Publisher: Codon Publications   (Total: 3 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Kidney Cancer and VHL     Open Access  
J. of Renal and Hepatic Disorders     Open Access  
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Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.504
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0301-0546
Published by Codon Publications Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Clinical and immunological assessment of APDS2 with features of the SHORT
           syndrome related to a novel mutation in PIK3R1 with reduced penetrance

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Aleksandra Szczawińska-Popłonyk, Katarzyna Bernat-Sitarz, Eyal Schwartzmann, Michał Piechota, Magdalena Badura-Stronka
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Monoallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1) gene affecting the inter-Src homology 2 domain of the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) cause the activated PI3K δ syndrome (APDS2). APDS2 is defined as a primary antibody deficiency, developmental abnormalities within the B and T lymph cell compartments, and immune dysregulation. The genetic defect of APDS2 is shared with that of the SHORT syndrome, characterized by short stature, joint hyperextensibility, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and delayed tooth eruption. LOF variants in an intronic splice site (c.1425+1G.C/A/T) in the PI3KR1 gene have been identified in patients affected with both APDS2 and SHORT syndrome. Herein, we report a novel c.1644-1648del (p.Asp548Glufs*6) variant in a pediatric patient with the APDS2-related immunodeficiency, who presents with mild phenotypic fea-tures of the SHORT syndrome, congenital chest wall deformity, and IgE-mediated food allergy. The same variant was also identified in the patient’s hitherto asymptomatic mother, implicating an incomplete penetrance. Regular monitoring by a multidisciplinary team under the pediatric clinical immunologist’s supervision to implement appropriate diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities is of paramount importance. Further studies are required to better define the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with the PIK3R1 gene mutations and to better delineate the mutual relationship between APDS2 and the SHORT syndrome.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.510
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Knockdown of CXCL3-inhibited apoptosis and inflammation in
           lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B and HPAEC through inactivating MAPKs
           pathway

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      Authors: Yuhui Wang, Linyan Pan
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Background: CXCL3 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 3) is a member of chemokines family, which binds to the receptor to recruit neutrophils to lungs, thus participating in the pathogenesis of asthmatic lung. The role of CXCL3 in sepsis-induced acute lung injury is investigated here. Methods: Human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and human pulmonary artery endothelial cell line (HPAEC) were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). MTT and flow cytometry were performed to detect cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to assess the levels of inflammatory factors. Results: Treatment with LPS resulted in the decrease of cell viability in BEAS-2B and HPAEC. CXCL3 was particularly upregulated in LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells. Knockdown of CXCL3 enhanced viability and suppressed apoptosis i006E LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells. Knockdown of CXCL3 also upregulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-18 in LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells. Moreover, knockdown of CXCL3 suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling in LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells through downregulation of p-ERK1/2, p-p38, and p-JNK. On the other hand, overexpression of CXCL3 caused completely opposite results in LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells. Conclusion: Knockdown of CXCL3 exerted antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects against LPS-treated BEAS-2B and HPAE cells, at least partially, through inactivation of MAPKs signaling, suggesting a potential strategy for the intervention of sepsis-induced acute lung injury.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.621
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Demographic and clinical characterization of pediatric group patients with
           inborn errors of the immune system in a Colombian tertiary hospital

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      Authors: Manuela Olaya, Daniela Cleves, Tania Guzman, Laura Torres-Canchala, Harry Pachajoa, Diego Medina-Valencia, Jaime Patiño, Jose David Gomez-Vasco, Paola Perez
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Introduction: In recent decades, there has been a growing increase in the diagnosis of patients with inborn errors of the immune system, formerly known as primary immunodeficiency dis-orders (PIDs). Timely diagnosis remains a challenge due to low clinical suspicion and poor education on the subject. It is estimated that between 70% and 90% of these pathologies remain underdiagnosed in our environment. Objective: The objective of this study is to characterize the demographic and clinical presentation of pediatric group patients with inborn errors of the immune system in a Colombian tertiary hospital. Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of 306 patients with a diagnosis of innate errors of the immune system who consulted the PID clinic between 2011 and 2018 in a high-complexity institution in Cali, Colombia. Results: Three-hundred and six patients were included. The median age was 4 years (IQR 2.3–7.7 years), and 59.5% of the patients were male. According to the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency classification for inborn errors of the immune system, the most common group was antibody deficiency in 74.8% (n=229), especially in the age group between 1 and 5 years. The least frequent in our population was complement deficiency. Of the warning signs stipulated for these pathologies, the most frequent were the (1) need for intravenous antibiotics (32%), (2) difficulty growing (15.7%), (3) four or more episodes of ear infection (10.8%), and (4) abscesses in organs or cutaneous abscesses (12.7%). No patient reported two or more episodes of pneumonia or sinusitis, and only 5.8% of the patients received a bone marrow transplant.
      Conclusions: Innate errors of the immune system require an early diagnosis with follow-up from an early age to ensure adequate management and follow-up in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. It is imperative to sensitize the medical population about the existence of these pathologies so that early intervention can be carried out, which improves the quality of life of patients and their families.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.55
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Polyphyllin I alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation reduces
           pyroptosis in BEAS-2B and HPAEC cells by inhibiting NF-κκB signaling

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      Authors: Fangli Mao, Aiping Wu
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Polyphyllin I is an active steroidal saponin isolated from Paris polyphylla with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the role of polyphyllin I in acute lung injury. Firstly, the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and human pulmonary artery endo-thelial cells (HPAEC) were stimulated with increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide at 2, 5, and 10 μg/mL. The treatment with lipopolysaccharide reduced the cell viabilities of BEAS-2B and HPAEC, downregulated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), and up-regulated myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were also up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC cells. Secondly, the lipopolysaccharide-treated cells were then incubated with different concentrations of polyphyllin I. Incubation with polyphyllin I enhanced the cell viabilities of lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC, up-regulated levels of SOD and GSH, and reduced MPO and MDA. Moreover, polyphyllin I reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC cells. Thirdly, the up-regulation of GSDMD-N, pro-caspase-1, and cleaved caspase-1 proteins in lipo-polysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC cells were decreased by polyphyllin I. Polyphyllin I increased the protein expression of GSDMD-D in the lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC cells, and inhibited the translocation of GSDMD from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. Lastly, polyphyllin I reduced the expression of p-p65 in lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B/HPAEC cells. The over-expression of p65 counteracted with the inhibitory effects of polyphyllin I on oxidative stress and inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-treated BEAS-2B. In conclusion, polyphyllin I repressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in BEAS-2B and HPAEC, and reduced pyroptosis through inhibition of NF-κB signaling.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.591
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Risk taking and self-care behaviours amongst adolescents and young adults
           with food allergies

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      Authors: Hannah Keohane, Caoimhe Cronin, Juan Trujillo
      Pages: 31 - 49
      Abstract: Background: Anaphylaxis is a systemic, life-threatening reaction and its prevalence is rising amongst adolescents and young adults (AYA) with food allergies. The likelihood of fatal anaphylaxis is disproportionately high in this population. The effective management of anaphylaxis can be done by adhering to various food allergy-related self-care behaviours, namely avoidance of allergens, carriage and use of adrenaline auto-injectors (AAI). Unfortunately, compliance of AYA to these behaviours is believed to be suboptimal and the likely reason behind their increased rates of fatal anaphylaxis. Methodology: To evaluate the adherence to food allergy-related self-care behaviours amongst adolescents and young adults with anaphylaxis an electronic search was conducted utilizing PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL plus to identify relevant studies. 175 article abstracts were screened, and 26 remained which were read in full to determine which best satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ultimately, 10 articles were selected for this review. Results: The compliance to food allergy-related self-care behaviours amongst AYA founded to be suboptimal. AAI design, peer influence, and emotional attitudes of AYA were found to be the most significant factors influencing AYA compliance to self-care behaviours. Conclusions: The adherence of AYA to food allergy-related self-care behaviours is subopti-mal and evidence on the factors affecting AYA compliance has been largely contradictory. AAI design, peer influence, and emotional attitudes are significant factors influencing AYA adherence. Therefore, further research directed at these factors is imperative in facilitating the design of guidelines to maximize the adherence of AYA to food allergy-related self-care behaviours.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.580
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases in pediatric patients
           hospitalized for recurrent, severe, or unusual infections

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      Authors: Serdar Nepesov, Sinem Firtina, Fatma Deniz Aygun, Nihan Burtenece, Haluk Cokugras, Yildiz Camcioglu
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) usually presents itself with recurrent, severe, and unusual infections, along with autoimmunity and various other malignancies. But, the diversity of PID often makes the diagnosis of patients difficult for physicians other than clinical immunologists. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients diagnosed with PIDs during the inpatient treatment for infectious diseases, and to highlight the cases in which a PID diagnosis should be considered. Methods: The clinical, immunological, and molecular features of 81 pediatric patients treated for infectious diseases, who were diagnosed with a PID during hospitalization was retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis was based on the PID criteria of the International Union of Immunological Societies. Results: The five main PID sub-types were identified. Predominantly, antibody deficiencies were the most common (61.7%) group. The average delay in diagnosis was 34.6 months, and the positive family history rate was 24.7%, while the consanguineous marriage rate was 45.7%. Around thirty-five (43%) patients were found to have mutated PID-related genes. While lower respiratory tract infections were the most common symptom, a fever of unknown origin was another remarkable diagnosis. Eight (9.9%) patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider a PID diagnosis, especially in the cases of recurrent, severe, or atypical infections. Increased knowledge of the alarm features of PID can promote early diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.605
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • JNJ0966 inhibits PDGF-BB-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation
           and extracellular matrix production by regulating MMP-9

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      Authors: Yingying Zhang, Fan Yao, Zhihua Qin
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: The increased proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) are crucial factors in asthma progression. JNJ0966, one of the metal-loproteinase-9 (MMP-9)-specific inhibitors, has been demonstrated to be involved in the progression and development of diversified diseases. Nevertheless, the function of JNJ0966 in ASMCs remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the effects of JNJ0966 on asthma progression. In our study, the platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) was first utilized to stimulate the cell model for asthma. Results demonstrated that the cell viability of ASMCs was increased by PDGF-BB (0, 10, 20, and 30 ng/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that JNJ0966 inhibited the cell activity and migration ability of PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs. In addition, JNJ0966 relieved ECM deposition in PDGF-BB-induced ASMCs. Finally, through rescue assays, the results showed that overexpression of MMP-9 reversed the inhibitory effects of JNJ0966 on cell viability and ECM deposition in ASMCs. In conclusion, our findings suggested that JNJ0966 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced ASMC proliferation and ECM pro-duction by modulating MMP-9. These findings might provide novel insight for the treatment of asthma.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.610
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • CITED2 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and pyroptosis
           in - human lung fibroblast by inhibition of NF-κκB pathway

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      Authors: Xuzhong Zhang, Wei Chen, Wei Liu, Donge Li, Wei Shen
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Background: Pneumonia, a severe infectious respiratory disease, is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Cbp/P300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp‑rich carboxyterminal domain 2 (CITED2) functions as a transcription cofactor, and plays critical roles in the development of embryonic and extra‑embryonic tissues, including fetal lung maturation. The present study investigates the role of CITED2 in infantile pneumonia. Methods: The human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC‑5 and WI‑38) were treated with lipopolysac‑ charides to induce cytotoxicity, and the cell viability was detected by MTT. Inflammation was evaluated by ELISA, and western blot was used to investigate the pyroptosis. Results: CITED2 was down‑regulated in lipopolysaccharide‑treated MRC‑5/WI‑38 cells. The over‑expression of CITED2 protected MRC‑5 and WI‑38 cells from lipopolysaccharide‑ induced cytotoxicity by increasing the cell viability and decreasing LDH expression. CITED2 reduced the expression of TNF‑α, IL‑6, IL‑1β in lipopolysaccharide‑treated MRC‑5/WI‑38 cells. Lipopolysaccharide stimulated pyroptosis in MRC‑5 and WI‑38 cells through the up‑regulation of NL+RP3, GSDMD‑N, caspase‑1, IL‑1β and IL‑18. However, CITED2 down‑regulated the expression of NLRP3, GSDMD‑N, caspase‑1, IL‑1β, and IL‑18 protein in lipopolysaccharide‑treated MRC‑5/ WI‑38 cells. CITED2 also down‑regulated the protein expression of p‑p65 in lipopolysaccharide‑ treated MRC‑5/WI‑38 cells. Conclusion: CITED2 exhibited anti‑inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide‑treated human lung fibroblasts and reduced pyroptosis through inactivation of NF‑κB pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.628
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • 6'-O-galloylpaeoniflorin alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress
           in pediatric pneumonia through activating Nrf2 activation

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      Authors: Cheng Xu, Lei Song, Weiyan Zhang, Rong Zou, Meijun Zhu
      Pages: 71 - 76
      Abstract: Objective: To assess the therapeutic effect and mechanism of 6'-o-galloylpaeoniflorin (GPF) in pediatric pneumonia. Methods: The effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and GPF on cell viability and apoptosis were examined by cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry analysis. The oxidative stress and inflammatory response were assessed by detecting expression levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde as well as tumor necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-18, and Interleukin-10 by using enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway was detected by immunoblot assay, and the influence of Nrf2-knockdown on cell viability, oxidative stress, and inflammation response was also investigated. Results: The results established that GPF increased the viability of LPS-induced pneumonia cells. In addition, GPF reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress in pneumonia cells. It was further discovered that GPF reduced LPS-induced inflammation in pneumonic cell. GPF improved the activity of Nrf2 in LPS-treated pneumonic cells, and therefore alleviated inflammation and oxidative stress in pediatric pneumonia. Conclusion: GPF could serve as a promising drug for treating pediatric pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.639
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Experiences and attitudes of parents of children with cow’s milk and
           other food-allergy

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      Authors: Tuba Karakurt, Hayrunnisa Bekis Bozkurt, Fatih Kaplan, Anıl Aksit, Ozlem Cavkaytar, Erdem Topal, Mustafa Arga
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Introduction and objective: The attitude and behaviors of parents are important in the man-agement of children with food allergy (FA). The aim of this study is to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of parents of children with allergy to cow’s milk and other FA. Materials and methods: The parents of children with FA were asked to complete an 18-item questionnaire to evaluate the FA history and experiences during diagnosis, treatment, and follow up. Results: The data from 558 (91.2%) survey questionnaire that were filled completely were ana-lyzed. The mean age of the parents was 33.4+4.9. It was found that most common food aller-gen was cow’s milk (85.3%). The mean time to diagnosis from the onset of symptoms was 10.9±18.4 months. Around 229 parents (41.6%) admitted to at least four different physicians and 68 (12.3%) parents admitted to at least five different physicians before diagnosis. The median time to diagnosis from the onset of symptoms was five (1-108) months in the patients admitted to four or more physicians, but it was one (1-48) month in the patients that admitted to less physicians (p<0.001). The most common symptoms were dermatitis and mucus-bloody stool, the least common ones were cardiovascular symptoms. Only 21.1% of the patients were able to use hypoallergenic formulas (HAF) in accordance with the recommendation of the physician. Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis of FA is a major concern, and during this period the patients admit many physicians. A majority of the patients with CMPA experience difficulties while using HAFs, and only one-fifth of them is able to use formula regularly.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.435
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Study on the antipruritic mechanism of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and
           Zanthoxylum schinifolium volatile oil on chronic eczema based on H1R and
           PAR-2 mediated GRPR pathway

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      Authors: Xianglu Zhou, Lele Chen, Jiafeng Wang
      Pages: 83 - 96
      Abstract: Objective: To observe the antipruritic effect and mechanism of the volatile oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium on chronic eczema to provide data support for clinical application and new drug development of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium. Methods: The model of chronic eczema was established by using 2-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and the composition and content of volatile oil in Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Zanthoxylum bungeanum was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antipruritic effect by (EASI) score of eczema area and severity index and scratching times was then evaluated. Then, the contents of histamine, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum of rats was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The tissue morphology was observed by HE staining. The expressions of H1R, PAR-2, TRPV1, TRPA1, and GRPR was then detected by immunohistochem-istry, Western blot, and QRT-PCR. Results: The results revealed that there were differences in the composition of volatile oil between Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium. Compared to the model group, the medium-dose group of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium group significantly increased the difference of EASI score and scratching times, significantly decreased the concentrations of IL-4, IgE, GRP, and histamine, and significantly decreased the expression levels of H1R, PAR-2, TRPV1, and GRPR. The degree of inhibition on the pathological manifestations of chronic eczema was evident. There was no significant difference in antipruritic effect between the two groups. The expression of TRPA1 was inconsistent at the protein and gene level, which needs to be further researched. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium can reduce the expression of H1R, PAR-2, TRPV1, and GRPR. The mechanism may be through the H1R and PAR-2-mediated GRPR pathway intervention to achieve the effect, both of which have the same antipruritic effect.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.486
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • COmparisoN of TastES of Available NutriTional integrated or non-integrated
           formulas for infants older than 1 year of age with cow’s milk allergy: A
           multicenter, prospective, single blind, cross-sectional observational
           clinical study (CONTEST Study)

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      Authors: Derya Ufuk Altintas, Ipek Turktas, Mustafa Arga, Haluk Cezmi Cokugras, Ersoy Civelek, Ozlem Keskin, Ayse Betul Buyuktiryaki, Deniz Ertem, Metin Aydogan, Cıgdem Omur Ecevit, Yesim Ozturk, Zeynep Tamay, Esra Yücel, Gonul Caltepe, Omer Faruk Beser, Nermin Guler
      Pages: 97 - 104
      Abstract: Palatability of the infant formulas lacking cow milk protein formulas is reported by parents to be an important drawback. The purpose of this study is to examine decisions made by mothers of infants having cow milk protein allergy, and physicians concerning the palatability of unflavored extensively hydrolyzed formulas and amino acid-based formulas. We conducted a multi-center, randomized, single-blinded, observational taste study involving 149 pediatri-cians from gastroenterology and allergy subspecialties at 14 tertiary healthcare units from different regions of Turkey and involving 94 mothers of infants with cow milk protein allergy. Blinding was performed for seven formulas available in the market, which were the most commonly prescribed for feeding: four AAFs (Neocate-Numil®, Aptamil Pregomin AS-Numil®, Alfamino-Nestle®, Comidagen-Mamma®), one AAF specifically designed to address the growing nutritional and lifestyle needs of children >1 year (Neocate Junior-Numil®), 2 eHFs (Bebelac Pepti Junior-Numil®, Similac Alimentum-Abott®). Considering all three formula characteris-tics, Neocate junior-Numil® ranked as the number 1 product among seven products by mothers (63.8%) and physicians (69.8%). The ratings of mothers were significantly higher than the physicians (8.1 points and 6.1 points, respectively; p < 0.001). No difference was found in terms of taste, smell, and appearance for Neocate junior-Numil® between the mothers’ and physicians’ ratings. Since caregivers have responsibility for careful selection of replacement products for infants with cow milk protein allergy, it is noteworthy that increased awareness and confidence in the palatability characteristics of these products should motivate mothers and physicians to comply with replacement treatment in the long term.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.520
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Conditioned medium from the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulates
           immune response via signal transduction and activator of transcription 6
           signaling pathway in an allergic rhinitis mouse model

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      Authors: Wentao Zou, Pei Zou, Jiaxiong Zhang, Xiaojing Cai, Xueying Mao, Guangpeng Liu
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common immune disease of the nasal mucosa characterized with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic inflammation after exposure to allergens in susceptible population. Previous reports have demonstrated that the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could reduce allergic inflammation. However, there is little knowledge about whether the culture supernatant of BMSCs (conditioned medium, CM) has similar anti-inflammatory potential in treating AR. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the immunoregulatory effects of conditioned medium derived from BMSCs (BMSC-CM) on allergic inflammation in an AR mouse model. Material and Methods: The AR murine model was induced by repeated sensitization and challenges with ovalbumin (OVA). Subsequently the allergic symptoms of AR mice, cytokine levels, the histopathological features of the nasal mucosa and T helper 1 (Th1) : T helper 2 (Th2) cells ratio were evaluated. Results: Treatment with BMSC-CM was found as effective as BMSCs in reducing allergic symp-toms and inhibiting eosinophilic infiltration in the nasal mucosa. After BMSC-CM or BMSCs administration, the OVA-specific IgE and interleukin 4 levels in serum decreased and interferon gamma level increased compared with AR mice treated with uncultured fresh medium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a decrease in Th1:Th2 cells ratio after OVA-sensitization and the ratio was reversed by BMSC-CM and BMSCs treatments. Furthermore, the data revealed that BMSC-CM suppressed the production of signal transduction and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) at messenger RNA and protein levels in the nasal mucosa. Conclusion: BMSC-CM could ameliorate allergic inflammation and regulate the balance of Th cells, and the underlying mechanism was closely related to STAT6 signaling pathway. The immunoregulatory effects of BMSCs could be achieved through paracrine function, and nasal dripping of BMSC-CM might be a novel approach for the treatment of AR.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.572
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Sevoflurane ameliorates LPS-induced inflammatory injury of HK-2 cells
           through Sirtuin1/NF-κB pathway

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      Authors: Peipei Wang, Ping Wang, Miaomiao Yin, Shuo Wang
      Pages: 115 - 123
      Abstract: The anesthetic sevoflurane (SEV) has been shown to protect against organ’s injury during sepsis. The present study intended to uncover the protective effects of SEV on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SI-AKI) and its possible mechanism. Human renal tubular epithelial cell HK-2 was treated with 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to construct SI-AKI cell model. LPS-induced HK-2 cells were pretreated with SEV in the absence or presence of EX527, an inhibitor of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), after which were the detection of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrated that LPS caused decreased cell viability, increased LDH release, improved cell apoptosis along with decreased expression of Bcl2 and enhanced expressions of Bax, cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase, enhanced production, and protein expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), but contributed to declined activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). LPS inhibited SIRT1 and IκBα expressions but upregulated p-NF-κB p65 and acetyl-p53 expressions as well. However, SEV pretreatment abolished all above-mentioned effects of LPS on HK-2 cells, while EX527 significantly reversed the effects of SEV. In conclusion, SEV effectively protected HK-2 cells against LPS-induced apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and these effects may depend on the increase of SIRT1 expression, thereby inactivating NF-κB signaling.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.623
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Barrier proteins and eosinophilic esophagitis in children: the role of
           E-cadherin and filaggrin

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      Authors: Erica Rezende, Mariza Faria, Ignez Candelori , Juliana Daud, Flavia Alves, Jair Cunha Junior, Gesmar Silva Segundo
      Pages: 124 - 128
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess the protein expression of E-cadherin and filaggrin (FLG) in the oesophagus of paediatric and adolescent patients diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagi-tis (EoE). It is a cross-sectional study conducted with 24 patients with EoE and 17 control patients, from June 2015 to June 2018. The histological analyses were performed by a trained pathologist. The protein expression of E-cadherin and FLG in oesophageal biopsy fragments was determined using an immunohistochemical technique. The epidemiological data were retrieved from medical records. There were no statistical differences in age and sex between case-patients and control patients. Food allergy was significantly higher in patients with EoE, as was the number of eosinophils present in the oesophageal biopsy materials. The immu-nohistochemical studies did not indicate FLG expression in any patient from the two groups. E-cadherin showed significantly reduced expression in patients with EoE. We concluded that FLG did not seem to play an important role in the mucosal alteration in EoE and that E-cadherin under expression could be a promising marker of epithelial damage in these patients.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.588
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Application of the diagnostic criteria for Common Variable
           Immunodeficiency in resource-limited settings

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Jesús A. Álvarez-Álvarez, Alejandro Gallon Duque, Estefania Vásquez-Echeverri, Isaura P. Sánchez, Sebastián Gutierrez Hincapié, Rubén D. Gómez-Arias, Julio C. Orrego Arango, José L. Franco, Claudia M Trujillo-Vargas
      Pages: 129 - 136
      Abstract: Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic humoral deficiency; however, its heterogeneous presentation makes the diagnosis difficult. The present study is aimed to verify the CVID diagnostic criteria as established by the European Society for Immunodeficiencies in 42 CVID patients from our outpatient clinic. Methods: Information was collected from their medical records and when needed, lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) were performed by flow cytometry. Results: All the patients fulfilled the clinical working definition for CVID and showed decreased serum IgG and IgA at diagnosis. Over two-thirds of the patients had decreased memory B cell percentages. However, the remaining patients exhibited other quantitative B cell defects in PB. Evaluation of vaccination responses was only found in 13 records and 69% were not responsive. None of the patients were subjected to vaccination studies to both, T-cell dependent and independent antigens. The two required tests to evaluate T cell responses were performed in 84.2% of the patients and reported normal. Without the support of third-party payers, only 34.2% of our patients would have completed the required evaluations. Conclusions: Further efforts are needed to speed up CVID diagnosis in low-resourced settings, increasing the availability of the required resources and optimizing the healthcare supply chain.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.496
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Correlation analysis of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17,
           and TNF-α in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Wulin Wen, Simin Zhu, Ruixia Ma, Lixin Wang, Xueliang Shen, Yongchun Li, Ningyu Feng, Le Wang, Ming Liu, Lina Xie, Xueqiang Zhang
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Objective: To investigate the potential correlation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), Interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods: A total of 150 participants were retrospectively included in this study from August 2018 to February 2020. The people enrolled were equally allocated into refractory group (patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis), chronic group (patients with chronic rhinosinusitis), and control group (normal people). The level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α were recorded. The unconditional multivariate binary logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Results: The Davos score, T&T olfactometer threshold test, and Lund-Mackay CT scores in refractory group were significantly higher than the chronic group (P<0.05). The level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α in the refractory group were significantly higher than the chronic group and the control group (all P<0.05). Similarly, the level of the above mentioned indexes in the chronic group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The Davos score, T&T olfactometer threshold test score, Lund-Mackay CT score, and the level of TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α positively correlated with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis. Moreover, the unconditional multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the influencing factors of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis included TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α. Conclusion: The findings of the present study provide evidence for TGF-β1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α as the influencing factors of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.527
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Immunological differences between atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and their
           combination in adult patients

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Magdalena Krupka, Andrzej Bozek, Milena Drewienkowska, Krzysztof Dryjka, Agata Medrala
      Pages: 143 - 146
      Abstract: Objectives: The simultaneous occurrence of psoriasis (PS) dominated by Th1 lymphocytes and atopic dermatitis (AD) driven by Th2 cells is rare. This study analyzed a group of adult patients with concomitant PS and AD (ADPS) and compared the cytokine profiles of these patients with those of subjects with homogenous PS or AD and healthy controls. Materials and methods: All patients underwent dermatological examinations, including assess-ment of Scoring Atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) scores, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Il-2, Il-4, Il-5, Il-6, Il-8, Il-12, I-17A, Il-18, Il-22, Il-33, and T. There were 39 patients with a diagnosis of ADPS, 45 patients with PS, 47 patients with AD, and 42 healthy controls. Results: Patients with ADPS were mainly men with a proportional distribution of skin lesion areas. Significant differences were observed in the concentration of Il-17A between patients with ADPS and those with AD or PS and controls, which were as follows: 16.1 ± 5.4, 5.8 ± 2.1, 5.0 ± 3.1, and 3.3 ± 1.8 pg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, AD and PS might coexist as a combi-nation disease. The role of T helper 17 cells may be more essential than previously thought.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.557
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • RAB11A aggravates PDGF-BB-stimulated proliferation, migration, and
           inflammation of airway smooth muscle cells via affecting the NF-κB and
           PI3K/AKT pathways

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Ying Gong, Yunhai Hu, Jianqiong Huang, Haibo Wang
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Background: Pediatric asthma is an usual disease and a kind of fearful health threat for chil-dren. Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) with increased cell proliferation and migration abilities serve as important features in the progression of asthma. RAB11A has been shown to aggravate cancer progression and is closely associated with inflammation. Gene analysis discovered that RAB11A exhibited higher expression in asthmatic patients. However, the detailed regulatory function of RAB11A in asthma still needs further investigation. Method: The mRNA and protein expressions of genes were examined through RT-qPCR and western blot. Cell proliferation was examined through MTT and BrdU assays. Cell apoptosis was tested through flow cytometry. The cell migration ability was detected through wound healing and transwell assays. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 were measured through ELISA. Result: In this study, the mRNA and protein expressions of RAB11A were increased with PDGF-BB treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the silencing of RAB11A sup-pressed the proliferation ability of PDGF-BB-mediated ASMCs. Moreover, it was uncovered that the knockdown of RAB11A inhibited the migration ability of PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. Besides, suppression of RAB11A relieved the inflammatory response in PDGF-BB-stimulated ASMCs. Lastly, inhibition of RAB11A retarded the NF-κB and PI3K/AKT pathways.
      Conclusion: Our results revealed that RAB11A aggravated PDGF-BB-stimulated proliferation, migration, and inflammation of ASMCs through modulating NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling path-ways. This finding implied that the RAB11A may be deemed as a novel and prospective bio-marker for asthma treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.15586/aei.v50i4.635
      Issue No: Vol. 50, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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