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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.109
  Citation Impact (citeScore): 94
  Number of Followers: 88  
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy
    • Authors: B. Scott-Parker; C.M. Jones; K. Rune; J. Tucker
      Pages: 38 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 118
      Author(s): B. Scott-Parker, C.M. Jones, K. Rune, J. Tucker
      Background Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual’s health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. Aim To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Method Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1–1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Results Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Discussion and conclusions Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted.

      PubDate: 2018-06-03T18:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2018)
       
  • Vehicle ownership and other predictors of teenagers risky driving
           behavior: Evidence from a naturalistic driving study
    • Authors: Pnina Gershon; Johnathon Ehsani; Chunming Zhu; Fearghal O’Brien; Sheila Klauer; Tom Dingus; Bruce Simons-Morton
      Pages: 96 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 118
      Author(s): Pnina Gershon, Johnathon Ehsani, Chunming Zhu, Fearghal O’Brien, Sheila Klauer, Tom Dingus, Bruce Simons-Morton
      Objective Risky driving behavior may contribute to the high crash risk among teenage drivers. The current naturalistic driving study assessed predictors for teenagers’ kinematic risky driving (KRD) behavior and the interdependencies between them. Method The private vehicles of 81 novice teenage drivers were equipped with data acquisition system that recorded driving kinematics, miles driven, and video recordings of the driver, passengers and the driving environment. Psychosocial measures were collected using questionnaires administered at licensure. Poisson regression analyses and model selection were used to assess factors associated with teens’ risky driving behavior and the interactions between them. Results Driving own vs shared vehicle, driving during the day vs at night, and driving alone vs with passengers were significantly associated with higher KRD rates (Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 1.60, 1.41, and 1.28, respectively). Teenagers reporting higher vs lower levels of parental trust had significantly lower KRD rates (IRR = 0.58). KRD rates were 88% higher among teenagers driving with a passenger in their own vehicle compared to teenagers driving with a passenger in a shared vehicle. Similarly, KRD rates during the day were 74% higher among teenagers driving their own vehicle compared to those driving a shared vehicle. Conclusions Novice teenagers’ risky driving behavior varied according to driver attributes and contextual aspects of the driving environment. As such, examining teenagers’ risky driving behavior should take into account multiple contributing factors and their interactions. The variability in risky driving according to the driving context can inform the development of targeted interventions to reduce the crash risk of novice teenage drivers.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T18:52:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2018)
       
  • Does talking the talk matter' Effects of supervisor safety
           communication and safety climate on long-haul truckers’ safety
           performance
    • Authors: Yueng-hsiang Huang; Robert R. Sinclair; Jin Lee; Anna C. McFadden; Janelle H. Cheung; Lauren A. Murphy
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yueng-hsiang Huang, Robert R. Sinclair, Jin Lee, Anna C. McFadden, Janelle H. Cheung, Lauren A. Murphy
      This study examines the distinct contribution of supervisory safety communication and its interaction with safety climate in the prediction of safety performance and objective safety outcomes. Supervisory safety communication is defined as subordinates’ perceptions of the extent to which their supervisor provides them with relevant safety information about their job (i.e., top-down communication) and the extent to which they feel comfortable discussing safety issues with their supervisor (i.e., bottom-up communication). Survey data were collected from 5162 truck drivers from a U.S. trucking company with a 62.1% response rate. Individual employees’ survey responses were matched to their safety outcomes (i.e., lost-time injuries) six months after the survey data collection. Results showed that the quality of supervisor communication about safety uniquely contributes to safety outcomes, above and beyond measures of both group-level and organization-level safety climate. The construct validity of a newly-adapted safety communication scale was demonstrated, particularly focusing on its distinctiveness from safety climate and testing a model showing that communication had both main and moderating effects on safety behavior that ultimately predicted truck drivers’ injury rates. Our findings support the need for continued attention to supervisory safety communication as an important factor by itself, as well as a contingency factor influencing how safety climate relates to safety outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Time series modeling in traffic safety research
    • Authors: Steven M. Lavrenz; Eleni I. Vlahogianni; Konstantina Gkritza; Yue Ke
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Steven M. Lavrenz, Eleni I. Vlahogianni, Konstantina Gkritza, Yue Ke
      The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in using time series models in traffic safety research, and discusses some of the fundamental techniques and considerations in classic time series modeling. It also presents ongoing and future opportunities for expanding the use of time series models, and explores newer modeling techniques, including computational intelligence models, which hold promise in effectively handling ever-larger data sets. The information contained herein is meant to guide safety researchers in understanding this broad area of transportation data analysis, and provide a framework for understanding safety trends that can influence policy-making.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.030
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles
    • Authors: Carol A.C. Flannagan; András Bálint; Kathleen D. Klinich; Ulrich Sander; Miriam A. Manary; Sophie Cuny; Michael McCarthy; Vuthy Phan; Caroline Wallbank; Paul E. Green; Bo Sui; Åsa Forsman; Helen Fagerlind
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Carol A.C. Flannagan, András Bálint, Kathleen D. Klinich, Ulrich Sander, Miriam A. Manary, Sophie Cuny, Michael McCarthy, Vuthy Phan, Caroline Wallbank, Paul E. Green, Bo Sui, Åsa Forsman, Helen Fagerlind
      Objective This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. Methods The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed “front/side crashes”) and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes. Results For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040). Conclusions The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Difference between car-to-cyclist crash and near crash in a perpendicular
           crash configuration based on driving recorder analysis
    • Authors: Daisuke Ito; Kosei Hayakawa; Yuma Kondo; Koji Mizuno; Robert Thomson; Giulio Bianchi Piccinini; Naruyuki Hosokawa
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Daisuke Ito, Kosei Hayakawa, Yuma Kondo, Koji Mizuno, Robert Thomson, Giulio Bianchi Piccinini, Naruyuki Hosokawa
      Analyzing a crash using driving recorder data makes it possible to objectively examine factors contributing to the occurrence of the crash. In this study, car-to-cyclist crashes and near crashes recorded on cars equipped with advanced driving recorders were compared with each other in order to examine the factors that differentiate near crashes from crashes, as well as identify the causes of the crashes. Focusing on cases where the car and cyclist approached each other perpendicularly, the differences in the car’s and cyclist’s parameters such as velocity, distance and avoidance behavior were analyzed. The results show that car-to-cyclist crashes would not be avoidable when the car approaching the cyclist enters an area where the average deceleration required to stop the car is more than 0.45 G (4.4 m/s2). In order for this situation to occur, there are two types of cyclist crash scenarios. In the first scenario, the delay in the drivers’ reaction in activating the brakes is the main factor responsible for the crash. In this scenario, time-to-collision when the cyclist first appears in the video is more than 2.0 s. In the second scenario, the sudden appearance of a cyclist from behind an obstacle on the street is the factor responsible for the crash. In this case, the time-to-collision is less than 1.2 s, and the crash cannot be avoided even if the driver exhibited avoidance maneuvers.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes
    • Authors: Kun-Feng Wu; Lekshmi Sasidharan; Craig P. Thor; Sheng-Yin Chen
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Kun-Feng Wu, Lekshmi Sasidharan, Craig P. Thor, Sheng-Yin Chen
      Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers’ age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were included in this study, weighted to represent 338,655 motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes in three years (2011–2013)(NHTSA, 2013). The top five most frequent and severe types of crash sequences were identified, accounting for 23 percent of all the motorcycle crashes included in the study, and they are (1) run-off-road crashes on the right, and hitting roadside objects, (2) cross-median crashes, and rollover, (3) left-turn oncoming crashes, and head-on, (4) crossing over (passing through) or turning into opposite direction at intersections, and (5) side-impacted. In addition to crash sequences, several other factors were also identified to have effects on crash severity: use of helmet, presence of horizontal curves, alcohol consumption, road surface condition, roadway functional class, and nighttime condition.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T16:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • The impact of opioid analgesic prescription uptake on the costs of
           recovery from injury: Evidence from compensable orthopaedic road trauma
           patients
    • Authors: Youjin Hahn; Gemma Tiernan; Janneke Berecki-Gisolf
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Youjin Hahn, Gemma Tiernan, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf
      Long-term opioid prescribing after compensable orthopaedic injury may contribute to the ‘long right tail’ in the cost of recovery. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of prescription opioid uptake on injury compensation cost, using orthopaedic road traffic injury claims data from Victoria, Australia. We used a maximum likelihood estimation that accounts for potential endogeneity associated with opioid uptake, utilizing information on the doctor’s differential propensity to prescribe opioids when treating other compensable injury patients. Our results suggest that opioid recipients incurred significantly greater hospital costs, income compensation payments, and medical and paramedical expenses. Overall, income compensation was the primary driver of the claim cost difference between opioid recipients and non-recipients. The findings imply that there is scope to impose restrictions on long-term opioid usage, and to encourage the use of alternative pain relief medicines.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Methodological evolution and frontiers of identifying, modeling and
           preventing secondary crashes on highways
    • Authors: Hong Yang; Zhenyu Wang; Kun Xie; Kaan Ozbay; Marianna Imprialou
      Pages: 40 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Hong Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Marianna Imprialou
      Secondary crashes (SCs) or crashes that occur within the boundaries of the impact area of prior, primary crashes are one of the incident types that frequently affect highway traffic operations and safety. Existing studies have made great efforts to explore the underlying mechanisms of SCs and relevant methodologies have been evolving over the last two decades concerning the identification, modeling, and prevention of these crashes. So far there is a lack of a detailed examination on the progress, lessons, and potential opportunities regarding existing achievements in SC-related studies. This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of the state-of-the-art approaches; examines their strengths and weaknesses; and provides guidance in exploiting new directions in SC-related research. It aims to support researchers and practitioners in understanding well-established approaches so as to further explore the frontiers. Published studies focused on SCs since 1997 have been identified, reviewed, and summarized. Key issues concentrated on the following aspects are discussed: (i) static/dynamic approaches to identify SCs; (ii) parametric/non-parametric models to analyze SC risk, and (iii) deployable countermeasures to prevent SCs. Based on the examined issues, needs, and challenges, this paper further provides insights into potential opportunities such as: (a) fusing data from multiple sources for SC identification, (b) using advanced learning algorithms for real-time SC analysis, and (c) deploying connected vehicles for SC prevention in future research. This paper contributes to the research community by providing a one-stop reference for research on secondary crashes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Assessment of the safety benefits of vehicles’ advanced driver
           assistance, connectivity and low level automation systems
    • Authors: Lishengsa Yue; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Yina Wu; Ling Wang
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Lishengsa Yue, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Yina Wu, Ling Wang
      The Connected Vehicle (CV) technologies together with other Driving Assistance (DA) technologies are believed to have great effects on traffic operation and safety, and they are expected to impact the future of our cities. However, few research has estimated the exact safety benefits when all vehicles are equipped with these technologies. This paper seeks to fill the gap by using a general crash avoidance effectiveness framework for major CV&DA technologies to make a comprehensive crash reduction estimation. Twenty technologies that were tested in recent studies are summarized and sensitivity analysis is used for estimating their total crash avoidance effectiveness. The results show that crash avoidance effectiveness of CV&DA technology is significantly affected by the vehicle type and the safety estimation methodology. A 70% crash avoidance rate seems to be the highest effectiveness for the CV&DA technologies operating in the real-world environment. Based on the 2005–2008 U.S. GES Crash Records, this research found that the CV&DA technologies could lead to the reduction of light vehicles’ crashes and heavy trucks’ crashes by at least 32.99% and 40.88%, respectively. The rear-end crashes for both light vehicles and heavy trucks have the most expected crash benefits from the technologies. The paper also studies the effectiveness of Forward Collision Warning technology (FCW) under fog conditions, and the results show that FCW could reduce 35% of the near-crash events under fog conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased
           physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center'
    • Authors: Penghui Li; Gustav Markkula; Yibing Li; Natasha Merat
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Penghui Li, Gustav Markkula, Yibing Li, Natasha Merat
      Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro-steering activity and (b) a tendency to steer toward the gaze target.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.034
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Effects of truck traffic on crash injury severity on rural highways in
           Wyoming using Bayesian binary logit models
    • Authors: Mohamed M. Ahmed; Rebecca Franke; Khaled Ksaibati; Debbie S. Shinstine
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Mohamed M. Ahmed, Rebecca Franke, Khaled Ksaibati, Debbie S. Shinstine
      Roadway safety is an integral part of a functioning infrastructure. A major use of the highway system is the transport of goods. The United States has experienced constant growth in the amount of freight transported by truck in the last few years. Wyoming is experiencing a large increase in truck traffic on its local and county roads due to an increase in oil and gas production. This study explores the involvement of heavy trucks in crashes and their significance as a predictor of crash severity and addresses the effect that large truck traffic is having on the safety of roadways for various road classifications. Studies have been done on the factors involved in and the causation of heavy truck crashes, but none address the causation and effect of roadway classifications on truck crashes. Binary Logit Models (BLM) with Bayesian inferences were utilized to classify heavy truck involvement in severe and non-severe crashes using ten years (2002–2011) of historical crash data in the State of Wyoming. From the final main effects model, various interactions proved to be significant in predicting the severity of crashes and varied depending on the roadway classification. The results indicated the odds of a severe crash increase to 2.3 and 4.5 times when a heavy truck is involved on state and interstate highways respectively. The severity of crashes is significantly increased when road conditions were not clear, icy, and during snowy weather conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of Behavior-Based Safety education methods
           for commercial vehicle drivers
    • Authors: Xuesong Wang; Yilun Xing; Lian Luo; Rongjie Yu
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Xuesong Wang, Yilun Xing, Lian Luo, Rongjie Yu
      Risky driving behavior is one of the main causes of commercial vehicle related crashes. In order to achieve safer vehicle operation, safety education for drivers is often provided. However, the education programs vary in quality and may not always be successful in reducing crash rates. Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) education is a popular approach found effective by numerous studies, but even this approach varies as to the combination of frequency, mode and content used by different education providers. This study therefore evaluates and compares the effectiveness of BBS education methods. Thirty-five drivers in Shanghai, China, were coached with one of three different BBS education methods for 13 weeks following a 13-week baseline phase with no education. A random-effects negative binomial (NB) model was built and calibrated to investigate the relationship between BBS education and the driver at-fault safety-related event rate. Based on the results of the random-effects NB model, event modification factors (EMF) were calculated to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the methods. Results show that (1) BBS education was confirmed to be effective in safety-related event reduction; (2) the most effective method among the three applied monthly face-to-face coaching, including feedback with video and statistical data, and training on strategies to avoid driver-specific unsafe behaviors; (3) weekly telephone coaching using statistics and strategies was rated by drivers as the most convenient delivery mode, and was also significantly effective.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • MOPEDS: The high cost of cheap and poorly legislated transportation for
           negligent drivers
    • Authors: Gabriella Ode; Ronald Sing; Joseph Hsu; Rachel Seymour; Michael Bosse
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Gabriella Ode, Ronald Sing, Joseph Hsu, Rachel Seymour, Michael Bosse
      INTRODUCTION This study evaluates the impact of moped crashes in North Carolina, a state with lenient moped legislation by(1) describing the characteristics of moped crashes and (2) estimating the cost burden of moped-related injuries. METHODS Health and public records of moped crash subjects treated at our hospital were reviewed. Direct costs were billed hospital charges. Indirect costs based on age and outcomes were calculated. RESULTS Between 2008–2013, 368 subjects were involved in 373 moped crashes. 52% of drivers were intoxicated. 38% of drivers had prior DWIs and 26% had prior revoked licenses. Hospitalized subjects (n = 305) had a combined 2687 hospital days, 695 ICU days and 449 trips to the operating room for treatment of their injuries. Average hospital charges were $70,561 per subject. Total direct and indirect costs of moped injuries were over $26 million and $81 million respectively. Medicaid absorbed most of the direct cost ($13.7 M). Estimated direct cost of moped crashes across the state totaled $133 million. CONCLUSION Healthcare and financial ramifications of moped collisions are substantial. Laws governing moped drivers and stricter penalties for intoxicated drivers are needed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T16:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Wrong-way driving crashes: A random-parameters ordered probit analysis of
           injury severity
    • Authors: Mohammad Jalayer; Ramin Shabanpour; Mahdi Pour-Rouholamin; Nima Golshani; Huaguo Zhou
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Mohammad Jalayer, Ramin Shabanpour, Mahdi Pour-Rouholamin, Nima Golshani, Huaguo Zhou
      In the context of traffic safety, whenever a motorized road user moves against the proper flow of vehicle movement on physically divided highways or access ramps, this is referred to as wrong-way driving (WWD). WWD is notorious for its severity rather than frequency. Based on data from the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, an average of 355 deaths occur in the U.S. each year due to WWD. This total translates to 1.34 fatalities per fatal WWD crashes, whereas the same rate for other crash types is 1.10. Given these sobering statistics, WWD crashes, and specifically their severity, must be meticulously analyzed using the appropriate tools to develop sound and effective countermeasures. The objectives of this study were to use a random-parameters ordered probit model to determine the features that best describe WWD crashes and to evaluate the severity of injuries in WWD crashes. This approach takes into account unobserved effects that may be associated with roadway, environmental, vehicle, crash, and driver characteristics. To that end and given the rareness of WWD events, 15 years of crash data from the states of Alabama and Illinois were obtained and compiled. Based on this data, a series of contributing factors including responsible driver characteristics, temporal variables, vehicle characteristics, and crash variables are determined, and their impacts on the severity of injuries are explored. An elasticity analysis was also performed to accurately quantify the effect of significant variables on injury severity outcomes. According to the obtained results, factors such as driver age, driver condition, roadway surface conditions, and lighting conditions significantly contribute to the injury severity of WWD crashes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • The influence of bus and taxi drivers’ public self-consciousness and
           social anxiety on aberrant driving behaviors
    • Authors: Yu-Wen Huang; Pei-Chun Lin; Jenhung Wang
      Pages: 145 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yu-Wen Huang, Pei-Chun Lin, Jenhung Wang
      The study examined how bus and taxi drivers’ public self-consciousness interacted with social anxiety to influence their aberrant driving behaviors. Questionnaires were distributed to 331 male and female Taiwanese bus and taxi drivers whose working environment involves frequent and direct interaction with passengers. Questionnaire statements measured drivers’ dispositional public self-consciousness and social anxiety, and their intentions and driving behaviors related to speeding, errors and violations. The study utilized a mediating model and path analysis explored causal relationships between the constructs. The study found that both public self-consciousness and social anxiety explained bus drivers’ aberrant driving behaviors. Female drivers reported less aberrant driving behaviors than their male counterparts did. Bus drivers reported less aberrant driving behaviors than taxi drivers. Drivers with crash involvement within three years reported higher public self-consciousness than did those without that involvement. The suitable research frameworks, which describe the influence of public self-consciousness and social anxiety on aberrant driving behaviors, fit to bus and taxi drivers are different, so as different to male and female drivers. The study findings suggest bus and taxi driver should receive special training in general attitude as a condition of their employment in order to avoid aggressive behaviors and provide a better and safer service to the public.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • An exploratory study of long-haul truck drivers’ secondary tasks and
           reasons for performing them
    • Authors: Tobias Iseland; Emma Johansson; Siri Skoog; Anna M. Dåderman
      Pages: 154 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Tobias Iseland, Emma Johansson, Siri Skoog, Anna M. Dåderman
      Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers’ self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related “necessities” (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Lane change warning threshold based on driver perception characteristics
    • Authors: Chang Wang; Qinyu Sun; Rui Fu; Zhen Li; Qiong Zhang
      Pages: 164 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Chang Wang, Qinyu Sun, Rui Fu, Zhen Li, Qiong Zhang
      Lane Change Warning system (LCW) is exploited to alleviate driver workload and improve the safety performance of lane changes. Depending on the secure threshold, the lane change warning system could transmit caution to drivers. Although the system possesses substantial benefits, it may perturb the conventional operating of the driver and affect driver judgment if the warning threshold does not conform to the driver perception of safety. Therefore, it is essential to establish an appropriate warning threshold to enhance the accuracy rate and acceptability of the lane change warning system. This research aims to identify the threshold that conforms to the driver perception of the ability to safely change lanes with a rear vehicle fast approaching. We propose a theoretical warning model of lane change based on a safe minimum distance and deceleration of the rear vehicle. For the purpose of acquiring the different safety levels of lane changes, 30 licensed drivers are recruited and we obtain the extreme moments represented by driver perception characteristics from a Front Extremity Test and a Rear Extremity Test implemented on the freeway. The required deceleration of the rear vehicle corresponding to the extreme time is calculated according to the proposed model. In light of discrepancies in the deceleration in these extremity experiments, we determine two levels of a hierarchical warning system. The purpose of the primary warning is to remind drivers of the existence of potentially dangerous vehicles and the second warning is used to warn the driver to stop changing lanes immediately. We use the signal detection theory to analyze the data. Ultimately, we confirm that the first deceleration threshold is 1.5 m/s2 and the second deceleration threshold is 2.7 m/s2. The findings provide the basis for the algorithm design of LCW and enhance the acceptability of the intelligent system.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Engaging police to identify challenging school crossings and potential
           improvements
    • Authors: Catherine B. Bull; Leigh Ann Von Hagen; Andrea Lubin; Gayathri Shivaraman; Daniel Chibbaro
      Pages: 175 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Catherine B. Bull, Leigh Ann Von Hagen, Andrea Lubin, Gayathri Shivaraman, Daniel Chibbaro
      This paper discusses the value of police officers as vital sources of information regarding pedestrian safety in their communities by presenting results from a survey of traffic safety police officers. The survey requested information on school crossings that the officers considered most challenging for pedestrians. Officers specified the intersections or mid-block locations with school crossings, and answered questions about elements of the locations, such as what makes the locations challenging, and what might be done to improve conditions at these locations. A key finding from the survey is the police officers’ identification of challenging intersections or other crossing locations by criteria other than the occurrence of crashes, including reported pedestrian-vehicle near-miss incidents. A broad literature review of pedestrian safety studies provides context for the use of near-miss data in discussions of improvements to pedestrian crossings. Although not typically considered a primary resource for pedestrian safety information, police officers are most often very familiar with their communities, work in locations where pedestrian and motor vehicle traffic can be experienced and observed, and receive information from their staff and members of the public who use pedestrian crossings. The survey findings demonstrate that police officer insights and near-miss data may serve as important supplementary sources of information in the effort to identify locations in need of interventions before crash occurrence.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Bayesian Poisson hierarchical models for crash data analysis:
           Investigating the impact of model choice on site-specific predictions
    • Authors: S. Hadi Khazraee; Valen Johnson; Dominique Lord
      Pages: 181 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): S. Hadi Khazraee, Valen Johnson, Dominique Lord
      The Poisson-gamma (PG) and Poisson-lognormal (PLN) regression models are among the most popular means for motor vehicle crash data analysis. Both models belong to the Poisson-hierarchical family of models. While numerous studies have compared the overall performance of alternative Bayesian Poisson-hierarchical models, little research has addressed the impact of model choice on the expected crash frequency prediction at individual sites. This paper sought to examine whether there are any trends among candidate models predictions e.g., that an alternative model’s prediction for sites with certain conditions tends to be higher (or lower) than that from another model. In addition to the PG and PLN models, this research formulated a new member of the Poisson-hierarchical family of models: the Poisson-inverse gamma (PIGam). Three field datasets (from Texas, Michigan and Indiana) covering a wide range of over-dispersion characteristics were selected for analysis. This study demonstrated that the model choice can be critical when the calibrated models are used for prediction at new sites, especially when the data are highly over-dispersed. For all three datasets, the PIGam model would predict higher expected crash frequencies than would the PLN and PG models, in order, indicating a clear link between the models predictions and the shape of their mixing distributions (i.e., gamma, lognormal, and inverse gamma, respectively). The thicker tail of the PIGam and PLN models (in order) may provide an advantage when the data are highly over-dispersed. The analysis results also illustrated a major deficiency of the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) in comparing the goodness-of-fit of hierarchical models; models with drastically different set of coefficients (and thus predictions for new sites) may yield similar DIC values, because the DIC only accounts for the parameters in the lowest (observation) level of the hierarchy and ignores the higher levels (regression coefficients).

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Understanding the psychological precursors of young drivers’ willingness
           to speed and text while driving
    • Authors: Carissa Preece; Angela Watson; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Judy Fleiter
      Pages: 196 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Carissa Preece, Angela Watson, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Judy Fleiter
      This study applied the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to investigate the factors that may predict young drivers’ (non-intentional) willingness to text while driving, text while stopped, and engage in high and low levels of speeding. In addition, the study sought to assess whether general optimism bias would predict young drivers’ willingness to text and speed over and above the PWM. Licenced drivers (N = 183) aged 17–25 years (M = 19.84, SD = 2.30) in Queensland, Australia completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that the PWM was effective in explaining the variance in willingness to perform all four illegal driving behaviours. Particularly, young drivers who possessed favourable attitudes and a positive prototype perception towards these behaviours were more willing to engage in texting and speeding. In contrast to the study’s predictions, optimistically biased beliefs decreased young drivers’ willingness to text while stopped and engage in high and low levels of speeding. The findings of the study may help inform policy and educational campaigns to better target risky driving behaviours by considering the influence of attitudes, prototypes and the non-intentional pathway that may lead to engagement in texting while driving and stopped and engagement in high and low levels of speeding.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier
           strike outcomes by median barrier type
    • Authors: Brendan J. Russo; Peter T. Savolainen
      Pages: 216 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Brendan J. Russo, Peter T. Savolainen
      Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.023
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Why do drivers become safer over the first three months of driving' A
           longitudinal qualitative study
    • Authors: Marianne R. Day; Andrew R. Thompson; Damian R. Poulter; Christopher B. Stride; Richard Rowe
      Pages: 225 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Marianne R. Day, Andrew R. Thompson, Damian R. Poulter, Christopher B. Stride, Richard Rowe
      Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues. Analysis adopted a dual deductive and inductive interpretative thematic approach, identifying three super-ordinate themes: (1) Improvements in car control skills and situation awareness; (2) A reduction in the thrill of taking risks when driving against a background of generally increasing driving speed; (3) Early concerns about their social status in the eyes of other road users during the early stages of driving, which may put pressure on them to drive faster than they felt comfortable with. The study provides important new leads towards understanding how novice driving becomes safer over the first few months of driving, including how well-studied concepts of driving skill and style may change during development of independent driving, and bringing the less rigorously studied concept of social status into focus.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Driver distraction by smartphone use (WhatsApp) in different age groups
    • Authors: C. Ortiz; S. Ortiz-Peregrina; J.J. Castro; M. Casares-López; C. Salas
      Pages: 239 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): C. Ortiz, S. Ortiz-Peregrina, J.J. Castro, M. Casares-López, C. Salas
      This paper investigates the effect that texting with WhatsApp, one of the most common applications for instant messaging, exerts on driving performance. Because distracted driving also affects older drivers, who can have seriously compromised vision, we also analysed the associations between visual-function parameters and driving performance. A total of 75 drivers, experienced in sending WhatsApp messages (≥10WhatsApp messages/week), participated in this study and were divided into four age categories. Visual-function tests included contrast sensitivity with and without glare, retinal straylight and objective assessment of optical quality. Simulated driving performance was assessed under a baseline driving condition (without distraction) as well as a texting condition (WhatsApp messages) while driving. The participants used their own mobile phone. Lastly, objective results of driving performance were compared with subjective self-report data from the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The analysis indicated that functional changes occurring with age, such as a lower contrast sensitivity and greater retinal straylight, were correlated with a higher number of collisions, longer distances driven outside the lane, and greater standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The results showed a significant main effect of age for the driving-performance parameters. Also, compared to the baseline, texting WhatsApp messages while driving worsens driving performance for all age groups, most notably among older participants. Thus, the older drivers' SDLP was ∼14% higher than that for the baseline average of all the other drivers and rose to 29% under distraction, reflecting the impact of secondary tasks. The negative effect of the use of the smartphone during driving was also reflected in the number of collisions, with a greater risk of accidents in all the groups of drivers (by 8.3% for young adults, 25.0% for adults, 80.5% for middle-aged adults, and 134.5% for older drivers). Lastly, participants' subjective responses indicated that younger drivers (18–24 years) had a higher risk of deliberately violating safe driving practices (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that texting WhatsApp messages while driving significantly impairs the ability to drive safely, with older drivers being the group most adversely affected. It would be recommendable to include other nonstandard vision tests, which have shown associations with driving performance, in the examination for driver licensing. This would help raise the awareness of older drivers concerning their visual limitations, permitting them to adopt compensatory measures to improve their driving safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to raise awareness among the younger drivers of the risks involved in behaviour behind the wheel.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • How to determine an optimal threshold to classify real-time crash-prone
           traffic conditions'
    • Authors: Kui Yang; Rongjie Yu; Xuesong Wang; Mohammed Quddus; Lifang Xue
      Pages: 250 - 261
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Kui Yang, Rongjie Yu, Xuesong Wang, Mohammed Quddus, Lifang Xue
      One of the proactive approaches in reducing traffic crashes is to identify hazardous traffic conditions that may lead to a traffic crash, known as real-time crash prediction. Threshold selection is one of the essential steps of real-time crash prediction. And it provides the cut-off point for the posterior probability which is used to separate potential crash warnings against normal traffic conditions, after the outcome of the probability of a crash occurring given a specific traffic condition on the basis of crash risk evaluation models. There is however a dearth of research that focuses on how to effectively determine an optimal threshold. And only when discussing the predictive performance of the models, a few studies utilized subjective methods to choose the threshold. The subjective methods cannot automatically identify the optimal thresholds in different traffic and weather conditions in real application. Thus, a theoretical method to select the threshold value is necessary for the sake of avoiding subjective judgments. The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical method for automatically identifying the optimal threshold. Considering the random effects of variable factors across all roadway segments, the mixed logit model was utilized to develop the crash risk evaluation model and further evaluate the crash risk. Cross-entropy, between-class variance and other theories were employed and investigated to empirically identify the optimal threshold. And K-fold cross-validation was used to validate the performance of proposed threshold selection methods with the help of several evaluation criteria. The results indicate that (i) the mixed logit model can obtain a good performance; (ii) the classification performance of the threshold selected by the minimum cross-entropy method outperforms the other methods according to the criteria. This method can be well-behaved to automatically identify thresholds in crash prediction, by minimizing the cross entropy between the original dataset with continuous probability of a crash occurring and the binarized dataset after using the thresholds to separate potential crash warnings against normal traffic conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Trends in the crash involvement of older drivers in Australia
    • Authors: James P. Thompson; Matthew R.J. Baldock; Jeffrey K. Dutschke
      Pages: 262 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): James P. Thompson, Matthew R.J. Baldock, Jeffrey K. Dutschke
      Research from the USA and Great Britain indicates that the number of fatal crashes (as well as the rates of crashes of all levels of injury and property damage) involving older drivers declined between approximately 1997 and 2010 despite increases in the number of older drivers on the road and in their driving exposure. Differing results have been found in Australian research with the number of older driver fatalities having been steady and even slightly increasing between 2004 and 2013. The present study further examined trends in the crash involvement of older drivers in Australia to determine whether their involvement has been increasing or decreasing, and how this compares to trends for younger aged drivers. Crash, injury, population and licensure data were examined by age group for the years 2003–2012. There were increases in the population and licensure of drivers aged 65 years and older, while the total crashes, serious injuries, and fatalities remained steady for drivers aged 65–84 and increased for the oldest group (85+) between 2003 and 2012. Increasing trends were also found for drivers 85 and older for rates of serious or fatal injuries per head of population and per licensed driver. Population and licensure among younger age groups also increased but their crash numbers and crash rates remained steady or declined. The stable or slightly increasing fatal crash involvement of older drivers in Australia contrasts with the declining trends in the USA and Great Britain. Therefore, greater attention should be given to the road safety of older drivers in Australia.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T16:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Transferring and calibrating safety performance functions among multiple
           States
    • Authors: Ahmed Farid; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Jaeyoung Lee
      Pages: 276 - 287
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Ahmed Farid, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
      Safety performance functions (SPFs), statistical regression models, by predicting traffic crash counts by crash type, severity and facility type, aid traffic engineers in the process of identifying high frequency crash locations. Developing SPFs requires the collection and processing of traffic, crash, road design and other characteristics’ data. Jurisdictional agencies may choose not to develop their own SPFs and cut back on their resources by adopting SPFs provided by the national Highway Safety Manual (HSM). The HSM also provides a technique to calibrate its SPFs to the specific jurisdictions’ conditions. Yet, the technique is subject to criticism. This research is aimed at exploring the transferability of SPFs of rural divided multilane highway segments of Florida, Ohio, Illinois, Minnesota, California, Washington and North Carolina. The SPFs are negative binomial (NB) models as are those provided by the HSM. We address the fault of instinctively applying the HSM’s SPFs to a particular locality without verifying whether the SPFs are transferable to the locality and compare different states’ crash patterns. Remarkably, it is found that specific SPFs of Ohio, Illinois, Minnesota and California are transferable to either of the four states. In addition, in this research, a calibration technique is proposed as an alternative to that of the HSM and two other calibration methods introduced in the traffic safety literature. They are the calibration function and the calibration of the transferred model’s constant term in conjunction with the over-dispersion parameter. Our proposed calibration technique, namely local regression, is demonstrated to be more reliable than the HSM’s and the ones previously proposed in the literature.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.024
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Using road markings as a continuous cue for speed choice
    • Authors: Samuel G. Charlton; Nicola J. Starkey; Neha Malhotra
      Pages: 288 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Samuel G. Charlton, Nicola J. Starkey, Neha Malhotra
      The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an “Attentional” set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a “Perceptual” set designed to also affect drivers’ perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings). The Explicit groups were instructed about the meaning of the road markings while those in the Implicit and Control groups did not receive any explanation. Participants drove five 10 km simulated roads containing three speed zones (60, 80 and 100 km/h) during the first session. The participants returned to the laboratory approximately 3 days later to drive five more trials including roads they had not seen before, a trial that included a secondary task, and a trial where speed signs were removed and only markings were present. The findings indicated that both types of road markings improved drivers’ compliance with speed limits compared to the control group, but that explicit instruction as to the meaning of the markings was needed to realise their full benefit. Although previous research has indicated the benefit of road markings used as warnings to indicate speed reductions in advance of horizontal or vertical curves, the findings of the present experiment also suggest that systematically associating road markings with specific speed limits may be a useful way to improve speed limit compliance and increase speed homogeneity.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.029
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Increasing the default interletter spacing of words can help drivers to
           read traffic signs at longer distances
    • Authors: Pilar Tejero; Beatriz Insa; Javier Roca
      Pages: 298 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Pilar Tejero, Beatriz Insa, Javier Roca
      Would an increase in the default interletter spacing improve the legibility of words in traffic signs' Previous evidence on traffic sign design and recent studies on the cognitive processes involved in visual word recognition have provided conflicting results. The present work examined whether an increase in the default interletter spacing would improve the search of a word in direction traffic signs. To achieve this objective, twenty-two drivers participated in a driving simulation experiment. They followed a highway route and indicated whether a target place name was present among a set of distractors shown on direction traffic signs along the route. We compared the default interletter spacing of the Spanish “CC Rige” font (which is based on the internationally-used Transport font) and a 2.5-times expanded interletter spacing. The results revealed that the drivers were able to give a correct response at a distance to the traffic sign that was on average longer in the expanded than in the default spacing condition. This advantage in the legibility distance was observed in the absence of significant differences in reading accuracy, gaze behavior, or driving performance measures. Therefore, the evidence provided supports that drivers can benefit from a slight increase in interletter spacing relative to the standard spacing. Some of the design factors influencing this effect are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.028
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Comparing car drivers’ and motorcyclists’ opinions about
           junction crashes
    • Authors: Chloe J. Robbins; Harriet A. Allen; Peter Chapman
      Pages: 304 - 317
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Chloe J. Robbins, Harriet A. Allen, Peter Chapman
      Motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Despite car drivers being solely responsible for many road crashes involving a motorcycle, previous research has mostly focussed on understanding motorcyclists’ attitudes towards their own safety. We compared car drivers’ (n = 102) and motorcyclists’ (n = 579) opinions about junction crashes using a web-based questionnaire. Motorcyclists and car drivers were recruited in similar ways so that responses could be directly compared, accessing respondents through driver/rider forums and on social media. Car drivers’ and motorcyclists’ opinions were compared in relation to who they believe to be blameworthy in situations which varied in specificity, ranging from what road user they believe is most likely to cause a motorcyclist to have a road crash, to what road user is at fault in four specific scenarios involving a car and motorcycle at a junction. Two of these scenarios represented typical ‘Right of way’ (ROW) crashes with a motorcycle approaching from the left and right, and two scenarios involved a motorcycle overtaking another vehicle at the junction, known as ‘Motorcycle Manoeuvrability Accidents’ (MMA). Qualitative responses were analysed using LIWC software to detect objective differences in car drivers’ and motorcyclists’ language. Car drivers’ and motorcyclists’ opinions about the blameworthiness of accidents changed depending on how specific the situation was that was being presented. When respondents were asked about the cause of motorcycle crashes in a general abstract sense, car drivers’ and motorcyclists’ responses significantly differed, with motorcyclists more likely to blame car drivers, demonstrating an in-group bias. However, this in-group favouritism was reduced when asked about specific scenarios, especially in MMA situations which involve motorcyclists manoeuvring their motorcycles around cars at a junction. In the four specific scenarios, car drivers were more likely to blame the car driver, and motorcyclists were more likely to blame the motorcyclist. In the typical ROW scenarios, the responses given by both road users, as analysed by the LIWC, show that the law is taken into account, as well as a large emphasis on the lack of observation given around junctions, especially from car drivers. It is concluded that the perception of blameworthiness in crashes is very much dependent on the details of the crash, with a more specific situation eliciting a fairer evaluation by both car drivers and motorcyclists.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Effects of congestion on drivers’ speed choice: Assessing the mediating
           role of state aggressiveness based on taxi floating car data
    • Authors: Yizhe Huang; Daniel (Jian) Sun; Li-Hui Zhang
      Pages: 318 - 327
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yizhe Huang, Daniel (Jian) Sun, Li-Hui Zhang
      Inappropriate cruising speed, such as speeding, is one of the major contributors to the road safety, which increases both the quantitative number and severity of traffic accidents. Previous studies have indicated that traffic congestion is one of the primary causes of drivers’ frustration and aggression, which may lead to inappropriate speed choice. In this study, the large taxi floating car data (FCD) was used to empirically evaluate how traffic congestion-related negative moods, defined as state aggressiveness, affected drivers’ speed choice. The indirect effect of traffic delay on the cruising speed adjustment through the state aggressiveness was assessed through the mediation analysis. Furthermore, the moderated mediation analysis was performed to explore the effect of driver type, value of time, and working duration on the mediation role of state aggressiveness. The results proved that the state aggressiveness was the mediator of the relationship between travel delays and driving speed adjustment, and the mediation role was different across various driver types. As compared to the aggressive drivers, the normal drivers and the steady drivers tended to behave more aggressively after experiencing non-recurrent congestion during the early stage of the trips. When the value of time was high, steady drivers were more likely to adjust their speed choice although the effect was not statistically significant for other driver types. The validation results indicated that the speed model incorporating state aggressiveness could better predict the travel time than the traditional speed model that only considering the specific expected speed distribution. The prediction results for the manifest indicators of state aggressiveness, such as the maximum speed and the speed deviation, also demonstrated a reasonable reflection of the field data.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Time-varying mixed logit model for vehicle merging behavior in work zone
           merging areas
    • Authors: Jinxian Weng; Gang Du; Dan Li; Yao Yu
      Pages: 328 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Jinxian Weng, Gang Du, Dan Li, Yao Yu
      This study aims to develop a time-varying mixed logit model for the vehicle merging behavior in work zone merging areas during the merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. From the safety perspective, vehicle crash probability and severity between the merging vehicle and its surrounding vehicles are regarded as major factors influencing vehicle merging decisions. Model results show that the model with the use of vehicle crash risk probability and severity could provide higher prediction accuracy than previous models with the use of vehicle speeds and gap sizes. It is found that lead vehicle type, through lead vehicle type, through lag vehicle type, crash probability of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lag vehicle, crash severities of the merging vehicle with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles could exhibit time-varying effects on the merging behavior. One important finding is that the merging vehicle could become more and more aggressive in order to complete the merging maneuver as quickly as possible over the elapsed time, even if it has high vehicle crash risk with respect to the through lead and lag vehicles.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Crash data modeling with a generalized estimator
    • Authors: Zhirui Ye; Yueru Xu; Dominique Lord
      Pages: 340 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Zhirui Ye, Yueru Xu, Dominique Lord
      The investigation of relationships between traffic crashes and relevant factors is important in traffic safety management. Various methods have been developed for modeling crash data. In real world scenarios, crash data often display the characteristics of over-dispersion. However, on occasions, some crash datasets have exhibited under-dispersion, especially in cases where the data are conditioned upon the mean. The commonly used models (such as the Poisson and the NB regression models) have associated limitations to cope with various degrees of dispersion. In light of this, a generalized event count (GEC) model, which can be generally used to handle over-, equi-, and under-dispersed data, is proposed in this study. This model was first applied to case studies using data from Toronto, characterized by over-dispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized with under-dispersion. The results from the GEC model were compared with those from the Negative binomial and the hyper-Poisson models. The cases studies show that the proposed model provides good performance for crash data characterized with over- and under-dispersion. Moreover, the proposed model simplifies the modeling process and the prediction of crash data.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.04.026
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash
           vehicle trajectory
    • Authors: X. Shi; Y.D. Wong; M.Z.F. Li; C. Chai
      Pages: 346 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): X. Shi, Y.D. Wong, M.Z.F. Li, C. Chai
      Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2018)
       
  • Are estimates of crash modification factors mis-specified'
    • Authors: Robert Noland; Yemi Adediji
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 118
      Author(s): Robert B. Noland, Yemi Adediji
      Transportation planners and traffic engineers are using crash modification factors to evaluate how changes in road geometry and design features can reduce crashes. Crash modification factors are typically estimated based on segmenting links on a highway and associating with geometric features. This allows statistical methods to be applied to the data. Concurrently there is a stream of research that relies on spatial units of analysis to examine crashes; these typically use broad features of the road network combined with socio-economic and demographic factors that are associated with crashes. In this paper, we examine whether omission of these spatial factors in a link-based model results in mis-specified models, in particular, omitted variable bias. Our results suggest that there is no change in coefficient signs, but that there is a reduction in the magnitude of estimates, suggesting that omitted variable bias exists. The sign of spatial variables differ substantially when combined with a link-based model. We also find substantial variability in coefficient estimates, and discuss the implications of these results for the use of crash modification factors in cost-benefit analysis of road safety projects.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T16:00:59Z
       
  • Calibration of the inertial consistency index to assess road safety on
           horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads
    • Authors: David Francisco; Javier Camacho-Torregrosa Alfredo
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 118
      Author(s): David Llopis-Castelló, Francisco Javier Camacho-Torregrosa, Alfredo García
      One of every four road fatalities occurs on horizontal curves of two-lane rural roads. To this regard, many studies have been undertaken to analyze the crash risk on this road element. Most of them were based on the concept of geometric design consistency, which can be defined as how drivers’ expectancies and road behavior relate. However, none of these studies included a variable which represents and estimates drivers’ expectancies. This research presents a new local consistency model based on the Inertial Consistency Index (ICI). This consistency parameter is defined as the difference between the inertial operating speed, which represents drivers’ expectations, and the operating speed, which represents road behavior. The inertial operating speed was defined as the weighted average operating speed of the preceding road section. In this way, different lengths, periods of time, and weighting distributions were studied to identify how the inertial operating speed should be calculated. As a result, drivers’ expectancies should be estimated considering 15 s along the segment and a linear weighting distribution. This was consistent with drivers’ expectancies acquirement process, which is closely related to Short-Term Memory. A Safety Performance Function was proposed to predict the number of crashes on a horizontal curve and consistency thresholds were defined based on the ICI. To this regard, the crash rate increased as the ICI increased. Finally, the proposed consistency model was compared with previous models. As a conclusion, the new Inertial Consistency Index allowed a more accurate estimation of the number of crashes and a better assessment of the consistency level on horizontal curves. Therefore, highway engineers have a new tool to identify where road crashes are more likely to occur during the design stage of both new two-lane rural roads and improvements of existing highways.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
       
  • Longitudinal safety evaluation of connected vehicles’ platooning on
           expressways
    • Authors: Sharikur Rahman; Mohamed Abdel-Aty
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): Md Sharikur Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
      Connected vehicles (CV) technology has recently drawn an increasing attention from governments, vehicle manufacturers, and researchers. One of the biggest issues facing CVs popularization associates it with the market penetration rate (MPR). The full market penetration of CVs might not be accomplished recently. Therefore, traffic flow will likely be composed of a mixture of conventional vehicles and CVs. In this context, the study of CV MPR is worthwhile in the CV transition period. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinal safety of CV platoons by comparing the implementation of managed-lane CV platoons and all lanes CV platoons (with same MPR) over non-CV scenario. This study applied the CV concept on a congested expressway (SR408) in Florida to improve traffic safety. The Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) along with the platooning concept were used to regulate the driving behavior of CV platoons with an assumption that the CVs would follow this behavior in real-world. A high-level control algorithm of CVs in a managed-lane was proposed in order to form platoons with three joining strategies: rear join, front join, and cut-in joint. Five surrogate safety measures, standard deviation of speed, time exposed time-to-collision (TET), time integrated time-to-collision (TIT), time exposed rear-end crash risk index (TERCRI), and sideswipe crash risk (SSCR) were utilized as indicators for safety evaluation. The results showed that both CV approaches (i.e., managed-lane CV platoons, and all lanes CV platoons) significantly improved the longitudinal safety in the studied expressway compared to the non-CV scenario. In terms of surrogate safety measures, the managed-lane CV platoons significantly outperformed all lanes CV platoons with the same MPR. Different time-to-collision (TTC) thresholds were also tested and showed similar results on traffic safety. Results of this study provide useful insight for the management of CV MPR as managed-lane CV platoons.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T15:59:34Z
       
  • Frontal crashworthiness characterisation of a vehicle segment using curve
           comparison metrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 117
      Author(s): D. Abellán-López, M. Sánchez-Lozano, L. Martínez-Sáez
      The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the characterization of the collision behaviour and crashworthiness of a segment of vehicles, by selecting the vehicle that best represents that group. It would be useful in the development of deformable barriers, to be used in crash tests intended to study vehicle compatibility, as well as for the definition of the representative standard pulses used in numerical simulations or component testing. The characterisation and selection of representative vehicles is based on the objective comparison of the occupant compartment acceleration and barrier force pulses, obtained during crash tests, by using appropriate comparison metrics. This method is complemented with another one, based exclusively on the comparison of a few characteristic parameters of crash behaviour obtained from the previous curves. The method has been applied to different vehicle groups, using test data from a sample of vehicles. During this application, the performance of several metrics usually employed in the validation of simulation models have been analysed, and the most efficient ones have been selected for the task. The methodology finally defined is useful for vehicle segment characterization, taken into account aspects of crash behaviour related to the shape of the curves, difficult to represent by simple numerical parameters, and it may be tuned in future works when applied to larger and different samples.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:02:17Z
       
 
 
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