Publisher: Cogitatio   (Total: 4 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

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Media and Communication     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Politics and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.372, CiteScore: 1)
Social Inclusion     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.395, CiteScore: 1)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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Urban Planning
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2183-7635
Published by Cogitatio Homepage  [4 journals]
  • The Resilient Metropolis: Planning in an Era of Decentralization

    • Authors: Thomas J. Vicino
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: This thematic issue of Urban Planning focuses on recent transformations of the built environment, the economy, and society around the world. The articles examine how planning processes and policy responses can adapt to the transformation of metropolitan areas in the pursuit of a more just and resilient society. Key themes are centered on socio-spatial processes that drive the uneven growth, the economic globalization of cities and the pursuant human migration, and the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Collectively, the authors engage in a scholarly conversation about the future of the resilient metropolis in an era of decentralization.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5946
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Urban Crises and the Covid-19 Pandemic: An Analytical Framework for
           Metropolitan Resiliency

    • Authors: Thomas J. Vicino, Robert H. Voigt, Mahir Kabir, Jonathan Michanie
      Pages: 4 - 14
      Abstract: Social scientists of the urban condition have long been interested in the causes and consequences of the phenomena that shape the growth and decline of cities and their suburbs. Such interests have become increasingly relevant in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. Over the course of the pandemic, many academic and popular analyses have confronted two essential questions: How has the pandemic changed the city' And given these changes, are they permanent' This current scholarly and popular dialogue generally lacks comparative analysis. In this article, we attempt to further the analysis and discussion about the pandemic and the city by reframing the debate through three comparative lenses: temporal, scalar, and dimensional. Drawing on the debate and experience of urban areas in the United States, we present an analytical framework to apply a comparative analytical approach. Three temporal analytical matrices are presented: (a) pre-pandemic, (b) current-pandemic, and (c) post-pandemic. These matrices articulate the relationships between a city’s developmental patterns and their related dimensions of urbanization. We pay special attention to the nature of scale within and among the cities and suburbs of regions. Each matrix is tested and contextualized using relevant narratives from cities in the United States before, during, and after the pandemic on various issues, including housing, transportation, and economic development. This framework will serve as an analytical tool for future research on the pandemic and how cities can become more resilient to such shocks.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5376
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Working From Home and Covid-19: Where Could Residents Move to'

    • Authors: Johannes Moser, Fabian Wenner, Alain Thierstein
      Pages: 15 - 34
      Abstract: As a protective measure during the Covid-19 pandemic, in Spring 2020, a high number of employees began relocating their workplace to their homes, many for the first time. Recent surveys suggest that the share of those working from home (WFH) will remain higher than before the pandemic in the long term too—with correspondingly fewer commuting journeys. Workplaces are still often concentrated in inner cities, into which workers commute from more outlying areas. However, classical geographical economic theory suggests that a reduced need for commuting might lead to a reorientation of residential preferences amongst employees towards even fewer urban areas, as households trade off the disamenity of commuting against lower housing costs and more living space. This article investigates how such consequences could unfold in space. The Munich Metropolitan Region is characterised by a high share of knowledge-based jobs suitable for WFH and thus serves as our case study. We collect data at the municipality level for relevant aspects of residential location choices and develop an index for the potential of additional residential demand through increased WFH for each municipality in the Munich Metropolitan Region. Crucially, a municipality’s potential depends on the number of commuting days per week. Keeping the weekly commuting time budget constant, an increase in WFH, or a reduction in commuting days allows a longer commuting time per trip. We visualise our results and sensitivities with maps. We observe a gradual yet discontinuous decay of potentials from the region’s core to the fringes with an increase in WFH days.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5306
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Gender–Poverty–Mobility Nexus and the Post-Pandemic Era in
           South Africa

    • Authors: Lindsay Blair Howe
      Pages: 35 - 48
      Abstract: As part of long-term comparative research into the Gauteng City-Region, this article presents mixed-methods studies in the informal settlement of Denver, located in the industrial belt southeast of Johannesburg’s city center. It unpacks the results of focus groups, ethnographic and expert interviews, as well as mapping with an innovative smartphone tracking application, comparing everyday life for several households in this area before the pandemic in 2019 and during the pandemic in 2020. Findings show that the pandemic exacerbated the disproportionate burdens related to gendered roles of household management, childcare, and mobility, both on the macro- as well as the micro-scale. The article thus defines the “gender–poverty–mobility nexus” that shapes space and everyday life in the Gauteng City-Region, precluding places like Denver from overcoming their marginality. Post-pandemic planning policy could be transformative for such spaces if it can build on this knowledge to better identify the needs of these vulnerable social groups and connect them to opportunities. It concludes with suggestions on how these empirically revealed dynamics could be translated into responses on the urban and regional scales, in the name of more equitable, resilient planning futures for Johannesburg and beyond.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5463
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Reimagining the Future of the Sydney CBD: Reflecting on Covid-19-Driven
           Changes in Commercial and Residential Property Trends

    • Authors: Gabriela Quintana Vigiola, Juaneé Cilliers, Luis Hernando Lozano-Paredes
      Pages: 49 - 62
      Abstract: Covid-19 has led to unprecedented changes in functional structures in our cities. Since the mid-20th century, central business districts (CBDs) worldwide have hosted economic and employment activities, leaving suburbia to home the residential function. However, the global Covid-19 responses have resulted in changes in some urban functions, and it is yet to see if these changes would transpire as temporary or permanent. Some argue that the broad macrogeographical pattern of urbanisation is unlikely to be changed. Still, that significant intra-metropolitan, neighbourhood-level and daily life changes are to become part of the new reality. Thus, this article considered these changes by focusing on property trends in the Sydney CBD to reflect on future trends, urban structures, and associated functions. An evaluative single case study desktop analysis was conducted to investigate commercial vacancy rates and rental prices within the CBD of Sydney (Australia) between 2018 and 2021 to reflect on the Covid-19-drive changes and their implications for urban planners. Findings highlighted that before Covid-19, both residential and commercial markets were growing, with rising rental prices and decreasing vacancy rates. However, commercial vacancies in the CBD have increased, and rental prices have decreased since 2020’s lockdown, stressing the dropping demand for commercial spaces. The residential market experienced a different trend with dropping vacancy rates and increasing rental prices. The data analysed provide an initial understanding of how Covid-19 has impacted the Sydney CBD. It poses some insights into potential future trends and changes in the urban landscape. It highlights the implications that the planning profession should consider in the quest to realise sustainable and resilient cities.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5298
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Uneven Trajectories and Decentralisation: Lessons From Historical Planning
           Processes in Saint-Étienne

    • Authors: Victoria Pinoncely
      Pages: 63 - 74
      Abstract: Once the industrial capital of France, Saint-Étienne has faced the closure of mining pits, steel plants, and textile firms in close succession, leading to population loss and social and economic challenges, and making the city an outlier in France as a large-sized shrinking city. There has generally been a lack of temporal approaches to urban shrinking processes and calls to incorporate historical institutionalism in planning research. This research will use path dependence—a conceptual framework where a critical event causes a process that is marked by reproductive logic—as a central explanatory tool to assess historical planning processes in Saint-Étienne. This article identifies a critical event—the publication of the first spatial plan for the Saint-Étienne region—and then considers temporal self-reinforcing processes, reviewing subsequent local spatial planning strategies through a culturalist theory frame. It shows that spatial strategies have not adapted over time to the reality of shrinkage; local beliefs in growth displayed path-dependent features and resulted in decentralisation and deepening socio-economic inequalities both within the metropolitan area of Saint-Étienne and with its larger neighbour, Lyon. More broadly, for metropolitan areas to be able to adapt to future changes and be resilient, it will be crucial for urban planning policy and research to consider the extent to which planning strategies can self-reinforce and to find ways to adapt these strategies in the face of global urban transformations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5483
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • “The System Is the System, Isn’t It'”: The Case for
           a Just Devolution

    • Authors: Liam O'Farrell, Roman Zwicky
      Pages: 75 - 85
      Abstract: How do actors involved in decision-making around urban planning relate to devolution' How do they perceive external forces influencing their cities, and how can the interventions they make be better oriented towards tackling inequalities' We reflect on these questions with data from interviews conducted with urban leaders and housing and development policy stakeholders in the second cities of Birmingham, UK, and Lyon, France. We compare narratives and assess how they relate to the concept of spatial justice in differing contexts of devolution. Drawing from findings in two cities with distinct governance structures, we uncover common issues with neoliberal, growth-oriented mindsets among key actors, despite contrasting rhetoric around social justice. We contend that there is thus a need to define mechanisms for making devolution more attentive to inequalities. This could be achieved through incorporating the concept of spatial justice into devolution strategies. We further argue that, while autonomy to make decisions is an important aspect of devolution, this autonomy needs to be operationalised within an appropriate constellation, including a progressive political-economic culture, sufficient bureaucratic authority and resources, and an active and informed citizenry. As such, devolution is a two-way process of having powers devolved from above and building capacity from below to make use of these powers effectively. We conclude by reflecting critically on the potential of existing strategies in the two contexts to overcome social inequalities and realise the aspirations of “just devolution.”
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5291
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Different Forms of Welfare Provision for Diverse Suburban Fabrics: Three
           Examples From Italy

    • Authors: Lorenzo De Vidovich
      Pages: 86 - 97
      Abstract: Over the last 20 years, suburbanization has gradually turned into a key topic of analysis, whereas welfare policies have faced a significant public reconfiguration towards the local scale of provision and the development of local welfare systems. Combined in such a way, these two statements tell us little, and they appear to be separate and without any relation. This article aims at building the analytical and research interplays between these two topics. In so doing, the article addresses the governance and planning of local welfare services in suburbs, entwined with the post-suburban theoretical frame. By identifying the issues at stake—that is, the governance of welfare and services—the analysis investigates the uneven socio-spatial polarizations that are currently emerging in metropolitan areas. The research bridges a research gap between the unevenness of the suburban expansion and the changing provision of welfare services. The article discusses these insights with three Italian cases from the edges of the three main metropolitan areas: Milan, Rome, and Naples. The empirical discussion, which relies on the outcomes of qualitative fieldwork activities, discusses and compares the differentiation of welfare provision and the relevant diverse “suburban societies” amongst the three contexts. Through this focus, the article points out that a heterogeneous and unequal spatial distribution of basic services and social infrastructures is to be found amongst the constellation of towns located on the outskirts of an urban core.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5405
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Between Decentralization and Recentralization: Conflicts in Intramunicipal
           and Intermunicipal Governance in Tokyo’s Shrinking Suburbs

    • Authors: Hiroaki Ohashi, Nicholas A. Phelps, John Tomaney
      Pages: 98 - 114
      Abstract: The suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis are experiencing path-dependent, multifaceted shrinkage in socio-demographic, economic, and political and administrative (including fiscal) dimensions. The following two contradictory processes taking place in the opposite direction are at work, namely: the political and administrative decentralization of authority and responsibility (although without much fiscal devolution), and the socio-demographic, economic, and fiscal recentralization of workplaces, residences, and municipal finance. As Tokyo’s suburbs confront these contradictory processes of decentralization and recentralization, they fall into the gap between, on the one hand, policies that prioritize the internationally competitive metropolitan center by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and, on the other hand, policies that address the growing problems of lagging provinces by the Government of Japan. These phenomena are affecting radical, but barely visible, changes in public affairs of municipal governments on the lowest tier. We thus examine the emerging modalities of intra- and inter-municipal affairs in Tokyo’s shrinking post-suburbs. First, we explore the intra-municipal upheavals, incorporating instabilities and disarrays, of ideas and practices inside a municipal government. Next, we investigate the inter-municipal upheavals that involve oscillations between unification and fragmentation among municipal governments. These interrelated intra- and inter-municipal upheavals hinder the consistency and timeliness of planning and decision-making in the local arena. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of taming these upheavals and creating integrated governance systems by exploiting the emerging sense of the increasingly intertwined future among municipal governments. This is vital to strengthen local solidarity and promote inter-municipal collaborations at scales that can ensure metropolitan and suburban sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5268
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • From a Small Village to an Exclusive Gated Community: Unplanned
           Suburbanisation and Local Sovereignty in Post-Socialist Hungary

    • Authors: Adrienne Csizmady, Márton Bagyura, Gergely Olt
      Pages: 115 - 129
      Abstract: In Hungary, after the regime change in 1989, one of the most important institutional changes concerning suburbanisation was the high sovereignty of local authorities, albeit without appropriate funding for sovereign operation. This type of local sovereignty made mezzo-level planning and cooperation of independent municipalities ineffective. The inherent systemic political corruption of the rapid post-socialist privatisation hindered spontaneous cooperation as well. As a result, suburban infrastructure, even in municipalities with high-status residents, remained underdeveloped (from traffic connections through waste management to water provision). Our research field, Telki, was successful in selling land because its scenic location and the absence of industrial and commercial activities made it attractive for high-status suburban settlers. These newcomers were not interested in the further functional development of the village, and, as they took local political power, they successfully restricted economic and functional development. Consequently, selling land and introducing property taxes remained the most important source of income. The colonisation of the village by newcomers also meant the displacement of lower status original villagers and, today, mostly high-status families with young children feel at home in Telki. Others feel excluded not only because of real estate prices but also by the lack of appropriate functions or simply by the narrow concept of an appropriate lifestyle in the village defined by local power. The consequence of a complete lack of cooperation and rational planning is not only social injustice, elite segregation, and environmental harm, but also the reduced economic and housing potential of the Budapest agglomeration.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5275
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • When Modern Housing Built Optimistic Suburbia: A Comparative Analysis
           Between Lisbon and Luanda

    • Authors: Inês Rodrigues
      Pages: 130 - 143
      Abstract: Throughout the 1960s, the urban peripheries in several Portuguese colonial cities embarked on a profound process of transformation. With different urban histories and distant geographical contexts, Lisbon and Luanda were united by urban planning and public policies defined by the Estado Novo’s response to the lack of housing supply. The neighbourhoods that expressed modern affiliation in their architecture witnessed profound changes brought about by the April 25th Revolution and the consequent process of democracy in Portugal (1974) and independence in Angola (1975). This article proposes a comparative analysis of middle-class housing complexes, demystifying the urban peripheries by an optimistic architecture that helped shape the built environment and echoed its time’s urban and political concerns. It analyses four case studies, taking into account their inherent characteristics (urban layout, architecture, and interior design), their significance as a testimony to the social and political aspirations of the time, and the quality of life and lifestyles of their current population. It draws on sociological surveys and analysis of plans, photographs, and maps to carry out a broader picture of modern housing through the work of Fernando Silva in Lisbon and Fernão Simões de Carvalho in Luanda. Based on current research, this article aims to assess the resilience of these neighbourhoods by analysing the housing landscape from an urban and architectural perspective. By mapping the changes after 50 years of use, the intention is to understand how they have adapted to current conditions (urban and social) and support future actions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5221
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Contemporary Decentralized Development of a Centrally Planned Metropolis:
           The Case of Budapest

    • Authors: Anna Kornélia Losonczy, Annamária Orbán, Melinda Benkő
      Pages: 144 - 158
      Abstract: This study examines the changes undergone by urban centers within Greater Budapest’s extension area, which was annexed to the capital of Hungary in 1950, and which is, with minor modifications, equivalent to the outer zone today. The article compares the development methods of two different political systems: state socialism (i.e., the communist regime) between 1950 and 1990, and post-socialist capitalism after 1990. Over a longer period, the urban development of Budapest has made a long but circular journey from decentralized to a decentralized–disjointed socio-spatial development system, passing through a centrally-planned communist era between 1945 and 1990. Nevertheless, closer examination of this process reveals that several paradigm shifts took place in the design methodology, which was strongly influenced by socio-economic changes. These shifts, layered upon the inherited structure, as well as the neglect or preference of different systems, caused great differences in the development histories of centers on the outskirts. Therefore, we have set up a development typology for the centers on the outskirts by summarizing the planning history at the city level. Based on how well the center was able to incorporate itself into the larger metropolis since 1950, we have distinguished the following development models: the metropolized, the transcript, the rehabilitated, and the urban village model. This typology is extended to include new urban centers that formed during state socialism (between 1950 and 1990) and post-socialist capitalism (since 1990).
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5426
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Developing Polycentricity to Shape Resilient Metropolitan Structures: The
           Case of the Gdansk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Piotr Lorens, Anna Golędzinowska
      Pages: 159 - 171
      Abstract: Making the metropolitan area resilient, in many cases, calls for amending its spatial structures. This may take various forms, including both reshaping the metropolitan core and redeveloping the entire regional network of cities and centres, making them part of a coherent structure. The latter strategy is associated with reinforcing secondary urban centres as well as shaping new connections between them. In this case, the term “resilience” is associated not only with environmental aspects but also with socio-economic and spatial ones. Shaping resilient metropolitan areas is therefore associated with complex planning and development undertakings, in many cases spread over decades. This approach was proven to be correct during the recent Covid-19 pandemic, which spurred this process of rethinking metropolitan structures and led to generating new approaches to metropolitan development and planning. The article focuses on the Gdansk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area, which is potentially the largest polycentric metropolitan area on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. In this case, polycentricity has a twofold origin—it includes centres with a shaped spatial structure that come closer together as they develop and diffuse suburban structure, the shaping of which remains one of the main challenges of the regional spatial policy. The authors look at both concepts and tools associated with reshaping this metropolitan centre. In particular, they analyse the effects of using both obligatory and optional planning tools which are available according to Polish law. They also try to answer the question of under what conditions a polycentric structure has a chance to become a resistant structure.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5502
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
  • Examining Socio-Economic Inequality Among Commuters: The Case of the
           Jakarta Metropolitan Area

    • Authors: Adiwan Aritenang
      Pages: 172 - 184
      Abstract: The rapid development of urban areas in surrounding regions has led to an increasing number of commuters within and between core-peripheral regions. However, variation in jobs and economic levels has exacerbated the socio-economic inequalities between metropolitan residents. Using the commuter data of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, this study examines the socio-economic disparities of commuting behaviour, spatial patterns, and health between commuters with incomes lower and higher than the regional minimum wage. The article conducts quantitative descriptive statistics and a non-parametric test using the BPS—Statistics Indonesia 2019 commuter data that included 13,000 sample respondents from the Jakarta Province and its neighbouring districts. Our result reveals a significant impact of income level on the choice of private transportation mode, whilst having no effect on the choice of public transportation modes. Higher-income peripheral residents tend to commute to the core metropolitan area (Jakarta Province), while lower-income commuters typically travel between peripheral areas. The article also indicates the negative physical health impact of prolonged and early-hours commuting, especially for lower-income groups. The article proposes better public transportation that is convenient, safe, and reliable, to ensure a sustainable and resilient metropolitan area.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.17645/up.v7i3.5271
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2022)
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