Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3200 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3200 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Cosmetic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Family Practice Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 485, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.26
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1521-6926 - ISSN (Online) 1532-1924
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3200 journals]
  • Spliceosomal factor mutations and mis-splicing in MDS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Courtney E. Hershberger, Noah Daniels, Richard A. Padgett
       
  • Germline predisposition in myeloid neoplasms: Unique genetic and clinical
           features of GATA2 deficiency and SAMD9/SAMD9L syndromes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Sushree S. Sahoo, Emilia J. Kozyra, Marcin W. Wlodarski
       
  • Molecular genetics of MDS/MPN overlap syndromes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Anthony M. Hunter, Eric Padron
       
  • Myeloid neoplasms with germline predisposition: Practical considerations
           and complications in the search for new susceptibility loci
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Hetty Carraway, Thomas LaFramboise
       
  • Molecular markers in ALL: Clinical implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Shunsuke Kimura, Charles G. Mullighan
       
  • Acute myeloid leukemia and artificial intelligence, algorithms and new
           scores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Nathan Radakovich, Matthew Cortese, Aziz Nazha
       
  • CML - Not only BCR-ABL1 matters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Jenny Rinke, Andreas Hochhaus, Thomas Ernst
       
  • WGS and WTS in leukaemia: A tool for diagnostics'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Manja Meggendorfer, Wencke Walter, Torsten Haferlach
       
  • Founder and subclonal mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes and related
           myeloid neoplasms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Hideki Makishima
       
  • Cytogenetics in the genomic era
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Isabel Granada, Laura Palomo, Neus Ruiz, Mar Mallo, Francesc Solé
       
  • Editorial Board / Aims & Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, Volume 33, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Establishing specific response criteria for MDS/MPN - Getting closer to
           reality'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Matthew T. Villaume, Michael R. Savona
       
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia – A bona fide RASopathy syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Terra Lasho, Mrinal M. Patnaik
       
  • Editorial Board / Aims & Scope
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, Volume 33, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • CAR T and CAR NK cells in multiple myeloma: Expanding the targets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Urvi A. Shah, Sham Mailankody
       
  • Multiple Myeloma: Current Advances and Future Directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Ola Landgren
       
  • Measurable disease evaluation in patients with myeloma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Mikhail Roshal Recent years saw significant breakthroughs in treatment of multiple myeloma. Durable remissions are now seen in a significant proportion of patients with the previously uniformly incurable and progressive disease. Yet because of deep suppression of the neoplastic myeloma clones by the newer therapies, older disease monitoring techniques are insufficient to distinguish between the patients at high risk of imminent relapse and those in whom durable remission is expected. This review briefly describes prognostic and therapeutic implications of measurable disease (MRD) evaluation, explains why deep MRD evaluation is needed for patients without morphologic evidence of disease, and reviews the state of the art of evaluation of myeloma MRD by flow cytometry.
       
  • Genomic profiling of multiple myeloma: new insights and modern
           technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Malin Hultcrantz, Venkata Yellapantula, Even H. Rustad Advances in technologies for genomic profiling, primarily with next generation sequencing, have lead to a better understanding of the complex genomic landscape in multiple myeloma. Integrated analysis of whole genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing has lead to new insights on disease drivers including translocations, copy number alterations, somatic mutations, and altered gene expression. Disease progression in multiple myeloma is largely driven by structural variations including the traditional immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations and hyperdiploidy which are early events in myelomagenesis as well as more complex events spanning over multiple chromosomes and involving amplifications and deletions. In this review, we will discuss recent insights on the genomic landscape of multiple myeloma and their implications for disease progression and personalized treatment. We will review how sequencing assays compare to current clinical methods and give an overview of modern technologies for interrogating genomic aberrations.
       
  • High-risk smoldering myeloma versus early detection of multiple myeloma:
           current models, goals of therapy, and clinical implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Chutima Kunacheewa, Elisabet E. Manasanch Multiple myeloma, a bone marrow cancer, is preceded by precursor stages called monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance and smoldering multiple myeloma. Over the past few years, highly effective and safe therapies have been made available to treat multiple myeloma. This represents a major breakthrough and has major therapeutic implications. Treatment for multiple myeloma has evolved to include treatment of precursor stages (early treatment) as these therapies are shown to be safe and effective also in smoldering myeloma. Randomized studies have shown that early treatment can delay the onset of multiple myeloma and even improve overall survival compared to observation in smoldering myeloma. The best therapeutic course and selection of patients with smoldering myeloma to treat is still a matter of debate. In this manuscript, we review the definition, management, clinical implications of smoldering myeloma and early detection of myeloma in the current context and with up-to-date data.
       
  • Modern treatments and future directions for newly diagnosed multiple
           myeloma patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Sydney Lu, Assistant Attending, Myeloma Service Over the course of the past decade-plus, the therapy of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma has seen incredible advances in the domains of diagnostic evaluation, active medical therapy, and response evaluation. This manuscript reviews the evaluation and management of newly diagnosed active multiple myeloma, with a focus on major clinical trials and IMWG recommendations. The paper describes a current approach for the initial evaluation and workup of a patient with putative active disease, with consideration towards potential MRD-directed therapeutic approaches and future clinical trials, and then discusses management with a focus on induction regimens with attention primarily to modern three and four-drug combinations for transplant-eligible and transplant-ineligible patients, and those with organ dysfunction. Finally, this article briefly reviews minimal residual disease directed therapy approaches, primarily in the context of whether eligible patients should be referred for high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue. Maintenance therapy for both transplant eligible and ineligible patients is discussed elsewhere in this issue.
       
  • Current and Potential Applications of Positron Emission Tomography for
           Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Gary A. Ulaner, C. Ola Landgren Fluorine-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) allows evaluation of elevated glucose metabolism in malignancies. There has been increasing interest in FDG PET/CT for plasma cell disorders since the International Myeloma Working Group outlined multiple applications of this imaging modality, including distinguishing smoldering myeloma from active multiple myeloma, confirmation of solitary plasmacytoma, and multiple indications in patients with known multiple myeloma, including determining extent of initial disease, monitoring therapy response, and detection of residual disease following therapy. The field of molecular imaging is now shifting focus from evaluation of metabolism to targeted evaluation of specific tumor markers. Targeted PET imaging targeted of CXCR4 and CD38 has advanced into translational clinical trials, bringing us closer to powerful imaging options for myeloma. In this review we discuss the current applications of FDG PET/CT in plasma cell disorders, as well as advances in targeted PET imaging.
       
  • The changing role of high dose melphalan with stem cell rescue in the
           treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in the era of modern
           therapies—back to the future!
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Dickran Kazandjian, Alexander Dew, Elizabeth Hill State of the art treatment for myeloma involves using 3-drug combinations incorporating immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs). Clinical trials for 4-drug combinations incorporating monoclonal antibodies added to IMiD and PI based backbones are underway. Recent retrospective analyses show that patients who attain MRD negativity have similar long term outcomes regardless of early or delayed high dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support (HDM-ASCT). Given HDM-ASCT toxicity, not “overtreating” would be beneficial. Short of data from future prospective clinical trials addressing the question of the role of HDM-ASCT in MRD negative patients, varying expert opinions inherently arise. In this paper, we present the historical context of HDM-ASCT and data supporting 3-drug combinations. We then propose that a viable option for patients who reach MRD negativity is to transition to maintenance therapy directly without early HDM-ASCT, and reserving stem cell harvest to cases where HDM-ASCT is a possibility at relapse.
       
  • Monitoring minimal residual disease in the bone marrow using next
           generation sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Even H. Rustad, Eileen M. Boyle Achieving minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity in the bone marrow is one of the strongest prognostic factors in multiple myeloma. Consequently, MRD testing is routinely performed in clinical trials and moving towards standard of care. This review focuses on the role of next generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor-specific immunoglobulin V(D)J sequences for MRD tracking. The immunoglobulin variable regions are ideal targets for tracking, because every tumor cell shares an identical gene sequence, which is stable over time and generally distinct from the immunoglobulin sequences of normal B-cells. Several excellent assays for NGS-based MRD testing are available, both commercial and community-based, including one that is FDA-approved. These assays can achieve the gold standard analytical sensitivity of one tumor cell per million (10-6), requiring a minimum input of 3 million bone marrow cells. On-going clinical trials will outline how MRD testing should be used to inform dynamic risk-adopted therapy.
       
  • MDS/MPN-RS-T justified Inclusion as a unique disease entity'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Guillermo Garcia-ManeroABSTRACTMyelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T) is a disease entity characterized by anemia, bone marrow dysplasia with ring sideroblasts and persistent thrombocytosis ≥450 x109/L with proliferation of large and morphologically atypical megakaryocytes. Although initially recognized by the World Health Organization only as a provisional entity, next generation sequencing has identified recurrent somatic mutations in SF3B1, JAK2 and other genes providing further evidence of the clonal nature of this disease and the need to recognize it as a separate entity. Despite its overlapping features with MDS with ring sideroblasts and essential thrombocythemia, MDS/MPN-RS-T is characterized by specific clinical features and distinct survival outcomes. In the current review we will describe the morphological and genomic features of MDS-RS-T and the potential diagnostic challenges and distinction from other possible conditions. We will also review how the current evidence supports its recognition as an independent disorder.
       
  • Tracking myeloma tumor DNA in peripheral blood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Johannes M. Waldschmidt, Tushara Vijaykumar, Birgit Knoechel, Jens G. Lohr Over the past years, the emergence of liquid biopsy technologies has dramatically expanded our ability to assess multiple myeloma without the need for invasive sampling. Interrogation of cell-free DNA from the peripheral blood recapitulates the mutational landscape at excellent concordance with matching bone marrow aspirates. It can quantify disease burden and identify previously undetected resistance mechanisms which may inform clinical management in real-time. The convenience of sample acquisition and storage provides strong procedural benefits over currently available testing. Further investigations will have to define the role of cell-free DNA as a diagnostic measure by determining clinically relevant tumor thresholds in comparison to existing routine parameters. This review presents an overview of currently available assays and discusses the clinical value, potential and limitations of cell-free DNA technologies for the assessment of this challenging disease.
       
  • Reconstructing the evolutionary history of multiple myeloma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Francesco Maura, Even H. Rustad, Eileen M. Boyle, Gareth J. MorganABSTRACTMultiple myeloma is the second most common lymphoproliferative disorders, characterized by aberrant expansion of monoclonal plasma cells. In the last years, thanks to novel next generation sequencing technologies, multiple myeloma has emerged as one of the most complex hematological cancers, shaped over time by the activity of multiple mutational processes and by the acquisition of key driver events. In this review, we describe how whole genome sequencing is emerging as a key technology to decipher this complexity at every stage of myeloma development: precursors, diagnosis and relapsed/refractory. Defining the time windows when driver events are acquired improves our understanding of cancer etiology and paves the way for early diagnosis and ultimately prevention.
       
  • “Maintenance therapy and need for cessation studies in multiple myeloma:
           focus on the future”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Benjamin Diamond, Kylee Maclachlan, David J. Chung, Alexander Lesokhin, C. Ola Landgren With ten years of follow-up since the advent of the modern paradigm of combination induction therapy, consolidative autologous stem-cell transplant, and lenalidomide maintenance, median survival for multiple myeloma has increased to almost 50% at 10 years. Given this outlook, the overarching goal of maintenance therapy is to spare patients from the toxicities of aggressive or otherwise intrusive therapies while ideally extending survival or, at the least, extending progression-free survival or time until next treatment. This review will focus on the current landscape of maintenance therapies for multiple myeloma. The historical context and evidence for choice of agent, duration of treatment, and current strategies and ongoing trials will be discussed – as well as a focus on unmet needs. The case for studies investigating cessation of therapy and risk and response-adapted approaches will be underscored given that the current paradigm likely results in overtreatment for some patients.
       
  • Tracking of low disease burden in multiple myeloma: using mass
           spectrometry assays in peripheral blood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Jessica R. Chapman, Katie L. Thoren Efforts over the last 5 years have demonstrated that it is technically feasible to detect low levels of monoclonal proteins in peripheral blood using mass spectrometry. These methods are based on the fact that an M-protein has a specific amino acid sequence, and therefore, a specific mass. This mass can be tracked over time and can serve as a surrogate marker of the presence of clonal plasma cells. This review describes the use of mass spectrometry to detect M-proteins in multiple myeloma to date, identifies the challenges of using this biomarker, and describes potential strategies to overcome these challenges. We discuss the work that must be done for these techniques to be incorporated into clinical practice for tracking of low disease burden in multiple myeloma.
       
  • Second malignancies in multiple myeloma; emerging patterns and future
           directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Kylee Maclachlan, Benjamin Diamond, Francesco Maura, Jens Hillengass, Ingemar Turesson, C. Ola Landgren, Dickran Kazandjian The changing landscape of treatment options for multiple myeloma has led to a higher proportion of patients achieving deep, long-lasting responses to therapy. With the associated improvement in overall survival, the development of subsequent second malignancies has become of increased significance. The risk of second malignancy after multiple myeloma is affected by a combination of patient-, disease- and therapy-related risk factors. This review discusses recent data refining our knowledge of these contributing factors, including current treatment modalities which increase risk (i.e. high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant and lenalidomide maintenance therapy). We highlight emerging data towards individualized risk- and response-adapted treatment strategies and discuss key areas requiring future research.
       
  • Monoclonal Antibodies in Multiple Myeloma: Current and Emerging Targets
           and Mechanisms of Action
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Kitsada Wudhikarn, Beatriz Wills, Alexander M. Lesokhin The recent development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized the treatment armamentarium for multiple myeloma. The success of daratumumab and elotuzumab in relapsed/refractory patients, has generated tremendous enthusiasm for mAbs in this disease. Combination treatment with other anti-MM treatment modalities and clinical evaluation in newly diagnosed patients are expected to fundamentally change the natural history of the disease. Advances in biopharmaceutical engineering together with a robust interest in novel mAb-derivatives, including antibody drug conjugates and poly-specific antibodies are the next rapidly approaching treatment frontier in multiple myeloma. In this review, we comprehensively outline the currently available evidence and the future landscape of mAbs and mAb-derivative therapies in multiple myeloma.
       
  • Contemporary treatment approaches to CMML – is allogeneic HCT the
           only cure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Marie Robin, Raphael Itzykson Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemias are frequently diagnosed in older adults. Their prognosis is heterogeneous, but several prognostic factors can identify patients with an expected survival of a few years only, including among younger patients eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.Based on the retrospective data available, we discuss how to identify CMML patients for whom curative therapy must be envisaged. We emphasize that, although transplantation remains the only path to cure in CMML, it can be envisaged in only a minority of patients. Despite increased donor availability, its potential remains limited by significant rates of mortality caused both by the procedure and by post-transplantation relapses. We review the options available to bridge patients to transplant, the management of transplantation itself (choice of donor, graft source and condition regimen), and finally the potential for post-transplantation interventions. Our review underscores the need for further prospective studies of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in CMML.
       
  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms: are morphology and
           immunophenotyping still relevant'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): V.F.I. Sangiorgio, A. Orazi, D.A. Arber The term myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) refers to a group of clonal hematopoietic neoplasms with overlapping clinical, morphologic and genetic myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features observed at the time of first presentation. Impaired hematopoiesis morphologically associated with evidence of myelodysplasia manifests clinically with cytopenia/s. Simultaneously, myeloproliferation is seen within the bone marrow and leads to cytosis in the peripheral blood.The diagnostic category of MDS/MPN encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases which share similarities among them, but at the same time have distinct clinical and pathologic features and eventually diverse prognosis; such differences justify their separation in a classification scheme.In the era of genetic and genomic tests, their distinction from conventional myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms still relies on close clinocopathological correlation, with evaluation of both peripheral blood and bone marrow samples being essential in this sense. A multiparametric integration of clinicopathologic data and cytogenetics and molecular genetics results is the preferred diagnostic approach.
       
  • Autoimmune disease in CMML-the chicken or the egg'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Alexander J. Ambinder, John Miller, Amy E. DeZern Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal disorder that is associated with a wide range of systemic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (SIADs). Approximately 20% of patients with CMML will have an associated SIAD and recognizing this association is critical to the evaluation, prognostication and management of patients with CMML. In this paper, we review the evidence supporting a causative link between these two entities as well as the direction of this relationship. We argue that the data favors CMML as the antecedent and causative disease state with a few notable exceptions. Better understanding of this relationship aids clinicians in the education of their patients and in determining the optimal management approach at the bedside. It is important to recognize opportunities to harmonize the treatments of these disease processes, which may enhance the effectiveness of treatment while reducing the burden of adverse effects from redundant therapies.
       
  • Oligo-monocytic CMML and other pre-CMML states: Clinical impact,
           prognostication and management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Peter Valent Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is defined by myelodysplasia, pathologic accumulation of monocytes and a substantial risk to transform to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). In recent years, minimal diagnostic criteria for classical CMML and CMML-variants were proposed. Moreover, potential pre-stages of CMML and interface conditions have been postulated. Oligomonocytic CMML is a condition where the absolute peripheral blood monocyte count does not reach a diagnostic level but all other criteria for CMML are fulfilled. Among potential pre-stages of CMML, clonal and non-clonal conditions have been described, including idiopathic monocytosis (IMUS) and clonal monocytosis of unknown significance (CMUS). Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), clonal cytopenia of unknown significance (CCUS), clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) may also progress to CMML. The current article provides an overview of pre-CMML conditions and oligomonocytic CMML, with special reference to diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, clinical outcomes and management.
       
  • Incorporating flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing in the
           diagnosis of CMML. Are we ready for prime'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Eric Solary, Orianne Wagner-Ballon, Dorothée Selimoglu-Buet In the last version of the WHO classification of myeloid malignancies, flow cytometry and molecular investigation are listed as potentially useful, yet non-essential diagnostic tools in hard-to-recognize chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML). Flow recognition of CMML was initially based on an increase in the fraction of peripheral blood, CD14+,CD16- classical monocytes ≥94% of total monocytes. An associated inflammatory disease can preclude the detection of classical monocyte fraction increase by inducing accumulation of CD14+,CD16+ intermediate monocytes. In such a situation, decrease in the Slan+,CD14low,CD16+ non-classical monocyte fraction below 1.7% still supports CMML diagnosis. This robust, two-step flow cytometry assay identifies CMML with a very high sensitivity. Otherwise, detection of one or several acquired gene mutations with high variant allele frequency supports the diagnosis of CMML, oligomonocytic CMML or clonal monocytosis of clinical significance. Together, recent investigations support integration of flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood monocyte subsets and new generation sequencing of a panel of 20–30 recurrently mutated genes in the diagnostic work-up of CMML.
       
  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms – Justified inclusion as
           unique biological entities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Mrinal M. Patnaik
       
  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U):
           More than just a “catch-all” term'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Rory M. Shallis, Amer M. Zeidan The clinicopathology of MDS and MPN are not mutually exclusive and for this reason the category of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) exists. Several sub-entities have been included under the MDS/MPN umbrella, including MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U) for those cases whose morphologic and clinical phenotype do not meet criteria to be classified as any other MDS/MPN sub-entity. Though potentially regarded as a wastebasket diagnosis, since its integration into myeloid disease classification, MDS/MPN-U has been refined with increasing understanding of the mutational and genomic events that drive particular clinicopathologic phenotypes, even within MDS/MPN-U. The prototypical example is the identification of SF3B1 mutations and its durable association with MDS/MPN with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T), an entity previously buried within, but now a separate category outside of MDS/MPN-U. Continued and enhanced study of those entities under MDS/MPN-U, a perhaps provisional category itself, is likely to progressively identify commonality between many “unclassifiables” to establish a new classifiable diagnosis.
       
  • Atypical CML- the role of morphology and precision genomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Terra Lasho Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia is an esoteric myeloid malignancy with features of both myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic syndromes. This disease is characterized primarily by morphologic-based criteria, and has clinical and molecular features overlapping with other myeloid malignancies. No one molecular abnormality is specific, and multiple mutations are often present in various combinations, due to the malignant multi-step clonal evolution of myeloid malignancies. In this review, we will address what we know about atypical chronic myeloid leukemia; evaluate how the molecular landscape in myeloid malignancies overlaps, and discuss what we can learn by incorporating individualized precision genomic strategies.
       
  • Moving towards a uniform risk stratification system in CMML - How far are
           we'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Onyee Chan, Eric Padron Many prognostic scoring systems have been developed for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Although these efforts have been informative, no single model has been considered the consensus for CMML prognostication and all models are only moderately prognostic. CMML clinical models utilize mainly hematology and morphology parameters to estimate risk. A better understanding of cytogenetics and the genomic landscape of CMML have resulted in integrated risk models such as CMML Prognostic Scoring System (CPSS)-Mol and Mayo Molecular that may provide better prognostic accuracy for an individual patient. For example, frameshift/nonsense ASXL1 mutations have been consistently shown to confer inferior outcomes leading to its incorporation into some of the major risk classification systems. Prognostication in the setting of therapeutic interventions such as hypomethylating agents and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation have also garnered considerable interest. Despite having many validated risk models available, not a single system is universally adopted. Herein, we will provide an overview of how these systems evolved and progress toward a uniform system.
       
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm overlap syndromes
           – Advances in treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2019Source: Best Practice & Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Kristen B. McCullough, Mrinal M. Patnaik Optimal treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes remain to be defined and are currently extrapolated from MDS and MPN. The heterogeneity of these diseases and their rare occurrences add to this void. Supportive care therapies such as erythropoiesis stimulating agents, iron chelation and cytoreductive therapy do not have prospective evidence in these disorders and the only approved treatments, hypomethylating agents, are based on the inclusion of a small number of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia patients in MDS predominant trials. While allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative option, the median age at presentation (7th decade), comorbidities, risk of disease relapse, and transplant related morbidity and mortality, make this option accessible to 
       
 
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