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Showing 1 - 200 of 3048 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
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Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
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Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 362, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Acta Ecologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.172]   [H-I: 29]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1872-2032
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • The effects of planted and plowed Stylosanthes guianensis on degrading
           soil fertility in hilly countries of dry-hot valley

    • Authors: Huiying Long; De Zhang; Guangxiong He
      Pages: 279 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): Huiying Long, De Zhang, Guangxiong He
      The development of rural economy and ecological restoration were restricted with high temperature and drought in the dry-hot valley of Yuanmou country. The climate and human practice made a degrading ecosystem, and one marked question here was soil fertility degradation. Leguminous forage Stylosanthes guianensis were introduced for years in degraded mountainous dry-hot valley of Yuanmou. Aims to reveal devotions of planting and plowing S. guianensis to degraded mountainous soil fertility, three soil types and two treatments planting experiment were tested in the dry-hot valley of Yuanmou country. The results show that: 1. S. guianensis could adapt to degraded mountain soil. There was a large number of nodules and root in three soil types, number of root nodule was 174.048–650.667 grain/individual plant, root biomass was 214.667–1710.000kg/hm2. 2. With nitrogen fixation of root nodule, rot and decomposing of dry branches and fallen leaves, organic matter, total nitrogen, pH and germ of degrading soil tended to rising after S. guianensis planting and plowing. Increasing root biomass and rhizobium nodules had been repaired and improved microenvironment of soil, especially made an significant increase for germs, in 0–20cm soil from 0.020×105–1.54×105 to 1.880×105–70×105,and 20–40cm soil from 0.020×105–0.380×105 to 1.100×105–52.5×105. 3. S. guianensis, either planting or plowing into soil as green manure planting, could significantly (P <0.05) improve total nitrogen, organic matter, available phosphorus, available K of degraded soil in the fruit tree canopy drip line.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.004
       
  • Pattern formation and selection in a diffusive predator-prey system with
           ratio-dependent functional response

    • Authors: Zhang Daoxiang; Guangxun Sun; Lixian Zhao; Ping Yan
      Pages: 290 - 297
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): Zhang Daoxiang, Guangxun Sun, Lixian Zhao, Ping Yan
      One of the central issues in ecology is the study of spatial pattern in the distribution of organisms. Thus, in this paper, Turing pattern of a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with diffusion is considered. Firstly, through the linear stability and Hopf bifurcation theorem, Turing region in which there are plenty of complicate spatial patterns is derived. Secondly, by means of amplitude equations derived from multi-scales analysis method, pattern selection has been mainly studied. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to certify that Turing patterns, such as spot, stripe and mixture of spot-stripe patterns, can be produced and the type of pattern can be identified if the values of parameters are given.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.03.001
       
  • Adaption of two grasses to soil thickness variation under different water
           treatments in a karst region

    • Authors: Zhou Li; Jinchun Liu; Yajie Zhao; Haiyan Song; Qianhui Liang; Jianping Tao
      Pages: 298 - 306
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): Zhou Li, Jinchun Liu, Yajie Zhao, Haiyan Song, Qianhui Liang, Jianping Tao
      Properties of soil in karst regions are discontinuous and highly heterogeneous due to the adverse conditions of exposed rocks, tattered land form, steep slopes, and severe soil erosion. Uneven distribution of karst soil also leads to obvious spatial heterogeneity of moisture. Global precipitation changes might aggravate heterogeneity of soil moisture in soils with different thickness. Thus, exploring the responses of plants to water availability and soil heterogeneity in karst regions is necessary for the understanding of how precipitation changes might affect plant growth in soils with different thickness. Herbaceous plants especially grasses in karst regions are most easily to be affected by soil heterogeneity and water availability, considering they mainly utilize water and nutrients from the surface soil through their fibrous root system. Therefore, two graminaceous perennial grasses, Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were chosen for the present study. In addition, these two species are often chosen as pioneer plants for ecological restoration and reconstruction in karst regions because of their attributes of fast growth, strong adaptive ability, and high yield, which can effectively promote economic development and help to alleviate rural poverty in the harsh karst region. In our study, three water treatments (CK: 40ml/day, D1: 20ml/day and D2: 12ml/day) were combined with three levels of soil thickness [shallow soil (SS; 5cm), control (SCK; 15cm) and deep soil (SD; 30cm)] in a factorial randomized design and measurements were obtained of above- and below-ground growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation. The following results were obtained: (1) In CK water treatment, the total biomass, above-ground biomass, plant height and leaf area of both species were suppressed in SS as compared with those of SCK, and showed a decline to differing degrees, whereas these parameters were promoted in SD. The root biomass of L. perenne, and root length and surface area of both species in SS and SD were not significantly different to those of plants in SCK. The root biomass of F. arundinacea increased significantly in SS, but the observed values did not differ from those of the control (SCK). The specific root lengths of the two species decreased, and the ratio of root mass increased significantly in SS compared to SCK; but in SD, there was no difference compared to the control (SCK). (2) In D1 and D2 water treatments, there was a decrease in total biomass, above- and below-ground growth and biomass of both species in SS, and as water was reduced, the difference in plant height and leaf area between SS and SCK decreased in both species, and the difference in root length and root surface area between SS and SCK increased. In the SD treatment, apart from an increase in root length of F. arundinacea, there was no significant difference in other parameters of both species compared to SCK. The ratio of root mass of L. perenne in SS was still higher than SCK in D1 and D2 water treatments, but as water availability decreased from D1 to D2, the difference between SS and SCK decreased, and there was no significant difference between SD and SCK. There was no significant difference in the ratio root mass of F. arundinacea in both SS and SD compared to SCK under either D1 or D2 water treatments. The results of this study indicate that when water is sufficient, plant growth is restrained in shallow soil and promoted in deep soil, and as water decreases, plants in shallow and deep soil are both subjected to drought stress with resulting growth suppression, but the drought stress has a greater effect in shallow soil, and the drought conditions induced plant root depth increasing in deep soil. F. arundinacea, with a greater root depth, shows stronger adaptability to deep soil compared to L. perenne.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.09.001
       
  • Biodiversity patterns of aquatic macroinvertebrates in tropical forests
           streams as a response to logging activities and deforestation

    • Authors: Salman Abdo Al-Shami; Che Salmah Md Rawi; Abu Hassan Ahmad; Madziatul Rosmahanie Madrus; Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani; Nadi Awwad Al-Harbi; Khalid Awadh AlMutairi
      Pages: 332 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): Salman Abdo Al-Shami, Che Salmah Md Rawi, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Madziatul Rosmahanie Madrus, Suhaila Abdul Hamid, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul Ghani, Nadi Awwad Al-Harbi, Khalid Awadh AlMutairi
      The biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in virgin (VJR) and logged over forest (LO) streams in Perak Integrated Timber Concession (PITC), Temenggor Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia was investigated. A total of 2048 individuals from VJR streams were collected (40.2individual/m2) compared to 1392 individuals (19.9/m2) recorded from streams in the logged forests (LO). Alpha and gamma diversity measures of the VJR streams were higher compared to LO streams. The beta diversity index value in the VJR (2.21) streams was higher compared to the LO streams (1.17). The correlation between similarity matrices (Sorensen' distance coefficient) of macroinvertebrates data sets from VJR and LO streams was significant (r =0.836, P <0.05). The species indicator analysis identified few significant indicator species for the VJR streams such as Ctenipocoris sp. (Naucoridae), Cryptoperla sp. (Peltoperlidae) and Diplectrona sp. (Hydropsychidae). In conclusion, the VJR streams of Temenggor Forest Reserve supported relatively diverse aquatic macroinvertebrates. The logging activities and deforestation in the investigated areas were determinant factors justifying the reduction in macroinvertebrates abundance and loss of biodiversity in the forest streams.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.03.004
       
  • Marker assisted breeding for introgression of opaque-2 allele into elite
           maize inbred line BML-6

    • Authors: M.S.R. Krishna; M. Surender; S. Sokka Reddy
      Pages: 340 - 345
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): M.S.R. Krishna, M. Surender, S. Sokka Reddy
      Improvement of QPM (Quality Protein Maize) along with high content of lysine and tryptophan had foremost importance in maize breeding programme. The efficient and easiest way of developing QPM hybrids was of backcross breeding in marker aided selection. Hence the present investigation was aimed with an endeavour to convert elite maize inbred line BML-6 into QPM line. CML-181 was identified to be a donor variety as it revealed high-quality polymorphism with BML-6 for opaque-2 gene specific marker umc1066. Non-QPM inbred line BML-6 was crossed with QPM donor CML-181 and produced F1 followed by BC1F1 and BC2F1 population was developed. Foreground selection was carried out with umc1066 in F1, and selected plants were used for BC1F1 and BC2F1 populations. Two hundred plants were screened in both BC1F1 and BC2F1 population with umc1066 for foreground selection. The selected plants were screened for foreground selection with amino acid modifiers. Foreground selected plants for both opaque-2 and amino acid modifiers were screened for background selection for BML-6 genome. Recurrent parent genome (RPG) was determined for BC2F1 population plants. Three plants have shown with RPG 90–93% in two generation back cross population. Three selected BC2F2 populations were screened for foreground and back ground selection followed by agronomical and biochemical evaluation. The QPM converted version of BML-6 contains 0.97% of tryptophan and 4.02% of lysine concentration in a protein. Agronomical and biochemical screened BC2F2 plants were selfed for BC2F3. QPM version of BML-6 line can be used for the development QPM version of maize single cross hybrids.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.04.002
       
  • Leaf characters of Ulmus elongata in fragmented habitats: Implications for
           conservation

    • Authors: Xingxing Liu; Gendi Xu; Yuhuan Wu; Li Ma; Jianguo Gao; Yi Zhang; Peng Liu
      Pages: 346 - 353
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 5
      Author(s): Xingxing Liu, Gendi Xu, Yuhuan Wu, Li Ma, Jianguo Gao, Yi Zhang, Peng Liu
      Ulmus elongata is on the verge of extinction due to habitat fragmentation and habitat loss. Identifying the environmental factors affecting the leaf traits of U. elongata is important for understanding its endangerment mechanisms. Specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen content, and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C) were determined. Temperature and light were found to be the main environmental factors influencing SLA, indicating that U. elongata is heliophilous. The maximum and minimum δ13C values of the plant species were −26.33‰ and −29.64‰, respectively (the mean was −28.09‰), suggesting that it is of the C3 photosynthetic type. Compared with the altitude, annual sunshine duration, annual precipitation, and mean annual temperature accounted for 36% of the variance in δ13C, which is the main environmental factor affecting 13C fractionation. The foliar δ13C value of U. elongata was significantly more negative than that of Ulmus pumila, a widely distributed elm tree in northern China (P <0.05), but the leaf nitrogen content of U. elongata was somewhat higher (33.30mgg−1) than that of the latter species (28.18mgg−1). These findings indicate that U. elongata has less photosynthetic stomatal limitation and higher carbon assimilation rates. Interestingly, across latitude gradients, the leaf δ13C value of U. elongata became even more negative but the soil δ13C value of the distribution sites became more positive, demonstrating low water use efficiency and abundance of C4 plant species in warm and humid areas. SLA was observed to increase with increasing annual average temperature; the decrease in leaf δ13C value indicates that water use efficiency lowers when water loss and transpiration strengthen in a high-temperature environment; these data revealed that the population of U. elongata may decline under global warming and drought stress. Several conservation strategies based on leaf characters and habitat traits were proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T14:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.05.001
       
  • Community structure and elevational distribution pattern of soil
           Actinobacteria in alpine grasslands

    • Authors: Xiao Liu; Jing Cong; Hui Lu; Yadong Xue; Xiulei Wang; Diqiang Li; Yuguang Zhang
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Xiao Liu, Jing Cong, Hui Lu, Yadong Xue, Xiulei Wang, Diqiang Li, Yuguang Zhang
      Actinobacteria are widely distributed in various ecological environments and play essential roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycles in natural ecosystems. Understanding the community composition, structure and distribution of Actinobacteria is not only fundamentally important for studying their functions to ecosystem, but also conducive to protecting Actinobacteria resources. Furthermore, studies regarding the distribution of Actinobacteria in specific areas would also help us understand the impact of global environmental changes on the world's microbial communities. In this study, six alpine grassland sites, from 3220m and 4790m in elevation, were selected in Sanjiangyuan National Natural Reserve, which is located in the center of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Then, using 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing, the composition and elevational distribution patterns of soil Actinobacterial communities were analyzed. A total of 5052 OTUs were detected, which could attributed to 230 genera, 52 families, 9 orders and 5 subclasses of Actinobacteria, and the Actinobacterial communities were significantly (P <0.05) different among the six sites, according to detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and several dissimilarity tests (MRPP, Anosim and Adonis). The subclasses of Actinobacteridae and Rubrobacteridae were dominant in all six sites, and accounted for >80% of relative abundances, indicating that Actinobacteridae and Rubrobacteridae were the most important subclasses in the alpine grasslands. Through analysis of Actinobacterial ɑ-diversity of the six samples, the number of OTUs ranged from 447.23±52.83 to 675.00±114.69, and the Shannon index ranged from 5.35±0.15 to 5.78±0.11. Both of the measures exhibited strong negative correlations (P <0.01) with the elevation, indicating that the environmental conditions of higher elevation may not benefit to the survival of Actinobacterial species. Mantel test was implemented to identify the major environmental factors that impact Actinobacterial communities, and the result indicated that elevation and soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon and nitrogen contents were all significantly (P <0.05) correlated with Actinobacterial community structure and they could be the key factors in determining the distribution of soil Actinobacteria in the alpine grassland in the Tibetan Plateau.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.010
       
  • Grassland degradation and restoration monitoring and driving forces
           analysis based on long time-series remote sensing data in Xilin Gol League
           

    • Authors: Bin Sun; Zengyuan Li; Zhihai Gao; Zhong Guo; Bengyu Wang; Xiaolong Hu; Lina Bai
      Pages: 219 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Bin Sun, Zengyuan Li, Zhihai Gao, Zhong Guo, Bengyu Wang, Xiaolong Hu, Lina Bai
      Land degradation is a process during which the land's productive capacity declines and eventually becomes completely lost under the influence of natural forces and human activities. With the development of remote sensing technology, long time-series of vegetation parameters has become available. In this study, time-series annual net primary production (NPP) datasets covering Xilin Gol League, Inner Mongolia, China during 2001 to 2012 were established based on an improved Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. Then, the areas of grassland degradation and restoration were determined using the Sen+Mann-Kendall method. Finally, the driving forces of grassland degradation and restoration in this area were distinguished over the past 12years through multiple and partial regression methods. The results showed the following five major findings: (1) From 2001 to 2012, areas showing degraded and restored trends were 2.36% and 9.37%, respectively, at the confidence level of α=0.1. There was a significant restored trend in Otindag sandy land and its surroundings, which indicates that some ecological engineering projects have achieved significant results. (2) Based on the combined analyses of multiple regression and partial regression, the main driver of grassland degradation in Xilin Gol League was identified as human activities, whereas climate change had a small influence. The effects of both human activities and climate change were the main drivers of grassland restoration; the single effect of human activities also played an important role in grassland restoration. (3) By comparing land use types in 2000 and 2010, we found that urban expansion and road construction occupied a major portion of grassland in Xilin Gol League in the past 10years. Under the influence of the human activities, 3.2% of grassland experienced degradation and became bare land. In contrast, some areas showed vegetation recovery: 7.1% of bare land transformed to grassland. (4) By analyzing vegetation changes in the key nature reserves and coal mining areas, we found that vegetation in the earlier exploited mining areas was influenced seriously by human activities and showed a degradation trend; vegetation in the earlier protected nature reserve showed a restored trend under human activities. Simultaneously, in the new nature reserve, grassland productivity is improving. (5) The proposed methods of grassland degradation and restoration monitoring and driving force analysis were suitable for long time-series vegetation indicators datasets at the regional scale. These results may allow the local government to develop land degradation control strategies and provide a basis for using this improved method to study the influence of global climate change on land degradation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.009
       
  • Physiological and hydrological changes in Populus euphratica seedlings
           under salinity stress

    • Authors: Vishnu D Rajput; Chen Yaning; Mubarek Ayup; Tatiana Minkina; Svetlana Sushkova; Saglara Mandzhieva
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Vishnu D Rajput, Chen Yaning, Mubarek Ayup, Tatiana Minkina, Svetlana Sushkova, Saglara Mandzhieva
      The effect of salinity stress on stomatal aperture, density, conductance and native embolism rate (PLC%) in the seedlings of Populus euphratica were studied in the arid ecosystem of Xinjiang, China. Model experiment was conducted at different concentrations of salt (50, 100, 150, and 200mM NaCl) with the irrigation water for consequently three months, on two years old seedlings. Salinity stress effected stomatal density; it increased in all salt treated treatments with relation to untreated plant while areas of stomata were reduced significantly. Decrease in length of stomatal openings and area of openness were also observed. The stomatal conductance was decreased from 1st to 3rd month consequently and from 0mM to 200mM NaCl in all treatments. It decreased with an increased concentration of salinity, and a similar trend was observed for duration of time. Salinity stress showed impact on native PLC% values. Enhancing and revealing the mechanism of salinity tolerance of P. euphratica will extend their application for afforestation on salinized soil and sustainable wood bio-production.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.005
       
  • Fertilizer industrial effluents: Physico-chemical characterization and
           water quality parameters evaluation

    • Authors: Umer Younas; Shahid Iqbal; Asif Saleem; Munawar Iqbal; Arif Nazir; Sajida Noureen; Karamat Mehmood; Numrah Nisar
      Pages: 236 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Umer Younas, Shahid Iqbal, Asif Saleem, Munawar Iqbal, Arif Nazir, Sajida Noureen, Karamat Mehmood, Numrah Nisar
      In this study, effluents from four different fertilizer industrial units, producing different fertilizers have been analyzed for various physicochemical features. The color, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride (Cl−), fluoride (F−), carbonate (CO3 2−), bicarbonate (HCO3 1−), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3 −), nitrite (NO2 −), phosphate (PO4 3−), sulphate (SO4 2−), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were determined using standard analytical procedures. The values of measured parameters were found significantly (P <0.05) higher than the permissible limits recommended for wastewater. In comparison to national environmental quality standards, it was concluded that the effluents from fertilizer industries require proper treatment prior to discharge into the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.002
       
  • Ecological restoration of village common degraded land through
           participatory approach for biodiversity conservation and socio-economic
           development in Indian Himalayan Region

    • Authors: Lakhpat S. Rawat; Rakesh K. Maikhuri; Deepak Dhyani; Yateesh M. Bahuguna; Dalbeer S. Pharswan
      Pages: 240 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lakhpat S. Rawat, Rakesh K. Maikhuri, Deepak Dhyani, Yateesh M. Bahuguna, Dalbeer S. Pharswan
      In the advent of global climate change, ecological rehabilitation through keystone tree species suited to a given socio-ecological conditions has increasingly received wider attention to off-set the global environmental impact through synergizing and enhancing multiple ecosystem services beneficial to human wellbeing. Correspondingly, shortage of forest products and unsustainability of current landuse practices and associated increasing rate of conversion and degradation of remaining natural resources has jeopardized the socio-economic and decision capacity of the farmers residing in Indian sub-continent. Indigenous tree species are largely untried for these applications and represent an underexploited resource that may offer a good combination of adapting local environmental conditions together with potential to restore degraded environments and biodiversity conservation. In view of above, multipurpose tree plantation on village common degraded land in three village cluster viz., Jaminikhal, Manjgaon and Hadiya, district Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India located across the latitude was established with people participation. The present study reports survival, growth, chemical properties of soil, fodder production and carbon sequestration of four year plantation at three different locations. Average highest survival rate 96.6% was recorded at Jaminikhal village cluster (JVC) compared to Manjgaon village cluster (MVC) 90.3% and Hadiya village cluster (HVC) 71.1%. Average maximum height (147.7cm) of planted tree species was recorded at JVC followed by MVC (136.2cm) and HVC (112.2cm). Annual incremental rate in circumference of the planted tree species across the sites was reported maximum 2.6cmyear−1 at JVC while minimum at HVC 2.0cmyear−1. Across sites the highest organic carbon %, total nitrogen and total phosphorus 1.06, 0.18 and 0.09 respectively was recorded at JVC and total cation exchange was also reported in the soil of JVC. Fodder biomass from natural grass was harvested maximum (9568kg/ha−1/year−1) at JVC followed by MJV (7546kg/ha−1/year−1) while minimum (6895kg/ha−1/year−1) was recorded at HVC after four year of plantation. Similar pattern was observed for the fodder biomass harvested from introduced grasses and quantified maximum (2856kg/ha−1/year−1) at JVC and minimum (1543kg/ha−1/year−1) at HVC. Appropriate strategies and frame work was developed for successful plantation such as inventorization of bioengineering measures viz., trenches, gully plugging, plantation of fodder grass, people preference for planting species and capacity building of communities for strengthening their understanding and skill to manage plantation sites.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.03.003
       
  • Population distribution pattern intensity of Parapenaeus fissuroides
           Crosnier in the northeast Fujian sea

    • Authors: Jiandi Cai; Sunzhong Ye; Zhidong Zhuang; Chunyan Xu; Chao Ma; Yong Liu; Changchun Shen
      Pages: 253 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jiandi Cai, Sunzhong Ye, Zhidong Zhuang, Chunyan Xu, Chao Ma, Yong Liu, Changchun Shen
      In this study, the population pattern intensity of Parapenaeus fissuroides Crosnier in the northeast Fujian sea area was investigated with the negative binomal parameters, average crowding degree and poly block indices. The Paper also further discusses the driving factors of the population pattern intensity. In spring, the population primarily consisted of small patches, population aggregation was low, and individual mean crowding was the lowest of the year. In summer, population aggregation and individual mean was highest. In fall, the population primarily consisted of a small number of large patches. In winter, population aggregation was the lowest. The zooplankton biomass (feed) and water temperature were the major factors affecting population aggregation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.03.002
       
  • Soil nitrogen mineralization in a wind-disturbed area on Changbai Mountain
           after 30years of vegetation restoration

    • Authors: Fangfang Ma; Xiang Jia; Wangming Zhou; Li Zhou; Dapao Yu; Yingying Meng; Limin Dai
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Fangfang Ma, Xiang Jia, Wangming Zhou, Li Zhou, Dapao Yu, Yingying Meng, Limin Dai
      Wind-disturbed (1986) and undisturbed primary forest areas (controls) on Changbai Mountain (China) were studied to compare levels of soil nitrogen mineralization. Soil samples were collected at 0–10cm (topsoil) and 10–20cm (subsoil) depths from the vegetation zones of a broadleaf Korean pine forest (BKPF), spruce-fir forest (SFF), and an Erman's birch forest (EBF) at different altitudes. Nitrogen status and mineralization characteristics were studied in the soil samples from a wind-disturbed area where vegetation cover has been restored after 30years of regrowth. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in the topsoil layer of the three vegetation types were significantly higher than in the subsoil layer. SOC and TN contents in the topsoil layer increased, and soil C/N ratio significantly decreased with increasing altitude. No significant differences in SOC, TN or pH were detected in the wind-disturbed and control area soils of BKPF and EBF. SOC and TN levels in the subsoil layer of SFF were significantly higher in wind-disturbed than in control areas. The topsoil C/N ratios of BKPF and SFF were significantly higher in the control area vs. the wind-disturbed area. After 21d incubation, inorganic nitrogen contents (ammonium nitrogen NH4 +-N and nitrate nitrogen NO3 −-N) in the soils of BKPF, SFF and EBF increased in both the wind-disturbed and control areas. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N) was the primary inorganic form of nitrogen. The changes in the amount of NH4 +-N formed from ammonification contributed to the 57.1–76.2% total amount of nitrogen mineralized (net nitrogen mineralization) and the net nitrogen mineralization rate. The nitrogen mineralization process was mainly the result of net ammonification. Correlation analysis on the soil nitrogen mineralization rate and chemical properties showed that the ammonification rate had strong positive correlation with SOC and the C/N ratio. Nitrification rate was highly correlated with SOC and TN contents, as well as soil pH. Net nitrogen mineralization rate was significantly correlated with SOC and TN contents, C/N ratio, and soil pH. Multiple comparisons analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that soil nitrogen mineralization was greatly influenced by vegetation type, soil depth, and wind disturbance in the forest soils at different altitudes. Net ammonification and net nitrogen mineralization were significantly affected by wind disturbance. The vegetation cover has undergone restoration for nearly 30years in the wind-disturbed area on Changbai Mountain, but our data demonstrate that differences in soil quality between primary forest and wind-disturbed areas remain significant due to the different vegetation types.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.011
       
  • Effects of simulated climate change on soil microbial biomass and enzyme
           activities in young Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in subtropical
           China

    • Authors: Jintao Gao; Enxi Wang; Weiling Ren; Xiaofei Liu; Yuehmin Chen; Youwen Shi; Yusheng Yang
      Pages: 272 - 278
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jintao Gao, Enxi Wang, Weiling Ren, Xiaofei Liu, Yuehmin Chen, Youwen Shi, Yusheng Yang
      Global warming and nitrogen deposition have been responsible for numerous environmental disturbances, and have attracted much attention from researchers, government agencies and international community. Recent studies indicate that the trend of global warming and nitrogen deposition will continue over the next few decades. These changes not only affect the growth of aboveground vegetation, but also change the belowground soil environment, and thus directly or indirectly affect the microbial process. The microbial biomass and soil enzymes play significant roles in terrestrial environments, particularly through the decomposition of soil organic matter, dynamic fluctuation between carbon sink and source, and the transformation of soil nutrient. However, little is known about that how global warming and nitrogen deposition will affect the soil microbial and soil enzymes in the subtropical zone. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the responses of the microbial biomass and soil enzyme activity to short-term simulated warming and nitrogen deposition in young Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) in Sanming Fujian province in subtropical China. The results showed that soil warming increased microbial biomass carbon content and improved the activity of acid phosphatase and lignin enzymes significantly (P <0.05). Additionally, microbial biomass carbon content was significantly higher than that of the control after the application of nitrogen fertilizer. Besides, nitrogen addition also significantly raised the C/N ratio of microbial biomass. It also reduced the activity of lignin and cellulose hydrolysis. The combination of warming and nitrogen treatment was more effective than individual warming and nitrogen treatments, increasing the content of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, decreasing the activity of lignin hydrolytic enzymes and chitinase, and leading to further acidification of the soil. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that moisture and pH are the major determinants of soil enzyme activity at the 0–10cm depth. However, at the 10–20cm depth, the major determiner is microbial biomass. In summary, the simulated warming and nitrogen deposition affected soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity significantly in the short-term, and the interaction of the two factors was significant. That suggests that the climate change could have a profound effect on soil microbial processes. Therefore, the effects of simulated warming and nitrogen deposition on microbial biomass and soil enzyme activity and the mechanism of their interaction with soil, microorganisms and plants need to be studied further, in order to reveal the responses and feedback mechanisms of Chinese fir plantations to global climate change in subtropical China.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.007
       
  • Foliar carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry in a grassland
           ecosystem along the Chinese Grassland Transect

    • Authors: Hailing Yu; Jiangwen Fan; Yuzhe Li
      Pages: 133 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Hailing Yu, Jiangwen Fan, Yuzhe Li
      Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) are the basic nutrient elements required for plant growth and function. Ecological stoichiometry provides an important method for the determination of plant nutrient utilization and the environmental adaptation strategies of plants. Studying the stoichiometry of C, N and P is crucial to the understanding of nutrient cycling and ecosystem stabilization mechanisms. Most studies so far have focused only on N and P stoichiometry for plant leaves and ignored the stoichiometry characteristics among C, N, and P. As a major element of plant dry matter, C, along with critical nutrient elements (N and P) could regulate and influence the consumption and fixation of organic matter in ecosystems. Therefore, it is necessary to study the ecological stoichiometry of C, N, and P in plants. Here, C, N and P concentrations and their ratios were measured for 329 foliar samples collected at 132 sites along the 4500km-long Chinese Grassland Transect (CGT) that traverses the Inner Mongolian and Qinghai-Tibet Plateaus. The content of C, N, and P of plant leaves in grassland ranged from 257.40 to 590.77mg/g, 4.49 to 45.85mg/g, and 0.20 to 3.40mg/g, with an average of 463.76mg/g, 19.94mg/g, 1.31mg/g, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of P was highest (0.47) while the CV values of C and N were 0.09 and 0.34, respectively. N and P were positively correlated (R 2 =0.491, P <0.0001), in agreement with previous studies, while no significant correlation was found between C and P or between C and N. The ranges for C/N, N/P, and C/P were 10.93–93.67 (with an average of 26.86 and a CV value of 0.46) for C/N, 1.68–53.00 (with an average of 16.59 and a CV value of 0.39) for N/P, and 61.49–1995.24 (with an average of 436.77 and a CV value of 0.59) for C/P, respectively. The mass ratio of C:N:P in grassland plant was 440:17:1, and the atom ratio was 1136:43:1. C/N and C/P, C/N and N/P were positively correlated (R 2 =0.509, P <0.0001; R 2 =0.410, P <0.0001, respectively), while C/N and N/P were not significantly correlated. C concentrations of grassland plant in the Chinese Grassland Transect were close to those at the global scale, but lower than that in forests in China. N and P concentrations in grassland plant were lower than those in global terrestrial plants, while N concentrations were much higher but P concentrations were much lower than those in forest plants. C/N and C/P were relatively higher, reflecting the higher vegetative utilization efficiency of grassland vegetation. The CV of P was much higher and the N/P in this study was higher than 16, which indicated that grassland plants in China are more restricted by P elements. Our results could help to understand the relationship between C, N, and P stoichiometry in grassland plants and provide basic data for related ecological models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.06.005
       
  • Pollinator diversity in different habitats of the agricultural landscape
           in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River based on the
           three-color pan trap method

    • Authors: Meina Wang; Xunling Lu; Shengyan Ding; Jiayan Ren; Ziqi Bian; Zheng Xu
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Meina Wang, Xunling Lu, Shengyan Ding, Jiayan Ren, Ziqi Bian, Zheng Xu
      The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River constitute one of the most important grain-producing areas in China and strategic position for national food security. The maintenance of pollinator diversity in agricultural landscapes is not only meaningful for biodiversity protection, but also a guarantee of food security and crop production. Pollinators have response preferences to the color of nectar and pollen plants in different habitats. The diversity of pollinator in different habitats was analyzed by using multivariable ANOVA. Results showed that a total of 23,264 individuals were captured, which belong to 7 orders and 84 families. The difference individuals of pollinators in two habitats was highly significant (P <0.001). Approximately twice as many individuals were captured in farmland habitat than that in woodland habitat. The values of the Margalef richness index and the Berger-Parker dominance index were also greater in farmland habitat than that in woodland habitat. In both habitats, differences in pollinator diversity were significantly higher for the yellow traps than that for the other two colors (P <0.01); differences in the individual abundance in the yellow traps are highly significantly greater (P <0.001) than that for the other two colors, while there was no significant difference between the white and blue traps. The sensitivity of orders Diptera and Hymenoptera was greatest to yellow traps, followed by that to white and blue traps, while order Coleoptera showed no obvious preference among the three colors. With respect to species richness, white traps could capture the most pollinators in different habitat types; with respect to the individual abundance, yellow traps attracted the most pollinators. The results also show that some species had a specific preference for color. For example, Drosophilidae in both farmland and woodland habitats preferred white, and Eulophidae preferred yellow only in farmland. This is because pollinators respond differently to different intensities, wavelengths, and reflectivity, which is as a result of both innate preferences and learning. Pollinators respond differently to the three colored traps, and these traps could be used in a complementary manner for pollinator capture. Color pan traps can be seen as an effective method to obtain pollinators, which can use in various studies on pollinators in this research area.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.06.007
       
  • Community structure and stability of Pinus kwangtungensis forest in Hainan
           Province

    • Authors: Ting-Tian Wu; Kai Zhang; Xiao-Bo Yang; Dong-Hai Li; Zi-Jin Liu; Yuan-Ling Li; Cheng Long
      Pages: 156 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Ting-Tian Wu, Kai Zhang, Xiao-Bo Yang, Dong-Hai Li, Zi-Jin Liu, Yuan-Ling Li, Cheng Long
      Pinus kwangtungensis forest, Tropical coniferous forest, is mainly distributed in high altitude regions in Hainan Province, including the Yinggeling Mountains and middle part of Wuzhishan Mountains, and the Jiaxi Mountains in the southwestern part, and the first two regions are most typical. To explore the community structure and stability of P. kwangtungensis forest, we established four plots, three from the Yinggeling Mountains and one from the Jiaxi Mountains, 14,400 square meters totally. We conducted a comparative study in terms of the species composition, age structure and community stability. We found that 1) There is no significant differences in the composition of P. kwangtungensis in the two natural reserves, but the species composition in the high altitude and low altitude is significantly different, indicating that altitude mainly leads to the difference in the species composition; besides, due to the difference of latitude, the species composition of P. kwangtungensis in Hainan and Guangdong, Guangxi were different, and most of them in Hainan belong to the families of tropic distribution and pan tropic distribution while most of them in Guangdong and Guangxi belong to the families of subtropics distribution, which shows the difference of species composition in horizontal distribution between the two areas; 2) P. kwangtungensis population is facing several problems, including seriously aging, difficulty of seedling regeneration, and large age-class dominance. P. kwangtungensis population decline, and plot 1 and 2 have the most obvious declining, which are probably replaced by the broad leaved increasing population; 3) The stability analysis showed that P. kwangtungensis in the Jiaxi Mountains has higher stability than that in the Yinggeling Mountains. As for stability, the three plots from the Yinggeling Mountains can be sorted: plot 1>plot 3>plot 2. The stability index of the four plots is away from the stable point “20/80”. We concluded that P. kwangtungensishe forests in Hainan were unstable, resulted from the biological characteristics of dominant species and the environment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.06.008
       
  • Scatter-hoarding behavior in Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus): An
           examination of four hypotheses

    • Authors: Zhenyu Wang; Dongyuan Zhang; Shaowei Liang; Jia Li; Yihao Zhang; Xianfeng Yi
      Pages: 173 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Zhenyu Wang, Dongyuan Zhang, Shaowei Liang, Jia Li, Yihao Zhang, Xianfeng Yi
      To store food items, animals employ scatter-hoarding, larder-hoarding, or a combination of both. However, little is known about the factors that drive animals to use different strategies. In the present study, we used seed placement experiments, both in the field and in semi-natural enclosures, in order to test four hypotheses related to the scatter-hoarding behavior of the Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus. To investigate whether scatter-hoarding is a vestigial non-adaptive behavior (non-adaptive hypothesis), we provided each of 23 Siberian chipmunks with 30 tagged intact Quercus mongolica acorns, which were placed at the center of their enclosures, and then observed their behavior. To test whether scatter-hoarding behavior is a response to insufficient larder space (lack-of-space hypothesis), we provided each of 14 Siberian chipmunks with 30 tagged intact acorns, with open artificial burrows and then closed artificial burrows. To determine whether scatter-hoarding was used as a means to rapidly sequester food items from food patches (rapid-sequestering hypothesis) and whether the distance between food patches and burrows affects hoarding behavior, 10 chipmunks were randomly selected, and 30 marked acorns were introduced to their enclosures at 3.5, 0.5, and 7m from their burrows, over a period of 3days. To test whether scatter-hoarding represents a behavioral strategy to avoid the pilferage of food resources by competitors (pilfering-avoidance hypothesis), 10 randomly selected chipmunks were released into the enclosures immediately following acorn placement, and over the next few days, the other 10 rodents as potential pilferer were caged and put in the corner of the enclosures before acorn placement, with one individual in each enclosure. This deployment was expected to invoke anti-pilferage behavior in the focal caching animals. The results of the present study indicated that Siberian chipmunks exhibit scatter-hoarding behavior more often than larder-hoarding, regardless of age and sex. Scatter-hoarding behavior was common in Siberian chipmunks, thus failing to support the non-adaptive hypothesis. Meanwhile, the availability of larder space (open or closed burrows) had no significant effect on the intensities of either larder- or scatter-hoarding, thereby failing to support the lack-of-space hypothesis. In addition, the distance between seed sources and burrows also failed to influence the seed-hoarding behavior of the chipmunks, either in the field or in the semi-natural enclosures; and the chipmunks did not transfer scatter-hoarded acorns into dens. Therefore, we argue that the primary function of scatter-hoarding is not to ensure the rapid harvesting of Q. mongolica acorns, thereby failing to support the rapid-sequestering hypothesis. In contrast, Siberian chipmunks did increase scatter-hoarding behavior when faced with a risk of pilferage by superior competitors, which suggests that the scatter-hoarding strategy adopted by Siberian chipmunks can be explained by the pilfering-avoidance hypothesis, and the observation that the chipmunks intentionally moved seeds from their artificial burrows to scatter-hoard them further supports this hypothesis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.06.003
       
  • Effects of seaweed fertilizer on the Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings
           growth and soil microbial numbers under continue cropping

    • Authors: Yanfang Wang; Li Xiang; Sen Wang; Xiaowei Wang; Xuesen Chen; Zhiquan Mao
      Pages: 180 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Yanfang Wang, Li Xiang, Sen Wang, Xiaowei Wang, Xuesen Chen, Zhiquan Mao
      We investigated the effects of seaweed fertilizer on the physiological features of apple seedlings under continues cropping conditions. The six-leaf Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were planted in replant soil with seaweed fertilizer applied at three rates: 5, 20, and 40gkg−1, and one control group with no seaweed fertilizer application. The results showed that the addition of seaweed fertilizer obviously increased the seedling plants growth. The rate of photosynthesis, chlorophyll (a+b) content, and activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase), were 78%, 20%, 23%, 45% and 144% higher, respectively, in the seedlings treated with 40gkg−1 of seaweed fertilizer than in the control group. Furthermore, plants in the 40gkg−1 seaweed fertilizer treatment group had H2O2, O2 −, malondialdehyde and proline contents that were 32%, 60%, 56% and 38% lower, respectively, than in the control group. Finally, the number of bacteria, fungi, and the ratio of bacteria:fungi in the replant soil with 40gkg−1 of seaweed fertilizer applied were 172%, 67% and 150% higher, respectively, than in the soil without seaweed fertilizer application. Overall, seaweed fertilizer application promoted plant growth, increased the rate of photosynthesis, activated antioxidant enzymes, decreased lipid peroxidation, improved the soil nutrient, and regulated the soil microorganisms. As a result of these changes, the treated seedlings did not exhibit the symptoms of apple replant disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.01.004
       
  • Insecticidal and repellent activity of three Satureja species against
           adult red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    • Authors: Azin Taban; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Mahsa Hooshmandi
      Pages: 201 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): Azin Taban, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Mahsa Hooshmandi
      Grains and milling products constitute a major part of the daily diet of human and animal. The primary factor in grains and by products losses is the depredation of stored-product beetles. The objective of this trial was the evaluation of insecticidal and repellent activity of essential oils (EOs) from three Satureja spp (S. khuzestanica, S. rechingeri and S. bachtiarica) which grow wild in Iran, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), known as one of the most common stored-product pests worldwide. Methodology EOs were extracted from aerial parts of three Satureja spp using a Clevenger type apparatus. Their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results Results indicated that phenolic compounds, such as thymol and carvacrol, are the main constituents of the EOs. Insecticidal activity on the T. castaneum adult was evaluated by direct contact and fumigation bioassays. S. khuzestanica EO was the most efficient with the lowest estimated LD50 and LC50 as 20.11μg/adult 2.51mg/L air, respectively. All the tested EOs were strongly repellent to the T. castaneum adult at the tested concentration (1% v/v). Similarly, S. khuzestanica oil at 1% (v/v) showed the highest repellent activity (98% to 100%) after 4h of exposure. Conclusion Considering the potential toxicity and repellency of the mentioned Satureja spp EOs to the red flour beetle, future studies could investigate the practical application of this potential bio-insecticide for the control of this pest.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.01.001
       
  • Comparative study of heavy metals distribution in soil, forage, blood and
           milk

    • Authors: M. Tahir; Munawar Iqbal; Mazhar Abbas; M.A. Tahir; Arif Nazir; Dure N. Iqbal; Qudsia Kanwal; Faiza Hassan; Umer Younas
      Pages: 207 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 3
      Author(s): M. Tahir, Munawar Iqbal, Mazhar Abbas, M.A. Tahir, Arif Nazir, Dure N. Iqbal, Qudsia Kanwal, Faiza Hassan, Umer Younas
      Heavy metals contamination is a global issue and is a severe threat to living organisms. Present study was designed to analyze heavy metals distribution in soil, forage, blood and milk from Livestock station, Khizerabad, Sargodha, Pakistan. Statistical analysis was performed to access the variation in metals concernments in different types of samples as well as variation among sampling seasons. The concentration of heavy metals varied significant (P <0.05) seasonally (summer and winter) as well as among sample types (soil, forage, blood and milk). The Ni mean concentration was recorded in the range of 1.6–64.0mgkg−1 in soil, 0.93–10.26mgL−1 in blood and 0.93–10.26mgL−1 in milk sample and similar trend was observed in case of Co, Cd, Cr and Pb. Concentration of Cr in soil, forage, blood and milk was recorded within the permissible limits, whereas Co and Cd contents were beyond the permissible limits. Pb and Ni contents were within the permissible limits in soil and forage samples. In comparison to previous study conducted in adjoining areas, it was observed that the heavy metals in the environment have been increased, which might be serious threat to the soil, environmental and livings organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T16:48:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.007
       
  • Morphological variability and allometric relationships of the herb Panax
           notoginseng in Yunnan, China

    • Authors: Ji Zhang; Yan-Li Zhao; Hang Jin; Jin-Yu Zhang; Yuan-Zhong Wang
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ji Zhang, Yan-Li Zhao, Hang Jin, Jin-Yu Zhang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
      A plant's morphology changes throughout its ontogeny. Investigating the allometric relationships between different morphological traits could provide useful information for cultivation of medicinal plants. Here we collected 698 individuals of Panax notoginseng for allometric analysis from seven populations cultivated in Yunnan, Southwest China. The slopes and intercepts of the allometric relationships were estimated by Standardized Major Axis regression. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in each morphological variable considered among populations. Allometric analysis showed that all of the log-log relationships had different slopes or shared a common slope but differed in intercept (p<0.001). The morphological traits showed flexible allometric relationships. However, the root biomass that considered as a target trait showed the least allometric variability (slope=1.068–1.378) when compared to other variables. This could be because of the hundreds of years of cultivation and artificial selection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.008
       
  • Aspects and altitudes modify the requirement of disturbance in oak
           (Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus) belt of Garhwal Himalaya

    • Authors: Sunil Prasad; Vikaspal Singh; DS Chauhan
      Pages: 70 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sunil Prasad, Vikaspal Singh, DS Chauhan
      Present study measures the impact of forest disturbance on population structure and regeneration status of a Himalayan banj oak (Qsuercus leucotrichophora A. Camus) forest at different aspects and altitudes. The whole study was carried out by placing 300 systematically selected sample plots in banj oak forest. The study revealed that moderately disturbed forest patches were present in all elevation ranges and both north and south facing aspects whereas most of the highly disturbed patches were situated near middle and lower stretches of forests or close to habitations. Density of primary diameter class (5–15cm) was recorded highest in moderately disturbed zone in upper elevation ranges and north facing aspect and ‘fair’ category of regeneration was most frequent in all elevation ranges and aspects. The paper concludes a positive effect of mid-level disturbance on plant community for better regeneration and study recommends a minimum resource extraction and silvicultural practices in banj-oak belt of Himalaya for a minimum canopy opening which not only be able to provide biomass to local communities for their daily needs but also would be able to maintain and improve forest health.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.009
       
  • Effects of shell morphological traits on the weight trait of the orange
           strain of the Manila clam

    • Authors: Zhong-ming Huo; Yu-an Wu; Zhi-ying Gao; Guan-nan Chu; Xi-wu Yan; Feng Yang; Guo-fan Zhang
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhong-ming Huo, Yu-an Wu, Zhi-ying Gao, Guan-nan Chu, Xi-wu Yan, Feng Yang, Guo-fan Zhang
      A new strain of Manila clam with orange shell color was produced after selection within a full-sib family for two generations. In the present study, the shell length, height, and width, and the live body weight of the orange strain were measured, and their correlation coefficients were calculated. The shell morphological traits were used as independent variables, and the live body weight was used as the dependent variable for calculating the path coefficients, correlation index, and determination coefficients. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between each shell morphological trait and the live body weight were all highly significant (P <0.01). The correlation indices (R 2) of morphological traits against the live body weight of clams were larger than 0.85, indicating that the morphology traits were the main factors affecting the body weight. Multiple regression equations were obtained to estimate shell length X 1 (cm), shell height X 2 (cm), and shell width X 3 (cm) against live body weight Y (g): Y =−2.62+0.34 X 1 +0.145 X 2, (X 1 <0.05, X 2 <0.05). The results suggest that the shell length could be used as the main trait for selective breeding and could indirectly make a large improvement in the weight trait.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.007
       
  • Dynamic assessment of the value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen
           release services in Qinghai Lake basin

    • Authors: Tao Zhang; Guangchao Cao; Shengkui Cao; Xiaoge Zhang; Jing Zhang; Guangzhao Han
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tao Zhang, Guangchao Cao, Shengkui Cao, Xiaoge Zhang, Jing Zhang, Guangzhao Han
      Studies on ecosystem service function have an important significance for analyzing and understanding global warming. With the introduction of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies for the evaluation of ecosystem service function, the scope for analysis has been widening. Increasing number of researchers use these technologies to quantify the value of ecosystem service functions and reveal their spatial-temporal variability. By using the data for the interpretation of five RS images and net primary productivity (NPP) in Qinghai Lake basin, we assessed the value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services and revealed their dynamic variation in this basin. The result suggested that the average values of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services in Qinghai Lake basin between 1987 and 2010 were spatially distributed in a ring shape around the Qinghai Lake and decreased from southeastern to the north and northwestern regions; the northwestern areas had the lowest value. The vegetation carbon fixation value between 1987 and 2010 was on an average 28.87×108 yuan/a in Qinghai Lake basin, whereas the oxygen release value was 64.41×108 yuan/a. Alpine meadow ecosystem showed the highest value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services function in Qinghai Lake basin, with average values of 18.28×108 yuan/a and 40.79×108 yuan/a, respectively, followed by those of temperate steppe and sparse vegetation. The vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release values in Qinghai Lake basin gradually increased from 1987 to 2010, with the maximum value in 2010. By the end of 2010, the values increased by 7.19×108 yuan and 16.04×108 yuan, respectively. The values slightly decreased in barren land, lakeside marsh, river valley swamp, and sandy areas, but increased to different degrees in other ecosystems. Among them, the largest increase was noted in alpine meadow (4.38×108 yuan and 9.78×108 yuan, respectively), followed by those in temperate steppe with increased values of 1.12×108 yuan and 2.49×108 yuan, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.005
       
  • Effects of simulated warming on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and
           archaea communities in an alpine forest of western Sichuan, China

    • Authors: Li Zhang; Fuzhong Wu; Zhenfeng Xu; Bo Tan; Ao Wang; Wanqin Yang
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li Zhang, Fuzhong Wu, Zhenfeng Xu, Bo Tan, Ao Wang, Wanqin Yang
      Ongoing climate change, characterized by winter warming, snow cover decline and extreme weather events, is changing terrestrial ecosystem processes in high altitude and latitude regions. Winter soil processes could be particularly sensitive to climate change. In fact, winter warming and snow cover decline are interdependent in cold biomes, and have a synergistic effect on soil processes. Soil microorganisms not only play crucial roles in material cycling and energy flow, but also act as sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. However, little information is available on the effect of winter warming on forest soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The alpine and subalpine forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibet Plateau have important roles in conserving soil, holding water, and maintaining biodiversity. To understand the changes in AOB and AOA communities under climate change scenarios, an altitudinal gradient experiment in combination with soil column transplanting was conducted at the Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, which is situated in the Bipeng Valley of Lixian County, Sichuan, China. Thirty intact soil columns under an alpine forest at an altitude of 3582m were transplanted and incubated at 3298m and 3023m forest sites, respectively. Compared with the 3582m, we expected air temperature increases of 2°C and 4°C at the 3298m and 3023m, respectively. However, the temperatures in the soil organic layer (OL) and mineral soil layer (ML) increased by 0.27°C and 0.13°C, respectively, at 3023m and −0.36°C and −0.35°C at 3298m. Based on a previous study and with simultaneous monitoring of soil temperature, the abundances of AOB and AOA communities in both the OL and ML were measured by qPCR in December 2010 (i.e., the onset of the frozen soil period) and March 2011 (i.e., the late frozen soil period). The soil columns incubated at 3023m had relatively higher AOB abundances and lower AOA/AOB ratios than those at 3298m, while higher AOA abundances and AOA/AOB ratios were observed at 3298m. The abundance of the microbial community at the late frozen period was higher than that at the onset of frozen soil, and the changes in microbial community abundance at the late frozen period were more substantial. Furthermore, the nitrate nitrogen (N) concentrations in both the OL and ML were significantly higher than ammonia N concentrations, implying that soil nitrate N is the primary component of the inorganic N pool in the alpine forest ecosystem. Additionally, the responses of AOA and AOB in the soil OL to soil column transplanting were more sensitive than the responses of those in ML. In conclusion, climate warming alters the abundance of the ammonia-oxidizing microbial community in the alpine forest ecosystem, which, in turn, might affect N cycling.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.004
       
  • Floral traits and mating system of Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae)

    • Authors: Qun Li; Cheng-Jiang Ruan; Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Qun Li, Cheng-Jiang Ruan, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Variations in floral traits and floral structures influence plant mating systems. Hibiscus trionum produces large, showy flowers typical of an outcrossing species, yet flowers are autonomously self-pollinated. In this study, we measured floral morphology, breeding system and outcrossing rate estimated by ISSR markers. Results indicate that two types of flowers were observed in H. trionum, and the type I with bigger petals appears to be much more visible to pollinators, demonstrated by than type II flowers with smaller petals. The flowers with hand pollination were closed 1h earlier than intact flowers, whether they were type I or II. The relationship between the amount of pollen deposited on the stigma and the number of seeds per capsule was highly significant, and 80 or more pollens per flower can make the mean number of seeds (mean=37) in H. trionum. Delayed selfing in H. trionum did not provide a large contribution to seed production, since reproductive assurance were only 0.025. However, successful reproduction of 72.5% flowers in the absence of pollinators suggested that selfing provides reproductive assurance during seasons, in which pollinators were limiting. The multilocus outcrossing rates in different populations varied from 0.982 to 1.200, with a mean of 1.116. Our data provide an empirical demonstration of a predominantly outcrossing species with potential delayed selfing when pollinators are absent or scarce.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.011
       
  • Determination of food sources and trophic position in Malaysian tropical
           highland streams using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    • Authors: Dhiya Shafiqah Ridzuan; Che Salmah Md. Rawi; Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Salman Abdo Al-Shami
      Pages: 97 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dhiya Shafiqah Ridzuan, Che Salmah Md. Rawi, Suhaila Abdul Hamid, Salman Abdo Al-Shami
      Stable isotope analysis has been extensively used as an effective tool in determination of trophic relationship in ecosystems. In freshwater ecosystem, aquatic invertebrates represent main component of a river food web. This study was carried out to determine potential food sources of freshwater organism together with pattern of trophic position along the river food web. In this study, rivers of Belum-Temengor Forest Complex (BTFC) has been selected as sampling site as it is a pristine area that contains high diversity and abundance of organisms and can be a benchmark for other rivers in Malaysia. Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) were applied to estimate trophic position and food web paradigm. Analysis of stable isotopes based on organic material collected from the study area revealed that the highest δ 13C value was reported from filamentous algae (−22.68±0.1260/00) and the lowest δ 13C was in allocthonous leaf packs (−31.58±0.1870/00). Meanwhile the highest δ 15N value was in fish (8.45±0.1770/00) and the lowest value of δ 15N was in autochthonous aquatic macrophyte (2.00±1.2340/00). Based on the δ 15N results, there are three trophic levels in the study river and it is suggested that the trophic chain begins with organic matter followed by group of insects and ends with fish (organic matter<insects<fish).

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.002
       
  • Soil microorganisms nitrogen transformation test for abamectin 3.6g/L EC
           (w/v) in loamy sand soil

    • Authors: Nageswara Rao Tentu; Parvatamma Botsa; Manohara Naidu Tentu; Karri Apparao
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Nageswara Rao Tentu, Parvatamma Botsa, Manohara Naidu Tentu, Karri Apparao
      The present study was conducted to determine the nitrogen transformation test of abamectin 3.6g/L EC. This study was conducted as per OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals OECD 216. The test item abamectin 3.6g/L emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was applied in a loamy sand soil and incubated over a period of 28days for nitrogen transformation test at concentrations of 3.2μL/kg soil dry weight and 16μL/kg soil dry weight. The concentrations tested were based on one and five times the maximum recommended field application rates of 1200mL/ha and 6000mL/ha of abamectin 3.6g/L EC, respectively. The deviation in soil nitrate content determined at 28days after application of the test item to soil compared to the control was 0.14% and −9.25% for the single and five times test concentrations, respectively. There is no significant variation between the treatment groups and control sample. The rate of nitrate formation between 14 and 28days after application of the test item to soil deviate from control by 10.41% and 13.74% for 3.2 and 16μL/kg soil dry weight, respectively. Deviations in nitrate levels and nitrate formation rates in soil treated with up to and including 16μL/kg of test item/kg soil dry weight were <25%, compared to control indicating no significant effect occurred in nitrogen transformation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.001
       
  • Histopathological changes and transcriptional alterations of three
           coagulation factors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following short-term
           exposure to MC-LR

    • Authors: Lili Wei; Yi Liu; Zirui Wang; Jiming Ruan; Huadong Wu; Qiwang Zhong
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lili Wei, Yi Liu, Zirui Wang, Jiming Ruan, Huadong Wu, Qiwang Zhong
      Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common hepatotoxic cyanotoxin produced primarily by Microcystis aeruginosa. Although deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, so far, information on coagulation factors of MC-LR has been rare. In our present study, the effects of MC-LR on the coagulation factors expression and pathological changes in zebrafish were investigated. Adult zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally with 200μg/kg MC-LR and newly hatched larvae were placed in glass wares containing 200μg MC-LR/L, liver and whole larvae were collected after exposure for 12h, 24h, 48h and 96h, respectively. mRNA levels of coagulation factor IX (FIX), coagulation factor VII (FVII) and coagulation factor VIIi (FVIIi) in liver of adult fish and total zebrafish larvae were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Significant depression of FIX and FVII were observed in adult zebrafish at different time point, and FVIIi were also significantly decreased except for 12h post-injection. In addition, the histopathological changes in adult zebrafish liver were observed, and the severe hepatic injuries were found at 96h. The pathological changes further explained the transcriptional results. The transcriptions of FVII were significantly depressed throughout the entire experiment in zebrafish larvae, and the FIX only significantly depressed after exposure for 48 and 96h, however, FVIIi just was significantly reduced after 12h and 24h stimulation. Whatever the mechanism, the effects of MC-LR on the transcription of these coagulation factors might explain the intrahepatic hemorrhage in liver after exposure to MC-LR, and which would provide new information to elucidate the hepatotoxicity of MC-LR.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.006
       
  • Study on the effects of arsenic pollution on the communities of
           macro-invertebrate in Xieshui River

    • Authors: Shiyun Chi; Juxiang Hu; Jinxiu Zheng; Fangyong Dong
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Shiyun Chi, Juxiang Hu, Jinxiu Zheng, Fangyong Dong
      In 2006 and 2007, five sampling stations were set up in Xieshui River and its tributaries to study the macro-invertebrate communities, and measure physicochemical parameters and contents of different forms of arsenic. A comparative analysis and multivariate statistical methods were used to explore the effects of arsenic pollution on the macro-invertebrate communities. In this study, sixty species were identified, including 39 aquatic insects, 10 mollusks, 5 oligochaetes, 1 crustacean, and 5 others. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that the macro-invertebrate communities at the station with serious arsenic pollution tended to be simple and showed a significant decreasing in density, biomass, and biodiversity in comparison with the other stations. Arsenic pollution also had a major effect on the dominant species and groups. For instance, EPT taxa disappeared at the station with serious arsenic pollution, and chironomids that belong to the genus Cardiocladius were very tolerant to high concentrations of arsenic. Results of the functional feeding groups (FFGs) analysis indicated that the predators were more tolerant to arsenic pollution, while the scrapers, filterers, and collectors were relatively sensitive to arsenic pollution. Results of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis showed that when the concentration of inorganic arsenic decreased to the range between the criteria continuous concentration (CCC) and the criteria maximum concentration (CMC), the effects of inorganic arsenic on the macro-invertebrate communities seemed to be insignificant. Results of a BVSTEP (Bio-Env Step-Wise Procedure) analysis showed that water temperature, rotifer density, trivalent arsenic, pentavalent arsenic, and total inorganic arsenic greatly influenced species appearance, while rotifer density and various forms of arsenic had a considerable impact on the species composition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.003
       
  • Effect of stand age on soil microbial community structure in wolfberry
           (Lycium barbarum L.) fields

    • Authors: Junhua Zhang; Ming Li; Guoqi Zheng
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Junhua Zhang, Ming Li, Guoqi Zheng
      Soil physicochemical properties and microbes are essential in terrestrial ecosystems through their role in cycling mineral compounds and decomposing organic matter. This study examined the effect of stand age on soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fields, in order to reveal the mechanism of soil degradation due to long-term stand of L. barbarum. The objective of the study was achieved by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis of soil samples from L. barbarum fields in Zhongning County, Ningxia Province—the origin of L. barbarum. Five stand ages of L. barbarum were selected, <1, 3, 6, 9, and 12years (three plots each). The results showed that soil bulk density increased slightly with increasing stand age, while no clear trend was observed in soil pH or total salinity. As the stand age increased, soil organic matter and nutrients first increased before decreasing, with the highest levels being found in year 9. There was an amazing variety of PLFA biomarkers in soil samples at different stand ages. The average concentrations of total, bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete PLFAs in the surface soil initially decreased and then increased, before decreasing with the stand age in summer. The PLFA concentrations of major microbial groups were highest in year 9, with the total PLFA concentrations being 32.97% and 10.67% higher than those in years <1 and 12, respectively. Higher microbial PLFA concentrations were detected in summer relative to autumn and in the surface relative to the subsurface soil. The highest ratios of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial (G−/G+) and fungal to bacterial (F/B) PLFAs were obtained in year 6, on average 76.09% higher than those at the other four stand ages. The soil environment was most stable in year 6, with no differences between other stand ages. Therefore, soil microbial community structure was strongly influenced by the stand age in year 6 only. The effect of stand age on soil G−/G+ and microbial community structure varied with season and depth; there was little effect for F/B in the 20–40cm soil layer. Principal component analysis revealed no correlations between microbial PLFA concentrations and total salinity in the soil; negative correlations were noted between soil pH and F/B in summer (P <0.01), as well as between soil pH and fungal PLFA in autumn (P <0.05). Moreover, microbial PLFA concentrations were correlated with soil organic matter (mean R =0.7725), total nitrogen (mean R =0.8296), total phosphorus (mean R =0.8175), available nitrogen (mean R =0.7458), and available phosphorus (mean R =0.7795) (P< 0.01). On the whole, the soil ecosystem was most stable in year 6, while soil organic matter, nutrients, and microbial PLFA concentrations were maximal in year 9; thereafter, soil fertility indices and microbial concentrations decreased and soil quality declined gradually as the stand age increased. Therefore, farmers should reduce the application rate of fertilizers, especially compound or mixed fertilizers, in L. barbarum fields; organic or bacterial manure can be applied increasingly to improve the soil environment and prolong the economic life of L. barbarum.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.003
       
  • Resistance characteristics of Cedrus deodara and Sabina chinensis to heavy
           metal accumulation under different atmospheric conditions

    • Authors: Ruirui Zhao; Cong Shi; Meili Zhou; Guoping Chen; Zhangying Gao; Fuchen Shi
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ruirui Zhao, Cong Shi, Meili Zhou, Guoping Chen, Zhangying Gao, Fuchen Shi
      Cedrus deodara and Sabina chinensis are widely planted in North China. The needles of C. deodara and S. chinensis were sampled in the urban, suburban, and rural districts of Tianjin where the atmospheric conditions are significantly different according to the environmental monitoring results. The Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the samples were examined via ICP. The resistance indexes, and the malonic aldehyde (MDA), soluble sugar, and free proline levels were also determined. The Pearson coefficients between the resistance indexes and the heavy metal contents were analyzed to compare the two plants abilities to accumulate heavy metal and their resistance characteristics. The results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations had the following significant trend: urban areas>suburban areas>rural areas. In urban areas, the Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in C. deodara were as high as 2024.77mg·kg−1, 2397.07mg·kg−1, and 130.07mg·kg−1, significantly higher than in S. chinensis. The Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in C. deodara were extremely significantly positively correlated (P <0.01), but no significant correlations were noted in S. chinensis. The MDA, soluble sugar, and free proline concentrations in C. deodara increased as the heavy metal contents rose along the urban–rural gradient, and were positively correlated with the plant heavy metal contents. They were much higher than the contents in S. chinensis where no differences were noted among the sampling sites. In conclusion, the heavy metal resistance methods used by C. deodara and S. chinensis are different. C. deodara could absorb and accumulate many heavy metals, mainly through increased physiological resistance to stress. In contrast, S. chinensis resistance relied on avoiding contact with the metals and by reducing absorption. These differences are associated with the biological characteristics of C. deodara and S. chinensis, and are closely connected with their coniferous and morphological differences.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.001
       
  • Urban ecological corridors construction: A review

    • Authors: Jian Peng; Huijuan Zhao; Yanxu Liu
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jian Peng, Huijuan Zhao, Yanxu Liu
      An ecological corridor, with both ecological and cultural functions, is a symbol of urban ecological or green civilization, and has therefore become one of the major topics in the fields of landscape ecology, urban ecology, and ecological planning. On the one hand, along with the prominent contradiction between regional ecological protection and economic development, as well as between the growing ecological demands of urban residents and the destruction of natural ecosystems, the construction of urban ecological corridors is very challenging. On the other hand, with contemporary urbanization and ecological civilization development, the standards and requirements for the construction of urban ecological corridors are set higher and higher. Constructing an urban ecological corridor is therefore particularly important, and must adopt a spatial approach that balances the relationship between ecological protection and economic development. In this study, the classification of urban ecological corridors was firstly conducted according to the structural or functional differences. Secondly, research progress on the construction of urban ecological corridors was systematically summarized and the main inadequacies were indicated. Following the analysis of the main methods employed in the construction of urban ecological corridors, existing methods were classified into three kinds, i.e. qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and spatial analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of subjective judgment, suitability and sensitivity analysis, network analysis, and minimum cost path analysis were compared. To provide theoretical support for the construction and management of urban ecological corridors, four key research directions were also pointed out, i.e. the identification of key nodes of urban ecological corridor, the determination of the width of urban ecological corridor, the measurement of integrated effect of urban ecological corridor, and the multi-scale integration of urban ecological corridor. The present study will aid in accelerating and improving the process of ecological corridors construction in China's new-type urbanization.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.002
       
  • Studying the ability to absorb heavy metal of cadmium on the amount of
           sugar and chlorophyll using seedlings of berry specie (Morus alba) in
           pollution area

    • Authors: Abdolhosein Nahvi; Seyed Armin Hashemi; Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai
      Pages: 35 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Abdolhosein Nahvi, Seyed Armin Hashemi, Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai
      Heavy metals are from the group of problematic factors in the ecosystem that due to being non-absorbable and having physiological effects on the activity of living organisms at low concentrations are of particular importance. In this study, the ability of berry specie to absorb heavy metal of cadmium was studied. One year old seedlings of berry specie were prepared from the nursery, concentrations of zero and 100mg per liter of cadmium chloride solution were added to the seedlings pots soil after calculation, and after a three-month period of seedling growth, shoots and roots were separated, then the concentration amount of cadmium in the samples was determined and data were examined. The results of data analysis showed that the highest rate of cadmium accumulation in stems, roots and soil in treatment concentration is 54.76, 107.75 and 8.825mg per kg, respectively, and the rate of cadmium accumulation in total chlorophyll and sugar in treatment concentration is 3.16 and 0.6693mg per g, respectively, and based on the results of this research berry specie is relatively suitable for remediation of soils contaminated with cadmium.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.006
       
  • The effects of gap disturbance on the seedling emergence, survival and
           growth of two different native species in Inner Mongolia

    • Authors: Haiming Kan; Juying Wu; Yingjun Zhang; Guixia Liu
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Haiming Kan, Juying Wu, Yingjun Zhang, Guixia Liu
      A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of gap disturbance on the seedling establishment process of two native species. Seeds of Agropyron cristatum and Stipa krylovii were reseeded to artificially created gaps in a degraded steppe in North China. There were seven treatments: shoot gaps and root gaps (10cm, 20cm and 40cm in diameters), no gaps (control). Shoot gaps were formed by removing above ground vegetation and below ground biomass without restricting the re-growth of neighbor roots back into the gap. The root gaps were accomplished by using polyvinyl chloride pipes sunk in the soil of shoot gaps to exclude neighboring roots. Seedling emergence, survival and growth performance after 90days of growing were recorded for both species. Gap significantly increased soil moisture, especially for root gaps. Emergence increased significantly for both species as gap size increased. Seedling emergence and survivorship of both species were greater in gaps than in controls. However, the gap size showed a significantly negative effect on Agropyron cristatum's survivorship. Growth performance of Agropyron cristatum and Stipa krylovii differ in their response to gap disturbance. Gap had positive effects on seedling growth (including seedling height, dry weight, and numbers of tillers and leaves) of Stipa krylovii, but had negative effects on seedling growth of Agropyron cristatum. The two species have significantly different responses to gap disturbance. All results suggest that Stipa krylovii is a gap-enhanced species, and Agropyron cristatum is not. Predation by insects may be one of the key reasons to explain the stand dominance in this grassland.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.002
       
  • Sunflower germination and growth behavior under various gamma radiation
           absorbed doses

    • Authors: Fida Hussain; Munawar Iqbal; Syed Zahir Shah; M. Afzal Qamar; Tanveer H. Bokhari; Mazhar Abbas; Muhammad Younus
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Fida Hussain, Munawar Iqbal, Syed Zahir Shah, M. Afzal Qamar, Tanveer H. Bokhari, Mazhar Abbas, Muhammad Younus
      Gamma radiation, various absorbed doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 krad) effects were evaluated on sunflower (Helianthus annus. L.) germination and growth characteristics. Sunflower healthy seeds were exposed to gamma radiation source Co60 at nuclear institute for food and agriculture and exposed seeds were grown under controlled laboratory conditions. In comparison to control, gamma radiation absorbed doses affected the measured response positively i.e., radical length, plumule length, number of roots, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, germination percentage, time of germination and diameter of hypocotyl of sunflower enhanced up to 83.15%, 70.32%, 73.03%, 4.80%, 3.26%, 72.0%, −18.88% and 12.58%, respectively. The time of germination, fresh weight and percent moisture contents enhanced insignificantly, however, the response was higher than control. All gamma radiation absorbed doses showed a stimulatory effect on sunflower germination and seedling growth characteristics. The low gamma radiation absorbed doses were found to be more effective versus higher doses for enhancing the germination and growth characteristics of sunflower. In view of positive effect of gamma radiation of sunflower germination and growth characteristics, it is concluded that this techniques could possibly be used for the enhancement of germination, growth and ultimately yield in sunflower in areas where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.009
       
 
 
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