency of trypanosomatids in gallery forest bats of a Neotropical
    • Authors: João Lucas M. Lourenço; Thaís T.C. Minuzzi-Souza; Larissa R. Silva; Amanda C. Oliveira; Vagner J. Mendonça; Nadjar Nitz; Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
      Pages: 200 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): João Lucas M. Lourenço, Thaís T.C. Minuzzi-Souza, Larissa R. Silva, Amanda C. Oliveira, Vagner J. Mendonça, Nadjar Nitz, Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
      Bats are well-known hosts of trypanosomatids, though information about their role as reservoirs of these protozoans in the Brazilian savanna is poorly known. We aimed to analyze the occurrence of trypanosomatid species in bats occurring in remnants of gallery forests of Brasília, Federal District of Brazil. We sampled bats using mist nets in six sites, and we collected blood, wing fragments and oral swab samples from all captured individuals. Trypanosomatids were identified in the captured bats through sequencing of the SSUrRNA region and kDNA qPCR. We found no parasite in blood smears of 146 individuals of 14 species captured, but blood cultures were positive for nine bats. We detected trypanosomatids molecularly in 111 (76%) specimens of all bat species in the studied areas. Most of the infected bats had Leishmania-like DNA detected in blood and swab samples of the oral mucosa. We distinguished three species of Trypanosoma (Trypanosoma dionisii, T. rangeli and T. cruzi) in Carollia perspicillata. SSUrRNA PCR of oral samples is a non-invasive and practical method for identification of trypanosomatid species in bats. Our results support our belief that bats could be potential reservoirs for Trypanosoma and Leishmania-like species in the enzootic cycle of these parasites in gallery forests of the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • First confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in a
           cattle farm in Henan, China
    • Authors: Yanyan Cui; Xiaoxing Wang; Yan Zhang; Yaqun Yan; Haiju Dong; Fuchun Jian; Ke Shi; Longxian Zhang; Rongjun Wang; Changshen Ning
      Pages: 207 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Yanyan Cui, Xiaoxing Wang, Yan Zhang, Yaqun Yan, Haiju Dong, Fuchun Jian, Ke Shi, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning
      Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) impose a significant constraint to livestock production world widely. In this paper, we presented a case of TBD in a cattle farm in Henan, China. 35 blood samples (7 samples sent by veterinarian, 28 samples gathered by our colleagues) were collected from ill, surviving and asymptomatic cattle and microscopic observation and PCR assays were conducted to characterize the pathogens. Genus Ixodes feeding on these cattle were collected and identified. Theileria annulata-like and Anaplasma marginale-like pathogens were observed in the blood smears stained with Giemsa staining under microscope. Furthermore, 5 out of 7 cattle blood samples were found to be positive for T. annulata by PCR. In the 28 blood specimens, three were positive for T. annulata, while A. marginale DNA was detected in nine blood DNA samples. Besides, 56 ticks feeding on cattle were collected from this farm and were all identified as Rhipisephalus microplus, meanwhile, 10 of them were found to be positive for A. marginale. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the msp4 gene sequences of A. marginale obtained in this study showed that the isolate from cattle (KX840009) fell in the same clade with that of R. microplus (KX904527), sharing 100% similarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in cattle farms in Henan, China.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.029
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Control of biting lice, Mallophaga − a review
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Alice Caselli; Graziano Di Giuseppe; Angelo Canale
      Pages: 211 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Alice Caselli, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Angelo Canale
      The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious concerns for human health and the environment. Natural enemies of Mallophaga are scarcely studied. Their biological control with predators and parasites has not been explored yet. However, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported as effective in vitro and in vivo experiments against Damalinia bovis infestation on cattle. Furthermore, different Bacillus thuringiensis preparations have been tested against Mallophaga, the most effective were B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, kenyae and morrisoni. Lastly, plant-borne insecticides have been evaluated against Mallophaga. Tested products mainly contained bioactive principles from two Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica, and Carapa guianensis. High efficacy of neem-borne preparations was reported, leading to the development of several products currently marketed. Overall, our review highlighted that our knowledge about Mallophaga vector activity and control is extremely patchy. Their control still relied on the employ of chemical pesticides widely used to fight other primary pests and vectors of livestock, such as ticks, while the development of eco-friendly control tool is scarce. Behavior-based control of Mallophaga, using pheromone-based lures or even the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) may also represent a potential route for their control, but our limited knowledge on their behavioral ecology and chemical communication strongly limit any possible approach.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.031
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to
           increased migration in southeast of Turkey
    • Authors: Fadime Eroglu; Nilgün Ulutasdemir; Mustafa Tanrıverdi; Eda Icbay Dagli; Ismail Soner Koltas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
      Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we investigated genetic variation in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis using the cytochrome oxidase I genetic DNA sequence. We found 4 (17.4%) Ricettsia prowazekii and 3 (13.1%) Bartonella quintana in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis, while we did not find any Bartonella recurrentis in any of the DNA samples. We demonstrated 1.8% genetic variations in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis with Bartonella quintana. The phylogenetic tree based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that P. h. capitis in southeast Turkey are classified into two clades (clade A, clade B) and Bartonella quintana was found in only clade B. However, we did not find any genetic variations in other DNA samples in this region. The genetic variations may be related to P. h.capitis vector of Bartonella quintana has found in this study. In addition, this study was shown that P. h. capitis do transmit Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana to people, epidemic typhus and trench fever may emergence in Gaziantep southeast of Turkey in the future.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.003
  • The Effect of Reinfection and Mixed Trypanosoma cruzi Infections on
           Disease Progression in Mice
    • Authors: Catherine J. Perez; R.C. Andrew Thompson; Sarah K. Keatley; Audra L. Walsh; Alan J. Lymbery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Catherine J. Perez, R.C. Andrew Thompson, Sarah K. Keatley, Audra L. Walsh, Alan J. Lymbery
      The progression of Chagas disease (CD) varies significantly from host to host and is affected by multiple factors. In particular, mixed strain infections and reinfections have the potential to exacerbate disease progression subsequently affecting clinical management of patients with CD. Consequently, an associated reduction in therapeutic intervention and poor prognosis may occur due to this exacerbated disease state. This study investigated the effects of mixed strain infections and reinfection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice, using two isolates from different discrete typing units, TcI (C8 clone 1) and TcIV (10R26). There were no significant differences in mortality rate, body weight or body condition among mice infected with either C8 clone 1, 10R26, or a mixture of both isolates. However, the parasite was found in a significantly greater number of host organs in mice infected with a mixture of isolates, and the histopathological response to infection was significantly greater in mice infected with C8 clone 1 alone, and C8 clone 1+10R26 mixed infections than in mice infected with 10R26 alone. To investigate the effects of reinfection, mice received either a double exposure to C8 clone 1; a double exposure to 10R26; exposure to C8 clone 1 followed by 10R26; or exposure to 10R26 followed by C8 clone 1. Compared to single infection groups, mortality was significantly increased, while survival time, body weight and body condition were all significantly decreased across all reinfection groups, with no significant differences among these groups. The mortality rate over all reinfection groups was 63.6%, compared to 0% in single infection groups, however there was no evidence of a greater histopathological response to infection. These results suggest firstly, that the C8 clone 1 isolate is more virulent than the 10R26 isolate, and secondly, that a more disseminated infection may occur with a mixture of isolates than with single isolates, although there is no evidence that mixed infections have a greater pathological effect. By contrast, reinfections do have major effects on host survivability and thus disease outcome. This confirms previous research demonstrating spontaneous deaths following reinfection, a phenomenon that to our knowledge has only been reported once before.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.002
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
  • Immunization with LJM11 salivary protein protects against infection with
           Leishmania braziliensis in the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva
    • Authors: Jurema M. Cunha; Melissa Abbehusen; Martha Suarez; Jesus Valenzuela; Clarissa R. Teixeira; Cláudia I. Brodskyn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Jurema M. Cunha, Melissa Abbehusen, Martha Suarez, Jesus Valenzuela, Clarissa R. Teixeira, Cláudia I. Brodskyn
      Leishmania is transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Protective immunity generated by saliva has encouraged identification of a vector salivary-based vaccine. Previous studies have shown that immunization with LJM11, a salivary protein from Lutzomyia longipalpis, is able to induce a Th1 immune response and protect mice against bites of Leishmania major-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. Here, we further investigate if immunization with LJM11 recombinant protein is able to confer cross-protection against infection with Leishmania braziliensis associated with salivary gland sonicate (SGS) from Lutzomyia intermedia or Lu. longipalpis. Mice immunized with LJM11 protein exhibited an increased production of anti-LJM11 IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a and a DTH response characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells. LJM11-immunized mice were intradermally infected in the ear with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia SGS. A significant reduction of parasite numbers in the ear and lymph node in the group challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. longipalpis SGS was observed, but not when the challenge was performed with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia SGS. A higher specific production of IFN-g and absence of IL-10 by lymph node cells were only observed in LJM11 immunized mice after infection. After two weeks, a similar frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells was detected in LJM11 and BSA groups challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. longipalpis SGS, suggesting that early events possibly triggered by immunization are essential for protection against Leishmania infection. Our findings support the specificity of saliva-mediated immune responses and reinforce the importance of identifying cross-protective salivary antigens.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.009
  • Genetic variability and transcontinental sharing of Giardia duodenalis
           infrapopulations determined by glutamate dehydrogenase gene
    • Authors: Adel Spotin; Majid Karamat; Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei; Abbas Shahbazi; Ehsan Ahmadpour; Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh; Shirzad Fallahi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Adel Spotin, Majid Karamat, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Abbas Shahbazi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh, Shirzad Fallahi
      Microevolutionary data of Giardia duodenalis sub-assemblages is a prerequisite for determining the invasion zoonotic patterns of the parasite. To infer transmission patterns that could not be differentiated by the phenotypic features, a population genetic investigation is crucial for the elucidation of the genetic structure of G. duodenalis among the continents. Forty G. duodenalis positive fecal samples were collected from different foci of Northwest Iran. The specimens were subjected to Trichrome staining and sucrose gradient flotation. DNA samples were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. The global gdh sequences of sub-assemblages AII and BIV retrieved from NCBI GenBank were analyzed to estimate diversity indices, neutrality indices, and gene migration tests. Sequencing analyses indicated various levels of genetic variability of sub-assemblages AII and BIV among the five continents. Sub-assemblage BIV had greater genetic variability (haplotype diversity: 0.975; nucleotide diversity: 0.04246) than sub-assemblage AII. The statistical Fst value demonstrated that the genetic structure of sub-assemblages AII and BIV are moderately differentiated between European-American populations (Fst: 0.05352–0.15182), whereas a significant differentiation was not seen among other geographical population pairs. We conclude that a high gene flow of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII and BIV is unequivocally sharing among the continents. The current findings strengthen our knowledge to assess the evolutionary patterns of G. duodenalis in endemic foci of the world and it will become the basis of public health policy to control human giardiasis.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.001
  • Quality of anthelminthic medicines available in Jimma Ethiopia
    • Authors: Sileshi Belew; Sultan Suleman; Evelien Wynendaele; Matthias D’Hondt; Anne Kosgei; Luc Duchateau; Bart De Spiegeleer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Sileshi Belew, Sultan Suleman, Evelien Wynendaele, Matthias D’Hondt, Anne Kosgei, Luc Duchateau, Bart De Spiegeleer
      Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in Ethiopia. Mass deworming of at-risk population using a single dose administration of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) or 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) for treatment of common intestinal worms and 40mg of praziquantel (PZQ) per kg body weight for treatment of schistosomiasis is one of the strategies recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in order to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. Since storage condition, climate, way of transportation and distribution route could all affect the quality of medicines, regular assessment by surveys is very critical to ensure the therapeutic outcome, to minimize risk of toxicity to the patient and resistance of parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the pharmaceutical quality of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ tablet brands commonly available in Jimma town (south west Ethiopia). Retail pharmacies (n=10) operating in Jimma town were selected using simple random sampling method. Samples of anthelminthic medicines available in the selected pharmacies were collected. Sample information was recorded and encompassed trade name, active ingredient name, manufacturer’s name and full address, labeled medicine strength, dosage form, number of units per container, dosage statement, batch/lot number, manufacturing and expiry dates, storage information and presence of leaflets/package insert. Moreover, a first visual inspection was performed encompassing uniformity of color, uniformity of size, breaks, cracks, splits, embedded surface spots or visual contaminations. Finally, physico-chemical quality attributes investigated encompassed mass uniformity, quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), disintegration and dissolution, all following Pharmacopoeial test methods The physical characteristics of dosage form, packaging and labeling information of all samples complied with criteria given in the WHO checklists. The mass uniformity of tablets of each brand of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ complied with the pharmacopoeial specification limits, i.e no more than 2 individual masses >5% of average tablet weight, and none deviate by more than 10%. The quantity of APIs in all investigated tablet brands were within the 90-110% label claim (l.c.) limits, ranging between 95.05 and 110.09% l.c. Disintegration times were in line with the pharmacopoeial specification limit for immediate release (IR) tablets, ranging between 0.5 and 13min. However, the dissolution results (mean±SD, n=6) of one ABZ brand (i.e. Wormin®, Q=59.21±0.99% at 30min) and two PZQ brands (i.e. Bermoxel®, Q=63.43%±0.7 and Distocide®, Q=62.43%±1.67, at 75min.) showed poor dissolution, failing the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution specification limit.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.006
  • Evaluating the anti-leishmania activity of Lucilia sericata and
           Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly larval excretions/secretions in an in
           vitro model
    • Authors: Mayra Juliana; Laverde-Paz Clara Echeverry Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo Felio Bello
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Mayra Juliana Laverde-Paz, María Clara Echeverry, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Felio Jesús Bello
      Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by infection by parasites from the genus Leishmania. Clinical manifestations can be visceral or cutaneous, the latter mainly being chronic ulcers. This work was aimed at evaluating Calliphoridae Lucilia sericata- and Sarconesiopsis magellanica-derived larval excretions and secretions’ (ES) in vitro anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania panamensis. Different larval-ES concentrations from both blowfly species were tested against either L. panamensis promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes using U937-macrophages as host cells. The Alamar Blue method was used for assessing parasite half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and macrophage cytotoxicity (LC50). The effect of larval-ES on L. panamensis intracellular parasite forms was evaluated by calculating the percentage of infected macrophages, parasite load and toxicity. L. sericata–derived larval-ES L. panamensis macrophage LC50 was 72.57μg/mL (65.35–80.58μg/mL) and promastigote IC50 was 41.44μg/mL (38.57–44.52μg/mL), compared to 34.93μg/mL (31.65–38.55μg/mL) LC50 and 23.42μg/mL (22.48–24.39μg/mL) IC50 for S. magellanica. Microscope evaluation of intracellular parasite forms showed that treatment with 10μg/mL L. sericata ES and 5μg/mL S. magellanica ES led to a decrease in the percentage of infected macrophages and the amount of intracellular amastigotes. This study produced in vitro evidence of the antileishmanial activity of larval ES from both blowfly species on different parasitic stages and showed that the parasite was more susceptible to the ES than it’s host cells. The antileishmanial effect on L. panamensis was more evident from S. magellanica ES.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • The reintroduction of DENV-2 in 2011 in Panama and subsequent outbreak
    • Authors: Yamilka Julio; Cisneros Hilda Paola Cordoba Jean-Paul Carrera Brechla Moreno
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Yamilka Díaz, Julio Cisneros, Hilda Guzmán, Paola Cordoba, Jean-Paul Carrera, Brechla Moreno, Rubing Chen, Juan Castillo Mewa, Lourdes García, Lizbeth Cerezo, Amelia Travassos da Rosa, Nathan D. Gundacker, Blas Armién, Scott C. Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Sandra López-Vergès, Robert Tesh
      The circulation of the South-east Asian/American (AS/AM) dengue 2 virus (DENV-2) genotype in the Americas has been associated with a high rate of severe disease. From 1993, the year DENV was reintroduced in Panama, until 2011 there were 29 dengue-associated deaths, 17 of which occurred in 2011, the most severe outbreak with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 44% (17 deaths out of 38 severe dengue cases). During this outbreak DENV-2 was reintroduced into the country, whereas over the prior five years DENV-1 and −3 were predominant. Herein, we describe the 2011 Panama outbreak and genetically characterize the Panamanian DENV-2 strains, which were associated with severe dengue disease in Panama. Our results suggest that the DENV-2 isolates from this outbreak belonged to the AS/AM genotype sub-clade 2BI and were genetically close to viruses described in the outbreaks in Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico from 2006-2011. Sub-clade 2BI has previously been associated with severe disease in Nicaragua during outbreaks from 2005-2007.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Discovery of human scFvs that cross-neutralize the toxic effects of B.
           jararacussu and C. d. terrificus venoms
    • Authors: Luciano Silva; Manuela Pucca Gabriela Pessenda Lucas Campos Edson Martinez
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Luciano C. Silva, Manuela B. Pucca, Gabriela Pessenda, Lucas B. Campos, Edson Z. Martinez, Felipe A. Cerni, José E. Barbosa
      Accidents involving venomous snakes are a public health problem worldwide, causing a large number of deaths per year. In Brazil, the majority of accidents are caused by the Bothrops and Crotalus genera, which are responsible for approximately 80% of severe envenoming cases. The cross-neutralization of snake venoms by antibodies is an important issue for development of more effective treatments. Our group has previously reported the construction of human monoclonal antibody fragments towards Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus’ venoms. This study aimed to select human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) that recognize both bothropic and crotalic crude venoms following venoms neutralizing capacity in vitro and in vivo. The cross-reactivity of Cro-Bothrumabs were demonstrated by ELISA and in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that a combination of scFvs neutralizes in vitro toxic activities (e.g. indirect hemolysis and plasma-clotting) of crotalic and bothropic venoms as well as prolonged survival time of envenomed animals. Our results may contribute to the development of the first human polyvalent antivenom against Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, overcoming some undesirable effects caused by conventional serotherapy.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Animal and human tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices among
           animal keeping households in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda
    • Authors: Francis Mutebi; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna Charles Waiswa Norbert Mencke Wilfred
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Francis Mutebi, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Charles Waiswa, Norbert Mencke, Wilfred Eneku, Tamale Andrew, Hermann Feldmeier
      Background Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. Methods A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda. Focus group discussions and observation checklists were used to validate and clarify the findings. Results Most respondents knew the aetiology (89.4%), clinical signs (98%) and the ecology of T. penetrans as well as the major risk factors of human tungiasis (65.2%). In contrast, very few respondents were aware of animal tungiasis. Only 4.8% of those with infected animals on the compound knew that some of their animals were infected and 13.6% of the respondents had ever seen tungiasis-affected animals. Pigs (13.1%, n=31) and dogs (0.85%, n=2) were the only T. penetrans animal hosts known to animal owners. Affected humans were treated by extraction of embedded sand fleas using non-sterile sharp instruments in all households that reported occurrence of human tungiasis at least once (n=227). Also, affected animals were mainly treated by mechanical removal of embedded sand fleas in households that have ever experienced animal tungiasis (four out of 12; 33.3%). In a few instances, plant and animal pesticides (n=3) and other chemicals such as grease, paraffin and wood preservative (n=3) were also used to treat animal tungiasis. Conclusion The study revealed a high level of knowledge on human tungiasis but inadequate knowledge on the zoonotic nature of tungiasis. Commonly applied methods for treatment of human and animal tungiasis are a health hazard by themselves. Concerted i.e. One Health-based efforts aiming at promoting appropriate treatment of tungiasis, adequate living conditions and increased awareness on tungiasis in the communities are indicated in order to eliminate tungiasis-associated disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Spatial and temporal distribution of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 alleles and genetic
           profile change of Plasmodium falciparum populations in Gabon
    • Authors: J.M. NdongNgomo; N.P. Yavo L.C. Bongho Mavoungou M.K. Bouyou-Akotet D.P.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): J.M. NdongNgomo, N.P. M’Boundoukwé, W. Yavo, L.C. Bongho Mavoungou, M.K. Bouyou-Akotet, D.P. Mawili-Mboumba
      Plasmodium population dynamics analysis may help to assess the impact of malaria control strategies deployment. In Gabon, new strategies have been introduced, but malaria is still a public health problem marked by a rebound of the prevalence in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of P. falciparum strains in different areas in Gabon during a period of malaria transmission transition, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 109 P. falciparum isolates were genotyped using nested-PCR of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 genes. 3D7, FC27 and K1 allele frequencies were comparable between sites (p=0.9); those of Ro33 (93.6%; 44/47) and Mad20 (60%; 12/20) were significantly higher in isolates from Oyem (p<0.01) and Port-Gentil (p=0.02), respectively. The frequency of multiples infections (77%) and the complexity of infection (2.66±1.44) were the highest at Oyem. Pfmsp1 gene analysis highlighted a trend of a decreasing frequency of K1 family, in Libreville and Oyem between 2008 and 2011; while that of Ro33 (p<0.01) and Mad20 (p<0.01) increased. The prevalence of multiple infections was comparable between both periods in each site: 42.2% vs 47.6% (p=0.6) in Libreville and 57.7% vs 61.7% in Oyem (p=0.8). In contrast, in 2011, the COI tends to be higher in Libreville and did not vary in Oyem. These data confirm an extended genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates over time and according to geographic location in Gabon. Nevertheless, the impact of the deployment of malaria control strategies on the parasites genetic profile is not clearly established here.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the
           causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hashiguchi; Eduardo A.L. Gomez Abraham Lenin Velez Nancy Villegas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A.L. Gomez, Abraham G. Cáceres, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
      This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country’s mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples’ migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Hierarchical dynamics influence the distribution of immature black flies
           (Diptera: Simuliidae)
    • Authors: Anbalagan Sankarappan; Kannan Mani Dinakaran Sundaram Balasubramanian Chelliah Krishnan Muthukalingan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Anbalagan Sankarappan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Balasubramanian Chelliah, Krishnan Muthukalingan
      Adult black flies (Simuliidae) are medically important insects and they are the sole vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Immature black flies are major components of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams and play a vital role in nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined effect of hierarchical dynamics (spatio-temporal pattern) on the distribution of immature black flies in South Indian streams. The sampling was done in streams of Western Ghats, South India. A total of 16 species belong to two subgenera: Simulium (10 species) and Gowmphostilbia (6 species) of Simulium were observed. Alpha diversity indices were analyzed, which indicate the abundance and species richness between sampling sites. Non-parametric analysis recognized the key environmental variables including latitude and stream order. Subsequently, the monsoon influences the larval assemblages and its association was high in leaf litter as revealed through statistical analyses. Although the members of the immature black fly assemblage with different environmental factors, they are very closely related to spatial and temporal organization and secondarily with other factors prevailing in streams.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • The roles of galectins in parasitic infections
    • Authors: Weikun Shi; Chunyu Xue; Xin-zhuan Su; Fangli Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Weikun Shi, Chunyu Xue, Xin-zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
      Galectins is a family of multifunctional lectins. Fifteen galectins have been identified from a variety of cells and tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. Galectins have been shown to play pivotal roles in host–pathogen interaction such as adhesion of pathogens to host cells and activation of host innate and adaptive immunity. In recent years, the roles of galectins during parasite infections have gained increasing attention. Galectins produced by different hosts can act as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of parasites, while galectins produced by parasites can modulate host responses. This review summarizes some recent studies on the roles of galectins produced by parasitic protozoa, nematodes, and trematodes and their hosts. Understanding the roles of galectins in host–parasite interactions may provide targets for immune intervention and therapies of the parasitic infections.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.027
  • Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and
           of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar
    • Authors: Ralf Matthias Hagen; Hagen Frickmann; Julian Ehlers; Andreas Krüger; Gabriele Margos; Cecilia Hizo-Teufel; Volker Fingerle; Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy; Vera von Kalckreuth; Justin Im; Gi Deok Pak; Hyon Jin Jeon; Jean Philibert Rakotondrainiarivelo; Jean Noël Heriniaina; Tsiry Razafindrabe; Frank Konings; Jürgen May; Benedikt Hogan; Jörg Ganzhorn; Ursula Panzner; Norbert Georg Schwarz; Denise Dekker; Florian Marks; Sven Poppert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann, Julian Ehlers, Andreas Krüger, Gabriele Margos, Cecilia Hizo-Teufel, Volker Fingerle, Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy, Vera von Kalckreuth, Justin Im, Gi Deok Pak, Hyon Jin Jeon, Jean Philibert Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Noël Heriniaina, Tsiry Razafindrabe, Frank Konings, Jürgen May, Benedikt Hogan, Jörg Ganzhorn, Ursula Panzner, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Denise Dekker, Florian Marks, Sven Poppert
      The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flab sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1,009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. − and in addition for Leptospira spp. − by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.002
  • Zika and Chikungunya Virus Detection in Naturally Infected Aedes aegypti
           in Ecuador
    • Authors: Varsovia Cevallos; Patricio Ponce; Jesse J. Waggoner; Benjamin A. Pinsky; Josefina Coloma; Cristina Quiroga; Diego Morales; Maria José Cárdenas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Varsovia Cevallos, Patricio Ponce, Jesse J. Waggoner, Benjamin A. Pinsky, Josefina Coloma, Cristina Quiroga, Diego Morales, Maria José Cárdenas
      The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.029
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