for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3048 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 3048 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 362, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover Acta Oecologica
  [SJR: 0.915]   [H-I: 53]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1146-609X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Trade-off between light availability and soil fertility determine refugial
           conditions for the relict light-demanding species in lowland forests
    • Authors: Marcin Kiedrzyński; Józef Krzysztof Kurowski; Edyta Kiedrzyńska
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Marcin Kiedrzyński, Józef Krzysztof Kurowski, Edyta Kiedrzyńska
      Identifying potential refugial habitats in the face of rapid environmental change is a challenge faced by scientists and nature conservation managers. Relict populations and refugial habitats are the model objects in those studies. Based on the example of Actaea europaea from Central Poland, we analyse the habitat factors influencing relict populations of continental, light-demanding species in lowland forests and examine which habitats of studied species corresponding most closely to ancient vegetation. Our results indicate that the current refugial habitats of Actaea europaea include not only communities which are very similar to ancient open forest but also forests with a closed canopy. Although the populations are influenced by nitrogen and light availability, the co-occurrence of these two factors in forest communities is limited by dense canopy formation by hornbeam and beech trees on fertile soils and in more humid conditions. Our findings indicate that the future survival of relict, light-demanding communities in lowland forests requires low-intensity disturbances to be performed in tree-stands, according to techniques, which imitate traditional forests management.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T15:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Temporal variation in bat-fruit interactions: Foraging strategies
           influence network structure over time
    • Authors: Natalya Zapata-Mesa; Sebastián Montoya-Bustamante; Oscar E. Murillo-García
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Natalya Zapata-Mesa, Sebastián Montoya-Bustamante, Oscar E. Murillo-García
      Mutualistic interactions, such as seed dispersal, are important for the maintenance of structure and stability of tropical communities. However, there is a lack of information about spatial and temporal variation in plant-animal interaction networks. Thus, our goal was to assess the effect of bat's foraging strategies on temporal variation in the structure and robustness of bat-fruit networks in both a dry and a rain tropical forest. We evaluated monthly variation in bat-fruit networks by using seven structure metrics: network size, average path length, nestedness, modularity, complementary specialization, normalized degree and betweenness centrality. Seed dispersal networks showed variations in size, species composition and modularity; did not present nested structures and their complementary specialization was high compared to other studies. Both networks presented short path lengths, and a constantly high robustness, despite their monthly variations. Sedentary bat species were recorded during all the study periods and occupied more central positions than nomadic species. We conclude that foraging strategies are important structuring factors that affect the dynamic of networks by determining the functional roles of frugivorous bats over time; thus sedentary bats are more important than nomadic species for the maintenance of the network structure, and their conservation is a must.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T15:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against
           insects in two Prunus species
    • Authors: Ewa Mąderek; Marcin Zadworny; Joanna Mucha; Piotr Karolewski
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ewa Mąderek, Marcin Zadworny, Joanna Mucha, Piotr Karolewski
      Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two contrasting
           tropical dry forests
    • Authors: Edilia de la Rosa-Manzano; José Luis Andrade; Gerhard Zotz; Casandra Reyes-García
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Edilia de la Rosa-Manzano, José Luis Andrade, Gerhard Zotz, Casandra Reyes-García
      An enormous variation in light, both temporally and spatially, exists in tropical forests, which represents a potential driver for plant physiological plasticity. The physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two tropical dry forests in response to different light environments was experimentally investigated. Plants of five species were growing in a shade-house under three different light regimes (photosynthetic photon flux density; PPFD of 20, 50 and 70% of total daily incident radiation) under watered and drought conditions. Orchids with similar leaf morphology but from different forests responded differently to the same light environment. Linear leaves of Encyclia nematocaulon avoided drought stress through stomata control and had a notable increase of photosynthesis, lower osmotic potential, and high photosynthetic efficiency under 50% daily PPFD during both drought and watered periods. In contrast, orchids with cylindrical and oval leaves had a marked decrease of these physiological parameters under 50 and 70% of PPFD during the drought period, but then recovered after rewatering. Oval leaves of Lophiaris oerstedii were more sensitive to high light and water availability because they had a strong decrease of their physiological parameters at 70% of PPFD, even during the rewatering period. Contrary to our predictions, E. nematocaulon had low plasticity and Laelia rubescens, from the deciduous forest, was the most able to acclimate. In general, orchids from the drier forest had higher plasticity than those from the more humid forest, which might help them to tolerate the higher fluctuations of light and water availability that occur there.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Spatial pattern of Baccharis platypoda shrub as determined by sex and life
           stages
    • Authors: Darliana da Costa Fonseca; Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira; Israel Marinho Pereira; Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga; Cristiane Coelho de Moura; Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado
      Pages: 33 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Darliana da Costa Fonseca, Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira, Israel Marinho Pereira, Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga, Cristiane Coelho de Moura, Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado
      Spatial patterns of dioecious species can be determined by their nutritional requirements and intraspecific competition, apart from being a response to environmental heterogeneity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of populations of a dioecious shrub reporting to sex and reproductive stage patterns of individuals. Sampling was carried out in three areas located in the meridional portion of Serra do Espinhaço, where in individuals of the studied species were mapped. The spatial pattern was determined through O-ring analysis and Ripley's K-function and the distribution of individuals' frequencies was verified through x 2 test. Populations in two areas showed an aggregate spatial pattern tending towards random or uniform according to the observed scale. Male and female adults presented an aggregate pattern at smaller scales, while random and uniform patterns were verified above 20 m for individuals of both sexes of the areas A2 and A3. Young individuals presented an aggregate pattern in all areas and spatial independence in relation to adult individuals, especially female plants. The interactions between individuals of both genders presented spatial independence with respect to spatial distribution. Baccharis platypoda showed characteristics in accordance with the spatial distribution of savannic and dioecious species, whereas the population was aggregated tending towards random at greater spatial scales. Young individuals showed an aggregated pattern at different scales compared to adults, without positive association between them. Female and male adult individuals presented similar characteristics, confirming that adult individuals at greater scales are randomly distributed despite their distinct preferences for environments with moisture variation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Effects of grassland degradation and precipitation on carbon storage
           
    • Authors: Xiaobing Li; Yunxiao Bai; Wanyu Wen; Hong Wang; Ruihua Li; Guoqing Li; Han Wang
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Xiaobing Li, Yunxiao Bai, Wanyu Wen, Hong Wang, Ruihua Li, Guoqing Li, Han Wang
      Environmental degradation influences carbon (C) cycling and storage in grassland ecosystems by altering vegetation productivity. However, the impacts of different degradation intensities on vegetation–soil C distributions in grasslands have not been well documented. We measured C storage in soil, roots, and plants under light, moderate, and severe degradation levels in a typical steppe region of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China in 2011 and 2012. Grassland C storage was highest in soil, followed by roots, and then aboveground plant biomass. Grassland degradation and precipitation significantly influenced C storage distributions. During the dry year (2011), total C storage in vegetation and soil was highest under light degradation. Carbon storage in aboveground plant biomass and roots increased with degradation intensity. During the wet year (2012), C storage was highest in aboveground plant biomass and roots under light degradation. Root biomass tended to be concentrated in the soil surface during the wet year.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria
           napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high
           mountain environments
    • Authors: Stefan Ehl; Marlene Ebertshäuser; Patrick Gros; Thomas Schmitt
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Stefan Ehl, Marlene Ebertshäuser, Patrick Gros, Thomas Schmitt
      High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation
           
    • Authors: Yu Peng; Qinghui Wang; Min Fan
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Yu Peng, Qinghui Wang, Min Fan
      When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Frugivorous birds influence the spatial organization of tropical forests
           
    • Authors: Franck Trolliet; Pierre-Michel Forget; Jean-Louis Doucet; Jean-François Gillet; Alain Hambuckers
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Franck Trolliet, Pierre-Michel Forget, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jean-François Gillet, Alain Hambuckers
      Animal-mediated seed dispersal is recognized to influence the spatial organization of plant communities but little is known about how frugivores cause such patterns. Here, we explored the role of hornbills and primates in generating recruitment foci under two zoochoric trees, namely Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae) and Dialium spp. (Fabaceae - Caesalpiniodea) in a forest-savanna mosaic landscape in D.R. Congo. We also examined the influence of the availability of fruits in the neighborhood and the amount of forest cover in the landscape on such clumping patterns. The density and species richness of hornbill-dispersed and the density of primate-dispersed seedlings were significantly higher under Staudtia kamerunensis trees than at control locations. However, we did not find such patterns under Dialium spp. trees compared to control locations except for the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings which was lower at control locations. Also, we found that an increasing amount of forest cover in the landscape was associated with an increase in the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings, although the tendency was weak (R2 = 0.065). We concluded that S. kamerunensis acts as a recruitment foci and plays a structuring role in Afrotropical forests. Hornbills were probably the main frugivore taxon responsible for the clumping under that tree and appear as a key ecological component in fragmented and disturbed landscapes where the diversity of large frugivores such as primates is reduced. Our findings improve our understanding of the causal mechanisms responsible for the spatial organization of tropical forests.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Is the Peltogyne gracilipes monodominant forest characterised by distinct
           soils'
    • Authors: Marcelo Trindade Nascimento; Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa; Kyle G. Dexter; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Lidiany Camila da Silva Carvalho; Dora Maria Villela
      Pages: 104 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Marcelo Trindade Nascimento, Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa, Kyle G. Dexter, Carolina Volkmer de Castilho, Lidiany Camila da Silva Carvalho, Dora Maria Villela
      Various explanations have been put forward for monodominance in otherwise diverse tropical forests. This study assesses if the monodominance of Peltogyne gracilipes on Maraca Island in the northern Amazon can be related to edaphic factors. The basal area of P. gracilipes and the five other most common tree species on Maraca Island (Astrocaryum aculeatum, Attalea maripa, Ecclinusa guianensis, Licania kunthiana and Pradosia surinamensis) were recorded in 30 regularly-spaced 0.5 ha plots distributed over an area of 25 km2, for which data on topography and concentration of mineral elements in the soil were also obtained. Stems of P. gracilipes accounted for ≥50% of the basal area in five of the plots, which we consider indicative of monodominance, whilst the highest relative basal area that any of the other species achieved in any plot was 31%. The soils data explained more of the variation in the basal area of P. gracilipes than it did for the other five species. The presence vs. absence and basal area of P. gracilipes was positively related to concentrations of magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P) and silt in the soil and to Mg:Ca ratios. These soils were found in the plots at the lowest elevations, which suggests that drainage factors may also be important. Overall, our results suggest that edaphic factors may explain, at least partially, monodominance in this Amazonian forest.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Trunk structural traits explain habitat use of a tree-dwelling spider
           (Selenopidae) in a tropical forest
    • Authors: German Antonio Villanueva-Bonilla; Adriana Trevizoli Salomão; João Vasconcellos-Neto
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): German Antonio Villanueva-Bonilla, Adriana Trevizoli Salomão, João Vasconcellos-Neto
      Habitat selection by spiders may be strongly influenced by biotic, climatic, and physical factors. However, it has been shown that the selection of habitats by generalist predators (like spiders) is regulated more by the physical structure of the habitat than by prey availability. Yet, the preferences of spiders in relation to plants or plant traits remain poorly explored. In a remnant of the Atlantic forest in Brazil, the spider Selenops cocheleti is frequently detected on the trunks of plants from the Myrtaceae family. Here, we investigated quantitatively and experimentally whether the colonization of trees by S. cocheleti is related to plant species or the presence of specific structures on trunks. We found that S. cocheleti preferentially occurred on plants of the family Myrtaceae. This spider was also strongly associated with trees that have smooth trunks and/or exfoliating bark. Non-Myrtaceae plants that were occupied by this species have exfoliating bark (e.g., Piptadenia gonoacantha) or deep fissures on the trunk (e.g., the exotic species Pinus elliottii). Our results indicate that the selection of host plants by S. cocheleti is not species-specific, but based on the structural characteristics of plants. Trunks with exfoliating bark may benefit spiders by providing shelter against predators and harsh climatic conditions. Smooth surfaces might allow rapid movements, facilitating both attacks on preys and escape from predators. Our study emphasizes the importance of the physical structure of the habitat on spider's distribution. Future studies investigating how specific plant characteristics influence prey acquisition and predator avoidance would improve our understanding of habitat selection by these animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Thermodynamics, ecology and evolutionary biology: A bridge over troubled
           water or common ground'
    • Authors: Keith R. Skene
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Keith R. Skene
      This paper addresses a key issue confronting ecological and evolutionary biology, namely the challenge of a cohesive approach to these fields given significant differences in the concepts and foundations of their study. Yet these two areas of scientific research are paramount in terms addressing the spatial and temporal dynamics and distribution of diversity, an understanding of which is needed if we are to resolve the current crisis facing the biosphere. The importance of understanding how nature responds to change is now of essential rather than of metaphysical interest as our planet struggles with increasing anthropogenic damage. Ecology and evolutionary biology can no longer remain disjointed. While some progress has been made in terms of synthetic thinking across these areas, this has often been in terms of bridge building, where thinking in one aspect is extended over to the other side. We review these bridges and the success or otherwise of such efforts. This paper then suggests that in order to move from a descriptive to a mechanistic understanding of the biosphere, we may need to re-evaluate our approach to the studies of ecology and evolutionary biology, finding a common denominator that will enable us to address the critical issues facing us, particularly in terms of understanding what drives change, what determines tempo and how communities function. Common ground, we argue, is essential if we are to comprehend how resilience operates in the natural world and how diversification can counter increasing extinction rates. This paper suggests that thermodynamics may provide a bridge between ecology and evolutionary biology, and that this will enable us to move forward with otherwise intractable problems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • How do patch quality and spatial context affect invertebrate communities
           in a natural moss microlandscape'
    • Authors: Hendrik Trekels; Mario Driesen; Bram Vanschoenwinkel
      Pages: 126 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hendrik Trekels, Mario Driesen, Bram Vanschoenwinkel
      Globally, moss associated invertebrates remain poorly studied and it is largely unknown to what extent their diversity is driven by local environmental conditions or the landscape context. Here, we investigated small scale drivers of invertebrate communities in a moss landscape in a temperate forest in Western Europe. By comparing replicate quadrats of 5 different moss species in a continuous moss landscape, we found that mosses differed in invertebrate density and community composition. Although, in general, richness was similar among moss species, some invertebrate taxa were significantly linked to certain moss species. Only moss biomass and not relative moisture content could explain differences in invertebrate densities among moss species. Second, we focused on invertebrate communities associated with the locally common moss species Kindbergia praelonga in isolated moss patches on dead tree trunks to look at effects of patch size, quality, heterogeneity and connectivity on invertebrate communities. Invertebrate richness was higher in patches under closed canopies than under more open canopies, presumably due to the higher input of leaf litter and/or lower evaporation. In addition, increased numbers of other moss species in the same patch seemed to promote invertebrate richness in K. praelonga, possibly due to mass effects. Since invertebrate richness was unaffected by patch size and isolation, dispersal was probably not limiting in this system with patches separated by tens of meters, or stochastic extinctions may be uncommon. Overall, we conclude that invertebrate composition in moss patches may not only depend on local patch conditions, in a particular moss species, but also on the presence of other moss species in the direct vicinity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of
           above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe
    • Authors: Alejandro G. Farji-Brener; María Natalia Lescano
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Alejandro G. Farji-Brener, María Natalia Lescano
      In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Modeling impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential
           distribution of invasive plant species in different biomes
    • Authors: Ji-Zhong Wan; Chun-Jing Wang; Fei-Hai Yu
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ji-Zhong Wan, Chun-Jing Wang, Fei-Hai Yu
      Human footprint and soil variability may be important in shaping the spread of invasive plant species (IPS). However, until now, there is little knowledge on how human footprint and soil variability affect the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes. We used Maxent modeling to project the potential distribution of 29 IPS with wide distributions and long introduction histories in China based on various combinations of climatic correlates, soil characteristics and human footprint. Then, we evaluated the relative importance of each type of environmental variables (climate, soil and human footprint) as well as the difference in range and similarity of the potential distribution of IPS between different biomes. Human footprint and soil variables contributed to the prediction of the potential distribution of IPS, and different types of biomes had varying responses and degrees of impacts from the tested variables. Human footprint and soil variability had the highest tendency to increase the potential distribution of IPS in Montane Grasslands and Shrublands. We propose to integrate the assessment in impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes into the prevention and control of plant invasion.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • The role of biotic interactions in plant community assembly: What is the
           community species pool'
    • Authors: Eva Švamberková; Alena Vítová; Jan Lepš
      Pages: 150 - 156
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Eva Švamberková, Alena Vítová, Jan Lepš
      Differences in plant species composition between a community and its species pool are considered to reflect the effect of community filters. If we define the species pool as a set of species able to reach a site and form a viable population in a given abiotic environment (i.e. to pass the dispersal and abiotic filter), the difference in species composition should correspond to the effect of biotic interactions. However, most of the operational definitions of the species pool are based on co-occurrence patterns and thus also reflect the effect of biotic relationships, including definitions based on functional plant traits, Ellenberg indicator values or Beals index. We conducted two seed introduction experiments in an oligotrophic wet meadow with the aim of demonstrating that many species excluded, according to the above definitions, from a species pool are in fact able to establish there successfully if competition is removed. In sowing experiments, we studied the establishment and survival of species after the removal of competition (i.e. in artificial gaps) and in intact vegetation. We also investigated inter-annual variability of seed germination and seedling establishment and competitive exclusion of sown species. The investigated species also included those from very different habitats (i.e. species with very low corresponding Beals index or Ellenberg indicator values that were different from the target community weighted mean). Many of these species were able to grow in the focal wet meadow if competition was removed, but they did not establish and survive in the intact community. These species are thus not limited by abiotic conditions, but by the biotic filter. We also recorded a great inter-annual variability in seed germination and seedling establishment. Competitive exclusion of species with different ecological requirements could be quite fast (one and half seasons) in some species, but some non-resident species were able to survive several seasons; the resident species were able to persist in competition. Comparison of realized vegetation composition with the corresponding species pool greatly underestimates the potential impact of the biotic filter if the delimitation of the species pool is based on the realized niches of species and co-occurrence patterns.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Nitrogen enrichment of host plants has mostly beneficial effects on the
           life-history traits of nettle-feeding butterflies
    • Authors: Susanne Kurze; Thilo Heinken; Thomas Fartmann
      Pages: 157 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Susanne Kurze, Thilo Heinken, Thomas Fartmann
      Butterflies rank among the most threatened animal groups throughout Europe. However, current population trends differ among species. The nettle-feeding butterflies Aglais io and Aglais urticae cope successfully with the anthropogenic land-use change. Both species are assumed to be pre-adapted to higher nitrogen contents in their host plant, stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). However, it is currently unknown, whether this pre-adaptation enables both Aglais species to cope successfully or even to benefit from the excessive nitrogen availabilities in nettles growing in modern farmlands. For this reason, this study focused on the response of both Aglais species to unfertilized nettles compared to nettles receiving 150 or 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., common fertilizer quantities of modern-day agriculture). Fertilized nettles were characterized by higher nitrogen concentrations and lower C:N ratios compared to the control group. In both Aglais species, the individuals feeding on fertilized nettles had higher survival rates, shorter larval periods and heavier pupae and, in A. urticae also longer forewings. All these trait shifts are beneficial for the individuals, lowering their risk to die before reproduction and increasing their reproductive potential. These responses agree with the well-accepted nitrogen-limitation hypothesis predicting a positive relationship between the nitrogen content of the diet and the performance of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the increasing abundance of both Aglais species may result not only from the increasing spread of nettles into the farmland but also from changes in their quality due to the eutrophication of the landscape during recent decades.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Aposematism and crypsis are not enough to explain dorsal polymorphism in
           the Iberian adder
    • Authors: Fernando Martínez-Freiría; Guillem Pérez i de Lanuza; António A. Pimenta; Tiago Pinto; Xavier Santos
      Pages: 165 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Fernando Martínez-Freiría, Guillem Pérez i de Lanuza, António A. Pimenta, Tiago Pinto, Xavier Santos
      Aposematic organisms can show phenotypic variability across their distributional ranges. The ecological advantages of this variability have been scarcely studied in vipers. We explored this issue in Vipera seoanei, a species that exhibits five geographically structured dorsal colour phenotypes across Northern Iberia: two zigzag patterned (Classic and Cantabrica), one dorsal-strip patterned (Bilineata), one even grey (Uniform), and one melanistic (Melanistic). We compared predation rates (raptors and mammals) on plasticine models resembling each colour phenotype in three localities. Visual modelling techniques were used to infer detectability (i.e. conspicuousness) of each model type for visually guided predators (i.e. diurnal raptors). We hypothesize that predation rates will be lower for the two zigzag models (aposematism hypothesis) and that models with higher detectability would show higher predation rates (detectability hypothesis). Classic and Bilineata models were the most conspicuous, while Cantabrica and Uniform were the less. Melanistic presented an intermediate conspicuousness. Predation rate was low (3.24% of models) although there was variation in attack frequency among models. Zigzag models were scarcely predated supporting the aposematic role of the zigzag pattern in European vipers to reduce predation (aposematism hypothesis). From the non-zigzag models, high predation occurred on Bilineata and Melanistic models, and low on Uniform models, partially supporting our detectability hypothesis. These results suggest particular evolutionary advantages for non-zigzag phenotypes such as better performance of Melanistic phenotypes in cold environments or better crypsis of Uniform phenotypes. Polymorphism in V. seoanei may respond to a complex number of forces acting differentially across an environmental gradient.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Context dependence of acorn handling by the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus)
    • Authors: D. Gallego; T. Morán-López; I. Torre; Á. Navarro-Castilla; I. Barja; M. Díaz
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): D. Gallego, T. Morán-López, I. Torre, Á. Navarro-Castilla, I. Barja, M. Díaz
      Perceived predation risk and competition for acorns are expected to affect scatter-hoarding decisions by Algerian mice (Mus spretus). We manipulated both factors by means of predator fecal scents and ungulate exclosures. We hypothesized that high-risk perception and ungulate presence would promote acorn dispersal. In the former case, it would stimulate acorn mobilization to safe microhabitats rather than in situ consumption. In the latter, increased competition for acorns would promote their storage for later consumption. We also expected that mice would adapt their foraging behavior to previous experience modulating the strength of these effects. In the presence of ungulates, mice focused their foraging activities on food acquisition at the expenses of vigilant behaviors. However, a more efficient foraging did not entail enhanced dispersal services. Lack of anti-predatory cover in tree surroundings may have deterred mice from transporting seeds outside canopies. Increased risk interacted with previous experience. In control trees (no predator odor), mice confidence increased throughout the night resulting in decreased vigilance and enhanced acorn mobilization rates. In contrast, in risky conditions (trees with predator odor) mice maintained a base-line vigilant behavior. Contrary to our expectations, increased risk did not result in higher acorn mobilization, but the opposite. Again, the scarcity of safe microhabitats for mobilization may have been the underlying cause of this behavior. Our results show that successful acorn dispersal depends, at least partly, on plant-animal relationships that are beyond the oak-rodent mutualism. Thus, any conservation policy aimed at restoring natural regeneration of oaks should take into account the interaction network in which oak-rodent encounters are embedded. In addition, they suggest that mice incorporate direct and indirect cues of risks (habitat structure) through recent experience. A better understanding of this process will improve our ability to incorporate such temporal and spatial variability in models of acorn dispersal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:06:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Temperature-dependent performance of competitive native and alien invasive
           plant species
    • Authors: Uhram Song
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Uhram Song
      To assess the likely impacts of environmental change, the responses of two well-known invasive plant species, native Pueraria lobata and alien Humulus japonicus, to differences in growth temperature were studied in South Korea. Habitat preferences, physiological responses such as photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll contents, growth rates, and nutrient contents were quantified for each species. A competition experiment was conducted to evaluate the temperature preferences of the two species. All results indicated that the alien species H. japonicus can take advantage of elevated temperatures (35 °C) to enhance its competitive advantage against the native species P. lobata. While H. japonicus took advantage of elevated temperatures and preferred high-temperature areas, P. lobata showed reduced performance and dominance in high-temperature areas. Therefore, in future, due to global warming and urbanization, there are possibilities that H. japonicus takes advantage of elevated temperature against P. lobata that could lead to increased H. japonicus coverage over time. Therefore, consistent monitoring of both species especially where P. lobata is dominated are required because both species are found in every continents in the world. Controlling P. lobata requires thorough inspection of H. japonicus presence of the habitat in advance to prevent post P. lobata management invasion of H. japonicus.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T04:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Seasonality, diaspore traits and the structure of plant-frugivore networks
           in Neotropical savanna forest
    • Authors: Adriano Antonio Brito Darosci; Emilio M. Bruna; José Carlos Motta-Junior; Cristiane da Silva Ferreira; John Gilman Blake; Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Adriano Antonio Brito Darosci, Emilio M. Bruna, José Carlos Motta-Junior, Cristiane da Silva Ferreira, John Gilman Blake, Cássia Beatriz Rodrigues Munhoz
      Complex frugivory networks are common in heterogeneous environments, but how the structure of those networks varies due to seasonality and other environmental factors remains unclear. For example, seasonal variation in rainfall can influence fruit production and diaspore characteristics, which could alter the quantity and quality of resources available to different animals in the network and, hence, network structure. We investigated how a frugivory network varied seasonally in Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), where there are well-defined dry and wet seasons and fructification mainly during the rainy season for most tree species. We recorded fruit consumption by animals during the dry and wet seasons in two different gallery forests and used these data to test the hypotheses that connectance, links per species and nestedness would be higher in the dry season than rainy season due to low available food in the former that would be consumed by various species of frugivores. Concomitantly, we also measured seed width and lipid content from diaspores of the fruiting trees to determine if these characteristics influenced interaction properties between fruiting trees and frugivores. Among the measured network parameters, connectance, links per species and specialization varied between seasons in one site but not in the other, indicating that seasonal variation in networks is not necessarily consistent over time or space. The number of tree species with small diaspores with high lipid content differed between seasons, and those characteristics were key factors increasing the interaction parameter of fruiting trees. We suggest that network stability between seasons may be related to local frugivore diversity, resource availability, and fruit quality.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T04:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal
           habitats in Turkey
    • Authors: Shahid Farooq; Sonnur Tad; Huseyin Onen; Hikmet Gunal; Ugur Caldiran; Cumali Ozaslan
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Shahid Farooq, Sonnur Tad, Huseyin Onen, Hikmet Gunal, Ugur Caldiran, Cumali Ozaslan
      Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm−1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm−1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-30T04:24:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Prey availability affects territory size, but not territorial display
           behavior, in green anole lizards
    • Authors: Chelsea M. Stehle; Andrew C. Battles; Michelle N. Sparks; Michele A. Johnson
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Chelsea M. Stehle, Andrew C. Battles, Michelle N. Sparks, Michele A. Johnson
      The availability of food resources can affect the size and shape of territories, as well as the behaviors used to defend territories, in a variety of animal taxa. However, individuals within a population may respond differently to variation in food availability if the benefits of territoriality vary among those individuals. For example, benefits to territoriality may differ for animals of differing sizes, because larger individuals may require greater territory size to acquire required resources, or territorial behavior may differ between the sexes if males and females defend different resources in their territories. In this study, we tested whether arthropod abundance and biomass were associated with natural variation in territory size and defense in insectivorous green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis. Our results showed that both male and female lizards had smaller territories in a habitat with greater prey biomass than lizards in habitats with less available prey, but the rates of aggressive behaviors used to defend territories did not differ among these habitats. Further, we did not find a relationship between body size and territory size, and the sexes did not differ in their relationships between food availability and territory size or behavioral defense. Together, these results suggest that differences in food availability influenced male and female territorial strategies similarly, and that territory size may be more strongly associated with variation in food resources than social display behavior. Thus, anole investment in the behavioral defense of a territory may not vary with territory quality.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:57:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Superfetation increases total fecundity in a viviparous fish regardless of
           the ecological context
    • Authors: J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega; Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel; Alejandro Molina-Moctezuma
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel, Alejandro Molina-Moctezuma
      Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos at different developmental stages. This is an uncommon reproductive strategy that has evolved independently several times in viviparous fishes. The ecological conditions that favor higher degrees of superfetation (the presence of more simultaneous broods) still remain unclear. In this study we tested hypotheses about the potential effects of three particular ecological factors (water flow velocity, population density, and adult mortality) on superfetation. We used data on six populations of one fish species from the family Poeciliidae (Poeciliopsis baenschi) and a multimodel inference framework to test these hypotheses. We found no clear associations between the degree of superfetation and these ecological factors. Instead, we found a positive relationship between the total number of embryos carried by females and superfetation. Females increased their total fecundity as they overlapped more broods and this pattern was independent of the particular ecological conditions. Thus, in P. baenschi superfetation may facilitate a greater reproductive output. In addition, this positive relationship between total number of embryos and superfetation was stronger in small- and medium-sized females, whereas large females produced few or no simultaneous broods regardless of their total fecundity. The observed lack of association between superfetation and ecological variables is noteworthy because previous studies on other congeneric species have found that superfetation may vary as a function of water flow velocity or food availability. Our results indicate that the effect of particular selective factors on the degree of superfetation may differ among closely related species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:57:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Landscape attributes as drivers of the geographical variation in density
           of Sapajus nigritus Kerr, 1792, a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest
    • Authors: Carla D. Hendges; Geruza L. Melo; Alberto S. Gonçalves; Felipe O. Cerezer; Nilton C. Cáceres
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Carla D. Hendges, Geruza L. Melo, Alberto S. Gonçalves, Felipe O. Cerezer, Nilton C. Cáceres
      Neotropical primates are among the most well studied forest mammals concerning their population densities. However, few studies have evaluated the factors that influence the spatial variation in the population density of primates, which limits the possibility of inferences towards this animal group, especially at the landscape-level. Here, we compiled density data of Sapajus nigritus from 21 forest patches of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We tested the effects of climatic variables (temperature, precipitation), landscape attributes (number of patches, mean inter-patch isolation distance, matrix modification index) and patch size on the population density using linear models and the Akaike information criterion. Our findings showed that the density of S. nigritus is influenced by landscape attributes, particularly by fragmentation and matrix modification. Overall, moderately fragmented landscapes and those surrounded by matrices with intermediate indexes of temporal modification (i.e., crop plantations, forestry) are related to high densities of this species. These results support the assumptions that ecologically flexible species respond positively to forest fragmentation. However, the non-linear relationship between S. nigritus density and number of patches suggests that even the species that are most tolerant to forest cover changes seem to respond positively only at an intermediate level of habitat fragmentation, being dependent of both a moderate degree of forest cover and a high quality matrix. The results we found here can be a common response to fragmentation for those forest dweller species that are able to use the matrix as complementary foraging sites.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T05:21:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • Spatial pattern of occurrence of epiphytic lichens on oaks in a
           heterogeneous landscape
    • Authors: Lars M. Westerberg; Usman Haider Muhammadi; Karl-Olof Bergman; Per Milberg
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Lars M. Westerberg, Usman Haider Muhammadi, Karl-Olof Bergman, Per Milberg
      Quercus robur (oaks) provides an important substrate for many epiphytic lichens, and with increasing age the bark becomes suitable for some rare species. These species may respond to environmental and landscape factors differently, and at different spatial scales. We tested the effect of factors related to the individual tree and the surrounding landscape on the occurrence and richness patterns of lichens species. The study system consisted of 213 oaks selected in a grid system within a 400 km2 heterogeneous oak-rich area in south-eastern Sweden. Oaks had been selected to be relatively uniform in size (circumference 3.1–4.1 m), and as uniformly distributed as possible in the study area. Landscape factors were calculated for various spatial scales (circles with radius ranging from 28 to 1225 m from a studied oak). One of the landscape factors stands out as of general importance – oak density in the surrounding – while the others (amount of forest, water, houses and arable field) had no effects, or weak effects on only some species. Among the tree specific variables, circumference was consistently important (despite ranging from only 3.1–4.1 m) while inconsistent effects were seen by sun exposure of oak trunk (Chaenotheca phaeocephala, Ramalina baltica) and density of shrubs and trees near the tree (Ch. phaeocephala). The occurrence patterns of Cliostomum corrugatum, Ch. phaeocephala, R. baltica and richness (number of eleven target lichens) were best explained by the density of oaks within radii of 401, 199, 199 and 303 m, respectively. In conclusion, our study highlighted the importance of spatial scale for understanding the occurrence of epiphytic lichens and suggests spatial scales and oak densities that could be targeted for landscape and conservation planning.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T15:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2017)
       
  • The effect of altitude, patch size and disturbance on species richness and
           density of lianas in montane forest patches
    • Authors: Dharmalingam Mohandass; Mason J. Campbell; Alice C. Hughes; Christos Mammides; Priya Davidar
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Dharmalingam Mohandass, Mason J. Campbell, Alice C. Hughes, Christos Mammides, Priya Davidar
      The species richness and density of lianas (woody vines) in tropical forests is determined by various abiotic and biotic factors. Factors such as altitude, forest patch size and the degree of forest disturbance are known to exert strong influences on liana species richness and density. We investigated how liana species richness and density were concurrently influenced by altitude (1700–2360 m), forest patch size, forest patch location (edge or interior) and disturbance intensity in the tropical montane evergreen forests, of the Nilgiri and Palni hills, Western Ghats, southern India. All woody lianas (≥1 cm dbh) were enumerated in plots of 30 × 30 m in small, medium and large forest patches, which were located along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1700 to 2360 m. A total of 1980 individual lianas were recorded, belonging to 45 species, 32 genera and 21 families, from a total sampling area of 13.86 ha (across 154 plots). Liana species richness and density decreased significantly with increasing altitude and increased with increasing forest patch size. Within forest patches, the proportion of forest edge or interior habitat influenced liana distribution and succession especially when compared across the patch size categories. Liana species richness and density also varied along the altitudinal gradient when examined using eco-physiological guilds (i.e. shade tolerance, dispersal mode and climbing mechanism). The species richness and density of lianas within these ecological guilds responded negatively to increasing altitude and positively to increasing patch size and additionally displayed differing sensitivities to forest disturbance. Importantly, the degree of forest disturbance significantly altered the relationship between liana species richness and density to increasing altitude and patches size, and as such is likely the primary influence on liana response to montane forest succession. Our findings suggest that managing forest disturbance in the examined montane forests would assist in conserving local liana diversity across the examined altitudinal range.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:20:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Ant-related oviposition is not associated to low parasitism of the
           myrmecophilous butterfly Allosmaitia strophius in an extrafloral nectaried
           shrub
    • Authors: Alexandra Bächtold; Estevão Alves-Silva; Kleber Del-Claro
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Alexandra Bächtold, Estevão Alves-Silva, Kleber Del-Claro
      In Lycaenidae-ant mutualisms, ovipositing females select plants based on the presence and/or species of ants in order to maximize survival rates of immatures. The ants are supposed to protect the immatures from parasitoids, but there is large variation in the protection provided. Here, we experimentally investigated whether the occurrence of the facultative myrmecophilous Allosmaitia strophius (the dominant species in our study system) was ant-related. The parasitism rates of immatures collected in the field and reared in the laboratory were also investigated. Stems of the extrafloral nectaried shrub Peixotoa tomentosa were designated as either ant-present (control) or absent (treated). The occurrence of A. strophius on ant-present stems was five times greater than on treated stems. Most eggs and larvae were associated with Camponotus blandus and Ectatomma tuberculatum, two aggressive ant species in the Brazilian savanna. Egg parasitism rate was 9%, and all the parasitized eggs were on ant-present stems. Pupal parasitism on ant-present and ant-absent stems was 25.6% and 7%, respectively. The higher parasitism rate in the presence of ants might also have been density-dependent, because caterpillars were more abundant in ant-present stems. Tropical lycaenids are frequently found in association with patrolling ants. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that parasitism is higher in the presence of ants, owing to caterpillar's density-dependent effects in plants with ants, and/or to the weak lycaenid-ant associations. This indicates that the offspring of myrmecophilous lycaenids may not benefit, at least in terms of lower parasitism, by living with ants.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity
           nesting birds in African cork oak forest'
    • Authors: Amalia Segura
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Amalia Segura
      The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • The effects of biome and spatial scale on the Co-occurrence patterns of a
           group of Namibian beetles
    • Authors: Monica Pitzalis; Francesca Montalto; Valentina Amore; Luca Luiselli; Marco A. Bologna
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Monica Pitzalis, Francesca Montalto, Valentina Amore, Luca Luiselli, Marco A. Bologna
      Co-occurrence patterns (studied by C-score, number of checkerboard units, number of species combinations, and V-ratio, and by an empirical Bayes approach developed by Gotelli and Ulrich, 2010) are crucial elements in order to understand assembly rules in ecological communities at both local and spatial scales. In order to explore general assembly rules and the effects of biome and spatial scale on such rules, here we studied a group of beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae), using Namibia as a case of study. Data were gathered from 186 sampling sites, which allowed collection of 74 different species. We analyzed data at the level of (i) all sampled sites, (ii) all sites stratified by biome (Savannah, Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert), and (iii) three randomly selected nested areas with three spatial scales each. Three competing algorithms were used for all analyses: (i) Fixed-Equiprobable, (ii) Fixed-Fixed, and (iii) Fixed-Proportional. In most of the null models we created, co-occurrence indicators revealed a non-random structure in meloid beetle assemblages at the global scale and at the scale of biomes, with species aggregation being much more important than species segregation in determining this non-randomness. At the level of biome, the same non-random organization was uncovered in assemblages from Savannah (where the aggregation pattern was particularly strong) and Succulent Karoo, but not in Desert and Nama Karoo. We conclude that species facilitation and similar niche in endemic species pairs may be particularly important as community drivers in our case of study. This pattern is also consistent with the evidence of a higher species diversity (normalized according to biome surface area) in the two former biomes. Historical patterns were perhaps also important for Succulent Karoo assemblages. Spatial scale had a reduced effect on patterning our data. This is consistent with the general homogeneity of environmental conditions over wide areas in Namibia.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the temporal dynamic of bat-fruit
           interactions
    • Authors: Rafael de Souza Laurindo; Renato Gregorin; Davi Castro Tavares
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Rafael de Souza Laurindo, Renato Gregorin, Davi Castro Tavares
      Mutualistic interactions between animals and plants vary over time and space based on the abundance of fruits or animals and seasonality. Little is known about this temporal dynamic and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the structure of interaction networks. We evaluated changes in the structure of network interactions between bats and fruits in relation to variations in rainfall. Our results suggest that fruit abundance is the main variable responsible for temporal changes in network attributes, such as network size, connectance, and number of interactions. In the same way, temperature positively affected the abundance of fruits and bats. An increase in temperature and alterations in rainfall patterns, due to human induced climate change, can cause changes in phenological patterns and fruit production, with negative consequences to biodiversity maintenance, ecological interactions, and ecosystem functioning.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Edge, height and visibility effects on nest predation by birds and mammals
           in the Brazilian cerrado
    • Authors: Pavel Dodonov; Ingrid Toledo Paneczko; Marina Telles
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83
      Author(s): Pavel Dodonov, Ingrid Toledo Paneczko, Marina Telles
      Edge influence is one of the main impacts in fragmented landscapes; yet, most of studies on edge influence have focused on high-contrast edges, and the impacts of low-contrast edges and narrow linear openings are less understood. Edge influence often affects bird nest predation, but these effects are not ubiquitous and may depend on characteristics such as nest height and visibility. We performed an experiment on nest predation in a migratory passerine, Elaenia chiriquensis (Lesser Elaenia; Passeriformes: Tyrannidae), in a savanna vegetation of the Brazilian Cerrado biome in South-Eastern Brazil. We used 89 real E. chiriquensis nests, collected during previous reproductive seasons, with two plasticine eggs in each, and randomly distributed them at two locations (edge – up to 20 m from a firebreak edge and interior – approx. 150–350 m from the edge) and two heights (low – 60–175 cm and high – 190–315 cm above ground). We also measured leaf and branch density around each nest. We performed this study on two 15-days campaigns, checking the nests every 2–3 days and removing those with predation marks. We sorted the predation marks into those made by birds, mammals, or unidentified predators, and used generalized linear models to assess the effects of location, height and leaf density on survival time and predator type. Only four nests had not been predated during the experiment; 55 nests were predated by birds, 7 by mammals, and 23 by unidentified predators. Low nests in the interior tended to have larger survival times whereas high nests at the edge tended to be more predated by birds and less predated by mammals. Thus, even a low-contrast (firebreak) edge may significantly increase nest predation, which is also affected by the nest's height, mainly due to predation by birds. These effects may be due to predator movement along the edge as well as to edge-related changes in vegetation structure. We suggest that higher-contrast edges which may also be used as movement conduits, for example powerline openings, may have even stronger effects, demanding further studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 83 (2017)
       
  • Fagus sylvatica L. provenances maintain different leaf metabolic profiles
           and functional response
    • Authors: Ismael Aranda; David Sánchez-Gómez; Marina de Miguel; Jose Antonio Mancha; María Angeles Guevara; Estrella Cadahía; María Brígida Fernández de Simón
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 82
      Author(s): Ismael Aranda, David Sánchez-Gómez, Marina de Miguel, Jose Antonio Mancha, María Angeles Guevara, Estrella Cadahía, María Brígida Fernández de Simón
      Most temperate forest tree species will suffer important environmental changes as result of the climate change. Adaptiveness to local conditions could change at different sites in the future. In this context, the study of intra-specific variability is important to clarify the singularity of different local populations. Phenotypic differentiation between three beech provenances covering a wide latitudinal range (Spain/ES, Germany/DE and Sweden/SE), was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Non-target leaf metabolite profiles and ecophysiological response was analyzed in well-watered and water stressed seedlings. There was a provenance-specific pattern in the relative concentrations of some leaf metabolites regardless watering treatment. The DE and SE from the center and north of the distribution area of the species showed a clear differentiation from the ES provenance in the relative concentration of some metabolites. Thus the ES provenance from the south maintained larger relative concentration of some organic and amino acids (e.g. fumaric and succinic acids or valine and isoleucine), and in some secondary metabolites (e.g. kaempferol, caffeic and ferulic acids). The ecophysiological response to mild water stress was similar among the three provenances as a consequence of the moderate water stress applied to seedlings, although leaf N isotope composition (δ15N) and leaf C:N ratio were higher and lower respectively in DE than in the other two provenances. This would suggest potential differences in the capacity to uptake and post-process nitrogen according to provenance. An important focus of the study was to address for the first time inter-provenance leaf metabolic diversity in beech from a non-targeted metabolic profiling approach that allowed differentiation of the three studied provenances.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 82 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of the antennal sensilla of females of four fig-wasps
           associated with Ficus auriculata
    • Authors: Pei Yang; Zong-bo Li; Da-rong Yang; Yan-qiong Peng; Finn Kjellberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Pei Yang, Zong-bo Li, Da-rong Yang, Yan-qiong Peng, Finn Kjellberg
      A comparison was performed of the antennal sensilla of females of four chalcid wasp species Ceratosolen emarginatus Mayr, 1906, Sycophaga sp., Philotrypesis longicaudata Mayr, 1906, and Sycoscapter roxburghi Joseph, 1957, which are specific and obligatory associated with Ficus auriculata (Lour, 1790). The four species exhibit different oviposition strategies in the fig ovules where their offspring hatch and develop. Antennal sensilla morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Females of the four species present 11 morphologically similar types of sensilla: trichoid sensilla, sensilla obscura, chaetica sensilla 1 and 2, which all have mechanosensory functions; uniporous basiconic sensilla, which are presumably contact chemosensilla; basiconic capitate peg sensilla, coeloconic sensilla 1, multiporous basiconic and placoid sensilla, which may be regarded as olfactory sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla 2 and 3, which are presumed to be proprioreceptors or pressure receptors. The four species have significant differences in the abundance and arrangement of trichoid sensilla and chaetica sensilla 1 on the flagellum. The coeloconic sensilla and sensilla obscura only occur on the antennae of C. emarginatus that enter figs. The chemosensilla which are presumably involved in host discrimination, i.e., basiconic sensilla, multiporous placoid sensilla and basiconic capitate peg sensilla, are similar in shape and configuration, although they present some differences in abundance. These findings provide practical information on the adaptations of fig wasps and the relationship between multisensory antennae and functions in fig wasp behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.002
       
  • Ovipositor morphology correlates with life history evolution in agaonid
           fig wasps
    • Authors: Larissa Galante Elias; Finn Kjellberg; Fernando Henrique Antoniolli Farache; Eduardo A.B. Almeida; Jean-Yves Rasplus; Astrid Cruaud; Yan-Qiong Peng; Da-Rong Yang; Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Larissa Galante Elias, Finn Kjellberg, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli Farache, Eduardo A.B. Almeida, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Astrid Cruaud, Yan-Qiong Peng, Da-Rong Yang, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      The high adaptive success of parasitic Hymenoptera might be related to the use of different oviposition sites, allowing niche partitioning among co-occurring species resulting in life history specialization and diversification. In this scenario, evolutionary changes in life history and resources for oviposition can be associated with changes in ovipositor structure, allowing exploitation of different substrates for oviposition. We used a formal phylogenetic framework to investigate the evolution of ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid wasps. We sampled 24 species with different life histories belonging to all main clades of Agaonidae including representatives of all described genera of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW). Our results show an overall correlation between ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid fig wasps. Ovipositor morphologies seem to be related to constraints imposed by features of the oviposition sites since ovipositor morphology has experienced convergent evolution at least four times in Sycophaginae (Agaonidae) according to the resource used. Non-galling species have more distantly spaced teeth with uneven spacing, as opposed to the observed morphology of galling species. Our results suggest that the ancestral condition for ovipositor morphology was most likely the presence of one or two apical teeth. Regarding life history, ovary galling species that oviposit in receptive figs possibly represent the ancestral condition. Different ovipositor characteristics allow exploitation of new niches and may be related to resource partitioning and species co-existence in the fig-fig wasp system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.007
       
  • The role of non-fig-wasp insects on fig tree biology, with a proposal of
           the F phase (Fallen figs)
    • Authors: Luciano Palmieri; Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Luciano Palmieri, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      The two seminal papers by Galil and Eisikowitch describing the development of Ficus flowers and their sycophilous wasps (i.e., phases A-E) have been adopted in several ecological and evolutionary studies on a wide range of fig tree-insect interactions. Their classification, however, is not inclusive enough to encompass all the diversity of insects associated with the fig development, and the impact of this fauna on the fig-fig wasp mutualism is still unexplored. Here we describe the life history of the non-fig-wasp insects and propose an additional phase to fig-development classification, the F phase (Fallen figs). These figs are not consumed by frugivores while still on the parent tree, fall to the ground and turn into a resource for a diverse range of animals. To support the relevance of the F phase, we summarized a 5-years-period of field observations made on different biomes in three continents. Additionally, we compiled data from the literature of non-fig-wasp insects including only insects associated with inflorescences of wild fig tree species. We report 129 species of non-fig-wasp insects feeding on figs; they colonize the figs in different phases of development and some groups rely on the fallen figs to complete their life cycles. Their range of interaction varies from specialists – that use exclusively fig pulp or fig seeds in their diets – to generalists, opportunists and parasitoids species. The formalization of this additional phase will encourage new studies on fig tree ecology and improve our knowledge on the processes that affect the diversification of insects. It will also help us to understand the implications this fauna may have had on the origin and maintenance of mutualistic interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.006
       
  • Laticifer distribution in fig inflorescence and its potential role in the
           fig-fig wasp mutualism
    • Authors: Cristina Ribeiro Marinho; Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira; Yan-Qiong Peng; Simone Pádua Teixeira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Cristina Ribeiro Marinho, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira, Yan-Qiong Peng, Simone Pádua Teixeira
      Although in Moraceae the presence of laticifers is considered to be a synapomorphy, little is known about the distribution and morphology of this type of secretory structure in the reproductive organs of its species. Ficus, the largest genus of Moraceae, is characterized by an inflorescence known as syconium and by an obligate mutualistic interaction with pollinating wasps. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the distribution and morphology of laticifers in syconia of 36 species belonging to different Ficus sections and to survey traits of taxonomic and adaptive value for the group. Syconia containing flowers in a receptive state were collected, fixed and processed for anatomical analysis. All species studied have branched laticifers distributed in the syconium receptacle, in the ostiolar bracts and in the pedicel of staminate flowers. Almost all species show laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-styled flowers. Laticifers also occur in the pedicel of longer-styled flowers in most Ficus sections, except F. curtipes (Conosycea section) and more than 75% of the studied species of the Americanae section. Laticifers are observed in the sepals of 25 of the 36 species studied and occasionally in the pistil. The presence of laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-style flowers and its absence in the pistil suggest that the distribution of this secretory structure in the fig flower was selected by pressures imposed by the fig-fig wasp mutualism. The laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-styled flowers may confer protection to the developing wasp larvae against natural enemies. However, the absence of laticifers in the pistil of most Ficus species studied was probably selected by the mutualistic relationship with the agaonid pollinating wasps since the latex could interfere with oviposition through the style, with the larval development of the pollinating fig wasps, and the emergence of pollinator offspring from their galls.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.005
       
  • Understanding the influence of non-wealth factors in determining bushmeat
           consumption: Results from four West African countries
    • Authors: Luca Luiselli; Emmanuel M. Hema; Gabriel Hoinsoudé Segniagbeto; Valy Ouattara; Edem A. Eniang; Massimiliano Di Vittorio; Nioking Amadi; Gnoumou Parfait; Nic Pacini; Godfrey C. Akani; Djidama Sirima; Wendengoudi Guenda; Barineme B. Fakae; Daniele Dendi; John E. Fa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Luca Luiselli, Emmanuel M. Hema, Gabriel Hoinsoudé Segniagbeto, Valy Ouattara, Edem A. Eniang, Massimiliano Di Vittorio, Nioking Amadi, Gnoumou Parfait, Nic Pacini, Godfrey C. Akani, Djidama Sirima, Wendengoudi Guenda, Barineme B. Fakae, Daniele Dendi, John E. Fa
      The meat of wild animals (bushmeat) is consumed extensively in many tropical regions. Over the past few decades bushmeat consumption has greatly increased, threatening the survival of some hunted species and the supply of animal protein to countless numbers of people. Understanding patterns of bushmeat consumption is thus vital to ensure the sustainable use of this resource. Although the economic drivers of bushmeat consumption have been well studied, non-wealth correlates have been poorly considered. Here, we analyse how variables such as age and gender may influence bushmeat consumption in four West African countries, within the Guinean forests (Togo and Nigeria) and Sahel (Burkina Faso and Niger). We interviewed a total of 2453 persons (1253 urban, 1200 in rural areas) to determine frequency of consumption of bushmeat as well as the main species eaten. We found significant differences in bushmeat consumption between rural and urban areas in all four countries. In particular, the proportion of persons not consuming any bushmeat was highest in urban areas. Gender differences in bushmeat consumption were not generally important but young people consistently avoided eating bushmeat, especially in Togo and Nigeria, and in urban areas. The complicated interplay between tradition and evolution of social systems (especially the trends towards westernization) may explain the different perceptions that people may have towards consuming bushmeat in the four studied countries. In addition, we found considerable variation in types of bushmeat eaten, with antelopes and large rodents eaten by the great majority of interviewees, but bats, monkeys, and snakes being avoided, especially in urban settlements.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.002
       
  • Can fine-scale post-pollination variation of fig volatile compounds
           explain some steps of the temporal succession of fig wasps associated with
           Ficus racemosa'
    • Authors: Magali Proffit; Jean-Marie Bessière; Bertrand Schatz; Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Magali Proffit, Jean-Marie Bessière, Bertrand Schatz, Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers play an essential role in mediating the attraction of pollinators. However, they also attract other species exploiting resources associated with flowers. For instance, VOCs emitted by figs play a major role in encounters between Ficus spp., their mutualistic pollinating wasps, and all the members of the community of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs) that exploit the mutualistic interaction. Because pollinators might be in limited supply for a tree bearing many inflorescences, the plant might maximize its individual reproductive success by reducing the attractiveness of inflorescences once they are pollinated, so that pollinators orient only towards the tree's unpollinated figs. Changes in VOCs emission that bring this about could represent an important cue for NPFWs that exploit particular stages of fig development. In this study, by monitoring precisely the presence of fig-associated wasps on figs of F. racemosa, a common widespread fig species, we demonstrated that 4–5 days and 15 days following pollination represent two critical transitional steps in the succession of different wasp species. Then, focusing on the first one of these transitional steps, by investigating the composition of fig VOCs at receptivity and from 1 to 5 days following pollination, we detected progressive quantitative and qualitative variation of floral scent following pollination. These changes are significant at 5 days following pollination. The qualitative changes are mainly due to an increase in the relative proportions of two monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene). These variations of the floral VOCs following pollination could explain why pollinating wasps stop visiting figs very shortly after the first pollinators enter receptive figs. They also possibly explain the succession of non-pollinating wasps on the figs following pollination.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:59:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.08.009
       
  • Relationships between soil parameters and vegetation in abandoned terrace
           fields vs. non-terraced fields in arid lands (Lanzarote, Spain): An
           opportunity for restoration
    • Authors: Silvia Alfredo; Reyes-Betancort Marisa Tejedor Francisco
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): José Ramón Arévalo, Silvia Fernández-Lugo, J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort, Marisa Tejedor, Concepción Jiménez, Francisco J. Díaz
      Over 90% of terraced fields have been abandoned on the island of Lanzarote in the last 40 years. The present work analyses the effects of abandonment on the soil and vegetation recovery of terraced field agroecosystems by comparing them with adjacent non-terraced fields in Lanzarote, Canary Islands (Spain). This information is necessary to take the appropriate management actions to achieve goals such as soil protection and biodiversity conservation. Results indicate that terraced fields display better soil quality than non-terraced ones, as shown by the significant differences found in parameters such as SAR, exchangeable Na, CaCO3, B content, moisture content or soil depth. Moreover, the terraced fields' plant community has more species similarities with the native plant community when compared with non-terraced areas. Owing to characteristics such as deeper soils, more water capacity, lower salinity and less sodic soils, terraced soils provide better conditions for passive restoration of both soil and vegetation. Therefore, the recovery and maintenance of wall structures and revegetation with native/endemic species are proposed to promote the restoration of native systems and preserve a landscape with cultural and aesthetic value.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
  • Seed-deposition and recruitment patterns of Clusia species in a disturbed
           tropical montane forest in Bolivia
    • Authors: Francisco Saavedra; Isabell Hensen Amira Apaza Quevedo Eike Lena Neuschulz
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Francisco Saavedra, Isabell Hensen, Amira Apaza Quevedo, Eike Lena Neuschulz, Matthias Schleuning
      Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and recruitment of fleshy-fruited plants in tropical forests are supposed to be driven by the activity of animal seed dispersers, but the spatial patterns of seed dispersal, seedlings and saplings have rarely been analyzed simultaneously. We studied seed deposition and recruitment patterns of three Clusia species in a tropical montane forest of the Bolivian Andes and tested whether these patterns changed between habitat types (forest edge vs. forest interior), distance to the fruiting tree and consecutive recruitment stages of the seedlings. We recorded the number of seeds deposited in seed traps to assess the local seed-deposition pattern and the abundance and distribution of seedlings and saplings to evaluate the spatial pattern of recruitment. More seeds were removed and deposited at the forest edge than in the interior. The number of deposited seeds decreased with distance from the fruiting tree and was spatially clustered in both habitat types. The density of 1-yr-old seedlings and saplings was higher at forest edges, whereas the density of 2-yr-old seedlings was similar in both habitat types. While seedlings were almost randomly distributed, seeds and saplings were spatially clustered in both habitat types. Our findings demonstrate systematic changes in spatial patterns of recruits across the plant regeneration cycle and suggest that the differential effects of biotic and abiotic factors determine plant recruitment at the edges and in the interior of tropical montane forests. These differences in the spatial distribution of individuals across recruitment stages may have strong effects on plant community dynamics and influence plant species coexistence in disturbed tropical forests.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
  • Cone and seed traits of two Juniperus species influence roles of
           frugivores and scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersal agents
    • Authors: Lindsay Dimitri; William Longland Stephen Vander Wall
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Lindsay A. Dimitri, William S. Longland, Stephen B. Vander Wall
      Seed dispersal in Juniperus is generally attributed to frugivores that consume the berry-like female cones. Some juniper cones are fleshy and resinous such as those of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), while others are dry and leathery such as those of Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Rodents have been recorded harvesting Juniperus seeds and cones but are mostly considered seed predators. Our study sought to determine if rodents play a role in dispersal of western and Utah juniper seeds. We documented rodent harvest of cones and seeds of the locally-occurring juniper species and the alternate (non-local) juniper species in removal experiments at a western juniper site in northeastern California and a Utah juniper site in western Nevada. Characteristics of western and Utah juniper cones appeared to influence removal, as cones from the local juniper species were preferred at both sites. Conversely, removal of local and non-local seeds was similar. Piñon mice (Peromyscus truei) were responsible for most removal of cones and seeds at both sites. We used radioactively labeled seeds to follow seed fate and found many of these seeds in scattered caches (western juniper: 415 seeds in 82 caches, 63.0% of seeds found; Utah juniper: 458 seeds in 127 caches, 39.5% of seeds found) most of which were attributed to piñon mice. We found little evidence of frugivores dispersing Utah juniper seeds, thus scatter-hoarding rodents appear to be the main dispersal agents. Western juniper cones were eaten by frugivores, and scatter-hoarding is a complimentary or secondary form of seed dispersal. Our results support the notion that Utah juniper has adapted to xeric environments by conserving water through the loss of fleshy fruits that attract frugivores and instead relies on scatter-hoarding rodents as effective dispersal agents.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84


      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
       
  • The potential of military training areas for bird conservation in a
           central European landscape
    • Authors: Reif
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ondřej Bušek, Jiří Reif
      European biodiversity has suffered from serious declines during the past few decades, with alterations of land use practices resulting in a loss of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity being a dominant driver. This heterogeneity was maintained by extensive landscape management, which has gradually been replaced by either intensive exploitation or land abandonment. It has been suggested that military training can generate habitat heterogeneity that may support the existence of species of conservation concern, but studies rigorously testing the real importance of military training areas for biodiversity are lacking. Here we address this issue by analyses of two datasets. First, we compared land cover classes between all large military training areas (MTAs) and surrounding control areas (CAs) of the same size in the Czech Republic using multivariate redundancy analysis. We found that the difference in land cover between MTAs and CAs was significant and represented the strongest gradient in land cover classes: from various farmland and artificial habitats typical for CAs to forest and scrubland-grassland mosaic typical for MTAs. Second, we selected one of these areas and compared bird species richness between the MTA and the nearby CA using generalized linear mixed effects models. We found that the number of species of conservation concern was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA. With respect to habitats, bird species richness was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA for open habitats, but not for forest habitats. Our results are thus consistent with the view that military training creates areas that are different from the surrounding landscape in terms of land cover, and that this difference translates to a suitability for species of conservation concern. It is remarkable that the positive influence of military training is confined to open habitats, which are subject to the most intensive military activities and also suffer the highest degree of deterioration in European landscapes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:57:55Z
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 83


      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:36:22Z
       
  • Freshwater fishes of Lower Guinean forest streams: Aquaculture heavily
           impacts the structure and diversity of communities
    • Authors: Nioking Amadi; Fabio Petrozzi; Godfrey C. Akani; Daniele Dendi; Barineme B. Fakae; Luca Luiselli; Nic Pacini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Nioking Amadi, Fabio Petrozzi, Godfrey C. Akani, Daniele Dendi, Barineme B. Fakae, Luca Luiselli, Nic Pacini
      Little is known about fish diversity in the coastal streams south-eastern Nigeria in this world-renowned biodiversity hotspot. In these ecosystems, the combination of seasonal changes in hydrology as well as the presence of coastal forests provides a greater biotope diversity, food and shelter for many fish species. Currently, however, deforestation, pollution and exotic species invasions impact the system's hydrology, water quality ultimately changing fish assemblage composition. In this paper, we describe the current status of fish diversity in the forested coastal streams of south-eastern Nigerian based on recent collections and data drawn from selected scientific publications. We found a total of 88 fish species from 27 families in 10 orders. . Fish assemblages were generally characterised by a low evenness, with 90% of specimens belonging to over a quarter of the overall number of taxa, and strongly dominated by species of aquaculture interest, such as tilapiine cichlids. The studied stations had a high heterogeneity and non-comparable diversity profiles; stressing the role played by local conditions. Stations closer to the River Niger Delta differed significantly from the remaining large relatively homogeneous cluster. We found that the spatial turnover components of β-diversity were significant, and this was related to longitudinal distance, and not to species replacement by ecological vicariants. The observed species composition and the diversity patterns are consistent with a scenario whereby an originally high biodiversity is being eroded because of habitat degradation and the impact of alien species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:06:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.07.001
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 82


      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:20:11Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016