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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 377, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 349, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Advances in Botanical Research
  [SJR: 0.619]   [H-I: 48]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2296
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Chapter Four Regulating Safety of Novel Food and Genetically Modified
    • Authors: Andrew Bartholomaeus
      Pages: 89 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86
      Author(s): Andrew Bartholomaeus
      The principle of proportionality, embodying concepts of fairness, equity, and consistency, is fundamental to human rights, national and international law, and subordinate regulation. This principle, in theory, provides some limits on the potential unintended consequences that may result from disproportionate regulatory burdens distorting individual and corporate behaviour, the consequences of which may exceed the real or imagined harms the original regulations were intended to prevent. Current regulatory burdens applied in a number of jurisdictions on recombinant DNA technology and the new biotechnologies, however, as opposed to other less precise mechanisms of gene alteration in common use, are applied discriminately, are disproportionate to the known (lack of) plausible food safety risks, are ignorant of the broader knowledge of natural plant genome plasticity, and are consequently ethically highly questionable at best. Although major corporations developing GM crops are arguably beneficiaries of the reduced competition resulting from disproportionate regulatory burdens and their associated costs, this comes at the substantial detriment both to the respective jurisdictions and to developing economies seeking to improve the welfare of disadvantaged communities through the use of advanced plant breeding technologies. Disproportionate regulation of GMOs is consequently risk generating rather than risk mitigating and is contrary to the intent of the precautionary principle. The key principles underlying rational, ethical, risk proportionate regulation of new plant varieties developed by any technique, conventional or otherwise, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:10:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
  • Chapter Eight Genome Editing in Agricultural Biotechnology
    • Authors: Maxence Pfeiffer; Francis Quétier; Agnès Ricroch
      Pages: 245 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86
      Author(s): Maxence Pfeiffer, Francis Quétier, Agnès Ricroch
      Genome editing with engineered nucleases represents a specific and efficient tool to generate useful novel phenotypes in crops with an economic interest by base additions, deletions, gene replacement or transgene insertion. These techniques generate phenotypic variation in plants that can be indistinguishable from those obtained through natural means or conventional mutagenesis. The rapid development of these new techniques of plant breeding leads to several issues concerning the regulatory status of plants edited by engineered nucleases. This chapter aims at providing some keys to answer these issues. The intellectual property and legislation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in several countries including European Union and major countries such as the USA, China, Brazil, Argentina and India are discussed. A scientific description of these new editing techniques and of recently edited plants is included. From a technical point of view, edited plants should only be considered as GMOs in the current EU legislation of GMO in the case of transgene insertion, while the best regulatory issue might be a product-based approach.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:10:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
  • Chapter Five Evolution of the Plastid Genomes in Diatoms
    • Authors: Mengjie Yu; Matt P. Ashworth; Nahid H. Hajrah; Mohammad A. Khiyami; Mumdooh J. Sabir; Alawiah M. Alhebshi; Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki; Jamal S.M. Sabir; Edward C. Theriot; Robert K. Jansen
      Pages: 129 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85
      Author(s): Mengjie Yu, Matt P. Ashworth, Nahid H. Hajrah, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Alawiah M. Alhebshi, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Jamal S.M. Sabir, Edward C. Theriot, Robert K. Jansen
      Diatoms are a monophyletic group of eukaryotic, single-celled heterokont algae. Despite years of phylogenetic research, relationships among major groups of diatoms remain uncertain. Here we assess diatom phylogenetic relationships using the plastid genome (plastome). The 22 previously published diatom plastomes showed variable genome size, gene content and extensive rearrangement. We report another 18 diatom plastome sequences ranging in size from 119,120 to 201,816bp. Plagiogramma staurophorum had the largest plastome sequenced so far due to large inverted repeats and a 2971bp group II intron insertion in petD. The previously reported loss of psaE, psaI and psaM genes in Rhizosolenia imbricata also occurred in the closely related species Rhizosolenia fallax. In the largest genome-scale phylogeny yet published for diatoms based on 103 shared plastid-coding genes from 40 diatoms and Triparma laevis as the outgroup, Leptocylindrus was recovered as sister to the remaining diatoms and the clade of Attheya plus Biddulphia was recovered as sister to pennate diatoms, strongly rejecting monophyly of two of the three proposed classes of diatoms. Our study also revealed extensive gene loss and a strong positive correlation between sequence divergence and gene order change in diatom plastomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:10:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2018)
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:10:20Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:10:20Z
  • Epigenetics, Epigenomics and Crop Improvement
    • Authors: Aliki Kapazoglou; Ioannis Ganopoulos; Eleni Tani; Athanasios Tsaftaris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Aliki Kapazoglou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Eleni Tani, Athanasios Tsaftaris
      Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in chromatin architecture that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence but profoundly affect gene expression and impact cellular function. Epigenetic regulation is attained by specific mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and the action of noncoding (nc) RNAs which lead to open or closed chromatin states associated with gene activation or gene silencing, respectively. Over the past two decades extensive investigations have provided a wealth of information on epigenetic regulation at specific loci both in model and crop plants and the effect it may have on various aspects of plant development such as proper vegetative growth, successful reproduction and viability, effects on yield, and efficiency in coping with stress. In recent years, the rapid progress of high-throughput technologies has led to the unveiling of epigenetic landscapes at genome-wide scale (epigenomes) exemplified by the deciphering of the full methylomes, at single base resolution, of the model plant Arabidopsis and crop plants such as rice and tomato. An increasing number of epigenomes are now being investigated on crops of high economic value. Transgenerational natural or induced epigenetic variation can be a new source of phenotypic diversity especially for species with low genetic variation. The comparison of different epigenomes arising from different genotypes/tissues/cell types/environmental conditions can offer valuable information for the development of biomarkers paving the way to what is nowadays termed plant epibreeding. This review will attempt a comprehensive presentation of the progress in plant epigenetics both at small scale (single locus) and large scale (epigenome-wide) during development and in response to environmental stress, focusing on agronomically important crops and the impact that epigenetics, epigenomics and the new emerging field of epibreeding may have on crop improvement.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.007
  • Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants: Colombia as a Case Study
    • Authors: Julián Mora-Oberlaender; Adriana Castaño Hernández; Silvio Alejandro López-Pazos; Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Julián Mora-Oberlaender, Adriana Castaño Hernández, Silvio Alejandro López-Pazos, Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.005
  • Assessing the Environmental Safety of Transgenic Plants: Honey Bees as a
           Case Study
    • Authors: Agnès Ricroch; Serife Akkoyunlu; Jacqueline Martin-Laffon; Marcel Kuntz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Agnès Ricroch, Serife Akkoyunlu, Jacqueline Martin-Laffon, Marcel Kuntz
      Bees play an important role in the pollination of a wide range of plants and are likely to encounter genetically engineered crops (often termed “genetically modified” or “GM”) during their foraging period, especially insect-resistant crops since these crops have been cultivated worldwide. Thus, it is important to assess potential impacts of these crops on the nontarget organism honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), the most important pollinator species worldwide. In the present study, we gathered all scientific data related to the effects of insect-resistant GM crops (mostly corn and cotton, and also oilseed rape, rice, soybean, and wheat) on honey bees. Assessments included feeding honey bees with purified insecticidal toxins or transgenic pollen collected from GM crops producing such toxins, namely protease inhibitors (PIs), Cry or VIP toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis. RNAi-producing and herbicide-tolerant crops were also included. A total of 64 peer-reviewed studies have been published between 1994 and 2017. We also compiled 18 studies submitted to and examined by the US EPA between 1993 and 2002. Our analyses converge to the conclusion that the studied Cry proteins, RNAi or herbicide-tolerance proteins do not negatively affect the survival of honey bees and have no potential sublethal effect in controlled laboratory conditions or in field/semifield trials. The risk of PI will mainly depend on their concentration in pollen and need to be assessed case by case.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.004
  • Comparative Plastid Genomics of Glaucophytes
    • Authors: Adrian Reyes-Prieto; Sarah Russell Francisco Figueroa-Martinez Christopher Jackson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Adrian Reyes-Prieto, Sarah Russell, Francisco Figueroa-Martinez, Christopher Jackson
      Diverse studies of plastid data suggest that the photosynthetic organelles of red algae, viridiplants, and glaucophytes, the three lineages comprising the Archaeplastida supergroup, share a common ancestor. Glaucophyte plastids are unique among archaeplastidians due to the presence of a vestigial peptidoglycan wall and the accumulation of RuBisCO in the stroma that resembles cyanobacterial carboxysomes. These ancestral traits, typically observed in cyanobacteria, have led to suggestions that glaucophytes are the earliest branching Archaeplastida lineage. Plastid phylogenomic surveys recover Glaucophyta as the earliest-diverging branch, but tree topology tests have not rejected the placement of red algae or viridiplants as the first splitting group. Resolving the branching history of the primary plastids might rely on both the implementation of phylogenetic methods that cope better with systematic errors and further expansion of the taxonomic sampling. The paucity of the Glaucophyta genome data has been a limitation when contrasting different hypotheses about the diversification of the Archaeplastida. The plastome of Cyanophora paradoxa was the only available from Glaucophyta for almost 20 years, until recently when plastomes of Glaucocystis, Cyanoptyche, and Gloeochaete and other Cyanophora species were sequenced. Comparative analyses show that the plastid gene repertoire of glaucophytes is highly conserved, and that the size and gene content of their plastomes do not differ drastically from those of other archaeplastidians. In fact, in terms of gene content, red algal plastomes are likely more similar to the repertoire of the ancestral primary plastid. Studies of plastomes have expanded our perspective about the diversity within Glaucophyta, but such studies are still based on limited taxonomic samples. The further inclusion of data from novel glaucophyte taxa will be critical to obtain more solid answers about the evolution and diversity of these rare algae.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
  • Plant Domestication, the Brave Old World of Genetic Modification
    • Authors: Henry I. Miller; Piero A. Morandini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Henry I. Miller, Piero A. Morandini
      The genetic improvement of crop plants via the newer techniques of biotechnology to produce “genetically modified” crops is a significant driver of progress in agriculture. However, progress has not been unimpeded: various controversies swirl around the benefits, uniqueness, supposed risks and other aspects of “GMOs”, or genetically modified organisms—which, as we explain, is a meaningless “category”—and the foods derived from them. In order to resolve the conundrums posed by those issues, it is important to understand the pedigree of genetic modification, which had its inception in the domestication of plants. In this chapter, we briefly introduce the crucial determinants of the “domestication syndrome” for cereals and legumes—that is, loss of seed shattering and reduced seed dormancy—and how it evolved through the ages into contemporary “genetic modification”. We argue that the application of genetic engineering to crops within a few years brought a wave of improved domestication traits. Moreover, contrary to most of the early domestication traits, some of these novel traits are advantageous to the crop and not just to humans. The other chapters in this volume discuss current developments in technology, the promise of modern molecular genetic engineering, and the legal and regulatory landscape.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.001
  • Evolution of Gymnosperm Plastid Genomes
    • Authors: Shu-Miaw Chaw; Chung-Shien Edi Sudianto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Shu-Miaw Chaw, Chung-Shien Wu, Edi Sudianto
      The rapid increase in plastome availability on GenBank has greatly deepened our understanding of plastomic evolution and plastid phylogenomics in gymnosperms. The plastomes of the five extant gymnosperm groups show distinctive evolutionary patterns. For example, those of cycads are conserved in architecture, gene content, and nucleotide substitution rates. Compared to cycads, the plastome of ginkgo has its inverted repeats (IRs) slightly contracted. The IRs of the three gnetophyte genera, represented by Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia, have undergone multiple expansions, contractions, and inversions. Meanwhile, the highly rearranged plastomes of Pinaceae and cupressophytes lack canonical IRs and contain lineage-specific repeats that trigger the generation of isomeric plastomes. In terms of nucleotide substitution rates, the plastome of ginkgo features an extremely slow rate of nucleotide substitutions, similar to those of cycads. In contrast, the plastomes of gnetophytes have relatively accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions. Comparatively, nucleotide substitution rates in the plastomes of Pinaceae and cupressophytes are faster than cycads and ginkgo, but slower than those of gnetophytes. In this chapter, we summarize the progression of these findings and discuss potential causes for the variation in gymnosperms. We also review the use of these plastomes for resolving long-standing issues in seed plant and gymnosperm phylogenies. We conclude this chapter with some future directions for plastomic studies in gymnosperms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T03:55:14Z
  • Plastome Phylogenetics: 30 Years of Inferences Into Plant Evolution
    • Authors: Matthew A. Gitzendanner; Pamela S. Soltis; Tingshuang Yi; De-Zhu Li; Douglas E. Soltis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Pamela S. Soltis, Tingshuang Yi, De-Zhu Li, Douglas E. Soltis
      From restriction site analyses to whole plastid genome sequences, our understanding of green plant (Viridiplantae; ~500,000 extant species) evolutionary relationships over the past three decades has largely been informed by analyses of the plastid genome. The plastid genome has informed studies ranging from population genetics to phylogenetics, the latter ranging from the intraspecific level to studies of all green plants. Diverse portions of the genome ranging from plastid spacers to entire genomes provide valuable data for plant evolutionary biologists. Recent phylogenetic analyses using whole plastid genomes sampled from over 2000 species representing all major groups of green plants have both solidified our understanding of relationships and highlighted the few key nodes in plant evolutionary history that remain unresolved. Likewise, detailed large-scale analyses of plastomes across angiosperms reinforce firmly supported nodes but fail to resolve a handful of remaining questionable relationships. The long history of plastid phylogenetics will serve as a reference point as scientists continue to expand beyond the plastid genome and include more nuclear and mitochondrial data in their analyses. These comparisons are crucial in that recent studies indicate some discordance between nuclear and plastid gene trees both across green plants as a whole and within angiosperms. Rather than being a source of concern, these discordances point to the complex and intriguing one-billion-year evolutionary history of the green plant clade, a clade that is foundational to life on Earth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T22:49:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.016
  • How Agrobacterium, a Natural Genetic Engineer, Became a Tool for Modern
    • Authors: Otten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Léon Otten
      Agrobacterium is well known for its capacity to transfer specific fragments of DNA (transferred DNA or T-DNA) into plant cells, leading to the formation of tumours (crown galls) by A. tumefaciens and to abundant root growth (hairy roots) by A. rhizogenes. The T-DNA contains genes which change the growth of plant cells in various ways and lead to the production of special metabolites (called opines) used by the bacterium for its growth. The discovery of this natural plant transformation system started about one hundred years ago, and the adaptation of A. tumefaciens as a vector to stably introduce foreign DNA into plants has led to a revolution in plant research and in agriculture. The potential of A. rhizogenes is not yet fully exploited and much remains to be learnt about its root-inducing properties. Recent research has shown that apart from tumours and hairy roots, Agrobacterium can also produce transgenic plants in at least three different plant genera (Nicotiana, Linaria and Ipomoea), with stable transmission of T-DNA genes across species. In the case of Nicotiana tabacum, some cultivars express the TB-mas2′ T-DNA gene to high levels in roots and produce the corresponding opine. The possible growth-modifying role of T-DNA genes in natural transformants remains to be studied.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T19:48:38Z
  • Molecular Evolution of Plastid Genomes in Parasitic Flowering Plants
    • Authors: Susann Wicke; Julia Naumann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Susann Wicke, Julia Naumann
      Heterotrophic carbon acquisition is the most unusual lifestyle in plants, whereby the heterotrophs obtain water, nutrients, and macromolecules from either another plant or a fungus. Besides numerous morphological changes that accompany the transition to a fully heterotrophic lifestyle in plants, the so-called parasitic reduction syndrome manifests at the molecular level, especially in the plastid genome. Here, we provide an overview of the sizes, architectures, and coding capacity of plastid genomes in heterotrophic land plants, with a major focus on flowering plants. Our compilation of plastomes of over 75 taxa covering 15 lineages of haustorial parasites and mycoheterotrophs reveals novel insights into the order of housekeeping gene losses, where apparently several plastid tRNA gene deletions precede the loss of ribosomal subunits. A comparison of the three major conceptual models of plastome degradation en route to heterotrophy in plants shows that plastid evolutionary trajectories are essentially convergent across lineages—independent of the feeding type. However, several questions regarding the series and timing of functional and physical gene losses remain unclear, in part because functional data are widely lacking. Nevertheless, the currently available evolutionary models of reductive plastome evolution provide excellent starting points for leaving the paths of descriptive science towards hypothesis-driven research.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T19:48:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.014
  • Plastid Genomes in the Myzozoa
    • Authors: Sergio A. Muñoz-Gómez; Claudio H. Slamovits
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Sergio A. Muñoz-Gómez, Claudio H. Slamovits
      The myzozoa encompasses quite disparate protists, like the infamous apicomplexan parasites, or the famous dinoflagellate phytoplankton. Collectively, myzozoans display a wide diversity of plastids; they all most likely descended from a common myzozoan plastid ancestor. Some myzozoan plastids are photosynthetic whereas others are not; some have plastid genomes (plastomes) but others have lost them. The only two eukaryotes known to have lost plastids altogether are myzozoans. In this chapter, we explore the diversity and evolution of myzozoan plastids and plastomes, and compare them to those of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. Myzozoan plastomes are remarkable for encompassing the smallest photosynthesis-supporting plastomes known (in peridinin dinophytes) and for having the lowest GC content of all plastomes (in sporozoans). Myzozoan plastomes also have the smallest gene repertoires among red lineage plastomes, and such a state seems to have been reached through at least four episodic events of plastome reduction; two of these episodes appear to be associated with symbiogeneses. Myzozoans have played an important role in our understanding of plastid and plastome reduction among eukaryotes. Future discoveries of ‘environmental’ plastomes will allow us to increase the diversity and better reconstruct the diversification of myzozoan plastomes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T19:48:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.015
  • Biotechnologies: The Ideal Victim'
    • Authors: Nayla Farouki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Nayla Farouki
      Biotechnologies, in general, and GM plants in particular, suffer from a sort of defiance that has gone beyond ordinary technophobia. Societies, in which all technological advancements are naturally embedded, react in various ways to what industries have to offer. Enthusiasm, slow appropriation, apprehension, rejection seem normal at the consumer's level, and each person ought to have the free choice to consume or not to consume. With plant biotechnologies, this normal evolution of technological offers, and of the free scientific research that goes with it, is now perturbed by overregulation on the one hand and straight and total forbiddance on the other. These pages are an attempt at an explanation of this phenomenon's specificity. What is it that makes biotechnologies different from other technologies on which there is no consensus, such as nuclear energy or robotics' What are humans scared of' and why' The answer could reside in the following: biotechnologies, where plants are concerned, that is where agriculture, food and the living environment are concerned, seem to have specific reasons for producing such negative feelings. Among all the “scary” inventions that some want to denounce, could it be that biotechnologies are the ideal victim'

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T19:48:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.008
  • Structural Diversity Among Plastid Genomes of Land Plants
    • Authors: Jeffrey P. Mower; Trisha L. Vickrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Jeffrey P. Mower, Trisha L. Vickrey
      The plastome of land plants is often considered to be highly conserved in sequence, structure, and content. This is particularly true for nonvascular land plants, for which few changes to the plastome have occurred throughout their evolutionary history. In vascular plants, however, the plastomic structure is more dynamic. Many lycophytes, most ferns, and particular lineages of seed plants have experienced extensive structural rearrangements, including inversions and modifications to the size and content of the IR. In this review, we describe the typical structural features of the land plant plastome, the major variations to this canonical structure that occur in various lineages, and the evolutionary implications of this structural variation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.013
  • Evolution of the Plastid Genome in Green Algae
    • Authors: Monique Turmel; Claude Lemieux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Monique Turmel, Claude Lemieux
      Comparative analyses of green algal plastid genomes (plastomes) have flourished in the past decade. In addition to improving our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among green algal lineages, the expanded collection of plastome sequences has provided new insights into the ancestral architecture of this genome in the common ancestor of all green algae and into the changes that it underwent during lineage diversification in the two major divisions of the Viridiplantae (Chlorophyta and Streptophyta). The level of plastome diversity is much greater in the Chlorophyta than in the Streptophyta, with important variations seen at several levels—including genome size, presence/absence and size of the large inverted repeat encoding the rRNA operon, pattern of gene partitioning among single-copy regions, gene content, gene order, intron content, and amount of repetitive sequences—both within and across the main lineages of these two divisions. Here, we present an overview of the structural changes that sustained the plastome during the evolution of both chlorophyte and streptophyte algae. We begin by examining the range of variations observed at the above-mentioned levels in 112 chlorophyte taxa and then summarize what we learned for the Streptophyta based on the plastomes of 17 taxa. The chapter ends with a presentation of issues that need to be resolved in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.010
  • Aberration or Analogy' The Atypical Plastomes of Geraniaceae
    • Authors: Tracey A. Ruhlman; Robert K. Jansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Tracey A. Ruhlman, Robert K. Jansen
      A number of plant groups have been proposed as ideal systems to explore plastid inheritance, plastome evolution and plastome-nuclear genome coevolution. Quick generation times and a compact nuclear genome in Arabidopsis thaliana, the relative ease of plastid isolation from Spinacia oleracea and the tractability of plastid transformation in Nicotiana tabacum are all desirable attributes in a model system; however, these and most other groups all lack novelty in terms of plastome structure and nucleotide sequence evolution. Contemporary sequencing and assembly technologies have facilitated analyses of atypical plastomes and, as predicted by early investigations, Geraniaceae plastomes have experienced unprecedented rearrangements relative to the canonical structure and exhibit remarkably high rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. While not the only lineage with unusual plastome features, likely no other group represents the array of aberrant phenomena recorded for the family. In this chapter, Geraniaceae plastomes will be discussed and, where possible, compared with other taxa.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.017
  • Plastid Autonomy vs Nuclear Control Over Plastid Function
    • Authors: Jan de Vries; John M. Archibald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Jan de Vries, John M. Archibald
      Plastids stem from free-living cyanobacteria. The transition from endosymbiont to organelle involved strong reductive evolution. Modern-day plastid genomes possess only a small fraction of the genes present in their cyanobacterial progenitors. In addition to genome reduction, plastids underwent modifications that facilitated recruitment of host-derived proteins and metabolites; both processes contributed to organellogenesis and a shift in control over plastid function from the organellar genome to that of the host. It is likely that most of the modifications to the early plastid happened before the major radiations that led to today's algae and plants. Plastids nevertheless exhibit substantial variation in form and function. In this chapter, we highlight some of the evolutionary implications of the differences in the genetic capacities of plastids across the breadth of plant and algal diversity. We focus on the transition from genetic semiautonomy, which is of relevance in the context of the endosymbiotic spread of plastids and kleptoplasty, to the high degree of nuclear control over plastid function seen in land plants. Genomic and transcriptomic investigations of diverse plants and algae have revealed important differences in the coding capacity of plastid genomes in different lineages, raising questions about how the plastid's own genetic capabilities impact its physiology as well as that of its host.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.011
  • Recombinant Therapeutic Molecules Produced in Plants
    • Authors: Qiang Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Qiang Chen
      Research on the use of plants for production of protein-based therapeutics has increased tremendously since the initial experiments in the early 1990s. Plant-based expression systems offer several production advantages of low cost, rapidity, scalability, and a significantly lower chance of contamination with prion or mammalian viruses. In addition, the capability of plants in producing homogeneous N-glycans allows the development of novel therapeutics with superior efficacy and safety to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Various plant species have been used to develop and produce vaccines, antibodies, and pharmaceutical enzymes against a myriad of diseases by multiple expression technologies. While most of these plant-made therapeutics are in preclinical development, many have progressed into human clinical study phases and several have been approved by regulatory agencies. The current status and recent advancement of plant-based expression systems and key clinical products will be presented in this chapter. The remaining challenges and future directions for the field of plant-made therapeutics will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.006
  • Lost in the Light: Plastid Genome Evolution in Nonphotosynthetic Algae
    • Authors: David R. Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): David R. Smith
      Photosynthesis is an awe-inspiring process. It has shaped, coloured, and diversified the biological world in innumerable ways and supplies us with the air we breathe. Photosynthetic organisms are literally our lifelines on Earth. Without them we perish. Perhaps this is why many of us are uncomfortable with and confused by the concept of a photosynthetic organism forfeiting its ability to convert sunlight into chemical energy, giving up its life-sustaining powers. Indeed, the evolutionary loss of photosynthesis, which has occurred countless times throughout evolution, remains a poorly understood and underappreciated topic, both among researchers and the general public. This is unfortunate because nonphotosynthetic plants and algae represent some of the most diverse and interesting (and even deadly) species on the planet, and they can teach us a lot about photosynthesis and biology as a whole. Here, I review the origins and evolution of nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic algae. I portray these biologically “broken light bulbs” in a contemporary framework, paying particular attention to their plastid genomes, which are much more complex and architecturally varied than one might expect. If you are anything of a rebel and prefer misfits over conformists, trouble makers over the straight-laced, and mysteries over simple plotlines, then you will not be disappointed by the eclectic assemblage of algae that have relinquished their hold on the sun.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.10.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 84

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T12:04:03Z
  • Biology of Haptophytes: Complicated Cellular Processes Driving the Global
           Carbon Cycle
    • Authors: Yoshinori Tsuji; Masaki Yoshida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Yoshinori Tsuji, Masaki Yoshida
      Haptophytes are one of the photosynthetic microalgae with red-algal-derived chloroplasts, and thought to be among the most important primary producers in oceans. Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) have a significant effect on the global carbon cycle, as they fix dissolved inorganic carbon through photosynthesis and calcification. Given that these two processes occur in a single cell, intracellular ion and metabolite traffic is expected to be more complex than in other algae. Haptophytes synthesise and accumulate various compounds during photosynthesis, such as long chain unsaturated ketones (alkenones), β-glucan, mannitol, acid polysaccharides (APs), and dimethylsulphoniopropionate. Some compounds are not equally produced in all haptophytes but are produced by specific species or groups. For example, APs are produced only in coccolithophores and suggested to support morphogenesis of calcite scales. The structure of APs is highly species-specific. Alkenones are produced in only five haptophyte species regardless of their calcification ability. The occurrence of such variations in carbon metabolism across species is also a marked characteristic of haptophytes. This chapter introduces basic cellular features of haptophytes and focuses on features of their carbon metabolism and calcification.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.07.002
  • Chromerids and Their Plastids
    • Authors: Miroslav
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Zoltán Füssy, Miroslav Oborník
      Chrompodellids, a monophyletic group consisting of predatory colpodellids and the chromerid algae Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, are the closest known relatives to apicomplexan parasites. The photosynthetic plastids of Chromera and Vitrella are evolutionarily linked to apicoplasts, nonphotosynthetic plastids of apicomplexans, allowing the reconstruction of processes that shaped these organelles into their current form and function. Chromerid and apicomplexan plastids are derived from a rhodophyte endosymbiont and thus share common origin with the plastids of the “red lineage”. Plastids in apicomplexans and chrompodellids play major roles in cellular biochemistry and dependence on plastid pathways underlies the organelle's essentiality in most nonphotosynthetic lineages. The architecture and gene content of plastid genomes differ significantly in the two described chromerids, as do their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Life cycle complexity also varies in chromerids, possibly reflecting adaptive mechanisms in their respective ecological niches. Finally, accumulating evidence suggests a tertiary endosymbiosis with an ochrophyte symbiont was the origin of current plastids in chromerid algae and apicomplexan parasites.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
  • Secondary Plastids of Euglenophytes
    • Authors: Anna M.G. Vanclová; Lucia Hadariová; Štěpánka Hrdá; Vladimír Hampl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Anna M.G. Vanclová, Lucia Hadariová, Štěpánka Hrdá, Vladimír Hampl
      Euglenophytes obtained their plastids from a primary green alga related to extant genus Pyramimonas. The relatively recent establishment of this new organelle is an intriguing evolutionary phenomenon worth studying and comparing with other secondary plastids with a regard to their similarities and differences. A remarkably fast evolution driven by rapid intron gain and diversification is observed in euglenid plastid genomes which often tend to swell in size and rearrange while keeping the gene content stable. As a result of the secondary endosymbiosis, the plastid is wrapped in an additional membrane which makes any protein, metabolite, or ion transporting routes more complicated. In the case of protein import, secretory pathway-derived, signal peptide-dependent mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and vesicular transport were recruited. The plastid endosymbiosis also served as a source of various oddities concerning metabolic pathways as the new organelle contained some of the enzymes and pathways already present in the host. Thus, several cases of division of labour and specialization can be observed, as well as simple redundancies which might be in fact just transitory and will eventually disappear in the future course of evolution. Endosymbiotic and lateral gene transfers were quite common in the ancestors of euglenophytes, especially in the case of plastid proteins many of which were demonstrated to have originated not only from the green-algal endosymbiont but also from a spectrum of nongreen lineages. The circumstances of the nongreen-algal gene gains are unclear. Another evolutionary phenomenon occurring in euglenophytes is the secondary loss of plastid or its photosynthetic capacity. This process gave rise to a number of distinct species which no longer possess the ability to photosynthesize. Interestingly, this “bleaching” process can be induced in the laboratory, enabling to study the process of plastid loss in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.008
  • Cryptomonads: A Model Organism Sheds Light on the Evolutionary History of
           Genome Reorganization in Secondary Endosymbioses
    • Authors: Goro Tanifuji; Naoko T. Onodera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Goro Tanifuji, Naoko T. Onodera
      The cryptomonads are ubiquitous in the earth's hydrosphere. Most members of this unicellular group are photosynthetic and retain red alga-derived plastids. The significant feature of cryptomonads from an evolutionary and biological point of view is that they contain the residual nucleus of a eukaryotic endosymbiont, the so-called nucleomorph, which is direct evidence of eukaryote–eukaryote endosymbiosis. Besides cryptomonads, this unusual organelle has been found only in chlorarachniophytes so far. In the first half of this chapter, we briefly describe cryptomonad morphology, classification, and phylogeny. The evolutionary history of auto- or heterotrophic lifestyle transitions in cryptomonads is discussed. In the latter part, we focus on the recent outcomes of comparative genomics and review perspectives on the genome reorganization process that occurs during the integration of two eukaryotes into one organism.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.005
  • Secondary Plastids of Stramenopiles
    • Authors: Richard G. Dorrell; Chris Bowler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Richard G. Dorrell, Chris Bowler
      The stramenopiles encompass an incredible diversity of organisms, including ecologically fundamental single-celled algae such as diatoms, giant macroalgae such as kelps, as well as photo-mixotrophic and heterotrophic species. The photosynthetic species possess plastids of secondary or higher red algal origin. The diversity of stramenopile species provides an ideal system for exploring the fundamental features underpinning plastid establishment in eukaryotes, and also how plastid metabolism has diversified following endosymbiosis. In this chapter, we present an overview of stramenopile diversity and explore the chimeric origins of the stramenopile plastid, which utilises a combination of pathways derived from red algae and other sources to support its function. Next, we discuss unusual features of stramenopile plastid metabolism, some of which, responses to acute nutrient limitation and metabolic crosstalk with the mitochondria, may be specific to the diatoms and underpin their relative success in the contemporary ocean. Finally, we discuss even more dramatic transitions in the evolutionary history and life strategies of individual stramenopile groups, including evidence that stramenopiles may have given rise to some of the other major plastid lineages observed today, such as those of haptophytes and dinoflagellates, thus majorly contributing to the spread of photosynthesis through the tree of life.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.003
  • The Dark Side of the Chloroplast: Biogenesis, Metabolism and Membrane
           Biology of the Apicoplast
    • Authors: Giel G. van Dooren; Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Giel G. van Dooren, Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi
      Members of the phylum Apicomplexa contain plastids, termed apicoplasts, that were derived by secondary endosymbiosis. Unlike most of their sun-loving cousins, apicomplexans are parasites that live in the dark recesses of the animal hosts they infect. As a consequence, apicoplasts are not photosynthetic, but nevertheless carry out essential metabolic processes. In this chapter, we examine the evolution, biogenesis and functions of the apicoplast. In particular, we focus on the biology of the membranes that surround this organelle, which play key roles in the biogenesis of the organelle, and link the metabolic functions of the apicoplast with the rest of the cell.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.007
  • Plastid Complexity in Dinoflagellates: A Picture of Gains, Losses,
           Replacements and Revisions
    • Authors: Ross F. Waller; Luděk Kořený
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Ross F. Waller, Luděk Kořený
      Dinoflagellates are exemplars of plastid complexity and evolutionary possibility. Their ordinary plastids are extraordinary, and their extraordinary plastids provide a window into the processes of plastid gain and integration. No other plastid-bearing eukaryotic group possesses so much diversity or deviance from the basic traits of this cyanobacteria-derived endosymbiont. Although dinoflagellate plastids provide a major contribution to global carbon fixation and energy cycles, they show a remarkable willingness to tinker, modify and dispense with canonical function. The archetype dinoflagellate plastid, the peridinin plastid, has lost photosynthesis many times, has the most divergent organelle genomes of any plastid, is bounded by an atypical plastid membrane number and uses unusual protein trafficking routes. Moreover, dinoflagellates have gained new endosymbionts many times, representing multiple different stages of the processes of organelle formation. New insights into dinoflagellate plastid biology and diversity also suggest that it is timely to revise notions of the origin of the peridinin plastid.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.004
  • The Convoluted Evolution of Eukaryotes With Complex Plastids
    • Authors: Fabien Burki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Fabien Burki
      The textbook version of how plastids were established by endosymbiosis and subsequently diversified is like a well-oiled machine: a cyanobacterial endosymbiont was taken up by a heterotrophic cell and transformed over time into a bona fide photosynthetic organelle (plastid), ultimately giving rise to all plants and algae. The reality, however, is much more complicated and this chapter attempts to describe recent advances in the field of plastid evolution brought to light by disciplines such as phylogenomics, comparative genomics, and cell biology. If (almost) all plastids may ultimately trace back to the same original endosymbiotic event, the very large diversity of plastids we observe today can only be explained by multiple layers of endosymbioses. That is, plastids were passed between distantly related eukaryotic lineages multiple times, essentially creating a phylogenetic imbroglio where plastids appear monophyletic but hosts are not. The burning question then is: how can we best fit plastid and host data into a comprehensive evolutionary framework' Focusing not only on the so-called complex plastids (the product of eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses) and the lineages that host them but also on the many related plastid-lacking lineages and orphan taxa, I discuss the emergence of new models of plastid evolution. These models generalize the notion of serial endosymbioses to explain the scattered distribution of plastids in the eukaryotic tree of life. As such, they make new testable predictions as to how complex algae are connected through endosymbiotic gene transfer, but testing this will require first to determine the real magnitude of this process.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.001
  • Chlorarachniophytes With Complex Secondary Plastids of Green Algal Origin
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hirakawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hirakawa
      Diverse algae have evolved ‘secondary’ plastids through parallel endosymbiotic uptakes of photosynthetic eukaryotes either of green or red algae, and these events are referred to as secondary endosymbioses. Chlorarachniophytes are a group of marine unicellular algae with four-membrane-bound secondary plastids that originated from a green algal endosymbiont. Remarkably, chlorarachniophyte plastids possess a vestigial nucleus termed a ‘nucleomorph’ in the periplastidal compartment between the second and third membranes that corresponds to the remnant cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Given that endosymbiont nuclei have disappeared in most secondary plastid-bearing algae, chlorarachniophytes appear to represent an intermediate stage of secondary endosymbiosis and thereby offer an interesting opportunity to study complex plastid evolution. In this chapter, I summarise the current understanding of the evolutionary history of chlorarachniophytes in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and genomics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.006
  • Let There Be Light: A Contemporary Primer on Primary Plastid Endosymbiosis
    • Authors: David R. Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): David R. Smith
      Endosymbiosis, more than any other process, perhaps, is the leading narrative upon which the history of eukaryotic evolution has been written. Primary endosymbiosis, which is the uptake of a prokaryote by another living cell, has arguably been the driving force for the origins and diversification of complex life on Earth. The genetic integration of, first, a nonphotosynthetic alphaproteobacterium and, later, a photosynthetic cyanobacterium into a eukaryotic cellular framework have shaped and altered the planet's biodiversity and biogeochemistry in countless ways, from the land, to the water, to the atmosphere. If you are alive today and reading these words, it is in no small part because of endosymbiosis. Like all eukaryotes, we are the product of an ancient endosymbiotic love affair, and for plants and algae the endosymbiotic romance was a complicated triangle. Here, I recount my own passions for the topic of endosymbiosis, highlighting past and present breakthroughs as well as some of the controversies and unanswered questions that have plagued the field. I focus on the evolution of primary plastids, their genomes, and the supergroup to which they are found (the Archaeplastida), including members that have lost photosynthetic capabilities but still retain a colourless plastid.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.002
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 83

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T11:07:27Z
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