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South Eastern European J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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South Eastern European Journal of Public Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2197-5248
Published by Jacobs Verlag Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A study on risk perception, cognitive awareness and emotional responses to
           identify unmet training needs of frontline health care workers for
           COVID-19 containment in India

    • Authors: Madhumita Dobe, Monalisha Sahu, Chandrashekhar Taklikar, Shibani Dutta
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Aim: Frontline Health Care Workers (FLHCWs) are the key workforce in the fight against ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. They hail from the community and are responsible for supporting the health system in generating awareness, implementing preventive strategies, contact tracing and isolating potential cases. In their job responsibilities, FLHCWs thus may perceive heightened risk of exposure to the virus, leading to overwhelming emotional response and psychological distress. The objective of this study was to investigate risk perception, cognitive awareness and emotional responses among FLHCWs trained to deal with Covid 19, to identify unmet needs of this training in India.
      Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 131 frontline workers selected by a multistage sampling process from two states (Odisha and Himachal Pradesh) of India. The FLHCWs were interviewed personally (when feasible) with the help of a predesigned pretested semi-structured questionnaire.
      Results: The findings suggested that majority (90%) of the FLHCWs perceived that they are susceptible to nCoV-19 infection and 77.1% of FLHCWs felt high probability of them getting infected with the nCoV-19. Almost 90% of them responded that it is something they think about all the time and 41% of FLHCWs admitted that they feel helpless in the situation. About 63% of FLHCWs perceived that the nCoV-19 infection was a severe illness and 35% perceived it to be very severe and life threatening. Although most of them had received some unstructured and non-uniform training on preventive measures against COVID-19, yet only 38% felt that the knowledge was adequate to protect themselves from the nCoV-19 infection. The training sessions lacked psychological component for capacitating them with coping skills to address their emotional and psychological responses. Conclusion: The FLHCWs experienced heightened risk perception and symptoms of emotional distress in significant numbers even after trainings. A more inclusive public health policy dialogue to address the emotional and psychological coping skills is needed for capacitation of these frontline workers to address the challenges of Pandemic response now and in future.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30

    • Authors: Ulrich Laaser, Cheryl Stroud, Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Helmut Wenzel, Richard Seifman, Carter Craig, Bruce Kaplan, Laura Kahn, Rohini Roopnarine
      Pages: 11 - 40
      Abstract: Current economic, social, and environmental trajectories within most world regions are unsustainable. Interaction between bottom-up initiatives and top-down good governance is essential to change them. The One Health movement, made up of many organizations, groups, and individuals from diverse backgrounds and disciplines, seeks to redress the present trajectories but has lacked coordination and cooperation, limiting its effectiveness to date. We take a snapshot of groups/organizations working to promote One Health, explore options to increase cooperation and coordination among global One Health stakeholders, and propose systemic strategies that could positively impact animals, people, the planet, plants, and politics.
      Methods: Through a review of the compilation of Who’s Who in One Health organizations on the One Health Commission’s (OHC) website and the list of organizations that have pledged support for One Health listed on the One Health Initiative (OHI) website, 289 organizations were identified (as of 29 July 2022: 126 Civil Society Organizations, 133 academic and 30 governmental organizations). A stratified sampling approach and MAXQDA 2022 were used in a mixed-methods analysis to select a sample (N=50) of organizations to evaluate with 10 questions on purpose & focus, structure & transparency, cooperation & implementation, and publications. Results: The words “One Health” appeared in the organizations’ names on 62.0% (N=31) of websites examined, most often those in academic settings (78.2%). As regards transparency of the organizational structures, membership was defined in 70.0% (N=35), again most often by academic organizations (82.6%). Members of the governing structures were named on 34.0% of organizational websites. Projects led in the last two years were described on 32.0%, and cooperation with other organizations was indicated on 64.0% of websites examined. Relevant publications and annual reports were listed on 46.0% and 24.0% of probed websites, respectively. Ranking the number of positive findings for each of the 50 organizations examined revealed that full information for all ten questions was provided by only 4 academic and 1 governmental organization.
      The OHC website was used as a starting point and thus was not included in the N=50 samples. It was therefore examined as an example of a Non-Profit / CSO working to support bottom-up One Health leadership. Since 2014 the OHC has supported a Global One Health Community listserv of individuals from around the globe. The analysis revealed a dominance of Directors from the US and a high proportion of organizations included on the OHC Who’s Who in One Health organizations webpage were located in North America. The social sciences - sociology and economics in particular – were underrepresented among in its leadership. Conclusion: These 10 questions may not have been fully appropriate for all organizations examined in academic or government settings versus stand-alone non-profit or civil society organizations. However, an examination of the 50 selected websites of organizations working to implement One Health and/or framing their projects and purpose in One Health revealed the global One Health movement to be fragmented and uncoordinated. The authors propose to form a more unified voice for One Health across the international One Health movement, a fully networked, informal global One Health alliance or community of practice that can coordinate sharing of information among the networks and with the general public, and that is able to seek synergies and joining of hands in collective/collaborative actions to effectively and efficiently promote and support bottom-up efforts.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Taking up from COP26 going forward: contribution of the Book “Survival:
           One Health, One Planet, One Future by George R. Lueddeke”

    • Authors: Eliudi Saria Eliakimu, Linda Mans
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Since its publication in 2019, the book "Survival: One Health, One Planet, One Future", written by George R. Lueddeke, has proven to be timely and useful in these uncertain and tense ("rattling" – Lueddeke’s word) times we are experiencing. Indeed, we have had (and still are experiencing) the COVID-19 pandemic and the war between Russia and Ukraine that was started early 2022. In this article, we recall the urgency of climate action, the goals of COP26 (that took place from 31st October to 12th November 2021) and provide suggestions for topics that might deserve a place in a possible update of the book. These topics include (i) a critical analysis of the effects of Russia and Ukraine War and lessons from the perspective of One Health and Wellbeing; (ii) progress in various countries in using the One Health approach to address issues that affect the health and wellbeing of population (equity), the environment and ecosystems in general (including global trends in non-communicable diseases and antimicrobial resistance); and (iii) look at the current global governance systems in relation to how they can better function proactively to prevent future wars (interconnected challenges).
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Level of satisfaction among primary health care workers in Kosovo

    • Authors: Haxhi Kamberi, Vanesa Tanushi, Muhamet Kadrija
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the extent and selected corelates of work satisfaction among primary healthcare professionals in Kosovo.
      Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected regions of Kosovo during the period May-June 2022 including a representative sample of 500 primary healthcare workers (209 men and 291 women; overall mean age: 42.0±12.3 years). A structured 9-item questionnaire was administered to all participants aiming at assessing the level of satisfaction among primary healthcare workers (each item ranging from 1 [high] to 5 [low]). A summary score was calculated for all 9 items related to satisfaction level ranging from 9 (the highest satisfaction level) to 45 (the lowest satisfaction level). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of satisfaction level (dichotomized into “satisfied” vs. “unsatisfied”, based on median value of the summary score) with selected demographic factors and work characteristics of primary healthcare workers.
      Results: Mean summary score of the 9 items related to the satisfaction level of primary healthcare workers was about 23±5; median score was 23 (interquartile range: 20-26). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the level of satisfaction was not significantly related to any demographic factor, but positively associated with the years of working experience of primary healthcare workers [OR(for 1 year increment in the work experience)=1.03, 95%CI=1.00-1.05] Conclusion: The evidence from this study conducted in Kosovo indicates no significant relationships of the level of satisfaction with demographic factors of primary healthcare workers, but a strong association with their working experience. Policymakers in Kosovo and in other countries should be aware of the importance of working conditions and working environment in order to gradually increase the level of satisfaction of the staff, which is a basic prerequisite for quality improvement of service delivery at primary healthcare level.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Determinants of low birth weight in the health district of Bounkiling in

    • Authors: Martial Coly Bop, Cheikh Tacko Diop, Bou Diarra, Boubacar Gueye, Ousseynou Ka
      Pages: 63 - 71
      Abstract: Aim: Low birth weight (LBW), 9.1 million deaths per year, is a global health issue. The proportion of LBW in Senegal is estimated at 12% (in 2017) and is at 11.7% (in 2017) in the region of Sedhiou. In this regard, rigorous management is required to address this issue, especially in rural areas. The objective of the study was to identify the determinants of LBW.
      Methodology: This is a case-control study which has been conducted in the district of Bounkiling. Socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers, their obstetrical and medical history, and information on the health status of the newborn in the case group were compared with that of the controls. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are performed using Epi info 7 software to identify the determinants.
      Results: Low-weights accounted for 97.05% of LBW. The sex ratio was 0.87 in favor of girls. The Apgar score at birth was not good for 31.4% of newborns. Teenage mothers accounted for 17.08%. The multivariate analysis showed that the determinants of LBW (p < 0.05) were the female sex of the newborn, the Apgar score at birth, the maternal age <=19 years, the household income < 83.96 USD, maternal history of low birth weight and physical labor during pregnancy. Conclusion: Strengthening communication on early marriages and pregnancies, empowering women and improving pregnancy monitoring would be levers to counter the determinants of low birth weight.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Epidemiological features of New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in children
           and adolescent during 2010-2014 in Albania - a unique experience.

    • Authors: Laurant Kollçaku
      Pages: 72 - 98
      Abstract: Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common metabolic chronic disease in genetically susceptible children and adolescents, due to an autoimmune process characterized by a selective destruction of insulin producing β-cells. The aim is to assess the epidemiological features of new-onset T1DM in children and adolescent at the national level during the period 2010-2014 in Department of Pediatrics, Endocrine Unit, University Hospital Center 'Mother Teresa', Tirana, as the unique center for pediatric endocrinology and diabetology in Albania.
      Methods: The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 152 patients aged <15 years newly diagnosed with T1D from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 were studied. T1D was diagnosed according to WHO 2006 criteria and DKA was diagnosed based on ISPAD 2014 criteria. Patients were classified into 3 sub-groups (I: 0-4 years, II: 5-9 years, and III; 10-14 years). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 26. Results: The incidence of new-onset of T1DM was 5.012/100.000/year. The mean age of children at diagnosis was 8.3 ± 3.6 years. The patients were mostly diagnosed at ages 5-9 years (40.1%), and 10-14 years (39.5%), followed by the 0-4 years age group (20.4%). Mean duration of symptoms was 23.35 ± 17.16 days; longer in the subgroup 5-9 years (P= 0. 0.013). Three quarters (75%) of children with T1DM live in urban areas. Viral infections or other circumstance triggers were in 41.9% of children aged 0-4 years compared to other subgroups (P=0.002). Most of the children were born in the spring−summer months (53.23%) compared to the autumn−winter months (46.77%). Approximately 1/4 of the children were born and diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in each of the seasons of the year and 52.63% of the patients studied were first born. Family history for DMT1 and DMT2 is observed in 15.8% and 17.8% of the children, respectively. Polyuria (99.3%), polydipsia (99.6%) and weight loss (98.1%) were the most common symptoms and 67.8% of patients presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Misdiagnosis was in 21 (13.8%) patients. Mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 11.63%; 11.9 ± 2.0 in DKA positive children and 11.1 ± 2.4 in DKA negative children (p= 0.195).
      At diagnosis and during follow up of T1DM 25% (38/152) developed associated autoimmune diseases; 68.42% at diagnosis of T1DM and 65.79% (25/38) of patients were female. During follow up children with T1DM developed associated CD and SAT, 2.54, and 2.19 years, respectively.
      Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Albania is a country with middle incidence of T1DM and the age at onset is decreasing. The symptoms lasted significantly longer and mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher in older children. The incidence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1DM is high.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Syndromic surveillance in early detection of outbreaks of infectious

    • Authors: Eugena Tomini, Artan Simaku, Elona Kureta, Adela Vasili, Silva Bino
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: Aim: Motivated by the threat of infectious diseases and bioterrorism, syndromic surveillance systems are being developed and implemented around the world. The aim of the study was to describe the early warning surveillance system in Albania.
      Methods: Syndromic surveillance is a primary health care-facility- and emergency room (ER)-based syndromic surveillance system aiming at detecting outbreaks and undertaking public health actions. It is based on weekly notifications of nine syndromes by over 1,600 General Practitioners (GPs) in the 36 districts of Albania. Data is aggregated by district epidemiologists (DE) and centralized by the national Institute of Public Health.
      Results: A syndrome is “a set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.” In the context of syndromic surveillance, a syndrome is a set of non-specific pre-diagnosis medical and other information that may indicate the release of a bioterrorism agent or natural disease outbreak.
      Since its inception, syndromic surveillance has mainly focused on early event detection: gathering and analysing data in advance of diagnostic case confirmation to give early warning of a possible outbreak.
      Conclusion: The system is useful for detecting and responding to natural disease outbreaks such as seasonal and pandemic flu, and thus they have the potential to significantly advance and modernize the practice of public health surveillance.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
  • Human health in the flood risk management planning under the European
           Union Floods Directive: Pilot study in the Sava River Basin

    • Authors: Anniek E. E. de Jong, Mirza Sarač, Wilko Verweij, Jovana Rašeta Bastić, Gertjan W. Geerling
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: The EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) has the purpose to establish a framework for the flood risks assessment and management. It requires the implementation of coordinated measures on a basin-wide level for the reduction of adverse consequences to human health and life. However, mainly direct fatalities are taken into consideration in these plans. To develop more integrated and adaptive risk management and governance it is important to include both direct and indirect consequences. To define effective measures clearer understanding of the relation between floods and impact on human health is needed. We present a first attempt to provide a roadmap for the inclusion of health issues of concern to flood risk management within the Sava River Basin as an example. An overview of the potential flood effects to health issues was made and a roadmap plan was set up to analyse and map these flood risks. We concluded that indirect health effects can contribute significantly to the overall adverse consequences to health, and although relations are complex, a preliminary assessment could be made. Mapping of adverse consequences to health issues in the planning stages should lead to systemic insights and proposed measures in the prevention, protection, and preparedness while considering the characteristics of the river basin or sub-basins. By incorporating a health-risk-analysis in the planning process, health-oriented preparation is not only aimed at improving post-flood relief efforts, but to minimise the actual impacts and decrease post flood recovery time and costs.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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