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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 400, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Clinical Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.938]   [H-I: 33]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Human Papillomavirus and Its Testing Assays, Cervical Cancer Screening,
           and Vaccination
    • Authors: Yusheng Zhu; Yun Wang; Julie Hirschhorn; Kerry J. Welsh; Zhen Zhao; Michelle R. Davis; Sarah Feldman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Yusheng Zhu, Yun Wang, Julie Hirschhorn, Kerry J. Welsh, Zhen Zhao, Michelle R. Davis, Sarah Feldman
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found to be the causative agent for cervical cancer in the 1980s with almost 100% of cervical cancer cases testing positive for HPV. Since then, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HPV, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the virus, and the risk factors for HPV infection. Traditionally, the Papanicolaou test was the primary screening method for cervical cancer. Because of the discovery and evolving understanding of the role of HPV in cervical dysplasia, HPV testing has been recommended as a new method for cervical cancer screening by major professional organizations including the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology. In order to detect HPV infections, many sensitive and specific HPV assays have been developed and used clinically. Different HPV assays with various principles have shown their unique advantages and limitations. In response to a clear causative relationship between high-risk HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccines have been developed which utilize virus-like particles to create an antibody response for the prevention of HPV infection. The vaccines have been shown in long-term follow-up studies to be effective for up to 8 years; however, how this may impact screening for vaccinated women remains uncertain. In this chapter, we will review the molecular basis of HPV, its pathogenesis, and the epidemiology of HPV infection and associated cervical cancer, discuss the methods of currently available HPV testing assays as well as recent guidelines for HPV screening, and introduce HPV vaccines as well as their impact on cervical cancer screening and treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T12:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.004
  • Bulky DNA Adducts, Tobacco Smoking, Genetic Susceptibility, and Lung
           Cancer Risk
    • Authors: Armelle Munnia; Roger W. Giese; Simone Polvani; Andrea Galli; Filippo Cellai; Marco E.M. Peluso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Armelle Munnia, Roger W. Giese, Simone Polvani, Andrea Galli, Filippo Cellai, Marco E.M. Peluso
      The generation of bulky DNA adducts consists of conjugates formed between large reactive electrophiles and DNA-binding sites. The term “bulky DNA adducts” comes from early experiments that employed a 32P-DNA postlabeling approach. This technique has long been used to elucidate the association between adducts and carcinogen exposure in tobacco smoke studies and assess the predictive value of adducts in cancer risk. Molecular data showed increased DNA adducts in respiratory tracts of smokers vs nonsmokers. Experimental studies and meta-analysis demonstrated that the relationship between adducts and carcinogens was linear at low doses, but reached steady state at high exposure, possibly due to metabolic and DNA repair pathway saturation and increased apoptosis. Polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair genes can increase the effects of environmental factors and confer greater likelihood of adduct formation. Nevertheless, the central question remains as to whether bulky adducts cause human cancer. If so, lowering them would reduce cancer incidence. Pooled and meta-analysis has shown that smokers with increased adducts have increased risk of lung cancer. Adduct excess in smokers, especially in prospective longitudinal studies, supports their use as biomarkers predictive of lung cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.006
  • Peptide Antibodies in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
    • Authors: Nicole H. Trier; Gunnar Houen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Nicole H. Trier, Gunnar Houen
      Peptide antibodies, with their high specificities and affinities, are invaluable reagents for peptide and protein recognition in biological specimens. Depending on the application and the assay, in which the peptide antibody is to used, several factors influence successful antibody production, including peptide selection and antibody screening. Peptide antibodies have been used in clinical laboratory diagnostics with great success for decades, primarily because they can be produced to multiple targets, recognizing native wildtype proteins, denatured proteins, and newly generated epitopes. Especially mutation-specific peptide antibodies have become important as diagnostic tools in the detection of various cancers. In addition to their use as diagnostic tools in malignant and premalignant conditions, peptide antibodies are applied in all other areas of clinical laboratory diagnostics, including endocrinology, hematology, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and amyloidoses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.002
  • Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Malaria
    • Authors: Z. Zheng; Z. Cheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Z. Zheng, Z. Cheng
      Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by five species of Plasmodium parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria plays an essential part in malaria control. With traditional diagnostic methodologies, malaria control programs have achieved remarkable success during the past decade, and are now heading toward malaria elimination in many areas. This new situation, however, calls for novel diagnostics with improved sensitivity, throughput, and reduced cost for active screening of malaria parasites, as all transfected individuals have to be identified in order to block transmission. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction of malaria, the requirement of diagnostic advances in the age of malaria elimination, and a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation. We also discussed several practical issues for the application of molecular tests in malaria identification.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T00:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.11.006
  • Measurement and Clinical Utility of βCTX in Serum and Plasma
    • Authors: Stephen A.P. Chubb; Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Stephen A.P. Chubb, Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays. βCTX demonstrates significant biological variation due to circadian rhythm and effect of food which can be minimized by standardized sample collection in the fasting state in the morning. While βCTX predicts fracture risk independent of bone mineral density, lack of data has precluded its inclusion in fracture risk calculators. The changes seen in βCTX with antiresorptive therapies have been well characterized and this has led to its widespread use for monitoring therapy in osteoporosis. However, more fracture-based data on appropriate treatment goals for monitoring need to be developed. Evidence is lacking for the use of βCTX in managing “drug holidays” of bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis or risk stratifying those at increased risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. βCTX is useful as an adjunct to imaging techniques for the diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone and for monitoring therapy and detecting recurrence. βCTX also shows promise in the management of metastatic bone disease.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.003
  • Microparticles in Chronic Heart Failure
    • Authors: Alexander E. Berezin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander E. Berezin
      Heart failure (HF) continues to have a sufficient impact on morbidity, mortality, and disability in developed countries. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of the HF development playing a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and metabolic memory phenomenon. Therefore, there is a large body of data clarifying the predictive value of MP numerous in circulation among subjects with HF. Although the determination of MP signature is better than measurement of single MP circulating level, there is not yet close confirmation that immune phenotype of cells produced MPs are important for HF prediction and development. The aim of the chapter is to summarize knowledge regarding the role of various MPs in diagnosis and prognosis of HF. The role of MPs as a delivery vehicle for drugs attenuated cardiac remodeling is considered.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.001
  • Physical Exercise and DNA Injury: Good or Evil?
    • Authors: Elisa Danese; Giuseppe Lippi; Fabian Sanchis-Gomar; Giorgio Brocco; Manfredi Rizzo; Maciej Banach; Martina Montagnana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Giorgio Brocco, Manfredi Rizzo, Maciej Banach, Martina Montagnana
      Regular, low-intensity physical activity is currently advocated for lowering the risk of developing many acute and especially chronic diseases. However, several lines of evidence attest that strenuous exercise may enhance inflammation and trigger the generation of free radical-mediated damage, thus overwhelming the undisputable benefits of regular, medium-intensity physical activity. Since reactive oxygen species are actively generated during high-intensity exercise, and these reactive compounds are known to impact DNA stability, we review here the current evidence about strenuous exercise and DNA injury. Despite the outcome of the various studies cannot be pooled due to considerable variation in design, sample population, outcome, and analytical techniques used to assess DNA damage, it seems reasonable to conclude that medium- to high-volume exercise triggers a certain amount of DNA injury, which appears to be transitory and directly proportional to exercise intensity. This damage, reasonably attributable to direct effect of free radicals on nucleic acids, is efficiently repaired in vivo within 24–72h. Therefore, physical exercise should not bear long-term consequences for athlete's health provided that an appropriate time of recovery between volumes of high-intensity exercise is set. Regular exertion, with a step-by-step increase of exercise load, also seems to be the most safe approach for eluding DNA instability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.005
  • PCR-Based Detection Methods for Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism or
           Mutation: Real-Time PCR and Its Substantial Contribution Toward
           Technological Refinement
    • Authors: Matsuda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): K. Matsuda
      Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and single-nucleotide mutations result from the substitution of only a single base. The SNP or mutation can be relevant to disease susceptibility, pathogenesis of disease, and efficacy of specific drugs. It is important to detect SNPs or mutations clinically. Methods to distinguish/detect SNPs or mutations should be highly specific and sensitive. In this regard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has provided the necessary analytical performance for many molecular analyses. PCR-based methods for SNP/mutation detection are broadly categorized into two types—(1) polymorphic or mutant allele-directed specific analysis using primers matched with substituted nucleotide or using oligonucleotides to block or clamp the nontargeted template, and (2) melting curve analysis, which is combined with the real-time PCR techniques using hydrolysis probes, hybridization probes, or double-stranded DNA-binding fluorescent dyes. Innovative and novel approaches as well as technical improvements have made SNP- or mutation-detection methods increasingly more sophisticated. These advances include DNA/RNA preparation and subsequent amplification steps, and miniaturization of PCR instruments such that testing may be performed with relative ease in clinical laboratories or as a point-of-care test in clinical settings.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T01:01:25Z
  • Advances in Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis
    • Authors: Perakis Auer; Belic Heitzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Perakis, M. Auer, J. Belic, E. Heitzer
      The analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a very promising tool and might revolutionize cancer care with respect to early detection, identification of minimal residual disease, assessment of treatment response, and monitoring tumor evolution. ctDNA analysis, often referred to as “liquid biopsy” offers what tissue biopsies cannot—a continuous monitoring of tumor-specific changes during the entire course of the disease. Owing to technological improvements, efforts for the establishment of preanalytical and analytical benchmark, and the inclusion of ctDNA analyses in clinical trial, an actual clinical implementation has come within easy reach. In this chapter, recent advances of the analysis of ctDNA are summarized starting from the discovery of cell-free DNA, to methodological approaches and the clinical applicability.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
  • Triglycerides Revisited to the Serial
    • Authors: P.R.N. Viecili; Silva G.E. Hirsch F.G. Porto M.M. Parisi A.R.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): P.R.N. Viecili, B. da Silva, G.E. Hirsch, F.G. Porto, M.M. Parisi, A.R. Castanho, M. Wender, J.Z. Klafke
      This review discusses the role of triglycerides (TGs) in the normal cardiovascular system as well as in the development and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular diseases. Regulation of TGs at the enzymatic and genetic level, in addition to their possible relevance as preclinical and clinical biomarkers, is discussed, culminating with a description of available and emerging treatments. Due to the high complexity of the subject and the vast amount of material in the literature, the objective of this review was not to exhaust the subject, but rather to compile the information to facilitate and improve the understanding of those interested in this topic. The main publications on the topic were sought out, especially those from the last 5 years. The data in the literature still give reason to believe that there is room for doubt regarding the use of TG as disease biomarkers; however, there is increasing evidence for the role of hypertriglyceridemia on the atherosclerotic inflammatory process, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
  • Rapid Assessment of Drugs of Abuse
    • Authors: J.R. Wiencek; J.M. Colby; J.H. Nichols
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): J.R. Wiencek, J.M. Colby, J.H. Nichols
      Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.11.003
  • Infections: A Possible Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes
    • Authors: D. Banerjee; S. Chowdhary; S. Chakraborty; R. Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 145 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Chakraborty, R. Bhattacharyya, D. Banerjee
      Diabetes mellitus is one of the biggest challenges to human health globally, with an estimated 95% of the global diabetic population having type 2 diabetes. Classical causes for type 2 diabetes, such as genetics and obesity, do not account for the high incidence of the disease. Recent data suggest that infections may precipitate insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms, such as the proinflammatory cytokine response, the acute-phase response, and the alteration of the nutrient status. Even pathogen products, such as lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycans, can be diabetogenic. Therefore, we argue that infections that are known to contribute to insulin resistance should be considered as risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T22:02:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-801773-9.00011-x
  • Droplet-Based Digital PCR: Application in Cancer Research
    • Authors: G. Perkins; H. Lu; F. Garlan; V. Taly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): G. Perkins, H. Lu, F. Garlan, V. Taly
      The efficient characterization of genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncology, virology, or prenatal diagnostics requires highly sensitive and specific high-throughput approaches. Nevertheless, with the use of conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity were largely limited. By partitioning individual target molecules within distinct compartments, digital PCR (dPCR) could overcome these limitations and detect very rare sequences with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. In dPCR, the sample is diluted such that each individual partition will contain no more than one target sequence. Following the assay reaction, the dPCR process provides an absolute value and analyzable quantitative data. The recent coupling of dPCR with microfluidic systems in commercial platforms should lead to an essential tool for the management of patients with cancer, especially adapted to the analysis of precious samples. Applications in cancer research range from the analysis of tumor heterogeneity to that of a range of body fluids. Droplet-based dPCR is indeed particularly appropriate for the emerging field of liquid biopsy analysis. In this review, following an overview of the development in dPCR technology and different strategies based on the use of microcompartments, we will focus particularly on the applications and latest development of microfluidic droplet-based dPCR in oncology.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T18:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.10.001
  • CTRP1 in Liver Disease
    • Authors: P. Shabani; S. Emamgholipour; M. Doosti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): P. Shabani, S. Emamgholipour, M. Doosti
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease occurs in significant percentage of general population. NAFLD is closely associated with entire spectrum of metabolic-related disorders including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Considering several similar pathways underpinning metabolic disorders, presence of common molecular mediators contributing to pathomechanism of these disorders is expected. Mounting evidence has demonstrated important role of adipokines in the context of NAFLD. Adipokines produced by different tissues, mainly adipose, modulate numerous pathways including glucose and fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. CTRPs (C1q/TNF-related proteins) are a recently identified family of adipokines in which adiponectin is the most well-known ones. CTRP1 is a member of this family which has captured attention in recent years. CTRP1 enhances glucose and fatty acid oxidation, improves insulin sensitivity, attenuates plaque formation, and increases aldosterone production. Hence, various roles in metabolic pathways can link CTRP1 to NAFLD pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T22:01:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.10.002
  • Testing for Chronic Diarrhea
    • Authors: Raman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): M. Raman
      Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis. Investigations to achieve a diagnosis for chronic diarrhea range from screening blood and stool tests to more directed testing such as diagnostic imaging, and endoscopic and histological evaluation. The pathophysiology-based framework proposed in this chapter will allow the clinician to select screening tests followed by targeted tests to minimize cost and complications to the patient, while providing a highly effective method to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T16:02:18Z
  • Rationally Designed Peptide Probes for Extracellular Vesicles
    • Authors: R. Tamura; H. Yin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): R. Tamura, H. Yin
      Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicroscopic lipid vesicles secreted from cells and play significant roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting varieties of cell signaling molecules like proteins, DNA, mRNA, and microRNA. Recent studies showed that EVs are highly correlated with cancer progression and metastasis. However, there are some difficulties in probing each vesicle using popular analytical methods because of their small sizes and heterogeneous origins. These obstacles may be overcome by using a novel approach that senses highly curved membrane and negatively charged membrane lipids. In this chapter, we highlight the basic biological concepts of EVs, isolation, and quantification methods, and recent advent of peptide probes for EVs.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T13:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.09.001
  • Advances in Clinical Mass Spectrometry
    • Authors: French
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): D. French
      Although mass spectrometry has been used clinically for decades, the advent of immunoassay technology moved the clinical laboratory to more labor saving automated platforms requiring little if any sample preparation. It became clear, however, that immunoassays lacked sufficient sensitivity and specificity necessary for measurement of certain analytes or for measurement of analytes in specific patient populations. This limitation prompted clinical laboratories to revisit mass spectrometry which could additionally be used to develop assays for which there was no commercial source. In this chapter, the clinical applications of mass spectrometry in therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology, and steroid hormone analysis will be reviewed. Technologic advances and new clinical applications will also be discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T13:01:00Z
  • Novel Biomarkers of Heart Failure
    • Authors: A. Savic-Radojevic; M. Pljesa-Ercegovac; M. Matic; D. Simic; S. Radovanovic; T. Simic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A. Savic-Radojevic, M. Pljesa-Ercegovac, M. Matic, D. Simic, S. Radovanovic, T. Simic
      Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF. In this review, seven groups of biomarkers associated to myocardial stretch (mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide, MR-proANP), myocyte injury (high-sensitive troponins, hs-cTn; heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, H-FABP; glutathione transferase P1, GSTP1), matrix remodeling (galectin-3; soluble isoform of suppression of tumorigenicity 2, sST2), inflammation (growth differentiation factor-15, GDF-15), renal dysfunction (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL; kidney injury molecule-1, KIM-1), neurohumoral activation (adrenomedullin, MR-proADM; copeptin), and oxidative stress (ceruloplasmin; myeloperoxidase, MPO; 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; thioredoxin 1, Trx1) in HF will be overviewed. It is important to note that clinical value of individual biomarkers within the single time points in both diagnosis and outcome prediction in HF is limited. Hence, the future of biomarker application in HF lies in the multimarker panel strategy, which would include specific combination of biomarkers that reflect different pathophysiological processes underlying HF.

      PubDate: 2016-11-07T10:09:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.09.002
  • Challenges in Laboratory Detection of Unusual Substance Abuse: Issues with
           Magic Mushroom, Peyote Cactus, Khat, and Solvent Abuse
    • Authors: Dasgupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A. Dasgupta
      Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality. Amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassay has a low cross-reactivity with psilocin. Cathinone, if present in the urine, can be detected by amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassay due to cross-reactivity of cathinone with assay antibody. Currently there is one commercially available immunoassay which is capable of detecting synthetic cathinone known as bath salts as well as mescaline. However, gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry as well as liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)-based method is available for confirmation of the active ingredients present in magic mushroom, peyote cactus, and khat plant. Such chromatography-based methods also offer more sensitivity and specificity compared to an immunoassay.

      PubDate: 2016-09-06T05:52:45Z
  • Advances in Cardiac Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome
    • Authors: A.K. Saenger; N. Korpi-Steiner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A.K. Saenger, N. Korpi-Steiner
      Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a pathophysiological spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, all of which have significant morbidity and mortality. ACS was once considered an acute condition; however, new treatment strategies and improvements in biomarker assays have led to ACS being an acute and chronic disease. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and there is considerable interest and efforts toward development and implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays worldwide. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of hs-cTn assays as well as testing limitations are important for laboratorians and clinicians to understand in order to utilize testing appropriately. Furthermore, expanding the clinical utility of hs-cTn into other cohorts such as asymptomatic community dwelling populations, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease populations supports novel opportunities for improved short- and long-term prognosis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T06:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.07.001
  • Vitamin D Testing—Where Are We and What Is on the Horizon'
    • Authors: Heureux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): N. Heureux
      Vitamin D testing is part of laboratory practice since more than 30 years but has become a routine parameter only recently, due to a highly increasing amount of research in the field resulting in new clinical applications. Vitamin D actually represents a family of molecules of which 25OH Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, under their D3 and D2 forms, are the most important to date. Physical detection methods and immunoassays exist for both molecules and are being reviewed and discussed. New developments in the measurement of C3-epi-25OH Vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2 Vitamin D, and free/bioavailable 25OH Vitamin D are also presented. The future of Vitamin D testing is considered based on the evolution of laboratories and based on the scientific research that is currently performed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T06:18:50Z
  • Identification of Genomic Somatic Variants in Cancer: From Discovery to
    • Authors: G.L. Fawcett; A. Karina Eterovic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): G.L. Fawcett, A. Karina Eterovic
      The perfect method to discover and validate actionable somatic variants in cancer has not yet been developed, yet significant progress has been made toward this goal. There have been huge increases in the throughput and cost of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing technologies that have led to the burgeoning possibility of using sequencing data in clinical settings. Discovery of somatic mutations is relatively simple and has been improved recently due to laboratory methods optimization, bioinformatics algorithms development, and the expansion of various databases of population genomic information. Tiered systems of evidence evaluation are currently being used to classify genomic variants for clinicians to more rapidly and accurately determine actionability of these aberrations. These efforts are complicated by the intricacies of communicating sequencing results to physicians and supporting its biological relevance, emphasizing the need for increasing education of clinicians and administrators, and the ongoing development of ethical standards for dealing with incidental results. This chapter will focus on general aspects of DNA and RNA tumor sequencing technologies, data analysis and interpretation, assessment of biological and clinical relevance of genomic aberrations, ethical aspects of germline sequencing, and how these factors impact cancer personalized care.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:26:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.07.006
  • Urine Exosomes: An Emerging Trove of Biomarkers
    • Authors: J.M. Street; E.H. Koritzinsky; D.M. Glispie; R.A. Star; P.S.T. Yuen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): J.M. Street, E.H. Koritzinsky, D.M. Glispie, R.A. Star, P.S.T. Yuen
      Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction. Many prospective urinary exosomal biomarkers have been successfully identified for a variety of kidney or genitourinary tract conditions; detection of systemic conditions may also be possible. Isolation and analysis of exosomes can be achieved by several approaches, although many require specialized equipment or involve lengthy protocols. The need for timely analysis in the clinical setting has driven considerable innovation with several promising options recently emerging. Consensus on exosome isolation, characterization, and normalization procedures would resolve critical clinical translational bottlenecks for existing candidate exosomal biomarkers and provide a template for additional discovery studies.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T11:26:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.07.003
  • Hydrogen Sulfide as a “Double-Faced” Compound: One with Pro-
           and Antioxidant Effect
    • Authors: Olas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): B. Olas
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), like other gasotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO•) and carbon monoxide (CO), acts as a signaling molecule in various biological systems. It may also regulate the oxidative stress observed in several diseases sometimes associated with changes of H2S concentration. This chapter describes the “double face” of hydrogen sulfide as both an antioxidant and a prooxidant in biological systems. One proposed mechanism by which H2S exerts its antioxidative effects is its ability to modulate the concentration of glutathione, which is a very important physiological antioxidant. This chapter discusses the interactions of H2S with various reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, including the superoxide radical anion ( O 2 − • ) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO−), which is produced in a rapid reaction between O 2 − • and NO•.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T05:44:04Z
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Sphingolipids: Applications for Diagnosis of
    • Authors: Asfaw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): L. Kuchař, B. Asfaw, J. Rybová, J. Ledvinová
      In recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become the dominant technology in lipidomic analysis. It is widely used in diagnosis and research of lipid metabolism disorders including those characterized by impairment of lysosomal functions and storage of nondegraded–degraded substrates. These rare diseases, which include sphingolipidoses, have severe and often fatal clinical consequences. Modern MS methods have contributed significantly to achieve a definitive diagnosis, which is essential in clinical practice to begin properly targeted patient care. Here we summarize MS and tandem MS methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of sphingolipids (SL) relative to the diagnostic process for sphingolipidoses and studies focusing on alterations in cell functions due to these disorders. This review covers the following topics: – Overview of the biochemistry of SL under normal and pathological conditions (lysosomal storage disorders, LSD) – Overview of MS and its applications to the analysis of SL: evidence of pathological storage of nondegraded SL in cells and body fluids focused on a laboratory diagnosis of LSD, isoform profiles and deacylated forms of SL as new biomarkers, applications in enzymology and metabolic experiments in living cells using mass-labeled substrates. Tandem MS is sensitive and robust in determining the composition of sphingolipid classes in various biological materials. Its ability to establish SL metabolomic profiles using MS bench-top analyzers, significantly benefits the first stages of a diagnosis as well as metabolic studies of these disorders. It can thus contribute to a better understanding of the biological significance of SL.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
  • Extracellular Vesicles in Molecular Diagnostics: An Overview with a Focus
           on CNS Diseases
    • Authors: B.R. Hirshman; R.T. Kras J.C. Akers B.S. Carter C.C. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): B.R. Hirshman, R.T. Kras, J.C. Akers, B.S. Carter, C.C. Chen
      All known cells continuously release nanoscale lipid membrane-enclosed packets. These packets, termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), bear the signature of their cells of origin. These vesicles can be detected in just about every type of biofluid tested, including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. The majority comes from normal cells, but disease cells also release them. There is a great interest in collecting and analyzing EVs in biofluids as diagnostics for a wide spectrum of central nervous system diseases. Here, we will review the state of central nervous system EV research in terms of molecular diagnostics and biomarkers.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
  • Omics in Reproductive Medicine: Application of Novel Technologies to
           Improve the IVF Success Rate
    • Authors: R.D. Nerenz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): R.D. Nerenz
      Treatment for many infertile couples often consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF) but an estimated 70% of IVF cycles fail to produce a live birth. In an attempt to improve the live birth rate, the vast majority of IVF cycles performed in the United States involve the transfer of multiple embryos, a practice that increases the risk of multiple gestation pregnancy. This is a concern because multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased incidence of maternal and fetal complications and significant cost associated with the care of preterm infants. As the ideal outcome of each IVF cycle is the birth of a single healthy baby, significant effort has focused on identifying embryos with the greatest developmental potential. To date, selection of euploid embryos using comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) is the most promising approach while metabolomic and proteomic assessment of spent culture medium have the potential to noninvasively assess embryo viability. Endometrial gene expression profiling may help determine the optimal time to perform embryo transfer. While CCS has been implemented in some clinics, further development and optimization will be required before analysis of spent culture medium and endometrial gene expression profiling make the transition to clinical use. This review will describe efforts to identify embryos with the greatest potential to result in a healthy, live birth, with a particular emphasis on detection of embryo aneuploidy and metabolic profiling of spent embryo culture medium. Assessment of endometrial receptivity to identify the optimal time to perform embryo transfer will also be discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
  • Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Fu
      Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
  • Overview of Laboratory Testing and Clinical Presentations of Complement
           Deficiencies and Dysregulation
    • Authors: A. Frazer-Abel; L. Sepiashvili; M.M. Mbughuni; M.A.V. Willrich
      Pages: 1 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): A. Frazer-Abel, L. Sepiashvili, M.M. Mbughuni, M.A.V. Willrich
      Historically, complement disorders have been attributed to immunodeficiency associated with severe or frequent infection. More recently, however, complement has been recognized for its role in inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and vision loss. This paradigm shift requires a fundamental change in how complement testing is performed and interpreted. Here, we provide an overview of the complement pathways and summarize recent literature related to hereditary and acquired angioedema, infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and age-related macular degeneration. The impact of complement dysregulation in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and C3 glomerulopathies is also described. The advent of therapeutics such as eculizumab and other complement inhibitors has driven the need to more fully understand complement to facilitate diagnosis and monitoring. In this report, we review analytical methods and discuss challenges for the clinical laboratory in measuring this complex biochemical system.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.06.001
  • Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing for Prenatal Diagnosis
    • Authors: S. Drury; M. Hill; L.S. Chitty
      Pages: 1 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Drury, M. Hill, L.S. Chitty
      Prenatal diagnosis and screening have undergone rapid development in recent years, with advances in molecular technology driving the change. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome as a highly sensitive screening test is now available worldwide through the commercial sector with many countries moving toward implementation into their publically funded maternity systems. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed for definitive diagnosis of some recessive and X-linked conditions, rather than just paternally inherited dominant and de novo conditions. NIPD/T offers pregnant couples greater choice during their pregnancy as these safer methods avoid the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive testing. As the cost of sequencing falls and technology develops further, there may well be potential for whole exome and whole genome sequencing of the unborn fetus using cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. How such assays can or should be implemented into the clinical setting remain an area of significant debate, but it is clear that the progress made to date for safer prenatal testing has been welcomed by expectant couples and their healthcare professionals.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.05.004
  • Autoimmunity in Crohn's Disease—A Putative Stratification Factor of
           the Clinical Phenotype
    • Authors: D. Roggenbuck; D. Reinhold; D.C. Baumgart; P. Schierack; K. Conrad; M.W. Laass
      Pages: 77 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): D. Roggenbuck, D. Reinhold, D.C. Baumgart, P. Schierack, K. Conrad, M.W. Laass
      Inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been linked to a loss of tolerance to self-antigens suggesting the existence of autoantibodies in specific disease phenotypes. However, the lack of clearly defined autoantigenic targets has slowed down research. Genome-wide association studies have identified an impressive number of immune-related susceptibility loci for IBD with no clearly discernible pattern among them. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that innate immune responses to a low-diversity and impaired gut microbiota may be of key importance in initiating and perpetuating chronic inflammation in IBD. Increasing evidence suggests that reduced microbial diversity and microbial–mucosal epithelium interaction (including adhesion and clearance) are critically involved in IBD pathogenesis. Along these lines the discovery of autoantigenic targets in Crohn's disease (CD) has refocused research in IBD on the possible role of autoimmune responses. The identification of the major zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) as an autoantigen in CD patients and its proposed role in the sensing of the microbiota lends credence to this trend. Loss of tolerance to GP2 occurs in up to 40% of patients with CD. Corresponding autoantibodies appear to be associated with distinct disease courses (types or phenotypes) in CD. Here, we critically review autoantibodies in CD for their impact on clinical practice and future IBD research. The immunomodulatory role of GP2 in innate and adaptive intestinal immunity is also discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.06.002
  • Critical Care Glucose Point-of-Care Testing
    • Authors: S.N. Narla; M. Jones; K.L. Hermayer; Y. Zhu
      Pages: 97 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): S.N. Narla, M. Jones, K.L. Hermayer, Y. Zhu
      Maintaining blood glucose concentration within an acceptable range is a goal for patients with diabetes mellitus. Point-of-care glucose meters initially designed for home self-monitoring in patients with diabetes have been widely used in the hospital settings because of ease of use and quick reporting of blood glucose information. They are not only utilized for the general inpatient population but also for critically ill patients. Many factors affect the accuracy of point-of-care glucose testing, particularly in critical care settings. Inaccurate blood glucose information can result in unsafe insulin delivery which causes poor glucose control and can be fatal. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the limitations of point-of-care glucose testing. This chapter will first introduce glucose regulation in diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia in the intensive care unit, importance of glucose control in critical care patients, and pathophysiological variables of critically ill patients that affect the accuracy of point-of-care glucose testing. Then, we will discuss currently available point-of-care glucose meters and preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical sources of variation and error in point-of-care glucose testing.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.05.002
  • Monitoring Oxygen Status
    • Authors: J.G. Toffaletti; C.R. Rackley
      Pages: 103 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): J.G. Toffaletti, C.R. Rackley
      Although part of a common “blood gas” test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives. Because oxygen concentrations in blood are extremely labile, there are several highly important preanalytical practices necessary to prevent errors in oxygen and cooximetry results. Effective utilization of oxygen requires binding by hemoglobin in the lungs, transport in the blood, and release to tissues, where cellular respiration occurs. Hydrogen ion (pH), CO2, temperature, and 2,3-DPG all play important roles in these processes. Additional measurements and calculations are often used to interpret and locate the cause and source of an oxygen deficit. These include the Hb concentration, Alveolar–arterial pO2 gradient, pO2:FIO2 ratio, oxygenation index, O2 content and O2 delivery, and pulmonary dead space and intrapulmonary shunting. The causes of hypoxemia will be covered and, to illustrate how the oxygen parameters are used clinically in the diagnosis and management of patients with abnormal oxygenation, two clinical cases will be presented and described.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T22:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.06.003
  • Microvesicles in Autoimmune Diseases
    • Authors: M.-L. Liu; K.J. Williams; V.P. Werth
      Pages: 125 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): M.-L. Liu, K.J. Williams, V.P. Werth
      During apoptosis or activation, cells can release a subcellular structure, called a membrane microvesicle (also known as microparticle) into the extracellular environment. Microvesicles bud-off as a portion of cell membrane with its associated proteins and lipids surrounding a cytosolic core that contains intracellular proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, siRNA, microRNA, lncRNA). Biologically active molecules on the microvesicle surface and encapsulated within can act on recipient cells as a novel mode of intercellular communication. Apoptosis has long been known to be involved in the development of diseases of autoimmunity. Abnormally persistent microvesicles, particularly apoptotic microvesicles, can accelerate autoimmune responses locally in specific organs and tissues as well as systemically. In this review, we focus on studies implicating microvesicles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and their complications.

      PubDate: 2016-07-18T07:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.06.005
  • Advances in Blood Typing
    • Authors: N. Quraishy; S. Sapatnekar
      Pages: 221 - 269
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): N. Quraishy, S. Sapatnekar
      The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T00:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2016.06.006
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