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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3044 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3044 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
  [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1569-2566
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Transcription factor genes in type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      Researchers in diabetes genetics first became aware of the importance of transcription factor genes in 1996, when two seminal papers described mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α and HNF4α as causes of the beta-cell disorder, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Since then, mutations in the HNF1β, insulin promoter factor (IPF)1 and NeuroD genes, have been described as causes of MODY. Rare mutations in the transcription factor peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor γ (PPARG) have been described as a cause of diabetes associated with severe insulin resistance. Recently researchers have described the importance of common variation in these genes in type 2 diabetes risk. Here, we review the evidence for common variants of transcription factor genes predisposing to type 2 diabetes. We briefly summarise the evidence for the role of the Pro12Ala variant of PPARG in type 2 diabetes and related disorders, as this has been the subject of extensive previous reviews. The evidence that subjects carrying at least one copy of the Ala allele are at reduced risk of type 2 diabetes has now gone beyond the stringent levels of significance required for genetic association studies. Of the MODY transcription factor genes that have been extensively analysed, there is strong evidence that variants of HNF1 α and HNF4 α predispose to type 2 diabetes. We conclude that further, comprehensive analyses are needed of all transcription factor genes where rare mutations cause a Mendelian disorder related to type 2 diabetes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 2 PPARγ, a key therapeutic target in the metabolic syndrome –
           unique insights derived from the study of human genetic variants
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      Diabetes is one of the most serious health issues facing developed countries today. In the UK it accounts for around 5% of all National Health Service (NHS) spending (∼£10 million/day) and is a leading cause of heart disease, stroke, blindness, amputation and kidney failure. The majority (∼90%) of these cases are type 2 in origin, reflecting a trend towards obesity and more sedentary lifestyles as the ‘norm’ rather than exception in western society. The development of insulin resistance is a critical step in the evolution of this disorder and, accordingly, improving insulin sensitivity, and thereby ameliorating excess vascular risk, is a primary goal for those concerned with its treatment. Recent interest has focussed on a novel class of antidiabetic agent, the thiazolidinediones which act as insulin sensitizers, thus targeting the underlying metabolic disturbance. These compounds are high affinity ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and a significant body of in vitro and in vivo data exists to support their increasing therapeutic use. Importantly, clinical and laboratory observations made in human subjects harbouring genetic variations in PPARγ have confirmed its pivotal role in the regulation of adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis, with evidence also emerging to indicate important contributions to lipid metabolism and control of blood pressure. It is not surprising then that this receptor has emerged as a key therapeutic target in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Indeed the ‘race is on’ to identify the next generation of PPARγ modulators, agents that will promote maximal therapeutic benefit by targeting specific facets of the metabolic syndrome (glucose intolerance/diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension), while simultaneously avoiding undesirable side effects of PPARγ activation (e.g. weight gain and fluid retention).

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 3 PPARδ: Emerging therapeutic potential of novel agonists in
           lipid and glucose homeostasis
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Liver X receptors as potential drug targets for diabetes and its
           disorders
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      The liver X receptors (LXR) are a subclass of nuclear receptors (NRs), which are activated by specific oxysterols. These receptors have recently gained much attention as a potential drug target for diseases affecting metabolic processes, such as diabetes and its associated disorders. When oxysterols were identified as activators of the LXRs these NRs were suggested to play an important role as sensors of cholesterol metabolism. Huge research efforts were put into investigating the LXRs and their involvement in various metabolic processes revealing that the LXRs also play important roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, triglyceride biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation. Dysregulation or dysfunction of one or more of these biological processes is often the cause or a consequence of developing diabetes. Several studies also reported cross-talk between LXR signaling and other NRs including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) which are also important regulators of metabolic processes. Hence, developing drugs that target LXR might provide new therapeutic interventions against several metabolic disorders. This chapter focuses on the physiological roles of the LXRs, particularly in carbohydrate-, lipid- and cholesterol metabolism, atherosclerosis and subsequent development of cardiovascular disease and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Particular attention will be paid to why these NRs are such highly attractive drug targets for the treatment of diabetes and its associated metabolic disorders.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 5 SREBP-1c regulation of nutrient homeostasis and lipid
           accumulation
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      The regulation of metabolism involves short-term regulation of enzymes and transporters as well as changes in the transcription rate of their genes. In the last decade, the transcription factor Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c has emerged as a major protein involved not only in the regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, muscle and pancreatic β-cells. SREBP-1c is synthetized as a precursor bound to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Its mature, transcriptionally active nuclear form is released from this precursor by a proteolytic cleavage process, regulated in part by insulin and cholesterol. SREBP isoforms, SREBP-2 and -1a, are involved in the regulation of genes in the pathway of cholesterol metabolism. In contrast, SREBP-1c transduces the effects of insulin on gene expression and thus favors glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis, as well as lipid synthesis from glucose and triglyceride storage into adipocytes (SREBP-1c is also a transcription factor favoring adipocyte differentiation). Insulin not only stimulates the expression of the SREBP-1c gene, but activates also its cleavage into its nuclear mature form. Changes in SREBP-1c expression as well as polymorphisms in the gene have been associated with a number of pathologies linked to lipotoxicity, such as hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Due to its anabolic effect on genes involved in glucose and lipid storage, SREBP-1c can be considered as a thrifty gene.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 6 The adipocyte and adipose tissue as endocrine organs: Impact on
           the insulin resistance phenotype
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      Adipose tissue (AT) is an essential metabolic tissue, important for both its role in lipid storage and mobilization. While long considered an inert tissue providing a site for passive fat accumulation, insulation against heat loss and mechanical and/or structural support, newly recognized endocrine, paracrine and autocrine activities of AT have forced a re-evaluation of this static view of AT biology. The effects of factors secreted from AT, termed adipokines, increase the impact of AT on multiple processes in other tissues. Importantly, the role of excess adiposity and alterations in adipokine production and secretion in the development of diabetes, cardiovascular and liver disease necessitates a better understanding of AT biology in general and factors influencing its expansion specifically. The formation and metabolism of AT, as well as the production of adipokines are under multiple forms of regulation. At the transcriptional level peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor peroxisome gamma (PPARγ) plays a key role. These factors will be discussed with particular emphasis on human data and the mechanisms for insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 7 FOXC2 in the adipocyte
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      The adipocyte is equipped to handle fatty acids and its potentially toxic metabolites, enabling efficient use of triglycerides (TGs) as the major vehicle for storing superfluous energy. For the first time in history, large human populations are subjected to a wealth of cheap, accessible and palatable calories. This has created a large-scale situation not previously encountered, in which the capacity to store TGs in adipocytes is an important determinant of human health. Too few adipocytes (e.g., lipodystrophia) or a situation in which all adipocytes are filled, to their maximum capacity (e.g., severe obesity), will create very similar and unfavorable metabolic situations in which ectopic TG stores will appear in tissues like liver and muscle – a situation in which the adipocyte has lost its fat-storing monopoly [1]. This chapter sets out to discuss the role of the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 as a regulator of adipocyte metabolism emphasizing on its capacity to protect against diet-induced insulin resistance and possibly overt type 2 diabetes through enhancing dissipation of energy, and thus maintaining ample TG storage capacity in adipose tissue.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and metabolism by Wnt
           signaling and C/EBP transcription factors
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 9 GATA proteins as molecular gatekeepers of adipogenesis
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Forkhead proteins and the regulation of hepatic gene expression
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      The FoxO proteins belong to a subfamily of forkhead transcription factors, which all have the so-called ‘winged-helix’ like DNA-binding structure in common. The FoxO-proteins in mammals are homologues of Daf-16 in Caenorrhabditis elegans. Based on genetic studies, Daf-16 was initially identified as a factor that is involved in the regulation of the life span of the organism and that is regulated by an insulin-like signaling cascade in C. elegans. In mammals, three major insulin-regulated Daf-16 homologues FoxO-family transcription factors have been identified so far: FoxO1 (FKHR), FoxO3a (FKHRL1), and FoxO4 (AFX). In addition to the N-terminal ‘winged-helix-domain’, these three FoxO-proteins share several structural and functional characteristics. All of them have a C-terminal transactivation domain, a nuclear localization signal (NLS), a nuclear exclusion sequence (NES), and three RxRxxS/T consensus sites for phosphorylation by protein kinase B (PKB), a serine-/threonine kinase, which is activated after stimulation of cells with insulin and other growth factors. Phosphorylation of FoxO-proteins by PKB results in transcriptional inactivation and nuclear exclusion. Initially, the FoxO-transcription factors were thought to bind to the so-called insulin-responsive structures (IRS; (C/G)(A/T)AAA(C/A)A) that are typically present in the promoters of several insulin-regulated genes playing an important role in fuel metabolism, e.g. the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6 Pase). However, FoxO-proteins have pleiotropic biological functions serving as a crossroad to a variety of signaling pathways. Here, we will summarize the role of FoxO-proteins in hepatic gene expression and metabolism.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 11 Disruption of CREB regulated of gene expression in diabetes
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      Cardiovascular disease it is the leading cause of death in diabetes. In light of this, diabetes has recently been named and a cardiovascular disease equivalent. The molecular mechanisms that place persons with diabetes at excess vascular risk are numerous, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. These different factors place the diabetic vasculature in a state of chronic metabolic stress and this stress leads to vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has focused on gaining a better understanding of the impact of diabetes and insulin resistance (IR) upon vascular smooth muscle cell gene regulation. Specifically, we have observed that the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is critical for the maintenance of healthy quiescent (contractile and non-proliferative) vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. In rodent models of diabetes and IR there is decreased expression of CREB protein in the vasculature. Loss of vascular CREB expression is associated with simultaneous increased expression of pro-atherogenic transcriptional regulators, such as NF-kB and C/EBP delta (CCAAT enhancer binding protein). This imbalance promotes SMC activation (proliferation, migration, matrix production and apoptosis) and may be important for excess vascular disease in diabetes. The evidence for CREB regulation of SMC function and its disruption in models of diabetes and atherosclerosis will be discussed in this chapter. In addition to macrovascular disease, many other target organs are injured by the metabolic stress of diabetes including pancreatic beta cells (which contribute to disease progression) and cardiac and neuronal cells (which contribute to complications). We have identified a pattern of changes in gene regulation, loss of CREB function and augmentation of stress induced gene expression, that may contribute to the multi-organ dysfunction observed in diabetes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Regulation of PGC-1 in humans with insulin resistance and type
           2 diabetes: Functional implications
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      The PGC-1 family of coactivator genes has emerged as attractive candidates for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) diabetes for several reasons: (1) they play a central role in regulating expression of genes critical for maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and oxidative metabolism in key target tissues, and (2) expression of PGC-1 and mitochondrial oxidative genes is reduced in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue from humans with diabetes and “prediabetes.” In turn, this expression phenotype may be linked to both primary sequence alterations and environmental risk factors for diabetes, including overnutrition, obesity, and inactivity. We postulate that in genetically susceptible individuals, the development of obesity and decreased aerobic capacity due to inactivity may act in concert to reduce PGC-1 expression, contributing to impaired oxidative metabolism and accumulation of lipid in key insulin target tissues, thus increasing diabetes risk. In this chapter, we review the data supporting a potential role for PGC-1 family members as integrators between genetic and environmental risk factors at a molecular level and thus contributors to pathogenesis of T2DM.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 13 Hepatic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ): engineer
           of diabetes, obesity, and inflammatory disease processes
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 14 Insulin resistance, inflammation, and the
           IKK/IκB/NF-κB pathway
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 5

      Insulin resistance is a characteristic of human obesity, and a primary risk factor for the development of type II diabetes (T2DM). However, despite tremendous effort and great progress in a number of areas of research, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obesity remain poorly understood. In short, defects in insulin signaling, alterations in the expression and/or activity of a variety of adipokines and cytokines, dyslipidemia/dysregulated lipid metabolism, and most recently, increased intracellular stress and activation of inflammatory pathways have each been implicated as important contributory mechanisms in insulin resistance. In all likelihood it is the interplay of these factors, combined with genetic predisposition and environmental influences that results in the full metabolic manifestation of insulin resistance. This chapter accentuates a bias and recent progress in one area of research that implicates increased activity of the pro-inflammatory IKK/IκB/NF-κB (NF-κB) pathway in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. The purpose of the chapter is to (i) review seminal studies addressing the potential role of increased activity of the NF-κB pathway in decreasing insulin action; (ii) discuss the potential relevance of these studies to human obesity; (iii) address putative mechanisms of activation of the NF-κB pathway in obesity and how activation of the NF-κB activity may reduce insulin action; and (iv) briefly discuss the potential of targeting activity of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of insulin resistance. Because of the narrow focus of the subject matter in this chapter, the reader is referred to a number of other excellent studies that address the potential detrimental effects on insulin action of activity of other inflammatory pathways [1], endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress [2], and mitochondrial dysfunction [3,4].

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Gene rearrangements in thyroid cancer
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Molecular markers of thyroid nodules
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Controversies in the use of radioiodine for remnant ablation and
           therapy of thyroid carcinoma
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Thyroglobulin measurements in thyroid cancer evaluation and
           surveillance
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 6 The role of fluoro-deoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission
           tomography (PET) in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Preclinical studies of chemotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid
           carcinoma
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 9 Thyroid neoplasms in children and adolescents
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Molecular aspects of prolactin and growth hormone receptors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Molecular aspects of growth hormone action
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2

      In the past five years, many advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular aspects of GH action. One GH molecule binds to two GH-Rs through two distinct sites on GH, and receptor dimerization is critical for signal transduction. A major subsequent step is the activation of JAK2, which leads to the phosphorylation and activation of several intracellular substrates, including MAP kinases and STATs. The induction of gene transcription by GH can occur through STATs or STAT-like factors, although alternative pathways of gene activation may be mediated by other transcription factors, such as AP-1 and C/EBP. Accessory signal transduction pathways that do not require JAK2 may modulate other biological effects of GH. These pleiomorphic pathways may synergize to produce specific actions of GH.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Leptin
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Cellular mechanisms of signal transduction for growth factors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Tissue-specific expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Molecular aspects of precocious puberty
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Two genes-one disease: The molecular basis of congenital
           nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis: The thyroid
           model
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Molecular aspects of GnRH gene expression
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1

      In this review we have assembled the recent literature concerning the molecular aspects of GnRH gene regulation. Since investigation of the molecular mechanisms of gene expression requires an appropriate cell model system, we have focused on experiments performed in the GT1 hypothalamic neuronal cell line. Important regions of the GnRH gene, including a neuron-specific enhancer region and a proximal promoter, have been determined and proteins that bind to these regions are now being identified. Thus far, GATA transcription factors and the Oct-1 transcription factor are known to bind the GnRH gene. Several other proteins have been detected but their identities are still unknown. Understanding how these proteins are involved in a neuron-specific enhancer will increase both our knowledge of GnRH regulation and the mechanisms underlying tissue specificity in general. Some of these proteins may be targets of the PKC and cGMP-dependent protein kinase signal transduction pathways known to effect GnRH transcription. Thus far agents that affect these pathways have been found to induce secretion of GnRH in the short term, but cause downregulation of the GnRH gene in the long term. It is hoped that by understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying GnRH synthesis, rational treatments for endocrine and reproductive diseases involving GnRH will result.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Molecular aspects of hormone deficiency caused by Pit-1 gene
           mutations
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1

      Pit-1 functions in the development of the GH-secreting somatotrophs, the Prl-secreting lactotrophs, and a population of the TSHß-secreting thyrotrophs. Pit-1 activates GH and Prl gene expression and regulates Prl and TSHß gene expression through binding to sites on these target genes and interacting with a wide number of additional factors. Pit-1 also regulates its own gene expression, although it is not responsible for initial activation of its gene. Naturally occurring murine and human Pit-1 gene mutations have been crucial in elucidating Pit-1 structure-function relationships.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Regulation of growth hormone gene expression
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Molecular aspects of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) genes
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Molecular aspects of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1

      IGF actions are modulated by a family of six proteins, the IGFBPs. This review discussed structural aspects of the proteins and their genes, emphasizing in particular the posttranslational modifications—glycosylation, phosphorylation and proteolysis—which are believed to be important modifiers of IGFBP activity. The IGFBP genes all contain four coding exons, with only the IGFBP-3 gene having a fifth, non-coding exon. Consistent with a relatively conserved gene structure, the proteins themselves, all approximately 20–30 kDa in size, are highly conserved in primary structure, each consisting of three domains: cysteine-rich amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal domains with marked sequence similarity among all of the proteins, and central domains showing no conservation. Putative sites of N-linked glycosylation (three in IGFBP-3, and one in IGFBP-4 and -6) occur in this region, and appear occupied by carbohydrate in IGFBP-3 and -4, whereas IGFBP-1, -5, and -6 have varying amounts of O-linked carbohydrate. All of the IGFBPs bind both IGF-I and IGF-II, with IGFBP-6 having an outstanding preferential affinity for IGF-II. IGFBP-3, alone among the IGFBPs, binds to another ligand, the 85 kDa, leucine-rich acid-labile subunit, with which it forms a ternary complex, together with IGF-I or IGF-II, in the circulation. Certain of the IGFBPs can associate with cell surfaces or matrix, in the case of IGFBP-1 and -2, via an Arg-Gly-Asp motif which interacts with receptors of the integrin class, and in the case of IGFBP-3 and -5 via a highly basic motif in their carboxy-terminal domain. IGFBP-1, -3, and -5 can be serine-phosphorylated, resulting in changes in their cell-binding and/or IGF affinity. Finally, limited proteolysis by enzymes of a variety of classes can convert IGFBPs to stable forms of lower molecular weight with reduced IGF-binding affinity. These proteases are postulated to be of major importance in modulating the ways in which IGFBPs affect IGF activity in the cellular environment, and may also be important in determining the bioavailability of circulating IGFs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Molecular basis of insulin action
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1

      During the past several years, we have made enormous progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in insulin receptor signaling. These findings have come about due to the coordinate use of physical, molecular, and cellular biological approaches to the complex issues of intracellular protein-protein interactions, subcellular localization and activation of enzyme activities. Although we have come a long way, we still have a lot to learn before the entire scheme of insulin signaling is established at the molecular level. Presently, there are several pressing issues that need to be resolved in order to determine the basis for the mitogenic and metabolic actions of insulin. For example, one important issue is the molecular basis of receptor signaling specificity. Does this result from the regulation of the signal amplitude (receptor number and/or hormone dose) or from the intrinsic cellular context of a particular receptor. If cell context-dependent, is this due to receptor substrate specificity, site specific phosphorylation, and/or combinational associations within a defined group of effectors. Although some progress is being made examining the potential importance of effector compartmentalization, are the temporal patterns of activation events important' Finally, what are the unidentified factors which may be necessary in the pleiotropic actions of insulin' These issues will only be resolved once each of the biochemical pathways leading to a particular biological response have been defined. We are looking forward to a very exciting future for the elucidation of the molecular basis of insulin action.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Molecular aspects of the glucagon gene
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Molecular aspects of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
    • Abstract: 1997
      Publication year: 1997
      Source:Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:50Z
       
 
 
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