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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 377, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 378, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Parasitology
  [SJR: 2.37]   [H-I: 73]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-308X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Chapter Five Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography of the Triatominae,
           Vectors of Chagas Disease
    • Authors: Fernando Araujo Monteiro; Christiane Weirauch; Márcio Felix; Cristiano Lazoski; Fernando Abad-Franch
      Pages: 265 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 99
      Author(s): Fernando Araujo Monteiro, Christiane Weirauch, Márcio Felix, Cristiano Lazoski, Fernando Abad-Franch
      In this chapter, we review and update current knowledge about the evolution, systematics, and biogeography of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)—true bugs that feed primarily on vertebrate blood. In the Americas, triatomines are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Despite declining incidence and prevalence, Chagas disease is still a major public health concern in Latin America. Triatomines occur also in the Old World, where vector-borne T. cruzi transmission has not been recorded. Triatomines evolved from predatory reduviid bugs, most likely in the New World, and diversified extensively across the Americas (including the Caribbean) and in parts of Asia and Oceania. Here, we first discuss our current understanding of how, how many times, and when the blood-feeding habit might have evolved among the Reduviidae. Then we present a summary of recent advances in the systematics of this diverse group of insects, with an emphasis on the contribution of molecular tools to the clarification of taxonomic controversies. Finally, and in the light of both up-to-date phylogenetic hypotheses and a thorough review of distribution records, we propose a global synthesis of the biogeography of the Triatominae. Over 130 triatomine species contribute to maintaining T. cruzi transmission among mammals (sometimes including humans) in almost every terrestrial ecoregion of the Americas. This means that Chagas disease will never be eradicated and underscores the fact that effective disease prevention will perforce require stronger, long-term vector control-surveillance systems.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T12:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2018)
       
  • Human Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases: Heading Towards 2050
    • Authors: Peter J. Hotez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Peter J. Hotez
      By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence. Thus while by 2050 we might congratulate ourselves for successfully eliminating some key parasitic and neglected tropical diseases such as dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and human African trypanosomiasis, there could be a commensurate rise in other parasitic diseases based on the scenarios highlighted above. Of particular concern are urban and newly urbanized helminth infections, including schistosomiasis and some soil-transmitted helminth infections, as well zoonotic helminthiases, such as toxocariasis, food-borne trematodiases, and cysticercosis. Protozoan infections persisting in urban environments, including leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, malaria, and intestinal protozoan infections, will also remain, as will zoonotic diseases such as toxoplasmosis. Our best hope to counteract the parasitic diseases emerging in our steaming 21st century megacities is to develop new and innovative technologies through gene editing, systems biology, and immunology, and the new single-celled OMICs. However, success on this front will require our ability to contain the globalization of antiscience beliefs and sentiments.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T12:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.03.002
       
  • Climate Change and the Neglected Tropical Diseases
    • Authors: Mark Booth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Mark Booth
      Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term. This review offers an introduction into the terms and processes deployed in modelling climate change and reviews the state of the art in terms of research into how climate change may affect future transmission of NTDs. The 34 infections included in this chapter are drawn from the WHO NTD list and the WHO blueprint list of priority diseases. For the majority of infections, some evidence is available of which environmental factors contribute to the population biology of parasites, vectors and zoonotic hosts. There is a general paucity of published research on the potential effects of decadal climate change, with some exceptions, mainly in vector-borne diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T12:33:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.02.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 99


      PubDate: 2018-04-15T12:33:52Z
       
  • Molecular Epidemiology of Anisakis and Anisakiasis: An Ecological and
           Evolutionary Road Map
    • Authors: Simonetta Mattiucci; Paolo Cipriani; Arne Levsen; Michela Paoletti; Giuseppe Nascetti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Simonetta Mattiucci, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen, Michela Paoletti, Giuseppe Nascetti
      This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species’ biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many countries or regions around the globe. Indeed, when considering the importance of marine fish species as part of the everyday diet in many coastal communities around the globe, there still exist significant knowledge gaps as to local epidemiological and ecological drivers of the transmission of Anisakis spp. to humans. We further identify some key knowledge gaps related to Anisakis species epidemiology in both natural and accidental hosts, to be filled in light of new ‘omic’ technologies yet to be fully developed. Moreover, we suggest that future Anisakis research takes a ‘holistic’ approach by integrating genetic, ecological, immunobiological, and environmental factors, thus allowing proper assessment of the epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in their natural hosts, in human populations, and in the marine ecosystem, in both space and time.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T19:13:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.12.001
       
  • Monogenean Parasite Cultures: Current Techniques and Recent Advances
    • Authors: Kate Suzanne Hutson; Alexander Karlis Brazenor; David Brendan Vaughan; Alejandro Trujillo-González
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Kate Suzanne Hutson, Alexander Karlis Brazenor, David Brendan Vaughan, Alejandro Trujillo-González
      Global expansion in fish production and trade of aquatic ornamental species requires advances in aquatic animal health management. Aquatic parasite cultures permit diverse research opportunities to understand parasite–host dynamics and are essential to validate the efficacy of treatments that could reduce infections in captive populations. Monogeneans are important pathogenic parasites of captured captive fishes and exhibit a single-host life cycle, which makes them amenable to in vivo culture. Continuous cultures of oviparous monogenean parasites provide a valuable resource of eggs, oncomiracidia (larvae) and adult parasites for use in varied ecological and applied scientific research. For example, the parasite–host dynamics of Entobdella soleae (van Beneden and Hesse, 1864) and its fish host, Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), is one of the most well-documented of all monogeneans following meticulous, dedicated study. Polystoma spp. cultures provide an intriguing model for examining evolution in monogeneans because they exhibit two alternative phenotypes depending on the age of infection of amphibians. Furthermore, assessments of the ecological, pathological and immunological effects of fish parasites in aquaculture have been achieved through cultures of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 spp., Benedenia seriolae (Yamaguti, 1934), Neobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 spp. and Zeuxapta seriolae (Meserve, 1938). This review critically examines methods to establish and maintain in vivo monogenean monocultures on finfish, elasmobranchs and amphibians. Four separate approaches to establish cultures are scrutinised including the collection of live infected hosts, cohabiting recipient hosts with infected stock, cohabiting hosts with parasite eggs or oncomiracidia (larvae) and direct transfer of live adult parasites onto new fish hosts. Specific parasite species’ biology and behaviour permits predictive collection of parasite life stages to effectively maintain a continuous culture, while environmental parameters can be altered to manipulate parasite generation time. Parasite virulence and biosecurity are vital components of a well-managed culture to ensure appropriate animal welfare and uncontaminated surrounding environments. Contemporary approaches and techniques are reviewed to ensure optimised monogenean cultures, which ultimately can be used to further our understanding of aquatic parasitology and identify mechanisms to limit infestations in public aquaria, ornamental trade and intensive aquaculture.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.01.002
       
  • The Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Epidemiology of Coccidia of
           Passerine Birds
    • Authors: Alex Knight; John G. Ewen; Patricia Brekke; Anna W. Santure
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Alex Knight, John G. Ewen, Patricia Brekke, Anna W. Santure
      Coccidia are intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa that cause a range of pathologies collectively termed coccidiosis. Species of coccidia of commercial importance have been well studied, with the effect of other species on passerine birds receiving increasing attention. In this chapter, we review the literature on coccidia in passerines, with a particular focus on wild populations. The taxonomy and life cycle of passerine coccidia are covered, as is their impact on the health of passerines, their epidemiology and their role in parasite-mediated natural and sexual selection. Coccidia can pose a significant threat to the health of wild passerine populations, and high rates of mortality have been observed in some studies. We examine some of the genetic factors that influence host resistance to coccidia and discuss how these parasites may be important in relation to sexually selected traits. General patterns are beginning to emerge with regard to the epidemiology of the parasites, and the influence of different aspects of the host's ecology on the prevalence and intensity of coccidia is being revealed. We examine these, as well exceptions, in addition to the phenomenon of diurnal oocyst shedding that can bias studies if not accounted for. Finally, we discuss potential future directions for research on coccidia in passerines and the importance of understanding parasite ecology in the management of threatened species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T13:24:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.01.001
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 98


      PubDate: 2017-09-28T05:20:35Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 98


      PubDate: 2017-09-28T05:20:35Z
       
  • Hook, Line and Infection: A Guide to Culturing Parasites, Establishing
           
    • Authors: Alexander Stewart; Joseph Jackson; Iain Barber; Christophe Eizaguirre; Rachel Paterson; Pieter van West; Chris Williams; Joanne Cable
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Alexander Stewart, Joseph Jackson, Iain Barber, Christophe Eizaguirre, Rachel Paterson, Pieter van West, Chris Williams, Joanne Cable
      The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a model organism with an extremely well-characterized ecology, evolutionary history, behavioural repertoire and parasitology that is coupled with published genomic data. These small temperate zone fish therefore provide an ideal experimental system to study common diseases of coldwater fish, including those of aquacultural importance. However, detailed information on the culture of stickleback parasites, the establishment and maintenance of infections and the quantification of host responses is scattered between primary and grey literature resources, some of which is not readily accessible. Our aim is to lay out a framework of techniques based on our experience to inform new and established laboratories about culture techniques and recent advances in the field. Here, essential knowledge on the biology, capture and laboratory maintenance of sticklebacks, and their commonly studied parasites is drawn together, highlighting recent advances in our understanding of the associated immune responses. In compiling this guide on the maintenance of sticklebacks and a range of common, taxonomically diverse parasites in the laboratory, we aim to engage a broader interdisciplinary community to consider this highly tractable model when addressing pressing questions in evolution, infection and aquaculture.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T20:31:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.07.001
       
  • Life History, Systematics and Evolution of the Diplostomoidea Poirier,
           1886: Progress, Promises and Challenges Emerging From Molecular Studies
    • Authors: Isabel Blasco-Costa; Sean A. Locke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Isabel Blasco-Costa, Sean A. Locke
      Members of the Diplostomoidea mature in amniotes and employ vertebrates, annelids and molluscs as second intermediate hosts. Diplostomoid life cycles generally follow a three-host pattern typical of digeneans, but novelties have arisen in some species, including obligate four-host life cycles, vertical transmission, and intracellular parasitism. In this review, we summarize the basic biology of diplostomoids with reference to molecular studies, and present challenges, gaps and areas where molecular data could address long-standing questions. Our analysis of published studies revealed that most molecular surveys find more diplostomoid species than expected, but this tendency is influenced by how much effort goes into examining specimens morphologically and the number of sequenced worms. To date, molecular work has concentrated disproportionately on intraspecific or species-level diversity of larval stages in the Diplostomidae in temperate northern regions. Although the higher taxonomy of the superfamily is recognized to be in need of revision, little molecular work has been conducted at this level. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates several families and subfamilies require reconsideration, and that larval morphotypes are more reflective of evolutionary relationships than definitive hosts. The host associations of adult diplostomoids result from host-switching processes, whereas molecular surveys indicate that larval diplostomoid metacercariae have narrow ranges of second intermediate hosts, consistent with coevolution. Molecular data are often used to link diplostomoid developmental stages, and we provide data from adult Neodiplostomum and Mesoophorodiplostomum that correct earlier misidentifications of their larval stages and propose alternatives to collecting definitive hosts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-24T11:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.05.001
       
  • Measuring the Effect of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Cognitive
           Function in Children: Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Evidence
           
    • Authors: Kei Owada; Mark Nielsen; Colleen L. Lau; Archie C.A. Clements; Laith Yakob; Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Kei Owada, Mark Nielsen, Colleen L. Lau, Archie C.A. Clements, Laith Yakob, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães
      Recently the role of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children's cognitive developmental impairment has been under scrutiny. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between STH infections and cognitive function of children using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. We aimed to identify the domains of cognitive function in three age strata (<24months, 24–59months and ≥60months) and critically appraise the general design protocol of the studies, with a focus on the cognitive function measurement tools used. A total of 42 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 10 studies from a recent Cochrane review. Our findings demonstrate variation in tested domains, lack of consistency in the use of measurement tools and analysis of results. Cognitive function measures in children aged under 59months have been mainly limited to domains of gross motor, fine motor and language skills, whereas in children aged 60months and above most studies tested domains such as memory and processing speed. Even within the same age group the results on the association between STH infections and measures of cognitive development were often conflicting. The current study highlights the need for methodological consensus in the use of measurement tools and data analysis protocols if the effect of STH infections on cognitive function domains in children is to be correctly established. This will be an imperative next step to generate conclusive evidence of the role of STH infections in cognitive development in children.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T00:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.05.002
       
  • Advances in Spermatological Characters in the Digenea: Review and Proposal
           of Spermatozoa Models and Their Phylogenetic Importancea
    • Authors: Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum; Jordi Miquel; Papa I. Ndiaye; Jean-Lou Justine; Alessandra Falchi; Cheikh T. Bâ; Bernard Marchand; Yann Quilichini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum, Jordi Miquel, Papa I. Ndiaye, Jean-Lou Justine, Alessandra Falchi, Cheikh T. Bâ, Bernard Marchand, Yann Quilichini
      The wide biodiversity and economic importance of digeneans have motivated a great deal of research in the last decade, focussing on their phylogenetic positions. Molecular research was instrumental for our understanding of phylogeny in the Digenea, but spermatological studies have also provided many results, which are potentially useful for phylogeny; however, the complete spermatological data set has never been reviewed in a whole phylogenetic perspective. Spermatological data are now available for more than 100 species, belonging to 15 superfamilies and 46 families. In this paper, we try to summarize the current knowledge about sperm structure in the digeneans and propose a classification of digenean spermatozoa into five basic models. The main ultrastructural characters used are (1) the type of axoneme, (2) the lateral expansion, (3) the association ‘external ornamentation of the plasma membrane + cortical microtubules’, (4) the field of cortical microtubules and its number, (5) the location of the external ornamentation, (6) the location of the maximum number of cortical microtubules and (7) the number of mitochondria. We also outline the most interesting features for phylogenetic inference and their possible value in the context of digenean systematics, phylogeny and evolution. Associations between sperm models and superfamilies were found as follows: Type 1 in the Schistosomatoidea; Type 2 in the Hemiuroidea; Type 3 in the Opecoeloidea, Lepocreadioidea, Haploporoidea and Opisthorchioidea; Type 4 in the Gorgoderoidea, Microphalloidea, Plagiorchioidea and Gymnophalloidea; Type 5 in the Echinostomatoidea, Microscaphidioidea, Paramphistomoidea, Pronocephaloidea and Brachylaimoidea.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T21:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.04.001
       
  • Trypanosoma congolense: Molecular Toolkit and Resources for Studying a
           Major Livestock Pathogen and Model Trypanosome
    • Authors: Wendy Gibson; Christopher Kay; Lori Peacock
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Wendy Gibson, Christopher Kay, Lori Peacock
      The African trypanosomiases are diseases of humans and their livestock caused by trypanosomes carried by bloodsucking tsetse flies. Although the human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is the best known, other trypanosome species are of greater concern for animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, T rypanosoma congolense is a major cattle pathogen, which is as amenable to laboratory culture as T. brucei, with the advantage that its whole life cycle can be recapitulated in vitro. Thus, besides being worthy of study in its own right, T. congolense could be useful as a model of trypanosome development. Here we review the biology of T. congolense, highlighting significant and intriguing differences from its sister, T. brucei. An up-to-date compilation of methods for cultivating and genetically manipulating T. congolense in the laboratory is provided, based on published work and current development of methods in our lab, as well as a description of available molecular resources.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T15:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.03.002
       
  • The Battle Against Flystrike – Past Research and New Prospects
           Through Genomics
    • Authors: Clare A. Anstead; Trent Perry; Stephen Richards; Pasi K. Korhonen; Neil D. Young; Vernon M. Bowles; Philip Batterham; Robin B. Gasser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Clare A. Anstead, Trent Perry, Stephen Richards, Pasi K. Korhonen, Neil D. Young, Vernon M. Bowles, Philip Batterham, Robin B. Gasser
      Flystrike, or cutaneous myiasis, is caused by blow fly larvae of the genus Lucilia. This disease is a major problem in countries with large sheep populations. In Australia, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) is the principal fly involved in flystrike. While much research has been conducted on L. cuprina, including physical, chemical, immunological, genetic and biological investigations, the molecular biology of this fly is still poorly understood. The recent sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft genome and analyses of selected transcriptomes of L. cuprina have given a first global glimpse of its molecular biology and insights into host–fly interactions, insecticide resistance genes and intervention targets. The present article introduces L. cuprina, flystrike and associated issues, details past control efforts and research foci, reviews salient aspects of the L. cuprina genome project and discusses how the new genomic and transcriptomic resources for this fly might accelerate fundamental molecular research of L. cuprina towards developing new methods for the treatment and control of flystrike.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T15:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.03.001
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-03-19T15:01:17Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-03-19T15:01:17Z
       
  • The Role of Spatial Statistics in the Control and Elimination of Neglected
           Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Human African
           Trypanosomiasis, Schistosomiasis and Lymphatic Filariasis
    • Authors: M.C. Stanton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M.C. Stanton
      Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We further provide information on spatially referenced data sources and software that can be used to create NTD risk maps, concentrating on those that can be freely obtained. Examples relating to three NTDs affecting populations in sub-Saharan Africa are presented throughout the chapter, i.e., human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis. These three diseases, with differing routes of transmission, control methods and level of spatial heterogeneity, demonstrate the flexibility and applicability of the methods described.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T13:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.01.001
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • The Echinococcoses: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Burden of Disease
    • Authors: P. Kern; A. Menezes da Silva; O. Akhan; B. Müllhaupt; K.A. Vizcaychipi; C. Budke; D.A. Vuitton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): P. Kern, A. Menezes da Silva, O. Akhan, B. Müllhaupt, K.A. Vizcaychipi, C. Budke, D.A. Vuitton
      The echinococcoses are chronic, parasitic diseases that are acquired after ingestion of infective taeniid tapeworm eggs from certain species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs worldwide, whereas, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere, and neotropical echinococcosis (NE) has only been identified in Central and South America. Clinical manifestations and disease courses vary profoundly for the different species of Echinococcus. CE presents as small to large cysts, and has commonly been referred to as ‘hydatid disease’, or ‘hydatidosis’. A structured stage-specific approach to CE management, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) ultrasound classification of liver cysts, is now recommended. Management options include percutaneous sterilization techniques, surgery, drug treatment, a ‘watch-and-wait’ approach or combinations thereof. In contrast, clinical manifestations associated with AE resemble those of a ‘malignant’, silently-progressing liver disease, with local tissue infiltration and metastases. Structured care is important for AE management and includes WHO staging, drug therapy and long-term follow-up for at least a decade. NE presents as polycystic or unicystic disease. Clinical characteristics resemble those of AE, and management needs to be structured accordingly. However, to date, only a few hundreds of cases have been reported in the literature. The echinococcoses are often expensive and complicated to treat, and prospective clinical studies are needed to better inform case management decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T21:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.006
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
       
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Echinococcus spp. in Human Patients and Infected
           Animals
    • Authors: M. Siles-Lucas; A. Casulli; F.J. Conraths; N. Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M. Siles-Lucas, A. Casulli, F.J. Conraths, N. Müller
      Among the species composing the genus Echinococcus, four species are of human clinical interest. The most prevalent species are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, followed by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The first two species cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) respectively. Both diseases have a complex clinical management, in which laboratory diagnosis could be an adjunctive to the imaging techniques. To date, several approaches have been described for the laboratory diagnosis and followup of CE and AE, including antibody, antigen and cytokine detection. All of these approaches are far from being optimal as adjunctive diagnosis particularly for CE, since they do not reach enough sensitivity and/or specificity. A combination of several methods (e.g., antibody and antigen detection) or of several (recombinant) antigens could improve the performance of the adjunctive laboratory methods, although the complexity of echinococcosis and heterogeneity of clinical cases make necessary a deep understanding of the host–parasite relationships and the parasite phenotype at different developmental stages to reach the best diagnostic tool and to make it accepted in clinical practice. Standardization approaches and a deep understanding of the performance of each of the available antigens in the diagnosis of echinococcosis for the different clinical pictures are also needed. The detection of the parasite in definitive hosts is also reviewed in this chapter. Finally, the different methods for the detection of parasite DNA in different analytes and matrices are also reviewed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T09:32:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.003
       
  • Echinococcosis: Control and Prevention
    • Authors: P.S. Craig; D. Hegglin; M.W. Lightowlers; P. Torgerson; Q. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): P.S. Craig, D. Hegglin, M.W. Lightowlers, P. Torgerson, Q. Wang
      Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia. Better understanding of wildlife ecology for fox and small mammal hosts has enabled targeted anthelmintic baiting of fox populations and development of spatially explicit models to predict population dynamics for key intermediate host species and human AE risk in endemic landscapes. Challenges that remain for echinococcosis control include effective intervention in resource-poor communities, better availability of surveillance tools, optimal application of livestock vaccination, and management and ecology of dog and wildlife host populations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T01:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.002
       
  • Chagas Disease Diagnostic Applications: Present Knowledge and Future Steps
    • Authors: V. Balouz; F. Agüero; C.A. Buscaglia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): V. Balouz, F. Agüero, C.A. Buscaglia
      Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a lifelong and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research. The expectation is that these novel biomarkers will provide reliable, reproducible and accurate results irrespective of the genetic background, infecting parasite strain, stage of disease, and clinical-associated features of Chagasic populations. In addition, they should be able to address other still unmet diagnostic needs, including early detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission, rapid assessment of treatment efficiency or failure, indication/prediction of disease progression and direct parasite typification in clinical samples. The lack of access of poor and neglected populations to essential diagnostics also stresses the necessity of developing new methods operational in point-of-care settings. In summary, emergent diagnostic tests integrating these novel and tailored tools should provide a significant impact on the effectiveness of current intervention schemes and on the clinical management of Chagasic patients. In this chapter, we discuss the present knowledge and possible future steps in Chagas disease diagnostic applications, as well as the opportunity provided by recent advances in high-throughput methods for biomarker discovery.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T21:53:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.10.001
       
  • Targeting the Parasite to Suppress Malaria Transmission
    • Authors: R.E. Sinden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): R.E. Sinden
      This article attempts to draw together current knowledge on the biology of Plasmodium and experience gained from past control campaigns to interpret and guide current efforts to discover and develop exciting new strategies targeting the parasite with the objective of interrupting transmission. Particular note is made of the advantages of targeting often unappreciated small, yet vital, bottleneck populations to enhance both the impact and the useful lifetime of hard-won interventions. A case is made for the standardization of methods to measure transmission blockade to permit the rational comparison of how diverse interventions (drugs, vaccines, insecticides, Genetically Modified technologies) targeting disparate aspects of parasite biology may impact upon the commonly used parameter of parasite prevalence in the human population.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T20:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.004
       
  • Immunology of Alveolar and Cystic Echinococcosis (AE and CE)
    • Authors: B. Gottstein; P. Soboslay; E. Ortona; J. Wang; A. Siracusano; D.Α. Vuitton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): B. Gottstein, P. Soboslay, E. Ortona, J. Wang, A. Siracusano, D.Α. Vuitton
      Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs). A better understanding of this complex parasite–host relationship, and the elucidation of specific crucial events that lead to disease, represents targets towards the development of novel treatment strategies and options.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T11:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.005
       
  • Is Predominant Clonal Evolution a Common Evolutionary Adaptation to
           Parasitism in Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, and Viruses?
           
    • Authors: M. Tibayrenc; F.J. Ayala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M. Tibayrenc, F.J. Ayala
      We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange (‘near-clades’), (3) the existence of a “clonality threshold”, beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge. We hypothesize that the PCE features are not mainly due to natural selection but also chiefly originate from in-built genetic properties of pathogens. We show that the PCE model obtains even in microbes that have been considered as ‘highly recombining’, such as Neisseria meningitidis, and that some clonality features are observed even in Plasmodium, which has been long described as panmictic. Lastly, we provide evidence that PCE features are also observed in viruses, taking into account their extremely fast genetic turnover. The PCE model provides a convenient population genetic framework for any kind of micropathogen. It makes it possible to describe convenient units of analysis (clones and near-clades) for all applied studies. Due to PCE features, these units of analysis are stable in space and time, and clearly delimited. The PCE model opens up the possibility of revisiting the problem of species definition in these organisms. We hypothesize that PCE constitutes a major evolutionary strategy for protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses to adapt to parasitism.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T11:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.08.007
       
  • The Compatibility Between Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Schistosoma
           mansoni: An Increasingly Complex Puzzle
    • Authors: G. Mitta; B. Gourbal; C. Grunau; M. Knight; J.M. Bridger; A. Théron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): G. Mitta, B. Gourbal, C. Grunau, M. Knight, J.M. Bridger, A. Théron
      This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a “matching hypothesis” between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other. Because these genes are involved in a coevolutionary arms race, we also propose that the underlying mechanisms can vary. Finally, some recent results show that environmental factors could influence compatibility. Together, these results make the compatibility between B. glabrata and S. mansoni an increasingly complex puzzle. We need to develop more integrative approaches in order to find targets that could potentially be manipulated to control the transmission of schistosomiasis.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T23:38:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.08.006
       
  • Host–Parasite Relationships and Life Histories of Trypanosomes in
           Australia
    • Authors: C. Cooper; P.L. Clode; C. Peacock; R.C.A. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): C. Cooper, P.L. Clode, C. Peacock, R.C.A. Thompson
      Trypanosomes constitute a group of flagellate protozoan parasites responsible for a number of important, yet neglected, diseases in both humans and livestock. The most significantly studied include the causative agents of African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans. Much of our knowledge about trypanosome host–parasite relationships and life histories has come from these two human pathogens. Recent investigations into the diversity and life histories of wildlife trypanosomes in Australia highlight that there exists a great degree of biological and behavioural variation within and between trypanosomes. In addition, the genetic relationships between some Australian trypanosomes show that they are unexpectedly more closely related to species outside Australia than within it. These findings have led to a growing focus on the importance of understanding parasites occurring naturally in wildlife to (1) better document parasite biodiversity, (2) determine evolutionary relationships and degree of host specificity, (3) understand host–parasite interactions and the role of parasites in the natural ecosystem and (4) identify biosecurity issues of emerging disease in both wildlife and human populations. Here we review what is known about the diversity, life histories, host–parasite interactions and evolutionary relationships of trypanosomes in Australian wildlife. In this context, we focus upon the genetic proximity of key Australian species to the pathogenic T. cruzi and discuss similarities in their biology and behaviour that present a potential risk of human disease transmission by Australian vectors and wildlife.

      PubDate: 2016-08-01T14:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.06.001
       
 
 
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