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Showing 1 - 200 of 3044 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [84 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Meta-analysis of the effect of road work zones on crash occurrence
    • Authors: Athanasios Theofilatos; Apostolos Ziakopoulos; Eleonora Papadimitriou; George Yannis; Konstantinos Diamandouros
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Athanasios Theofilatos, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Eleonora Papadimitriou, George Yannis, Konstantinos Diamandouros
      There is strong evidence that work zones pose increased risk of crashes and injuries. The two most common risk factors associated with increased crash frequencies are work zone duration and length. However, relevant research on the topic is relatively limited. For that reason, this paper presents formal meta-analyses of studies that have estimated the relationship between the number of crashes and work zone duration and length, in order to provide overall estimates of those effects on crash frequencies. All studies presented in this paper are crash prediction models with similar specifications. According to the meta-analyses and after correcting for publication bias when it was considered appropriate, the summary estimates of regression coefficients were found to be 0.1703 for duration and 0.862 for length. These effects were significant for length but not for duration. However, the overall estimate of duration was significant before correcting for publication bias. Separate meta-analyses on the studies examining both duration and length was also carried out in order to have rough estimates of the combined effects. The estimate of duration was found to be 0.953, while for length was 0.847. Similar to previous meta-analyses the effect of duration after correcting for publication bias is not significant, while the effect of length was significant at a 95% level. Meta-regression findings indicate that the main factors influencing the overall estimates of the beta coefficients are study year and region for duration and study year and model specification for length.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Coming back into the loop: Drivers’ perceptual-motor performance in
           critical events after automated driving
    • Authors: Tyron Louw; Gustav Markkula; Erwin Boer; Ruth Madigan; Oliver Carsten; Natasha Merat
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tyron Louw, Gustav Markkula, Erwin Boer, Ruth Madigan, Oliver Carsten, Natasha Merat
      This driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EU AdaptIVe project, investigated drivers’ performance in critical traffic events, during the resumption of control from an automated driving system. Prior to the critical events, using a between-participant design, 75 drivers were exposed to various screen manipulations that varied the amount of available visual information from the road environment and automation state, which aimed to take them progressively further ‘out-of-the-loop’ (OoTL). The current paper presents an analysis of the timing, type, and rate of drivers’ collision avoidance response, also investigating how these were influenced by the criticality of the unfolding situation. Results showed that the amount of visual information available to drivers during automation impacted on how quickly they resumed manual control, with less information associated with slower take-over times, however, this did not influence the timing of when drivers began a collision avoidance manoeuvre. Instead, the observed behaviour is in line with recent accounts emphasising the role of scenario kinematics in the timing of driver avoidance response. When considering collision incidents in particular, avoidance manoeuvres were initiated when the situation criticality exceeded an Inverse Time To Collision value of ≈0.3s−1. Our results suggest that take-over time and timing and quality of avoidance response appear to be largely independent, and while long take-over time did not predict collision outcome, kinematically late initiation of avoidance did. Hence, system design should focus on achieving kinematically early avoidance initiation, rather than short take-over times.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane
           mid-block crosswalks in China
    • Authors: Cunbao Zhang; Bin Zhou; Guojun Chen; Feng Chen
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Cunbao Zhang, Bin Zhou, Guojun Chen, Feng Chen
      A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian’s safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian’s safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian’s accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se
           legal limit
    • Authors: Eduardo Romano; Robert B. Voas; Bayliss Camp
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Eduardo Romano, Robert B. Voas, Bayliss Camp
      There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol. This effort addresses this gap in knowledge. We took advantage of a unique database that merged fatal crashes in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which allows for a precise identification of crash responsibility. To account for recent increase in lab testing, we restricted our sample to cover only the years 1993–2009. A total of 4294 drivers were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were run to model the contribution of alcohol and drugs to the likelihood of being responsible in a fatal crash. We found evidence that compared with drivers negative for alcohol and cannabis, the presence of cannabis elevates crash responsibility in fatal crashes among drivers at zero BACs (OR=1.89) and with 0<BAC<0.05g/dL (OR=3.42), suggesting that emphasis on curbing impaired driving should not be solely focused on heavy-drinking drivers. Data limitations however caution about the generalizability of study findings. Special efforts to understand the effect of cannabis on fatal crashes, in particular in the absence of alcohol, are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Analyzing driver-pedestrian interaction in a mixed-street environment
           using a driving simulator
    • Authors: Hassan Obeid; Hoseb Abkarian; Maya Abou-Zeid; Isam Kaysi
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hassan Obeid, Hoseb Abkarian, Maya Abou-Zeid, Isam Kaysi
      This paper presents the design, analysis and results of a driving simulator experiment conducted to study the interaction between drivers and pedestrians in a mixed-street environment. Ninety-six students of the American University of Beirut (AUB) participated in the experiment that took place in the Transportation and Infrastructure Laboratory of AUB. The study looked at the driver-pedestrian interaction from the driver's perspective, by quantifying the effects of different scenario variables on the driving behavior of the participants. Kruskall-Wallis test shows that drivers’ behavior in proximity of pedestrians tends to be statistically significantly less aggressive when their approach velocity is lower, curb-side parking is not allowed, a crosswalk exists, and the number of pedestrians crossing the street is higher. A discrete choice model for the yielding behavior of the drivers was also developed as a function of different predictor variables. Five out of the six predictors considered (except for gender) had a statistically significant effect on the yielding behavior, particularly the effects of curb-side parking, number of pedestrians crossing, and approach velocity. The model was then used to evaluate the effect of policy variables on the yielding probabilities of the drivers. The results of this study enrich current knowledge and understanding of drivers’ behavior and their interaction with pedestrians, especially with studying the effects of scenario variables that were not addressed before; this would help planners propose and evaluate safety measures and traffic calming techniques to reduce the risks on pedestrians. The study also confirms the effectiveness of driving simulators in studying driver-pedestrian interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Driver braking behavior analysis to improve autonomous emergency braking
           systems in typical Chinese vehicle-bicycle conflicts
    • Authors: Jingliang Duan; Renjie Li; Lian Hou; Wenjun Wang; Guofa Li; Shengbo Eben Li; Bo Cheng; Hongbo Gao
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jingliang Duan, Renjie Li, Lian Hou, Wenjun Wang, Guofa Li, Shengbo Eben Li, Bo Cheng, Hongbo Gao
      Bicycling is one of the fundamental modes of transportation especially in developing countries. Because of the lack of effective protection for bicyclists, vehicle-bicycle (V-B) accident has become a primary contributor to traffic fatalities. Although AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) systems have been developed to avoid or mitigate collisions, they need to be further adapted in various conflict situations. This paper analyzes the driver’s braking behavior in typical V-B conflicts of China to improve the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems. Naturalistic driving data were collected, from which the top three scenarios of V-B accidents in China were extracted, including SCR (a bicycle crossing the road from right while a car is driving straight), SCL (a bicycle crossing the road from left while a car is driving straight) and SSR (a bicycle swerving in front of the car from right while a car is driving straight). For safety and data reliability, a driving simulator was employed to reconstruct these three scenarios and some 25 licensed drivers were recruited for braking behavior analysis. Results revealed that driver’s braking behavior was significantly influenced by V-B conflict types. Pre-decelerating behaviors were found in SCL and SSR conflicts, whereas in SCR the subjects were less vigilant. The brake reaction time and brake severity in lateral V-B conflicts (SCR and SCL) was shorter and higher than that in longitudinal conflicts (SSR). The findings improve their applications in the Bicyclist-AEB and test protocol enactment to enhance the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems in mixed traffic situations especially for developing countries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Associations between alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes towards
           alcohol interlocks
    • Authors: Caitlin A. Bishop; Sara Liu; Amanda N. Stephens; Michael Fitzharris
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Caitlin A. Bishop, Sara Liu, Amanda N. Stephens, Michael Fitzharris
      Background Drink-driving and alcohol-related crashes are a significant problem globally. Alcohol interlocks are used to prevent drivers with a blood alcohol concentration above a pre-determined level from starting their vehicle, making the technology highly effective in preventing drink-drive episodes. While alcohol interlocks are commonly used in drink-drive offender groups, their broader use as a preventative road safety strategy is considered increasingly feasible. In this context it is important to understand attitudes towards the technology, and to investigate whether these attitudes vary according to alcohol consumption patterns as this influences the acceptability of a broad-based preventative alcohol interlock program. Methods A representative sample of 2994 Australian drivers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Participants reported their alcohol consumption, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards the use of alcohol interlocks for personal use and for drink-drive offenders. Results Half of the sample stated that alcohol interlocks would be of use personally. Seventy-four percent of high-risk drinkers (defined by an AUDIT score ≥20) stated they would find the technology personally useful when compared to 49% of low-risk drinkers (AUDIT ≤7). Overwhelmingly, more than 80% of participants agreed with the mandatory instalment of alcohol interlocks and compulsory clinical interventions for drink-drive offenders, with more low-risk drinkers supporting this than the high-risk drinkers. Conclusions While there were mixed opinions regarding the perceived personal usefulness of alcohol interlocks, higher-risk drinkers were most likely to perceive interlocks as being of use for themselves. This high-risk group however, was less likely to provide support for clinical interventions and additional re-licensing requirements aimed at eliciting changes in drinking behaviour. These findings have important implications for drink-drive offender relicensing and the likely success of drink-driver education, and interventions aimed at curbing risky alcohol consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • On the use of naturalistic methods to examine safety-relevant behaviours
           amongst children and evaluate a cycling education program
    • Authors: J. Hatfield; M. Dozza; D.A. Patton; P. Maharaj; S. Boufous; T. Eveston
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): J. Hatfield, M. Dozza, D.A. Patton, P. Maharaj, S. Boufous, T. Eveston
      School-based cycling education programs aim to improve cycling safety and participation amongst children. Available research suggests that typical programs, which focus on bicycle manoeuvring skills, have limited effects on behaviour observed on a track or planned route. The current study uses theoretically more valid, naturalistic cycling data, to evaluate Safe Cycle, a program that incorporates hazard and self-awareness training. Soon after Safe Cycle was delivered at treatment schools, research bicycles instrumented with a rearward- and a forward-facing camera were loaned to six children from treatment schools and six children from (waitlist) control schools. In each group half the children were in Year 6, and half were in Year 7/8. Each child was instructed to ride the research bicycle instead of their own bicycle for the 1–2 weeks that they had a research bicycle. Video data were reduced using a purpose-designed coding scheme that identified whether participants performed specific safety-relevant behaviours in appropriate circumstances. While the participants controlled their bicycles well, gave way appropriately to traffic at intersections, and stopped at red lights, participants frequently removed one or both hands from the handlebars, and seldom signalled turns, conducted over-shoulder-checks when changing lanes, or looked in multiple directions at intersections (except when crossing a road). While aspects of design and small sample sizes limited evaluation findings, this research demonstrated the feasibility and potential of naturalistic data to support cycling education program evaluation. Further, the study substantially extended available naturalistic study of children’s cycling behaviour to highlight behaviours which might be targeted by cycling safety initiatives.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level
    • Authors: Jia Li; Xuesong Wang
      Pages: 100 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jia Li, Xuesong Wang
      Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Hazard perception training in young bicyclists improves early detection of
           risk: A cluster-randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts; Pieter Vansteenkiste; Frederik J.A. Deconinck; Greet Cardon; Matthieu Lenoir
      Pages: 112 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts, Pieter Vansteenkiste, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Greet Cardon, Matthieu Lenoir
      Introduction Since child bicyclists are more likely to get involved in a traffic crash, there is a stringent need to provide child bicyclists with tailored interventions in order to enhance their capabilities to deal with the complexity of traffic situations. The current study therefore aimed to test the effectiveness of a hazard anticipation training in young bicyclists by means of eye tracking technology. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled design was used in which participating schools were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. At first, a baseline hazard anticipation test was carried out in the intervention group (78 children; 9.56±0.38years of age) and the control group (46 children; 9.58±0.41years of age). Child bicyclists who participated in the intervention followed the training that consisted of two classroom sessions. In each session children were presented with video clips from the perspective of a bicyclist encountering various (potentially) dangerous traffic situations. Following the intervention, a post-test directly after the training and a retention test three weeks later were completed. The control group received the intervention after the retention test. Results Trained child bicyclists were found to detect more hazards and reacted quicker compared to the control group that did not receive the training. However, the training did not result in improvements in anticipatory visual search behaviour. Conclusion Trained child bicyclists seemed to have developed a better processing regarding potential dangerous situations but were not able to ‘see’ the hazard sooner. The potential of a brief hazard anticipation training is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text
           mining techniques
    • Authors: Yang Miang Goh; C.U. Ubeynarayana
      Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Yang Miang Goh, C.U. Ubeynarayana
      Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact
           driver aggressiveness
    • Authors: Cole D. Fitzpatrick; Siby Samuel; Michael A. Knodler
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Cole D. Fitzpatrick, Siby Samuel, Michael A. Knodler
      Speeding greatly attributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a virtual drive was constructed to evaluate how time pressures, or hurried driving, affected driver speed choice and driver behavior. In particular, acceleration profiles, gap acceptance, willingness to pass, and dilemma zone behavior were used, in addition to speed, as measures to evaluate whether being late increased risky and aggressive driving behaviors. Thirty-six drivers were recruited with an equal male/female split and a broad distribution of ages. Financial incentives and completion time goals calibrated from a control group were used to generate a Hurried and Very Hurried experimental group. As compared to the control group, Very Hurried drivers selected higher speeds, accelerated faster after red lights, accepted smaller gaps on left turns, were more likely to pass a slow vehicle, and were more likely to run a yellow light in a dilemma zone situation. These trends were statistically significant and were also evident with the Hurried group but a larger sample would be needed to show statistical significance. The findings from this study provide evidence that hurried drivers select higher speeds and exhibit riskier driving behaviors. These conclusive results have possible implications in areas such as transportation funding and commercial motor vehicle safety.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Evaluation of risk change-point for novice teenage drivers
    • Authors: Qing Li; Feng Guo; Sheila G. Klauer; Bruce G. Simons-Morton
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Qing Li, Feng Guo, Sheila G. Klauer, Bruce G. Simons-Morton
      The driving risk of novice teenagers is the highest during the initial period after licensure but decreases rapidly. This paper applies two recurrent-event change-point models to detect the time of change in driving risks. The models are based on a non-homogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity functions. We show that the maximum likelihood estimators of the change-points can only occur at the event times and they are consistent. A simulation study is conducted to demonstrate the model performance under different scenarios. The proposed models are applied to the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study, which continuously recorded in situ driving behaviour of 42 novice teenage drivers for the first 18 months after licensure using sophisticated in-vehicle instrumentation. The results indicate that approximately half of the drivers have lower risk after 73.0h of independent driving after licensure while the risk for others increases. On the average the driving risk deceases after the change-point. The results provide critical information for safety education, safety countermeasure development, and Graduated Driver Licensing policy making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated
    • Authors: Frederik Naujoks; Christian Purucker; Katharina Wiedemann; Alexandra Neukum; Stefan Wolter; Reid Steiger
      Pages: 147 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Frederik Naujoks, Christian Purucker, Katharina Wiedemann, Alexandra Neukum, Stefan Wolter, Reid Steiger
      This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called ‘Hands-on’ variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called ‘Hands-off’ variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as ‘harmless’ by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.027
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • A comparative injury severity analysis of motorcycle at-fault crashes on
           rural and urban roadways in Alabama
    • Authors: Samantha Islam; Joshua Brown
      Pages: 163 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Samantha Islam, Joshua Brown
      The research described in this paper explored the factors contributing to the injury severity resulting from the motorcycle at-fault accidents in rural and urban areas in Alabama. Given the occurrence of a motorcycle at-fault crash, random parameter logit models of injury severity (with possible outcomes of fatal, major, minor, and possible or no injury) were estimated. The estimated models identified a variety of statistically significant factors influencing the injury severities resulting from motorcycle at-fault crashes. According to these models, some variables were found to be significant only in one model (rural or urban) but not in the other one. For example, variables such as clear weather, young motorcyclists, and roadway without light were found significant only in the rural model. On the other hand, variables such as older female motorcyclists, horizontal curve and at intersection were found significant only in the urban model. In addition, some variables (such as, motorcyclists under influence of alcohol, non-usage of helmet, high speed roadways, etc.) were found significant in both models. Also, estimation findings showed that two parameters (clear weather and roadway without light) in the rural model and one parameter (on weekend) in the urban model could be modeled as random parameters indicating their varying influences on the injury severity due to unobserved effects. Based on the results obtained, this paper discusses the effects of different variables on injury severities resulting from rural and urban motorcycle at-fault crashes and their possible explanations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and
           alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models
    • Authors: Wen Cheng; Gurdiljot Singh Gill; Taha Sakrani; Mohan Dasu; Jiao Zhou
      Pages: 172 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Taha Sakrani, Mohan Dasu, Jiao Zhou
      Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.032
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • A new insight on the risky behavior of motorists at railway level
           crossings: An observational field study
    • Authors: Ci Liang; Mohamed Ghazel; Olivier Cazier; El-Miloudi El-Koursi
      Pages: 181 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ci Liang, Mohamed Ghazel, Olivier Cazier, El-Miloudi El-Koursi
      Accidents at railway level crossings (LXs) give rise to serious material and human damage. Particularly, collisions between trains and motorized vehicles are the most critical accidents occurring at LXs. It is worth noticing that violations committed by vehicle drivers are the primary cause of such accidents. The present study is a tentative to acquire a better understanding of risky behavior of vehicle drivers while crossing LXs during the closure cycle. Namely, risk analysis based on field measurement conducted at four automated LXs with two half barriers is performed. We focus on vehicle driver behavior during the LX closure cycle while distinguishing between different phases. In fact, the closure cycle is divided into three phases which are “Ph2 Red Flash and Siren”, “Ph3 Barriers Coming Down” and “Ph4 Barriers Down”; and vehicle driver behavior in each phase as time increases is scrutinized respectively. Particularly, zigzag scenarios are detected, using an original experimental setting that we have implemented, and analyzed in detail. The main findings based on the analysis demonstrate that the peak of violation rate in the morning is later than the actual rush hour in the morning; a distinct peak of the violation rate shows on Friday, while the violation rate on weekend is fairly low; the relative violation rate of vehicles with high speed decreases continuously as time advances from Ph2 to Ph3 in the daytime; the violation rate during Ph4 decreases as Ph4 duration is prolonged, which contradicts a general speculation that a higher rate of zigzag violations would appear as the duration of Ph4 is extended. These findings open the way towards determining the impacting factors which have an important contribution to the vehicle driver decision-making in this context (e.g., traffic density, time schedule and phase duration). In addition, the outputs of the present study are conducive to identifying potential interventions to improve safety at LXs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.030
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • The effect of ambient light condition on road traffic collisions involving
           pedestrians on pedestrian crossings
    • Authors: Jim Uttley; Steve Fotios
      Pages: 189 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jim Uttley, Steve Fotios
      Previous research suggests darkness increases the risk of a collision involving a pedestrian and the severity of any injury suffered. Pedestrian crossings are intended to make it safer to cross the road, but it is not clear whether they are effective at doing this after-dark, compared with during daylight. Biannual clock changes resulting from transitions to and from daylight saving time were used to compare RTCs in the UK during daylight and darkness but at the same time of day, thus controlling for potential influences on RTC numbers not related to the ambient light condition. Odds ratios and regression discontinuity analysis suggested there was a significantly greater risk of a pedestrian RTC at a crossing after-dark than during daylight. Results also suggested the risk of an RTC after-dark was greater at a pedestrian crossing than at a location at least 50m away from a crossing. Whilst these results show the increased danger to pedestrians using a designated crossing after-dark, this increased risk is not due to a lack of lighting at these locations as 98% of RTCs at pedestrian crossings after-dark were lit by road lighting. This raises questions about the adequacy and effectiveness of the lighting used at pedestrian crossings.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Is there an observational effect' An exploratory study into speed
           cameras and self-reported offending behaviour
    • Authors: J. Freeman; S-A. Kaye; V. Truelove; J. Davey
      Pages: 201 - 208
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): J. Freeman, S-A. Kaye, V. Truelove, J. Davey
      Fixed and mobile speed cameras are an important element of enforcement initiatives designed to create a strong deterrent effect and improve road safety. Despite the widespread use of the technology and the need to create a strong deterrent effect, research has yet to determine if there is a relationship between levels of exposure to the devices and subsequent self-reported deterrent effects. As a result, licensed motorists (N =536; 51% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a questionnaire that measured exposure to speed cameras and associated offending behaviours. Data were analyzed utilising descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics. The key findings that emerged were: the sample reported a higher level of exposure to fixed cameras (even though there are more operational mobile cameras), younger males were most likely to speed and be observant of speed cameras and that perceived certainty of apprehension was the largest reported deterrent force. However, a positive (rather than negative) relationship was found between perceived camera exposure levels and speeding behaviours, which indicates a range of additional factors (both legal and non-legal factors as well as driving exposure levels) influence speed limit non-compliance. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of perceptual certainty were associated with general speed compliance and perceptions of the severity and swiftness of sanctions, rather than levels of self-reported camera exposure. This paper is the first to reveal that while motorists prone to speed may be more cognisant of speed camera operations, this in itself does not ensure appropriate behaviour modification.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • To stop or not to stop: Contrasting compliant and non-compliant driver
           behaviour at rural rail level crossings
    • Authors: Vanessa Beanland; Paul M. Salmon; Ashleigh J. Filtness; Michael G. Lenné; Neville A. Stanton
      Pages: 209 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Vanessa Beanland, Paul M. Salmon, Ashleigh J. Filtness, Michael G. Lenné, Neville A. Stanton
      Many rail level crossings (RLXs) have only passive protection, such as static signs instructing road users to stop, yield, or look for trains. Stop signs have been suggested as a low-cost option to improve safety at passive RLXs, as requiring drivers to stop should encourage safe behaviour. However, field observations have noted high rates of non-compliance at stop-controlled RLXs. To explore this further, we conducted an on-road study to identify factors that influence compliance at stop-controlled RLXs. Twenty-two drivers drove a 30.5km route in rural Australia, encompassing three stop-controlled RLXs. In over half of all cases (59%) drivers stopped completely at the RLX; on 27% of crossings drivers executed a rolling stop, and on 14% of crossings drivers violated the stop controls. Rolling stops were defined as a continuous deceleration to <10km/h, but remaining above 0km/h, before accelerating to >10km/h. Behavioural patterns, including visual checks and decision-making, were similar when comparing drivers who made complete versus rolling stops. Non-compliant drivers did not differ from compliant drivers in approach speeds, but spent less time visually checking for trains. Post-drive interviews revealed some drivers wilfully disregarded the stop sign, whereas others did not notice the stop sign. Those who intentionally violated noted trains were infrequent and suggested sight distance was good enough (even though all crossings had been formally assessed as having inadequate sight distance). Overall the results suggest most drivers exhibit safe behaviour at passive RLXs, but a notable minority disregard or fail to notice signs. Potential avenues for redesigning passive RLXs to improve safety are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Turning movements, vehicle offsets and ageing drivers driving behaviour at
           channelized and unchannelized intersections
    • Authors: Jaisung Choi; Richard Tay; Sangyoup Kim; Seungwon Jeong
      Pages: 227 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jaisung Choi, Richard Tay, Sangyoup Kim, Seungwon Jeong
      Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers’ turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections. We find that ageing drivers experience more crashes at intersections than younger drivers, especially crashes involving turning movements. Furthermore, ageing drivers experience more crashes at unchannelized intersections compared to channelized intersections. In addition, this study finds that ageing drivers exhibit greater and more inconsistent offsets during turning movements compared to those of younger drivers at both channelized and unchannelized intersections. Ageing drivers also tend to make relatively sharper or tighter turns than younger drivers. Hence, transportation engineers and road safety professionals should consider appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risks of crashes involving ageing drivers at intersections.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.029
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist
           accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis
    • Authors: Chen Chen; Jason C. Anderson; Haizhong Wang; Yinhai Wang; Rachel Vogt; Salvador Hernandez
      Pages: 234 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Chen Chen, Jason C. Anderson, Haizhong Wang, Yinhai Wang, Rachel Vogt, Salvador Hernandez
      Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and “Injury” type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • An ecological model to factors associated with booster seat use: A
           population based study
    • Authors: Sarit Shimony Kanat; Rosa Gofin
      Pages: 245 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Sarit Shimony Kanat, Rosa Gofin
      Belt-positioning booster seat use (BPB) is an effective technology to prevent severe child injury in cases of car crash. However, in many countries, age-appropriate car restraint use for children aged 4–7 years old remains the lowest among all age groups. The aim of this study was to identify the main determinants of BPB use through a comprehensive approach. An ecological model was used to analyze individual, parent-child relationships, and neighborhood characteristics. Parents of children enrolled in the first and second grades completed a self-reported questionnaire (n=745). The data were subjected to multilevel modeling. The first level examined individual and parent-child relationship variables; in addition the second level tested between neighborhood variance. According to parental self- reports, 56.6% of their children had used a BPB on each car trip during the previous month. The results indicated that the determinants positively related to BPB use were individual and parental; namely, the number of children in the family, the parents' car seat belt use, parental knowledge of children's car safety principles, and a highly authoritative parenting style. Children's temperaments and parental supervision were not associated with BPB use. At the neighborhood level, a small difference was found between neighborhoods for BPB users compared to non-users.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Does getting away with it count' An application of stafford and
           warr’s reconceptualised model of deterrence to drink driving
    • Authors: E. Szogi; M. Darvell; J. Freeman; V. Truelove; G. Palk; J. Davey; K. Armstrong
      Pages: 261 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): E. Szogi, M. Darvell, J. Freeman, V. Truelove, G. Palk, J. Davey, K. Armstrong
      Drink drivers continue to be disproportionately represented in road mortalities and morbidities. Given these costs, countermeasures that effectively reduce the behaviour (and its consequences) are imperative. Research has produced inconsistent findings regarding the deterrent effects of some countermeasures on drink driving behaviour, namely legal sanctions, suggesting other factors may be more influential. This study aimed to determine which deterrence measures based on Classical Deterrence Theory and Stafford and Warr’s (1993) reconceptualised model of deterrence influence the propensity to drink and drive over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.05. In total, 1257 Australian drivers aged from 16 to 85 years completed a questionnaire assessing their self-reported drink driving behaviour and perceptions of legal sanctions. Consistent with previous research, past experiences of direct punishment avoidance was the most significant predictor of drink driving. Additionally, perceptions of personal certainty of apprehension were a significant (albeit weak) negative predictor of drink driving. Counterintuitively, experiences of indirect punishment were predictive of self-reported drink driving. Similarly, penalty severity produced mixed results as those who considered a penalty would be severe were less likely to drink and drive. However those that considered the penalty would cause a considerable impact on their lives, were more likely to drink and drive. Taken together, these findings suggest that while the threat of apprehension and punishment may influence self-reported drink driving behaviours, committing and offence while avoiding detection is a significant influence upon ongoing offending. This paper will further elaborate on the findings in regards to developing salient and effective deterrents that produce a lasting effect.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T11:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • A synthesis of studies of access point density as a risk factor for road
    • Authors: Rune Elvik
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Rune Elvik
      Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-02T15:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Macro-level vulnerable road users crash analysis: A Bayesian joint
           modeling approach of frequency and proportion
    • Authors: Qing Cai; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Jaeyoung Lee
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Qing Cai, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Jaeyoung Lee
      This study aims at contributing to the literature on pedestrian and bicyclist safety by building on the conventional count regression models to explore exogenous factors affecting pedestrian and bicyclist crashes at the macroscopic level. In the traditional count models, effects of exogenous factors on non-motorist crashes were investigated directly. However, the vulnerable road users’ crashes are collisions between vehicles and non-motorists. Thus, the exogenous factors can affect the non-motorist crashes through the non-motorists and vehicle drivers. To accommodate for the potentially different impact of exogenous factors we convert the non-motorist crash counts as the product of total crash counts and proportion of non-motorist crashes and formulate a joint model of the negative binomial (NB) model and the logit model to deal with the two parts, respectively. The formulated joint model is estimated using non-motorist crash data based on the Traffic Analysis Districts (TADs) in Florida. Meanwhile, the traditional NB model is also estimated and compared with the joint model. The result indicates that the joint model provides better data fit and can identify more significant variables. Subsequently, a novel joint screening method is suggested based on the proposed model to identify hot zones for non-motorist crashes. The hot zones of non-motorist crashes are identified and divided into three types: hot zones with more dangerous driving environment only, hot zones with more hazardous walking and cycling conditions only, and hot zones with both. It is expected that the joint model and screening method can help decision makers, transportation officials, and community planners to make more efficient treatments to proactively improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

      PubDate: 2017-08-02T15:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Identification of characteristics and frequent scenarios of single-vehicle
           rollover crashes during pre-ballistic phase; part 1 – A descriptive
    • Authors: Taewung Kim; Dipan Bose; Jon Foster; Varun Bollapragada; Jeff R. Crandall; Mark Clauser; Jason R. Kerrigan
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Taewung Kim, Dipan Bose, Jon Foster, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff R. Crandall, Mark Clauser, Jason R. Kerrigan
      This study aimed to identify common patterns of pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics of real-world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes that were enrolled in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between the years 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of the pre-ballistic phase. Also, a frequency based pattern analysis was performed using a selection of NASS-CDS variables describing the pre-ballistic vehicle kinematics and roadway characteristics to rank common pathways of rollover crashes. Most case vehicles departed the road due to a loss of control/traction (LOC) (61%). The road departure with LOC was found to be 13.4 times more likely to occur with slippery road conditions compared to dry conditions. The vehicle was typically laterally skidding with yawing prior to a rollover (66%). Most case vehicles tripped over (82%) mostly at roadside/median (69%). The tripping force was applied to the wheels/tires (82%) from the ground (79%). The combination of these six most frequent attributes resulted in the most common scenario, which accounted for 26% of the entire cases. Large proportion of road departure with LOC (61%) implies electronic stability control (ESC) systems being an effective countermeasure for preventing single-vehicle rollover crashes. Furthermore, the correlation between the road departure with LOC and the reduced friction limit suggests the necessity of the performance evaluation of ESC under compromised road surface condition.

      PubDate: 2017-08-02T15:19:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Glass half-full: On-road glance metrics differentiate crashes from
           near-crashes in the 100-Car data
    • Authors: Bobbie D. Seppelt; Sean Seaman; Joonbum Lee; Linda S. Angell; Bruce Mehler; Bryan Reimer
      Pages: 48 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Bobbie D. Seppelt, Sean Seaman, Joonbum Lee, Linda S. Angell, Bruce Mehler, Bryan Reimer
      Background Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement. Objective This paper looks at the role of driver expectation in influencing drivers’ decisions about when and for how long to remove their eyes from the forward roadway in an analysis that consider the combined role of on- and off-road glances. Method Using glance data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), near-crashes were examined separately from crashes to examine how momentary differences in glance allocation over the 25-s prior to a precipitating event can differentiate between these two distinct outcomes. Individual glance metrics of mean single glance duration (MSGD), total glance time (TGT), and glance count for off-road and on-road glance locations were analyzed. Output from the AttenD algorithm (Kircher and Ahlström, 2009) was also analyzed as a hybrid measure; in threading together on- and off-road glances over time, its output produces a pattern of glance behavior meaningful for examining attentional effects. Results Individual glance metrics calculated at the epoch-level and binned by 10-s units of time across the available epoch lengths revealed that drivers in near-crashes have significantly longer on-road glances, and look less frequently between on- and off- road locations in the moments preceding a precipitating event as compared to crashes. During on-road glances, drivers in near-crashes were found to more frequently sample peripheral regions of the roadway than drivers in crashes. Output from the AttenD algorithm affirmed the cumulative net benefit of longer on-road glances and of improved attention management between on- and off-road locations. Conclusion The finding of longer on-road glances differentiating between safety-critical outcomes in the 100-Car NDS data underscores the importance of attention management in how drivers look both on and off the road. It is in the pattern of glances to and from the forward roadway that drivers obtained critical information necessary to inform their expectation of hazard potential to avoid a crash. Application This work may have important implications for attention management in the context of the increasing prevalence of in-vehicle demands as well as of vehicle automation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Evaluating impacts of different longitudinal driver assistance systems on
           reducing multi-vehicle rear-end crashes during small-scale inclement
    • Authors: Ye Li; Lu Xing; Wei Wang; Hao Wang; Changyin Dong; Shanwen Liu
      Pages: 63 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Changyin Dong, Shanwen Liu
      Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Simulation experiments were designed and a large number of simulations were then conducted to evaluate safety effects of different LDAS. Results indicate that the FCW and ACC system have poor performance on reducing MVRE crashes during SSI weather. The slight improvement of sight distance of FCW and the limitation of perception-reaction time of ACC lead the failure of avoiding MVRE crashes in most scenarios. The AEB system has the better effect due to automatic perception and reaction, as well as performing the full brake when encountering SSI weather. The CACC system has the best performance because wireless communication provides a larger sight distance and a shorter time delay at the sub-second level. Sensitivity analyses also indicated that the larger number of vehicles and speed changes after encountering SSI weather have negative impacts on safety performances. Results of this study provide useful information for accident prevention during SSI weather.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Pilots using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared to other
           fatally injured pilots
    • Authors: Paul Rogers; Christy Hileman; Guillermo Salazar; Kacey Cliburn; Lawrence Paskoff; William Hathaway; Kevin Gildea; Victor Hugo Tejera Villalaz
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Paul Rogers, Christy Hileman, Guillermo Salazar, Kacey Cliburn, Lawrence Paskoff, William Hathaway, Kevin Gildea, Victor Hugo Tejera Villalaz
      Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) were a disqualifying medication for U.S. civil pilots before April 5, 2010. After this date, a Federal Aviation Administration policy was created that allowed airmen, on select SSRIs, a pathway to hold a valid medical certificate. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed look at SSRIs in the U.S. pilot population since the inception of this new policy. We examined the toxicology results from fatally injured airmen in addition to outcomes concerning pilots who are participating in the program. This study examined data from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute's Bioaeronautical Sciences Research Laboratory in conjunction with the Medical Analysis Tracking Registry and the Document Imaging and Workflow System. A count-based regression model quantified the relationships between positive SSRI findings with additional factors of interest. These factors included pilot rating, ethanol, and first generation antihistamines. There were 1484 fatally injured airmen over the six year study period, of which 44-tested positive for an SSRI. First-generation antihistamines were statistically associated with positive findings of SSRIs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Modeling the impact of latent driving patterns on traffic safety using
           mobile sensor data
    • Authors: Rajesh Paleti; Olcay Sahin; Mecit Cetin
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Rajesh Paleti, Olcay Sahin, Mecit Cetin
      Smartphones are now equipped with sensors capable of recording vehicle performance data at a very fine temporal resolution in a cost-effective way. In this paper, mobile sensor data from smartphones was used to identify and quantify unsafe driving patterns and their relationship with traffic crash incidences. Statistical models that account for measurement error associated with microscopic traffic measures computed using mobile sensor data were developed. The models with microscopic traffic measures were shown to be statistically better than traditional models that only control for roadway geometry and traffic exposure variables. Also, generalized count models that account for measurement error, spatial dependency effects, and random parameter heterogeneity were found to perform better than standard count models.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Evaluating the impact of connectivity, continuity, and topography of
           sidewalk network on pedestrian safety
    • Authors: Ahmed Osama; Tarek Sayed
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ahmed Osama, Tarek Sayed
      With the increasing demand for sustainability, walking is being encouraged as one of the main active modes of transportation. However, pedestrians are vulnerable to severe injuries when involved in crashes which can discourage road users from walking. Therefore, studying factors that affect the safety of pedestrians is important. This paper investigates the relationship between pedestrian-motorist crashes and various sidewalk network indicators in the city of Vancouver. The goal is to assess the impact of network connectivity, directness, and topography on pedestrian safety using macro-level collision prediction models. The models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques. Both walking trips and vehicle kilometers travelled were used as the main traffic exposure variables in the models. The safety models supported the safety in numbers hypothesis showing a non-linear positive association between pedestrian-motorist crashes and the increase in walking trips and vehicle traffic. The model results also suggested that higher continuity, linearity, coverage, and slope of sidewalk networks were associated with lower crash occurrence. However, network connectivity was associated with higher crash occurrence. The spatial effects were accounted for in the full Bayes models and were found significant. The models provide insights about the factors that influence pedestrian safety and the spatial variability of pedestrian crashes within a city, which can be useful for the planning of pedestrian networks.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Investigating the relationship between jobs-housing balance and traffic
    • Authors: Chengcheng Xu; Haojie Li; Jingya Zhao; Jun Chen; Wei Wang
      Pages: 126 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Chengcheng Xu, Haojie Li, Jingya Zhao, Jun Chen, Wei Wang
      This study aimed to investigate the effects of jobs-housing balance on traffic safety. The crash, demographic characteristics, employment, road network, household characteristics and traffic data were collected from the Los Angeles in 2010. One-way ANOVA tests indicated that the jobs-housing ratio significantly affects traffic safety in terms of crash frequency at traffic analysis zone (TAZ). To quantify the safety impacts of jobs-housing balance, the semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression (S-GWPR) was further used to link crash frequency at TAZ with jobs-housing ratio and other contributing factors. The S-GWPR provides better fitness to the data than do the generalized linear regression, as the S-GWPR accounts for the spatial heterogeneity. The S-GWPR results showed that the jobs-housing relationship has a significant association with crash frequency at TAZ when the factors of traffic, network, and household characteristics are controlled. Crash frequency at TAZ level increases with an increase in the jobs-housing ratio. To further investigate the interactive effects between jobs-housing ratio and other factors, a comparative analysis was conducted to compare the variable elasticities under different jobs-housing ratios. The results indicate considerable interactive effects that traffic conditions and road network characteristics have different effects on crash frequency under various jobs-housing ratios.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Pre-crash scenarios at road junctions: A clustering method for car crash
    • Authors: Philippe Nitsche; Pete Thomas; Rainer Stuetz; Ruth Welsh
      Pages: 137 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Philippe Nitsche, Pete Thomas, Rainer Stuetz, Ruth Welsh
      Given the recent advancements in autonomous driving functions, one of the main challenges is safe and efficient operation in complex traffic situations such as road junctions. There is a need for comprehensive testing, either in virtual simulation environments or on real-world test tracks. This paper presents a novel data analysis method including the preparation, analysis and visualization of car crash data, to identify the critical pre-crash scenarios at T- and four-legged junctions as a basis for testing the safety of automated driving systems. The presented method employs k-medoids to cluster historical junction crash data into distinct partitions and then applies the association rules algorithm to each cluster to specify the driving scenarios in more detail. The dataset used consists of 1056 junction crashes in the UK, which were exported from the in-depth “On-the-Spot” database. The study resulted in thirteen crash clusters for T-junctions, and six crash clusters for crossroads. Association rules revealed common crash characteristics, which were the basis for the scenario descriptions. The results support existing findings on road junction accidents and provide benchmark situations for safety performance tests in order to reduce the possible number parameter combinations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T07:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • The location of late night bars and alcohol-related crashes in Houston,
    • Authors: Ned Levine
      Pages: 152 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): Ned Levine
      A study in the City of Houston, Texas, related the location of establishments primarily serving alcohol (“bars”) after midnight to late night alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. There were three data sets for 2007–09: 1) 764bars that were open after midnight; 2) 1660 alcohol-related crashes that occurred within the City of Houston between midnight and 6 am; and 3) 4689 modeling network road segments to which bars and alcohol-related crashes were assigned. Forty-five percent of the late night alcohol-related crashes were within a quarter mile of a late night bar. The bars were highly concentrated in 17 small bar clusters. Using the modeling network, Poisson-Gamma-CAR and Poisson-Lognormal-CAR spatial regression models showed a positive exponential relationship between late night alcohol-related crashes and the number of late nights bars and bar clusters, and a negative exponential relationship to distance to the nearest late night bar controlling for the type of road segment (freeway, principal arterial, minor arterial). A more general model dropped the bar cluster variable. Further, the Poisson-Gamma-CAR model appeared to produce a better representation than the Poisson-Lognormal-CAR model though the errors were different. The general Poisson-Gamma-CAR model showed that each late night bar increased the frequency of alcohol-related crashes on a segment by approximately 190%. For each mile closer a segment was to a late night bar, the likelihood increased by 42%.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2017)
  • Name that tune: Mitigation of driver fatigue via a song naming game
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Michael C. Trumbo, Aaron P. Jones, Charles S.H. Robinson, Kerstan Cole, James D. Morrow
      Fatigued driving contributes to a substantial number of motor vehicle accidents each year. Music listening is often employed as a countermeasure during driving in order to mitigate the effects of fatigue. Though music listening has been established as a distractor in the sense that it increases cognitive load during driving, it is possible that increased cognitive load is desirable under particular circumstances. For instance, during situations that typically result in cognitive underload, such as driving in a low-traffic monotonous stretch of highway, it may be beneficial for cognitive load to increase, thereby necessitating allocation of greater cognitive resources to the task of driving and attenuating fatigue. In the current study, we employed a song-naming game as a countermeasure to fatigued driving in a simulated monotonous environment. During the first driving session, we established that driving performance deteriorates in the absence of an intervention following 30min of simulated driving. During the second session, we found that a song-naming game employed at the point of fatigue onset was an effective countermeasure, as reflected by simulated driving performance that met or exceeded fresh driving behavior and was significantly better relative to fatigued performance during the first driving session.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T12:34:23Z
  • Quality of life following road traffic injury: A systematic literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Ritva Rissanen, Hans-Yngve Berg, Marie Hasselberg
      Purpose To assess and provide a systematic overview of current knowledge about the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and road traffic injury, and to appraise how QoL is affected by road traffic injury. Methods A systematic review of the literature published since 1990 on QoL after a road traffic injury, including adult and paediatric populations, from three databases (Pubmed, PsychInfo and SafetyLit) was undertaken. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Results Thirty articles were included and assessed for quality. The QoL scores of those injured were similar to population norms at the first assessment, followed by a drop at the second assessment. An increase of QoL from the second to third assessment was reported, but participants never reached the population norms at the last follow-up (range six weeks to two years), with an exception of those claiming compensation and those with lower extremity fractures. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, injury severity, injury type and post-traumatic stress disorder were associated with reduced QoL. Conclusions Available literature regarding QoL among injured in road traffic crashes is heterogeneous with regard to aims and tools used for assessment. Our review confirmed that independent of measure, the overall QoL was significantly reduced after a road traffic injury compared to the general population norms. Persons who are older, of female gender, lower socioeconomic status, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, with more severe injuries or injuries to the lower limbs are more vulnerable to loss of QoL following road traffic injury compared to other patient groups injured in road traffic crashes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T12:34:23Z
  • The effects of licence disqualification on drink-drivers: Is it the same
           for everyone'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 107
      Author(s): A. Watson, J. Freeman, K. Imberger, A.J. Filtness, H. Wilson, D. Healy, A. Cavallo
      Drink-driving remains a major road safety concern that creates a significant social burden. Licence disqualification continues to play a key role in drink driving deterrence and sanctions together with police enforcement to address the problem in most motorised countries. However, on-going questions remain regarding the differing effect of licence disqualification periods between first time and repeat offenders, and between other sub-groups of offenders. As a result, this study aimed to determine whether: (a) differences exist in re-offence rates of convicted drink-drivers between: the period between committing the drink-driving offence and licence disqualification (pre-licence disqualification), during the period of licence disqualification, and after being re-licensed (post-licence restoration); and (b) differential effects of offence rates are evident based on Blood Alcohol Content (BAC), gender, age, repeat offender status and crash involvement at the time of offence. The sample consisted of 29,204 drink-driving offenders detected in Victoria, Australia between 1 January 1996 and 30 September 2002. The analysis indicated that licence disqualifications were effective as drink-driving offenders had a significantly lower rate of offending (both drink-driving and other traffic offences) during licence disqualifications compared to pre-licence disqualification and post-licence restoration periods. The influence of licence disqualification appeared to extend beyond the disqualification period, as offence rates were lower during post-licence restoration than during pre-licence disqualification. Interestingly, the highest rate of offending (both for drink-driving and other traffic offences) was during the pre-licence disqualification period, which suggests offenders are particularly vulnerable to drink and drive while waiting to be sanctioned. A consistent pattern of results was evident across genders and age groups. Additionally, those who were involved in a crash at the same time as their index offence had lower offence rates (compared to those who were not involved in a crash) for all periods, although for general traffic offences, the offence rate was highest in the post-licence restoration period for those who had a crash at index offence. This indicates that being involved in a crash may deter these offenders, at least in the short-term. The implications of the results for managing both first time and repeat offenders are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T12:34:23Z
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