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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
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Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 370, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [25 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Effects of non-symbolic arithmetic training on symbolic arithmetic and the
           approximate number system
    • Authors: Jacky Au; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Martin Buschkuehl
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jacky Au, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl
      The approximate number system (ANS) is an innate cognitive template that allows for the mental representation of approximate magnitude, and has been controversially linked to symbolic number knowledge and math ability. A series of recent studies found that an approximate arithmetic training (AAT) task that draws upon the ANS can improve math skills, which not only supports the existence of this link, but suggests it may be causal. However, no direct transfer effects to any measure of the ANS have yet been reported, calling into question the mechanisms by which math improvements may emerge. The present study investigated the effects of a 7-day AAT and successfully replicated previously reported transfer effects to math. Furthermore, our exploratory analyses provide preliminary evidence that certain ANS-related skills may also be susceptible to training. We conclude that AAT has reproducible effects on math performance, and provide avenues for future studies to further explore underlying mechanisms - specifically, the link between improvements in math and improvements in ANS skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Cross-race correlations in the abilities to match unfamiliar faces
    • Authors: Eesha Kokje; Markus Bindemann; Ahmed M. Megreya
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Eesha Kokje, Markus Bindemann, Ahmed M. Megreya
      The other-race effect in face identification has been documented widely in memory tasks, but it persists also in identity-matching tasks, in which memory contributions are minimized. Whereas this points to a perceptual locus for this effect, it remains unresolved whether matching performance with same- and other-race faces is driven by shared cognitive mechanisms. To examine this question, this study compared Arab and Caucasian observers' ability to match faces of their own race with their ability to match faces of another race using one-to-one (Experiment 1) and one-to-many (Experiment 2) identification tasks. Across both experiments, Arab and Caucasian observers demonstrated reliable other-race effects at a group level. At an individual level, substantial variation in accuracy was found, but performance with same-race and other-race faces correlated consistently and strongly. This indicates that the abilities to match same- and other-race faces share a common cognitive mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • The influence of vision, touch, and proprioception on body representation
           of the lower limbs
    • Authors: Kayla D. Stone; Anouk Keizer; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kayla D. Stone, Anouk Keizer, H. Chris Dijkerman
      Numerous studies have shown that the representation of the hand is distorted. When participants are asked to localize unseen points on the hand (e.g. the knuckle), it is perceived to be wider and shorter than its physical dimensions. Similar distortions occur when people are asked to judge the distance between two tactile points on the hand; estimates made in the longitudinal direction are perceived as significantly shorter than those made in the transverse direction. Yet, when asked to visually compare the shape and size of one's own hand to a template hand, individuals are accurate at estimating the size of their own hands. Thus, it seems that body representations are, at least in part, a function of the most prominent underlying sensory modality used to perceive the body part. Yet, it remains unknown if the representations of other body parts are similarly distorted. The lower limbs, for example, are structurally and functionally very different from the hands, yet their representation(s) are seldom studied. What does the body representation for the leg look like' And is leg representation dependent on which sense is probed when making judgments about its shape and size' In the current study, we investigated what the representation of the leg looks like in visually-, tactually-, and proprioceptively-guided tasks. Results revealed that the leg, like the hand, is distorted in a highly systematic manner. Distortions seem to rely, at least partly, on sensory input. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to systematically investigate leg representation in healthy individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Who is more flexible'—Awareness of changing context but not working
           memory capacity modulates inhibitory control
    • Authors: Shan-Chuan Teng; Hsuan-Fu Chao; Yunn-Wen Lien
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Shan-Chuan Teng, Hsuan-Fu Chao, Yunn-Wen Lien
      The present study examines how a person's working memory capacity (WMC) and awareness of change in context influences modulating inhibitory control. Context was manipulated by changing the predictive validity of a prime to a following target (i.e., the proportion of prime repetition) across three phases in a single-prime negative priming task. The prime was a distractor for the following target when the proportion was 25% (in the first and third phases) and a useful cue when the proportion rose to 75% (in the second phase). Participants' WMCs were measured and whether they were aware of the change of the prime-repetition proportion was determined in interviews at the end of the experiment. We found that when the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was short (Experiment 1), participants aware of the change of prime-repetition proportion showed a null negative priming effect when the contingency increased from 25% to 75%, and then rebooted the effect when it decreased back to 25%, thus indicating an ability to modulate inhibitory control as context varied. In contrast, the unaware participants kept inhibiting primes all the time. When SOA was long (Experiment 2), participants with awareness even showed a positive priming effect when the prime-repetition proportion increased. Surprisingly, participants' WMCs did not matter except for the conscious strategy used in the long-SOA condition. This is the first study simultaneously investigating how WMC and awareness can affect people's ability to modulate inhibitory control and reveals that awareness plays a more direct role in such modulation than does WMC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Tool use produces a size illusion revealing action-specific perceptual
    • Authors: Jihyun Suh; Richard A. Abrams
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Jihyun Suh, Richard A. Abrams
      In four experiments, participants estimated the sizes of target objects that were either out of reach, or that could be reached by a tool (a stylus or laser pointer). Objects reachable with the aid of a tool were perceived to be smaller than identical objects without a tool. Participants' responses to questioning rule out demand characteristics as an explanation. This new size illusion may reflect a direct impact of tool use on perceived size, or it may stem from the effects of tool use on perceived distance. Both possibilities support action specific accounts of perception.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal
    • Authors: Leah Fostick; Hadas Revah
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
      Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach. Seventy-eight adults with dyslexia and 23 normal-reading adults performed WM and ATP tasks, as well as reading and phonological awareness tests. Readers with dyslexia showed poorer performance on all tests. Both WM and ATP were significant predictors of reading performance and phonological awareness among participants with dyslexia. Dividing participants with dyslexia according to their performance level on WM and ATP tasks revealed group differences in reading and phonological awareness tests. Both WM and ATP contribute to dyslexia, and varying levels of difficulties in both of these abilities are observed among this population. This is strong evidence in favor of the multi-deficit approach in dyslexia, and suggests that researchers should consider this approach in future studies of dyslexia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Reinstatement of instrumental actions in humans: Possible mechanisms and
           their implications to prevent it
    • Authors: A. Matías Gámez; Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): A. Matías Gámez, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      The study of post-extinction recovery effects in humans has received significant attention. For instance, research on reinstatement has increased in the last decade. However, most of the studies focus on the return of fear responses. In the present experiments, we used a videogame task to explore the reinstatement of operant behavior in human participants. In Experiment 1, after participants learned to shoot at enemies, they received an extinction procedure that eliminated the shooting behavior. However, the mere reintroduction of the outcome reinstated the original response. Experiment 2 showed that the reinstatement of instrumental behavior is contextually modulated. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that presenting a reminder for extinction attenuated the response recovery effect. The overall pattern of results suggests that reinstatement of voluntary actions in humans could be explained by an interference memory framework. In addition, the present data suggest that therapies that use brief reminders of therapeutic intervention could help prevent the reinstatement of unhealthy instrumental behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Stimulus orientation and the first-letter advantage
    • Authors: Michele Scaltritti; Stéphane Dufau; Jonathan Grainger
      Pages: 37 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Michele Scaltritti, Stéphane Dufau, Jonathan Grainger
      A post-cued partial report target-in-string identification experiment examined the influence of stimulus orientation on the serial position functions for strings of five consonants or five symbols, with an aim to test different accounts of the first-letter advantage observed in prior research. Under one account, this phenomenon is driven by processing that is specific to horizontally arranged letter (and digit) strings. An alternative account explains the first-letter advantage in terms of attentional biases towards the beginning of letter strings. We observed a significant three-way interaction between stimulus type (letters vs. symbols), serial position (1–5), and orientation (horizontal vs. vertical) that was driven by a greater first-position advantage for letters than symbols when stimuli were presented horizontally compared with vertical presentation. These results provide support for the letter-specific processing account of the first-letter advantage, and further suggest that differences in visual complexity between letters and symbols play a minor role. Nevertheless, a first-position advantage for letters was observed in the vertical presentation condition, thus pointing to some role for attentional biases that operate independently of string orientation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • A biphasic effect of cross-modal priming on visual shape recognition
    • Authors: Sze Chai Kwok; Carlo Fantoni; Laura Tamburini; Lei Wang; Walter Gerbino
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Sze Chai Kwok, Carlo Fantoni, Laura Tamburini, Lei Wang, Walter Gerbino
      We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk or upo, cross-modally correspondent to spiky and curvy shape categories, respectively). The biphasic effect occurred when a congruent vs. incongruent sound was presented 200ms after the memorandum, while it did not occur when the sound was presented 200ms before or simultaneously with it. The biphasic pattern of recognition sensitivities was revealed by an interaction between cross-modal congruency and probe delay, such that sensitivity was higher for visual shapes paired with a congruent rather than incongruent sound with a 300-ms delay, while the opposite was true with a 1300-ms delay. We suggest that this biphasic pattern of recognition sensitivities was dependent on the task-irrelevant sound activating different levels of shape processing as a function of the relative timing of sound, memorandum, and probe.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Time course of inhibition of return in a spatial cueing paradigm with
    • Authors: Vivian Eng; Alfred Lim; Steve M.J. Janssen; Jason Satel
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Steve M.J. Janssen, Jason Satel
      Studies of endogenous and exogenous attentional orienting in spatial cueing paradigms have been used to investigate inhibition of return, a behavioral phenomenon characterized by delayed reaction time in response to recently attended locations. When eye movements are suppressed, attention is covertly oriented to central or peripheral stimuli. Overt orienting, on the other hand, requires explicit eye movements to the stimuli. The present study examined the time course of slowed reaction times to previously attended locations when distractors are introduced into overt and covert orienting tasks. In a series of experiments, manual responses were required to targets following central and peripheral cues at three different cue-target intervals, with and without activated oculomotor systems. The results demonstrate that, when eye movements are suppressed, behavioral inhibition is reduced or delayed in magnitude by the presence of a distractor relative to conditions without distractors. However, the time course of behavioral inhibition when eye movements are required remains similar with or without distractors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Is sequence awareness mandatory for perceptual sequence learning: An
           assessment using a pure perceptual sequence learning design
    • Authors: Natacha Deroost; Daphné Coomans
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Natacha Deroost, Daphné Coomans
      We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Size congruity influences visual search via the target template
    • Authors: Kenith V. Sobel; Amrita M. Puri
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Kenith V. Sobel, Amrita M. Puri
      In numerical comparison experiments, participants are presented with two digits that vary in numerical and physical size, and they select the numerically (or physically) larger (or smaller) of the two digits. Response times are typically faster when numerical and physical size are congruent than when they are incongruent, which is called the size congruity effect (SCE). Although numerical size is unlikely to be a guiding feature in visual search, recent studies have nevertheless observed the SCE in the visual search paradigm. To explain this puzzling fact, we hypothesized that the incongruity between a target's numerical and physical size affects visual search primarily when an attended item is compared to the target template in visual short-term memory. In three experiments, participants searched for a target whose numerical and physical size were distinct from non-target distractors. The SCE and shallow search slopes in Experiment 1 suggest that the target's physical size captured attention, and only then did incongruent numerical size interfere with the response. Instructing participants to attend to physical size in Experiment 2 abolished the SCE, suggesting that participants did not analyze the target's numerical size when they could be confident that physical size was a reliable target cue. Presenting each of two possible target digits in blocks as in Experiment 3 enabled participants to load the visual features of shape and physical size into their target template, and once again the SCE was abolished. The three experiments show that the SCE in visual search can be reduced or eliminated by restricting the target template based on specific physical features and thus discouraging participants from analyzing the target's numerical size.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Prolonging the response movement inhibits the feed-forward motor program
           in the sustained attention to response task
    • Authors: Kyle M. Wilson; Neil R. de Joux; Kristin M. Finkbeiner; Paul N. Russell; Jenny R. Retzler; William S. Helton
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Kyle M. Wilson, Neil R. de Joux, Kristin M. Finkbeiner, Paul N. Russell, Jenny R. Retzler, William S. Helton
      Despite widespread use in clinical and experimental contexts, debate continues over whether or not the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) successfully measures sustained attention. Altering physical aspects of the response movement required to SART stimuli may help identify whether performance is a better measure of perceptual decoupling, or response strategies and motor inhibition. Participants completed a SART where they had to manually move a mouse cursor to respond to stimuli, and another SART where this extra movement was not required, as in a typical SART. Additionally, stimuli were located at either a close or a far distance away. Commission errors were inversely related to distance in the manual movement condition, as the farther distance led to longer response times which gave participants more time to inhibit prepotent responses and thus prevent commission errors. Self-reported measures of mental demand and fatigue suggested there were no differences in mental demands between the manual and automatic condition; instead the differences were primarily in physical demands. No differences were found for task-unrelated thoughts between the manual and automatic condition. The movement effect combined with participants' subjective reports are evidence for time dependent action stopping, not greater cognitive engagement. These findings support a response strategy perspective as opposed to a perceptual decoupling perspective, and have implications for authors considering using the SART. Applied implications of this research are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Neuroticism, schizotypy, and scale anchors influence eye movement
    • Authors: Alison Simpson; Nicole A. Thomas
      Pages: 85 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Alison Simpson, Nicole A. Thomas
      The same piece of artwork can attract both admiration and rejection from different people. One potential explanation for this effect is individual differences in perceptual biases, which influence the way in which we see different aspects of the same image. We explored the relationship between individual differences (i.e., personality) and eye movements for examinations of abstract art. Images were presented for 5000ms, after which participants judged aesthetic appeal and perceived value using visual analogue scales. Scale anchor labels (Looks Good/Looks Bad; $0/$5000) were counterbalanced between participants such that positive labels were on the left half of the time and on the right half of the time. Overall, more fixations occurred to the right and upper visual fields. Neuroticism significantly predicted the proportion of fixations to the left, whereas cognitive disorganisation negatively predicted the proportion of fixations to upper space. Participants found images more aesthetically pleasing and more valuable when positive anchors were on the left. Findings demonstrate that personality traits influence fixation patterns. Further, the positioning of positive anchor labels on the left leads to higher ratings of visual stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Different patterns of modality dominance across development
    • Authors: Wesley R. Barnhart; Samuel Rivera; Christopher W. Robinson
      Pages: 154 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Wesley R. Barnhart, Samuel Rivera, Christopher W. Robinson
      The present study sought to better understand how children, young adults, and older adults attend and respond to multisensory information. In Experiment 1, young adults were presented with two spoken words, two pictures, or two word-picture pairings and they had to determine if the two stimuli/pairings were exactly the same or different. Pairing the words and pictures together slowed down visual but not auditory response times and delayed the latency of first fixations, both of which are consistent with a proposed mechanism underlying auditory dominance. Experiment 2 examined the development of modality dominance in children, young adults, and older adults. Cross-modal presentation attenuated visual accuracy and slowed down visual response times in children, whereas older adults showed the opposite pattern, with cross-modal presentation attenuating auditory accuracy and slowing down auditory response times. Cross-modal presentation also delayed first fixations in children and young adults. Mechanisms underlying modality dominance and multisensory processing are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Saliency modulates affective evaluations but not behavioral responses in
           the ultimatum game
    • Authors: Cuizhen Liu; Jingwen Chai; Rongjun Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Cuizhen Liu, Jingwen Chai, Rongjun Yu
      Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the saliency of perceptual information guides attention, the effect of perceptual saliency in high-level social situations remains unclear. Here, in a modified ultimatum game that included both gain and loss sharing, we highlighted either the fairness (fair or unfair) or the valence (gain or loss) aspect of a proposed offer using salient background colors with social meanings. The results showed that emotional responses to proposed offers were influenced by visual saliency. Specifically, individuals felt more dissatisfied about unfair (as opposed to fair) offers when fairness was emphasized than when valence was emphasized or no emphasis; and similarly, individuals felt more dissatisfied about loss situations compared to gain situations when valence was emphasized than when fairness was emphasized or no emphasis. However, this attentional modulation of social information led to changes only on affective responses but not on actual behavioral responses. Our findings indicate that attentional modulation of social information has a profound impact on affective evaluation by changing how information is weighed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.004
  • Further evidence for functional differences between guessing versus
           choosing an upcoming task
    • Authors: Thomas Kleinsorge; Juliane Scheil
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Thomas Kleinsorge, Juliane Scheil
      We replicated and extended previous evidence regarding functional differences between guessing versus choosing an upcoming task. Participants switched among four tasks and were asked to predict the upcoming task on each trial. These predictions were instructed to participants as either ‘guessing’ or ‘choosing’. Furthermore, we varied the proportion of trials in which the presented task conformed to participants' predictions on three levels. Whereas with choosing instructions unexpectedness affected task switches and repetitions similarly, leaving switch costs unchanged, with guessing instructions switch costs were reduced, that is, task switches were affected less than repetitions. This interaction was unaffected by the proportion of expected tasks. We propose that with choosing, the impact of a mismatch between chosen and presented tasks is reduced by explicit knowledge regarding the proportion of denied choices. With guessing, task unexpectedness mainly increases task difficulty, which is compensated by an increase of cognitive control that reduces switch costs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2017)
  • The influence of eye-movements on the development of a movement sequence
           representation during observational and physical practice
    • Authors: Matthias Massing; Yannick Blandin; Stefan Panzer
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matthias Massing, Yannick Blandin, Stefan Panzer
      An experiment was conducted to examine the development of a movement sequence representation and the role of eye-movements during observational and physical practice. The task was to reproduce a 1300ms spatial-temporal pattern of a sequence of elbow flexions and extensions. An inter-manual transfer design with a retention and two effector transfer tests (contralateral limb) was used. The mirror transfer test required the same pattern of homologous muscle activation and a sequence of joint angles as experienced during the acquisition phase, and the non-mirror transfer test required the same visual-spatial pattern as performed or observed during acquisition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups differing in eye-movements (free to use their eyes vs. instruction to fixate) and the practice type (observational practice vs. physical practice). The results indicated that permitting to use eye-movements facilitates sequence learning. This advantage was found on both practice types. The results of the transfer tests indicated that participants of the physical practice group who were permitted to use their eyes demonstrated superior transfer performance in the mirror transfer test, while participants in the observational practice group demonstrated better performance on the non-mirror transfer test. These findings indicated that eye-movements enhanced the development of a visual-spatial representation during observational practice as well as a motor representation during physical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Search strategies in practice: Influence of information and task
    • Authors: Matheus M. Pacheco; Karl M. Newell
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matheus M. Pacheco, Karl M. Newell
      The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Working memory capacity and intra-individual variability of proactive
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Wiemers; Thomas S. Redick
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Wiemers, Thomas S. Redick
      Two datasets of 110 young adults were examined to investigate the relationship between individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and dynamic cognitive control. The results delve into the specific differences between high- and low-WMC individuals' ability to enact and maintain cognitive control using the AX version of the continuous performance test (AX-CPT). Compared to high-WMC individuals, low-WMC individuals: (a) made more errors, specifically to AX targets; (b) exhibited a partial shift to proactive control with more time-on-task; (c) had more exaggerated slower AX target responses in the tail of the response time distribution; and (d) were equally likely to adjust control after conflict. These results fit with the dual mechanisms of cognitive control theory and goal-maintenance account, and further clarify how individual differences in WMC manifests as intra-individual variability in cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist
    • Authors: Angelica M. Tinga; Chris Jansen; Maarten J. van der Smagt; Tanja C.W. Nijboer; Jan B.F. van Erp
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Angelica M. Tinga, Chris Jansen, Maarten J. van der Smagt, Tanja C.W. Nijboer, Jan B.F. van Erp
      In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection (around the body's yaw axis) and to examine whether this type of stimulation would influence participants' walking trajectory and balance. We assessed the strength and direction of perceived self-motion while vision was blocked and while either receiving tactile stimulation encircling the waist clockwise or counterclockwise or no tactile stimulation. Additionally, we assessed participants' walking trajectory and balance while receiving these different stimulations. Tactile stimulation encircling the waist was found to lead to self-reported circular vection in a subset of participants. In this subset of participants, circular vection was on average experienced in the same direction as the tactile stimulation. Additionally, perceived rotatory self-motion in participants that reported circular vection correlated with balance (i.e., sway velocity and the standard error of the mean in the medio-lateral dimension). The fact that, in this subset of participants, subjective reports of vection correlated with objective outcome measures indicates that tactile stimulation encircling the waist might indeed be able to induced circular vection.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Limited generalization with varied, as compared to specific, practice in
           short-term motor learning
    • Authors: Chéla R. Willey; Zili Liu
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Chéla R. Willey, Zili Liu
      The schema theory of learning predicts that varied training in motor learning should give rise to better transfer than specific training. For example, throwing beanbags during practice to targets 5 and 9ft away should better generalize to targets 7 and 11ft away, as compared to only throwing to a target 7ft away. In this study, we tested this prediction in a throwing task, when the pretest, practice, and posttest were all completed within an hour. Participants in the varied group practiced throwing at 5 and 9ft targets, while participants in the specific group practiced throwing at 7ft only. All participants reliably reduced errors from pretest to posttest. The varied group never outperformed the specific group at the 7ft target (the trained target for the specific group). They did not reliably outperform the specific group at 11ft, either. The numerically better performance at 11ft by the varied group was due, as it turned out in a subsequent experiment, to the fact that 11ft was closer to 9ft (one of the two training targets for the varied group) than to 7ft (the training target for the specific group). We conclude that varied training played a very limited role in short-term motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing
    • Authors: Youngbin Kwak; Scott Huettel
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
      Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually – which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Improving novel motor learning through prior high contextual interference
    • Authors: T. Kim; J. Chen; W.B. Verwey; D.L. Wright
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): T. Kim, J. Chen, W.B. Verwey, D.L. Wright
      The primary objective of the present experiment was to examine the influence of recent practice in a random and blocked format for future motor learning. First, individuals practiced three unique discrete sequence production tasks in either a blocked or random schedule. One day later, all individuals practiced a new motor sequence not previously practiced. On day three, mean total time for the test performance of the original three motor sequences was lower for individuals that practiced in a random format. This emerged as a significant reduction in mean total time from the completion of practice and the test trials implicating offline consolidation as a key contributor to the random practice performance advantage. A novel finding from the present work was that the acquisition of the novel discrete sequence production task practiced on Day 2 was better for individuals that had prior random rather than blocked practice experience. This benefit was robust appearing early during acquisition as significantly lower mean total time. This benefit from random practice experience remained during the delayed test trials administered on Day 3 for the novel motor sequence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Effects of grasp compatibility on long-term memory for objects
    • Authors: Ivonne Canits; Diane Pecher; René Zeelenberg
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ivonne Canits, Diane Pecher, René Zeelenberg
      Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response. The present results therefore do not support the hypothesis that motor actions play a role in long-term memory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The influence of intention and outcome on evaluations of social
    • Authors: Xiaoying Wu; Rui Hua; Zhangxiang Yang; Jun Yin
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Xiaoying Wu, Rui Hua, Zhangxiang Yang, Jun Yin
      Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee. In Experiment 2, the act was harmful and brought small or great losses to the affectee. We found that for both helpful and harmful contexts, social interaction evaluations were influenced by an interaction between the intent and outcome of the act. Specifically, great help/harm (i.e., the great-benefits or great-losses condition) was rated as a stronger social interaction than small help/harm, and the difference was larger in the intentional condition than in the unintentional condition. Furthermore, regardless of the interaction valence, the effect of the intent was larger than the effect of the outcome when evaluating social interaction. This result suggests that observers consider the intent and outcome jointly when evaluating a given social interaction, and the intent has a privileged role in this process. These findings are consistent with the idea that the intent is often deemed to be the cause driving the effect of outcome, and they help us to understand how social interactions are constructed within the action understanding system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory
    • Authors: Ágnes Szőllősi; Péter Pajkossy; Gyula Demeter; Szabolcs Kéri; Mihály Racsmány
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
      Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Mapping language to visual referents: Does the degree of image realism
    • Authors: Raheleh Saryazdi; Craig G. Chambers
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Raheleh Saryazdi, Craig G. Chambers
      Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images. A custom stimulus set was first created by generating clipart images directly from photographs of real objects. Two visual world experiments were then conducted, varying whether referent identification was driven by noun or verb information. A modest benefit for clipart stimuli was observed during real-time processing, but only for noun-driving mappings. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for studies of visually situated language processing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Action strategies for walking through multiple, misaligned apertures
    • Authors: Amy L. Hackney; Michael E. Cinelli; James S. Frank
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amy L. Hackney, Michael E. Cinelli, James S. Frank
      When avoiding obstacles, path selection is thought to be determined by the attraction of the end-goal. However for aperture crossing, it is unclear whether the attraction point originates in the center of the aperture or at the end-goal, as previous experiments align the aperture with the end-goal. The purpose of the current study was to decipher the possible location of the attraction point, by evaluating crossing behaviour for multiple, misaligned apertures. Participants were instructed to walk through three separate apertures while en route to an end-goal. The first and last apertures were fixed such that they were both either 0.9× or 1.7× shoulder width (SW) while the second aperture was either 0.9, 1.3 or 1.7× SW and shifted 25, 50 or 75cm off the midline. Findings revealed that the attraction of the end-goal, and not the middle of the aperture, guided crossing behaviour. The spatial margin decreased as the size of the shift increased. Furthermore, the frequency of rotation increased as the aperture was shifted away from midline, regardless of the aperture size. Since rotations would not normally occur for all of these aperture sizes when aligned with the end-goal, these results suggest that rotations were produced in an attempt to keep one's trajectory as close to the midline as possible. Therefore, not only does the attraction of the goal guide path trajectory, but individuals will choose to reduce the spatial margin and rotate the shoulders when walking through misaligned apertures, likely in attempt to maintain the straightest possible path.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Involuntary autobiographical memories are relatively more often reported
           during high cognitive load tasks
    • Authors: Krystian Barzykowski; Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Krystian Barzykowski, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load. When performing a vigilance task, participants had to interrupt the task each time they experienced any spontaneous mental contents and write them down. We manipulated the level of cognitive load by either instructing (cognitive load group) or not instructing (control group) participants to perform an additional demanding task. We compared the groups on the number of IAMs and other mental contents (non-IAM contents) recorded, as well as on the frequency of IAMs that was calculated as a proportion of IAMs in all mental contents reported by the participant. We expected that if reporting IAMs depends on the level of cognitive demands, then we should observe lower frequency of IAMs in the cognitive load group compared to the control group. Consistently across studies, we observed a lower number of IAMs and non-IAM contents in the cognitive load group. However, IAMs unexpectedly constituted a higher percentage of all mental contents when participants were cognitively loaded. Further implications of the cognitive load effects for IAMs research and experimental methodology are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Analytic processing of distance
    • Authors: Stephen Dopkins; Darin Galyer
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Stephen Dopkins, Darin Galyer
      How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame' To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming
    • Authors: Danielle I. Labossière; Jason P. Leboe-McGowan
      Pages: 138 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Danielle I. Labossière, Jason P. Leboe-McGowan
      The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • How social information affects information search and choice in
           probabilistic inferences
    • Authors: Marin Puskaric; Bettina von Helversen; Jörg Rieskamp
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Marin Puskaric, Bettina von Helversen, Jörg Rieskamp
      When making decisions, people are often exposed to relevant information stemming from qualitatively different sources. For instance, when making a choice between two alternatives people can rely on the advice of other people (i.e., social information) or search for factual information about the alternatives (i.e., non-social information). Prior research in categorization has shown that social information is given special attention when both social and non-social information is available, even when the social information has no additional informational value. The goal of the current work is to investigate whether framing information as social or non-social also influences information search and choice in probabilistic inferences. In a first study, we found that framing cues (i.e., the information used to make a decision) with medium validity as social increased the probability that they were searched for compared to a task where the same cues were framed as non-social information, but did not change the strategy people relied on. A second and a third study showed that framing a cue with high validity as social information led to a more focused search and facilitated learning to rely on a non-compensatory decision strategy. Overall, the results suggest that social in comparison to non-social information is given more attention and is learned faster than non-social information.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • When do arrows start to compete' A developmental mouse-tracking study
    • Authors: Frouke Hermens
      Pages: 177 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Frouke Hermens
      Recent work in adults has suggested that the strength of social and symbolic cues not presented at fixation (but allowing eye movements to the cue) may be determined less by their biological relevance and more by the distinctiveness of the shape of the cue. The present study examines whether these results extend to children, who may differ in their relative exposure to symbolic cues (arrows) compared to social cues. Children aged 3 to 11 were presented with congruent or incongruent pairs of cues (line drawings of gazing eyes, pointing hands, and arrows) and were asked to indicate the direction of the target cue (indicated at the start of the block) by moving the mouse towards the response box indicating its direction. Results show a similar advantage for arrows and pointing hands in young children as previously found in adults, suggesting that cue shape trumps biological relevance for cues away from fixation from an early age.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Determining the end of a musical turn: Effects of tonal cues
    • Authors: Lauren V. Hadley; Patrick Sturt; Nikki Moran; Martin J. Pickering
      Pages: 189 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Lauren V. Hadley, Patrick Sturt, Nikki Moran, Martin J. Pickering
      Successful duetting requires that musicians coordinate their performance with their partners. In the case of turn-taking in improvised performance they need to be able to predict their partner's turn-end in order to accurately time their own entries. Here we investigate the cues used for accurate turn-end prediction in musical improvisations, focusing on the role of tonal structure. In a response-time task, participants more accurately determined the endings of (tonal) jazz than (non-tonal) free improvisation turns. Moreover, for the jazz improvisations, removing low frequency information (<2100Hz) - and hence obscuring the pitch relationships conveying tonality - reduced response accuracy, but removing high frequency information (>2100Hz) had no effect. Neither form of filtering affected response accuracy in the free improvisation condition. We therefore argue that tonal cues aided prediction accuracy for the jazz improvisations compared to the free improvisations. We compare our results with those from related speech research (De Ruiter et al., 2006), to draw comparisons between the structural function of tonality and linguistic syntax.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • No evidence for common processes of cognitive control and self-control
    • Authors: Stefan Scherbaum; Simon Frisch; Anna-Maria Holfert; Denis O'Hora; Maja Dshemuchadse
      Pages: 194 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Anna-Maria Holfert, Denis O'Hora, Maja Dshemuchadse
      Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms refer to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, common control process (e.g., inhibition) might guide both types of controlled behavior. Here, we study this hypothesis in a behavioral experiment, which interlaced trials of a Simon task with trials of an intertemporal decision task. If cognitive control and self-control depend on a common control process, we expected conflict adaptation from Simon task trials to lead to increased self-control in the intertemporal decision trials. However, despite successful manipulations of conflict and conflict adaptation, we found no evidence for this hypothesis. We investigate a number of alternative explanations of this result and conclude that the differences between cognitive control and self-control are not superficial, but rather reflect differences at the process level.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Multisensory integration and ADHD-like traits: Evidence for an abnormal
           temporal integration window in ADHD
    • Authors: Maria Panagiotidi; Paul G. Overton; Tom Stafford
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G. Overton, Tom Stafford
      Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Absence of distracting information explains the redundant signals effect
           for a centrally presented categorization task
    • Authors: Ada D. Mishler; Mark B. Neider
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ada D. Mishler, Mark B. Neider
      The redundant signals effect, a speed-up in response times with multiple targets compared to a single target in one display, is well-documented, with some evidence suggesting that it can occur even in conceptual processing when targets are presented bilaterally. The current study was designed to determine whether or not category-based redundant signals can speed up processing even without bilateral presentation. Toward that end, participants performed a go/no-go visual task in which they responded only to members of the target category (i.e., they responded only to numbers and did not respond to letters). Numbers and letters were presented along an imaginary vertical line in the center of the visual field. When the single signal trials contained a nontarget letter (Experiment 1), there was a significant redundant signals effect. The effect was not significant when the single-signal trials did not contain a nontarget letter (Experiments 2 and 3). The results indicate that, when targets are defined categorically and not presented bilaterally, the redundant signals effect may be an effect of reducing the presence of information that draws attention away from the target. This suggests that redundant signals may not speed up conceptual processing when interhemispheric presentation is not available.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Calibration to tool use during visually-guided reaching
    • Authors: Brian Day; Elham Ebrahimi; Leah S. Hartman; Christopher C. Pagano; Sabarish V. Babu
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Brian Day, Elham Ebrahimi, Leah S. Hartman, Christopher C. Pagano, Sabarish V. Babu
      In studying human perception and performance researchers must understand how the body schema is modified to accurately represent one's capabilities when tools are used, as humans use tools that alter their capabilities frequently. The present work tested the idea that calibration is responsible for modifying an embodied action schema during tool use. We investigated calibration in the context of manual activity in near space through a behavioral measure. Participants made blind reaches to various visual distances in pre- and post-test phases using a short tool that did not extend their reach. During an intervening calibration phase they received visual feedback about the accuracy of their reaches, with half of the participants reaching with a tool that extended their reach by 30cm. Results indicated both groups showed calibration appropriate to the type of tool that they used during the calibration phase, and this calibration carried over to reaches made in the post-test. These results inform discussions on the proposed embodied action schema and have applications to virtual reality, specifically the development of self-avatars.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • To plan or not to plan: Does planning for production remove facilitation
           from associative priming'
    • Authors: Suzanne R. Jongman; Antje S. Meyer
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Suzanne R. Jongman, Antje S. Meyer
      Theories of conversation propose that in order to have smooth transitions from one turn to the next, speakers already plan their response while listening to their interlocutor. Moreover, it has been argued that speakers align their linguistic representations (i.e. prime each other), thereby reducing the processing costs associated with concurrent listening and speaking. In two experiments, we assessed how identity and associative priming from spoken words onto picture naming were affected by a concurrent speech planning task. In a baseline (no name) condition, participants heard prime words that were identical, associatively related, or unrelated to target pictures presented two seconds after prime onset. Each prime was accompanied by a non-target picture and followed by its recorded name. The participant did not name the non-target picture. In the plan condition, the participants first named the non-target picture, instead of listening to the recording, and then the target. In Experiment 1, where the plan- and no-plan conditions were tested between participants, priming effects of equal strength were found in the plan and no-plan condition. In Experiment 2, where the two conditions were tested within participants, the identity priming effect was maintained, but the associative priming effect was only seen in the no-plan but not in the plan condition. In this experiment, participant had to decide at the onset of each trial whether or not to name the non-target picture, rendering the task more complex than in Experiment 1. These decision processes may have interfered with the processing of the primes. Thus, associative priming can take place during speech planning, but only if the cognitive load is not too high.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Memorable objects are more susceptible to forgetting: Evidence for the
           inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting
    • Authors: I. Reppa; K.E. Williams; E.R. Worth; W.J. Greville; J. Saunders
      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): I. Reppa, K.E. Williams, E.R. Worth, W.J. Greville, J. Saunders
      Retrieval of target information can cause forgetting for related, but non-retrieved, information – retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The aim of the current studies was to examine a key prediction of the inhibitory account of RIF – interference dependence – whereby ‘strong’ non-retrieved items are more likely to interfere during retrieval and therefore, are more susceptible to RIF. Using visual objects allowed us to examine and contrast one index of item strength –object typicality, that is, how typical of its category an object is. Experiment 1 provided proof of concept for our variant of the recognition practice paradigm. Experiment 2 tested the prediction of the inhibitory account that the magnitude of RIF for natural visual objects would be dependent on item strength. Non-typical objects were more memorable overall than typical objects. We found that object memorability (as determined by typicality) influenced RIF with significant forgetting occurring for the memorable (non-typical), but not non-memorable (typical), objects. The current findings strongly support an inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Item-method directed forgetting: Effects at retrieval'
    • Authors: Tracy L. Taylor; Laura Cutmore; Lotta Pries
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Tracy L. Taylor, Laura Cutmore, Lotta Pries
      In an item-method directed forgetting paradigm, words are presented one at a time, each followed by an instruction to Remember or Forget; a directed forgetting effect is measured as better subsequent memory for Remember words than Forget words. The dominant view is that the directed forgetting effect arises during encoding due to selective rehearsal of Remember over Forget items. In three experiments we attempted to falsify a strong view that directed forgetting effects in recognition are due only to encoding mechanisms when an item method is used. Across 3 experiments we tested for retrieval-based processes by colour-coding the recognition test items. Black colour provided no information; green colour cued a potential Remember item; and, red colour cued a potential Forget item. Recognition cues were mixed within-blocks in Experiment 1 and between-blocks in Experiments 2 and 3; Experiment 3 added explicit feedback on the accuracy of the recognition decision. Although overall recognition improved with cuing when explicit test performance feedback was added in Experiment 3, in no case was the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect influenced by recognition cueing. Our results argue against a role for retrieval-based strategies that limit recognition of Forget items at test and posit a role for encoding intentions only.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.004
  • Foraging through multiple target categories reveals the flexibility of
           visual working memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Tómas Kristjánsson, Árni Kristjánsson
      A key assumption in the literature on visual attention is that templates, actively maintained in visual working memory (VWM), guide visual attention. An important question therefore involves the nature and capacity of VWM. According to load theories, more than one search template can be active at the same time and capacity is determined by the total load rather than a precise number of templates. By an alternative account only one search template can be active within visual working memory at any given time, while other templates are in an accessory state – but do not affect visual selection. We addressed this question by varying the number of targets and distractors in a visual foraging task for 40 targets among 40 distractors in two ways: 1) Fixed-distractor-number, involving two distractor types while target categories varied from one to four. 2) Fixed-color-number (7), so that if the target types were two, distractors types were five, while if target number increased to three, distractor types were four (etc.). The two accounts make differing predictions. Under the single-template account, we should expect large switch costs as target types increase to two, but switch-costs should not increase much as target types increase beyond two. Load accounts predict an approximately linear increase in switch costs with increased target type number. The results were that switch costs increased roughly linearly in both conditions, in line with load accounts. The results are discussed in light of recent proposals that working memory reflects lingering neural activity at various sites that operate on the stimuli in each case and findings showing neurally silent working memory representations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
  • Phonemic feature involvement in lexical access in grades 3 and 5: Evidence
           from visual and auditory lexical decision tasks
    • Authors: Karinne Sauval; Laetitia Perre; Séverine Casalis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Karinne Sauval, Laetitia Perre, Séverine Casalis
      Numerous studies have evidenced the involvement of the phonological code during visual word recognition not only in skilled adult readers but also in child readers. Moreover, in skilled adult readers, visual word processing has been shown to be sensitive to phonetic details such as phonemic features (e.g., manner of articulation, place of articulation, voicing and nasality in French) which are typically involved in phonological lexicon access during speech processing. In contrast, it is not known whether and when visual word recognition is affected by phonemic features during learning to read. The present study investigates this issue in third and fifth graders. A lexical decision task was performed in visual and auditory modalities. Targets were French words (e.g., piano [piano]) and pseudowords created from target words. Mismatching was on the first phoneme. There were one-feature phoneme mismatch pseudowords (e.g., tiano) and multiple-feature phoneme mismatch pseudowords (e.g., liano). The pseudowords were used as a marker of the sensitivity to phonemic features in phonological lexicon access. Phonemic feature effects were found in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks in both grades, indicating that phonological lexicon access involves phonemic features in print processing as in speech processing. In contrast, the absence of difference between both grades seems to indicate that this effect is independent of age or, more precisely, of phonological development and reading performance.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.002
  • The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production
    • Authors: Laurence Séraphin Thibon; Silvain Gerber; Sonia Kandel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Laurence Séraphin Thibon, Silvain Gerber, Sonia Kandel
      We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.001
  • The bidirectional congruency effect of brightness-valence metaphoric
           association in the Stroop-like and priming paradigms
    • Authors: Yanli Huang; Chi-Shing Tse; Jiushu Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Yanli Huang, Chi-Shing Tse, Jiushu Xie
      The conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999) postulates a unidirectional metaphoric association between abstract and concrete concepts: sensorimotor experience activated by concrete concepts facilitates the processing of abstract concepts, but not the other way around. However, this unidirectional view has been challenged by studies that reported a bidirectional metaphoric association. In three experiments, we tested the directionality of the brightness-valence metaphoric association, using Stroop-like paradigm, priming paradigm, and Stroop-like paradigm with a go/no-go manipulation. Both mean and vincentile analyses of reaction time data were performed. We showed that the directionality of brightness-valence metaphoric congruency effect could be modulated by the activation level of the brightness/valence information. Both brightness-to-valence and valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effects occurred in the priming paradigm, which could be attributed to the presentation of prime that pre-activated the brightness or valence information. However, in the Stroop-like paradigm the metaphoric congruency effect was only observed in the brightness-to-valence direction, but not in the valence-to-brightness direction. When the go/no-go manipulation was used to boost the activation of word meaning in the Stroop-like paradigm, the valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect was observed. Vincentile analyses further revealed that valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect approached significance in the Stroop-like paradigm when participants' reaction times were slower (at around 490ms). The implications of the current findings on the conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.006
  • More than a feeling: The bidirectional convergence of semantic visual
           object and somatosensory processing
    • Authors: Chelsea Ekstrand; Josh Neudorf Eric Lorentz Layla Gould Marla Mickleborough
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Chelsea Ekstrand, Josh Neudorf, Eric Lorentz, Layla Gould, Marla Mickleborough, Ron Borowsky
      Prevalent theories of semantic processing assert that the sensorimotor system plays a functional role in the semantic processing of manipulable objects. While motor execution has been shown to impact object processing, involvement of the somatosensory system has remained relatively unexplored. Therefore, we developed two novel priming paradigms. In Experiment 1, participants received a vibratory hand prime (on half the trials) prior to viewing a picture of either an object interacted primarily with the hand (e.g., a cup) or the foot (e.g., a soccer ball) and reported how they would interact with it. In Experiment 2, the same objects became the prime and participants were required to identify whether the vibratory stimulation occurred to their hand or foot. In both experiments, somatosensory priming effects arose for the hand objects, while foot objects showed no priming benefits. These results suggest that object semantic knowledge bidirectionally converges with the somatosensory system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T10:52:36Z
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