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International Journal of Research in Dermatology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2455-4529
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • The effects of topical steroid fears and concerns on patients with eczema:
           first TOPICOPĀ© scale-based study in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Abdulmajeed A. Alharbi, Ghadah I. Alhetheli, Reema Alqahtani, Mujahid Alshehri
      Pages: 155 - 162
      Abstract: Background: Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the main treatment for eczema, which are often required for months (or years) to control the disease. Despite the well-known side effects of TCS, their efficacy and safety are well established when used appropriately. This study was conducted to assess the fears, concerns, and various practices of patients with eczema toward TCS in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted that targeted patients with eczema among all age groups and genders attending the dermatology outpatient clinics. There were no exclusions based on the type, severity, or duration of the disease.Results: A total of 105 patients with eczema were recruited for this study. It was revealed that 46.8% of participants stopped their treatment as soon as possible, which indicates immediate discontinuation of steroids after their eczema flares had subsided and improved. An interesting finding was that 38.3% of participants did not start their TCS treatment until the disease deteriorated rather than when flare-ups occurred.Conclusions: Exaggerated fears about TCS exist among patients with eczema and their care givers. This can result in non-adherence or wasting of many prescribed TCS preparations TCS. It is very important to understand and emphasize on the nature and extent of the prevalence of TCS fears to ensure that prompt, correct advice can be offered. Since dermatologists remain the most trusted source of information, there should be an emphasis on individual patient counseling and increased engagement in social media with pre-planned content. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210472
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Prevalence and associated risk factors of superficial and cutaneous
           mycoses among children attending Halibet referral hospital in Asmara,
           Eritrea

    • Authors: John J. Prabakaran, Yordanos Kesete, Eyob Yohannes, Eyorusalem Tsehaye, Natsnet Teklezghi, Eyorusalem Araya, Winta Arefaine
      Pages: 163 - 170
      Abstract: Background: Superficial and cutaneous mycoses are very common among the populations in many African countries. Even though it has not been regarded as a significant problem since the disease is not life-threatening, it may be particularly distressing for the children. The aim of this study was to identify important etiologic agents, proportion of clinical manifestations and related risk factors of superficial and cutaneous mycoses.Methods: A case control prospective study was conducted among children of age 4-14 from January to June, 2017.A total of 240 children were included in the study. Out of these 120 children who visited Orotta Pediatric hospital for cases apart from skin infections were used as control group and the remaining 120 were children suspected with fungal skin infection who attended Halibet referral hospital. Nail, skin and scalp scrapings were collected and subjected for microscopic examination and culture-based laboratory diagnosis. The associated risk factors which can lead to skin mycoses were also analysed.Results: Among 120 suspected cases, 87.5% children were positive for superficial cutaneous mycoses out of which 59.2% were males and 40.8% were females. The most prevalent dermatophyte observed was Trichophyton verrucosum (15.2%) whereas Trichosporon sp. (40%) was predominant among non-dermatophytes. Most of the infections occurred between age groups 4-6 (32.5%). Tinea capitis was the most common disease (57.5%) among the cutaneous mycotic infections, whereas white Piedra (40%) was predominant among the superficial mycotic infections. The important risk factors were intimate association with livestock or pet (50%), playing with children having skin infection (73.3%), sharing of beds (92.5%), sharing of combs (75.3%) and sharing of towels (80.1%).Conclusions: The present study clearly shows that tinea capitis was the predominant clinical finding in children and T. verrucosum was the most common fungus among dermatophytes. At least five risk factors were statistically significant out of all. So public health workers should give attention for increasing the knowledge of society regarding the mode of transmission of skin mycoses, hygiene behaviour and associated risk factors.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210564
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Application of smartphones in dermatology practice: a cross-sectional
           survey

    • Authors: Priya Prabhakaran Nair, Leela Manju
      Pages: 171 - 176
      Abstract: Background: Smartphones have revolutionised medical practice including dermatology because of its multiple functions assisting practitioners at the point of care and beyond. We aimed to analyse the pattern of smartphone use by dermatologists and to explore their opinions and difficulties faced while using smartphoneMethods: This cross-sectional study included a population of dermatology consultants and residents in Kerala, India. A validated self-reported questionnaire was emailed to them using a survey tool to collect the dataResults: Overall 100 practitioners responded to the questionnaire with a response rate 10.6%. Consultants and residents accounted for 81% and 19% of the participants respectively. Females (78%) outnumbered males. Most (58.6%) belonged to age group 31-40 years. Everyone owned a smartphone with the most prevalent operating system (OS) being android (85.9%). Medical communication was done mostly using phone calls (92%). Drug reference (94%) was the most popular noncommunicative application. Most participants (85%) used smartphone camera for clinical photography. OS freezing was the biggest technical issue whereas inappropriate use and distraction were the biggest nontechnical challenges of smartphone use. Clinical photography was taken by 95% for disease monitoring with significantly higher usage in females. Those upto 40 years of age significantly took and shared clinical photographs for second opinion more than older ones. Only 17.2% with significantly higher males than females took written consent for photography.Conclusions: Dermatologists use smartphone extensively for communication, information and photography with preferences varying with age, gender and level of training.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210464
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A study on the clinical profile of dermatoses induced by topical
           corticosteroids

    • Authors: Vontela Rohit, S. Rajesh Reddy, Narendar Gajula, Karing Deepthi
      Pages: 177 - 183
      Abstract: Background: Topical corticosteroids (TC), commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with many side effects with their overuse, abuse and over-the-counter use as a cosmetic. This article aims to study clinical presentation of various dermatoses induced by abuse of TC in order to bring awareness among patients and practitioners to use topical corticosteroids with utmost caution.Methods: This study was conducted at DVL department of a tertiary care teaching hospital over 23 consecutive months. A total of 200 consecutive patients of all ages and both genders with topical steroid induced dermatoses were included in the study. A detailed clinical evaluation was undertaken, data was then recorded and analysed.Results: Majority of the patients were females (56%). Most common age group was 20-29 years (42%). Majority used TC as a remedy for dermatophytosis (38%), followed by use as a fairness/cosmetic cream (20%). Most of patients (29.5%) used TC for 6 months duration. Most commonly used TC formulation was 0.05% clobetasol propionate (37.5%). Majority patients (62%) did not have a valid prescription of which 47% used TC on Quacks’s advice. The most common side effects encountered were tinea incognito (33%), steroid-induced acne (20.5%), hyperpigmentation (14.5%), and hypopigmentation in 22 (11%).Conclusions: Present study highlights irrational prescription of TC by non-dermatologists for dermatophytosis which are very common in this particular study region and emphasizes the need to educate patients about serious adverse effects of TC abuse.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A descriptive study of clinico-epidemiological profile of chronic
           urticaria from a tertiary care center

    • Authors: Olasseri Kalathingal Reena Mariyath, Sreekanth Sukumarakurup, Sanjayan Rosamma Roopasree Pinky, Mohandas Ajina, Kollarukandy Vijayan Anagha
      Pages: 184 - 187
      Abstract: Background: Chronic urticaria is defined as wheals occurring at least twice weekly for more than six weeks. Exact etiology of chronic urticaria is not known. Only a few studies are available about the clinical and epidemiological profile of chronic urticaria from our part of the country.Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among one hundred consecutives chronic urticaria patients attending the dermatology out patient department of government medical college, Kozhikode to find out the clinical and epidemiological profile of chronic urticaria.Results: Out of 100 patients 25 (25%) were males and 75 (75%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1:3. Angioedema was seen in 63 (63%) patients and dermographism in 53 (53%) patients. Food was the aggravating factor in 34 (34%) patients, exposure to house dust in 28 (28%), sweat in 36 (36%), pressure in 37 (37%), sunlight in 17 (17%), drugs in 22 (22%), stress in 36 (36%), heat in 13 (13%), water in 20 (20%), cold in 5 (5%), infection in 31 (31%) and infestations in 20 (20%) patients.Conclusions: Chronic urticaria is common in females. Angioedema and dermographism are seen in more than half of the patients with chronic urticaria. Most common aggravating factors of chronic urticaria were pressure, sweat, stress, food, infections and exposure to house dust.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Comparison of seminar and lecture as teaching method and student
           perception on the seminar and lecture in medical education

    • Authors: Chidambaram Dharmambal, Somasundaram Anavarathan
      Pages: 188 - 191
      Abstract: Background: The current teaching methodology in medical education is mostly lecture. Many studies have mentioned that lectures alone are ineffective in bringing up student interaction and skills. Published literature reports that students are willing to accept innovative and interactive teaching methodologies. A study was conducted to compare the seminar vs. lectures in medical teaching and to describe perception of medical students about seminar and lecture.Methods: For comparison between seminar and lecture 88 participants from third MBBS students were randomly assigned for the Seminar and lecture methods including cross over technique by splitting the topic of leprosy into two parts. We conducted pre and post-tests after each session for both groups with the same questionnaire with total score of 36 for 36 questions. For opinion study we used a simple closed ended questionnaire on perception of on the two teaching methods. Data was analysed using SPSS software for computation of mean differences in the score and chi square proportions appropriately.Results: Least significant difference post hoc test indicates difference in the teaching methods. Mean score difference between pre and post-tests in both methods demonstrate that seminar is effective teaching method (p<0.05). Seminar evoked interest, provided more opportunities interact. In both methodologies schematic arrangement of the topic and improvement in communication skills was similar.Conclusions: Seminar was effective than didactic lecture interest and active participation as well as improves the ability to understand. To impart effective learning a combination of different teaching methods have to be used.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210565
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A clinical and mycological study of superficial mycosis

    • Authors: Suma Patil, Dayanand Raikar
      Pages: 192 - 194
      Abstract: Background: Superficial mycosis is among the most frequent forms of human infection affecting more than 20-25% of world’s population. Current study aims at assessing the clinical profile of dermatophytic infection and to identify the fungal species responsible. Methods: A prospective study conducted on 100 patients with clinically suspected dermatophytosis presenting to Skin OPD in a tertiary hospital in north Karnataka. A detailed clinical history, general physical examination and systemic examination routine lab investigations were done. Sample collection for mycological examinations was done for direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail) and fungal culture an SDA with 0.5% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cyclohexidine was done in every case.Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Male:female ratio was approximately 3:2. Maximum numbers of cases were in the age groups of 16-30 years (46 cases). 46% patients had multiple site involvement followed by tinea corporis in 20 (20%), tinea cruris in 18 (18%), tinea unguium (8%), tinea manuum (3%), tinea pedis (3%), tinea barbae (1%), and tinea faciei (1%). Potassium hydroxide examination was positive for fungal elements in 88(88%) patients and 35(35%). The most common species identified were. Trichophyton rubrum in 60% samples, followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 20%.Conclusions: Present clinical and mycological study showed tinea corporis as the most common clinical pattern followed by tinea cruris and T. rubrum as the most common causative agent.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210566
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A study to compare clinico-histopathological and dermoscopic findings in
           patients of vitiligo

    • Authors: Krishnendra Varma, Ujjwal Kumar, Siddharth Sethi
      Pages: 195 - 200
      Abstract: Background: Vitiligo is an acquired disorder; characterised by well-defined depigmented macules and patches. Its diagnosis is clinical but histopathology aids in doubtful cases, histopathological findings depend on the duration of clinical lesions. Dermoscopy serves as an auxiliary tool for diagnostic confirmation and additionally aids in the evaluation of disease activity. Methods: It’s the hospital based observational study of 50 vitiligo patients. After ethical committee approval and patient’s consenting, detailed history with clinical and dermatological examination was performed using a dermoscope (10X) and biopsy sample was sent for examination. The results were statistically analysed, discussed and their correlation with clinical diagnosis was established.Results: Generalised vitiligo was the most common presentation found, with koebnerization signifying progressive disease. Epidermal hyperkeratosis and absence of melanocytes were found to be significant in stable disease. Perilesional/marginal hyperpigmentation was observed in stable disease, while perifollicular depigmentation, trichrome pattern, comet tail appearance, micro koebner’s phenomenon and tapioca sago appearance were the findings significant in unstable disease.Conclusions: Vitiligo is primarily a clinical diagnosis; additional modalities may be required either to confirm the diagnosis like histopathology or to assess the progression of disease with dermoscopy. Unstable disease display perifollicular depigmentation whereas stable disease display perifollicular pigmentation, and can be compared with epidermal hyperkeratosis and absence of melanocytes in the lesions of stable vitiligo on histopathology. Such studies with a greater number of cases are recommended for having better understanding of the findings. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210567
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A clinical study on linear dermatoses at a teriary care teaching hospital
           in Davangere

    • Authors: Sowmya Manangi, Anirudh M., Aishwarya Sivuni, Hosalli Smrutha, Suga Reddy
      Pages: 201 - 206
      Abstract: Background: Skin lesions present with innumerable patterns like discoid, petaloid, arcuate, annular, polycyclic, livedo, reticulate, target, stellate, digitate, linear, serpiginous and whorled. Most of the linear lesions follow the Blaschko’s lines. Aim was to study the incidence of linear dermatoses, the age and sex incidence, various types of clinical presentation, various sites of distribution and their clinical correlation.  Methods: Detailed history including family history, History of disease documented with clinical examination. After counselling and after recording their consent for the test, skin biopsy along with routine investigations was done wherever needed and the results were evaluated. Results: Lichen striatus was seen in 29.91% followed by linear herpes zoster in 24.7%, linear lichen planus in 18.22%, linear verrucous epidermal nevus in 14.01%, segmental vitiligo in 3.73%, nevus depigmentation in 2.33% and others. Maximal cases were asymptomatic and reported for cosmetic reason. Intense itching was the main reason to bring the lichen planus patients and few cases of the lichen striatus patients for treatment.  Conclusions: Lichen striatus was found to be more common, female preponderance. Majority of patients showed unilateral distribution more on the extremities. Histopathological correlation shows the importance of histopathology which ultimately changes the management in any given condition. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210568
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Study of clinico-epidemiological profile of leprosy patients at tertiary
           care center

    • Authors: Ujjwal Kumar, Krishnendra Varma, Kamlapat Baraithiya
      Pages: 207 - 212
      Abstract: Background: Leprosy is often mentioned as the oldest disease known to man, the origins of which are lost in the mists of antiquity. In spite of having been declared eliminated in December 2005 from India as a public health problem, India has still 60% of the entire global case load.Methods: A total of 60 Leprosy patients belonged to Ujjain and its adjoining districts, attending the outpatient department of dermatology at R.D Gardi medical college, Ujjain (M.P.). Over a period of 1 year i.e. January 2019 to December 2019 constituted the subject material for study. The data was analysed for clinico-epidemiological characteristic and relevant investigations were done.Results: A total of 60 patients attended the leprosy clinic during the study period. Maximum number of patient belonged to age groups of 21-40 years. Male preponderance with M:F ratio was 3:1. Family history was seen in 3 patients (5.0%). 73.3% patients were from rural area. Borderline tuberculoid (19 patients) was commonest clinical presentation and 2 cases of childhood leprosy were recorded.Conclusions: The present study gives a general picture about the current trends of Leprosy in this particular region and highlights the importance of clinico-epidemiological profile and relevant investigations. This study emphasizes the need of spread of awareness about the disease, facilities for investigation and early diagnosis. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210569
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Recurrent and chronic dermatophytosis: culprit- not just antifungal
           resistance

    • Authors: Shruti Appannavar, Kiran ., Gajanan Pise, Rohith ., Ashwini P., Vinitha Sanagoudar, Shradha Gurudev
      Pages: 213 - 217
      Abstract: Background: Recurrent and chronic dermatophytosis is being increasingly seen nowadays. Without drug susceptibility tests, it is difficult to say whether these are due to antifungal resistance or due to other factors.Methods: Hundred dermatophytosis patients, lasting for more than 6 months were enrolled. Detailed history was taken. A clinical examination and KOH preparation was done.Results: Out of total 100 patients, male to female ratio was 61:39. The most common age group was 16-30 years and 31-45years respectively. Tinea cruris with corporis was the common clinical type (44%) followed by tinea cruris alone (31%) and tinea corporis alone (25%). KOH was positive in 64%. History of delay in consulting doctor was present in 77%, home remedies in 19%, OTC drug usage in 46% among which 69.56% were steroid combined antifungals, treatment by non dermatologists in 52%. Adherence to therapy was seen only in 28%. The common aggravating factors were hot environment (60%), friction, occlusion and during menstruation. Family history of tinea was positive in 66%. No of baths were less than one per day in 8%, sharing of soap and clothing was seen in 41%.Conclusions: Misuse of OTC topical corticosteroids, multiple familial contacts, unhygienic practices, treatment by nondermatologists with inappropriate drug, dose and duration, poor compliance to treatment have all contributed to the emergence of chronic and recurrent dermatophytosis.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210570
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Study of quality of life in patients with premature graying of hair in
           Western Indian population

    • Authors: Dipti Mathias, Milind A. Patvekar, Mahendra S. Deora, Kalyan T. Dalave, Aishwarya Raheja
      Pages: 218 - 222
      Abstract: Background: Quality of life in patients with premature graying of hair is an under studied topic in Indian population. Its onset in adolescence may have a significant effect on the developing psyche of an individual sufferer impairing academic and work related performance and can be associated with low self esteem, low confidence which can further be associated with depression. Aim was to objectively evaluate the impact of premature canities on QoL and early identification of patients in need of medical and psychological intervention.Methods: The impact on QoL was calculated with the help of a modified and prevalidated questionnaire based on the dermatology life quality index proposed by Finley and Kahn. One hundred patients with onset of canities before the age of 25 years were enrolled, after approval by the institutional ethical committee.Results: The mean modified DLQI score recorded was 14.3±6.76. Total of 71% patients were found to have a very large to extremely large effect on the QoL. Guilt, mood fluctuation and need for medical intervention were reported frequently. The comparison between DLQI scores of boys and girls was not significant.Conclusions: Patients of premature canities were found to have profound impact on their QoL, attributable to their perception of the disease. Considering the age group affected, it could have a long‑term detrimental effect on their psychological and social wellbeing. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210571
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Fractional erbium-YAG laser vs platelet rich plasma in acne scar: a
           comparative study

    • Authors: Neeti Kumari, Arun Kumar, Jitendra S. Bist, Anil K. Mehta
      Pages: 223 - 228
      Abstract: Background: Facial acne scar is a common complication of acne vulgaris leading to social isolation, lack of self-confidence and depression that warrants multiple treatment approach. In recent years, fractional erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet (er-YAG) 2940 nm laser and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been used independently or in combination with other resurfacing modalities in treating acne scars with variable outcomes.  The objective of this study is to compare the therapeutic responses and safety of fractional erbium-YAG 2940 nm laser and platelet-rich plasma in atrophic post acne scars.Methods: Patients were randomly divided into two groups (30 each), receiving six sittings of fractional er-YAG laser and PRP every month. Response was evaluated 4 weeks after each treatment session using Goodman and Baron qualitative acne scar grading system, photographic assessment by 2 blinded dermatologist and patients own satisfaction.Results: Both treatment modalities showed improvement of acne scars, but the improvement with fractional er-YAG laser (27% marked and 70% moderate response) treatment was higher in comparison to PRP (10% marked and 67% moderate response) in terms of acne scar grade severity (p=0.33). Similar results were obtained on photographic assessment (p=0.015 and 0.021), and patient’s own satisfaction (p=0.011), respectively. Pain and stinging score were lower in er-YAG group while down time for same was shorter in PRP.Conclusions: Both er-YAG laser and PRP showed significant improvement in atrophic acne scar while former showing slightly superior response with lesser adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210572
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Pregnancy outcomes in sexually transmitted infections or human
           immunodeficiency viruses infected women at a tertiary care center: a
           retrospective study

    • Authors: Saradha K. P., Anitha Christy Stephen, Vikram V. Huddar
      Pages: 229 - 231
      Abstract: Background: The natural history of HIV infection in early disease is not affected by pregnancy. In later stages there may be rapid disease progression leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Prevalence of HIV in India is 0.3% in pregnant women. With the advent of PPTCT, there have been a decline in the adverse pregnancy outcomes but still few adversities are reported.  Aim of the study was to assess the various pregnancy outcomes in HIV positive women and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART).Methods: A retrospective analytical study conducted from July 2017-June 2019 on HIV infected pregnant women. Their maternal age, CD4 count at diagnosis of HIV, after postpartum, mode of delivery, birth weight and HIV status of baby were noted and analyzed.  Results: 18 HIV infected pregnant women were included. Their mean age was 25.6 years. 12 patients were in 2nd trimester and the rest in 1st trimester. All were on triple-drug (TEL) regimen. Three were diagnosed with HIV prior to conception and were already on ART. Remaining were detected at the time of ANC visit. All cases fall under stage I WHO clinical staging. Out of the 18 pregnant, two delivered by LSCS and the rest by normal delivery. All were term deliveries, with mean birth weight of 2.82 kg. One HIV infected baby was born by LSCS. The mean CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of HIV was 389 and at postpartum was 508. Overall, there was seen to be an increase in CD4 count without any adverse effects during ART.Conclusions: Prompt HIV diagnosis and ART initiation during antenatal period can have good pregnancy outcome and thereby reducing transmission to children.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210573
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A clinico-epidemiological study of mask induced facial dermatoses due to
           increased mask usage in general public during COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: Ramesh A., Thamizhinian K.
      Pages: 232 - 238
      Abstract: Background: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic many people started experiencing facial dermatoses like acne due to prolonged mask use and other personal protective equipment’s. Though most of the facial dermatoses due to face mask are reported in healthcare workers, general public are also affected by facial dermatoses due to prolonged mask use. Hence, we decided to undergo a study on different patterns of facial dermatoses due to prolonged mask use in Rajiv Gandhi government general hospital, Chennai. Aim of the study was to find out the incidence of facial dermatoses due to prolonged mask use in general public in the OPD of department of DVL in MMC and RGGGH, Chennai.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at RGGGH during the months august, September and October 2020. The clinico-epidemiological details were collected from 400 patients attending the OPD of department of DVL at MMC and RGGGH.Results: Among 400 study participants with mask induced facial dermatoses, acne (Maskne) was the most common facial dermatoses detected in 43% of participants, followed by Seborrhoea (28%), frictional dermatitis (18%), contact dermatitis (16%), non-specific erythema, cheilitis and other conditions.Conclusions: Mask induced facial dermatoses can occur due to various factors like occlusive effect of mask, hyperhydration, seborrhoea, ambient high humidity due to sweating. As mask usage cannot be abandoned completely due to risk of virus transmission, dermatologists must be aware of the preventive strategies and treatments for mask induced facial dermatoses.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210574
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A study of dermatoses in antenatal patients attending tertiary care centre

    • Authors: Valay Desai, Avani C. Patel, Anjum M. Momin, Jignesh B. Vaishnani
      Pages: 239 - 244
      Abstract: Background: Pregnancy produces many cutaneous changes which can be either physiological, alteration in pre-existing skin diseases or development of dermatoses which are specific to pregnancy which occur due to the production of a number of proteins and steroid hormones by the fetoplacental unit and maternal pituitary, thyroid and adrenals. Patient’s concern may range from cosmetic appearance to potential effects on mother and fetus. Aims and objectives: Study was undertaken to observe physiological and pathological skin changes in different gravidae and trimesters of pregnancy.Methods: A cross sectional study performed after institutional ethics committee clearance. Total 205 pregnant females were enrolled in study by simple random sampling. Complete history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. Patients were treated accordingly. Data was analysed by application of descriptive analysis, Mean and SD.Results: In physiological changes, linea nigra was the most common, followed by striae distensae. Pigmentary changes were found more commonly in 2nd trimester while vascular and structural changes were commoner in 3rd trimester. In dermatoses affected by pregnancy, fungal infection was most common followed by viral infections and acne which were most commonly seen in 2nd trimester. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy was most common among pregnancy specific dermatoses followed by pruritus gravidarum which were more commonly noted in the 3rd trimester. Atopic eruption of pregnancy was common in 2nd trimester. As study was cross sectional, disease progression and treatment outcome could not be observed.Conclusions: Cutaneous lesions may range from common, benign changes termed physiological or more severe, posing significant risk to mother and child. Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for improving maternal and fetal well-being and prognosis and to minimize their morbidity.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210575
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Cutaneous manifestations in patients with chronic kidney disease on
           hemodialysis

    • Authors: Saijal Gupta, Hemant V. Talanikar, Mahendra S. Deora, Ankita Agrawal, Yugal K. Sharma
      Pages: 245 - 249
      Abstract: Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several cutaneous manifestations as a result of CKD per se, underlying disease(s) leading to it or the treatment thereof. Cutaneous manifestations get altered following hemodialysis. We studied the prevalence of various dermatoses and the effect on pruritus in patients with CKD on hemodialysis.Methods: Seventy-three patients with CKD having at least one cutaneous manifestation undergoing hemodialysis in Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pune were included.Results: Sixty-four (87.67%) of the participants belonged to the age group of 40-69 years; 28 (38.35%), to the sixth decade. The male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Forty-eight patients (65.75%) suffered from diabetes mellitus, 37 of these also from hypertension. Xerosis (72.6%), pallor (65.8%) and pruritus (60.3%) were the common manifestations. The intensity of pruritus remained unchanged in 82% of those affected. Nail changes were seen in 47.9% cases (half-and-half nail, 19.2%; subungual hyperkeratosis, 11%; leukonychia, 6.8%; melanonychia, 6.8%; Beau’s lines, 4.1%). Infections were observed in 32.8% cases (superficial mycoses, 19.2%; bacterial, 6.8%; scabies, 4.1%; viral, 2.7%). Dyspigmentation was documented in 30.1% (hyperpigmentation, 21.92%; yellow tinge, 8.22%), hair changes in 23.3% (sparse scalp hair,16.4%; lusterless hair, 6.9%), acquired perforating dermatoses in 19.2%, and arteriovenous shunt dermatitis in 2.7% cases.Conclusions: Xerosis was the commonest finding and pruritus, the commonest symptom; the intensity of the latter remained largely unaffected by hemodialysis. Half-and-half nail was the most common nail change and superficial mycoses, the most common infection. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210576
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Study of the various cutaneous adverse reactions to radiotherapy

    • Authors: Priyatharshini Venkatakrishnan, Govardhan Jagadeesh Kumar, Bhavana Sampadarao
      Pages: 250 - 254
      Abstract: Background: Radiation-induced skin toxicity is a widely recorded toxicity of definitive radiation therapy with about half of patients experiencing grade 2 or higher skin reactions. Radiation-specific characteristics include total exposure, fractional dose, beam energy, field size, anatomic of radiation, and subsequent systemic therapy. Aim of the study was to identify and grade the various cutaneous adverse reactions to radiotherapy.Methods: 25 patients underwent radiation therapy for any type malignancies were included in the study. Skin manifestations due to other systemic/ cutaneous diseases prior to radiotherapy. Detailed history was taken about disease course, cutaneous manifestations with emphasis on treatment (type of radiation, dosage and duration). General physical examination and dermatological examination were done.Results: In this study 60% of patients were male, the minimum dose of radiation was 30Gy in 13% patients, maximum dose of radiation was 70Gy in 33% patients, 88% of patients were in RTOG grade 2. Hyperpigmentation was the commonest findings 23 (92%), followed by dry desquamation 11 (44%), the next common was epilation 10 (40%).Conclusions: Radiation toxicity, generally occurring during or shortly after treatment can range from mild (hyperpigmentation, erythema) to severe (moist desquamation). 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210577
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clinico-etiological study of genital lesions at a tertiary care center in
           Pune, India

    • Authors: Prachiti S. Tekam, Vasudha A. Belgaumkar, Ravindranath B. Chavan, Nitika S. Deshmukh, Neelam Bhatt
      Pages: 255 - 261
      Abstract: Background: Disorders affecting the genitalia are a global health problem of significant magnitude. They comprise conditions which may or may not be sexually transmitted. Often it becomes impossible to make a reliable etiological diagnosis on clinical grounds alone. There is a paucity of data about the burden and pattern of genital disorders in our setting. This study was undertaken to identify the prevalent trends and clinic-etiological profile of genital lesions.Methods: 100 consecutive cases presenting with genital disorders to dermatology OPD of Sassoon General Hospital, Pune, India from June 2019 to March 2020, were enrolled in this observational, cross sectional study. Patients were subjected to thorough history, clinical examination and requisite microbiological and serological investigations. Etiological diagnosis was reached after correlation of history, clinical findings and investigations.Results:  100 patients comprised 70 males and 30 females. Age group ranged from 2 months to 75 years (mean 37.8 years). Majority of patients belonged to 21-30 years age group.  Total 78% patients had (STI) while 22% had non-STI. 13% were HIV sero-positive. 12% patients were diabetic. In 54% cases, microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis.Conclusions: This study emphasizes that sexually transmitted infections continue to be a prominent cause of genital lesions, particularly in young sexually active individuals. However, various non-venereal dermatological disorders may manifest on the genitalia at any age, leading to diagnostic difficulty. A meticulous clinical examination supported by appropriate laboratory evaluation is the key to distinguish venereal and non-venereal dermatoses. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210578
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Melasma and sun exposure: a clinicoepidemiological study

    • Authors: Suman B. Parsam, Swetha Tallam
      Pages: 262 - 266
      Abstract: Background: Melasma is a chronic hyper pigmentary disorder mainly affecting females. It presents over the sun exposed areas of face. Various factors implicated in the etiology are sun exposure, pregnancy, OCPs, hormonal therapy, thyroid disorders, cosmetic use etc. The major causative factors are genetic predisposition and sun exposure. This study was aimed at studying the relation between duration of sun exposure and melasma development.Methods: 100 patients diagnosed with melasma were included. Detailed history was taken and clinical examination done. Modified MASI score was calculated. Patients were divided into four groups depending on hours of sun exposure. Data was collected in a proforma, tabulated and analyzed.Results: F: M ratio was 3.54:1 with 78% females and 22% males. 46% of females were in 4th decade and 72% of males were in their third decade. 35% of females were in 21-30 years age. Third decade was the commonest age of onset seen in 49% of patients. 46% patients had <1 hour and 23% had >6 hours of sun exposure per day. A p value of 0.0006 was found between the mMASI scores of group A and group D which was highly significant.Conclusions: More number of young males with melasma in their third decade are seeking treatment. Increase in the duration of exposure to solar radiation leads to more severe melasma. So, sun exposure is a major aggravating factor. There is a need to create awareness about sun protection. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210579
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Study on prevalence of Frank's sign in cardiac patients in a tertiary
           care centre, Kanyakumari district

    • Authors: Nivin Simon, Nivin Simon, Mulamoottil George Varghese, A. J. S. Pravin, A. J. S. Pravin, M. K. Padmaprasad, M. K. Padmaprasad, S. Rajagopal, S. Rajagopal, M. Vijaya Bharathi, M. Vijaya Bharathi, Sushma I., Sushma I.
      Pages: 267 - 270
      Abstract: Background: Despite its identification over 40 years ago, very few dermatologists are aware of the relevance of Frank’s sign as a cutaneous indicator of coronary artery disease. Aim was to find out the prevalence of Frank's sign among cardiac patients attending a tertiary care centre in Kanyakumari district.Methods: This was a cross-sectional case-control study involving 270 patients, out of which 200 patients with proven CAD (by angiography) and 70 patients without evidence of CAD of more than 40 years of age, in cardiac ward as well as patients attending Cardiology and dermatology OPD in Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, kanyakumari during a period of 5 months from August 2020 to December 2020. The data compiled included age, gender, presence of CAD, presence of DELC, grade of DELC, and laterality. Results: DELC was present in 109 cases (40.3%) out of which 92 cases (34 %) had CAD and in 17 cases (6.3%) were without CAD, which was statistically significant (p<0.05).Conclusions: There have been very few studies evaluating the frequency of DELC in South Indian patients with CAD. According to results of the present study, DELC was significantly associated with CAD. DELC was an important dermatological indicator of CAD with a moderately high specificity (75%) and positive predictive value (84%), but had a low sensitivity (46%) and negative predictive value (33%).  
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210580
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Clinical correlation of foot eczema and patch test: a cross sectional
           study from South India

    • Authors: Sharim Fathima, Kunnummal Muhammed, Gopalapillai Nandakumar
      Pages: 271 - 278
      Abstract: Background: Foot eczema is caused by several exogenous or endogenous factors acting alone or in combination. Leather, rubber and adhesive components are the most common allergens. Patch test is performed to find out the allergen which helps clinician in subsequent patient management and improving the prognosis.  Methods: Total 50 patients with foot eczema were evaluated and patch test was performed with Indian standard series over 18 months period in a tertiary hospital in South India. Results: Out of 50 patients 32 (64%) were females and 18 (36%) were males. Younger age group was mainly involved (second decade). An atopic back ground and seasonal exacerbation were contributory in many. Patch test was positive in 39 (78%) patients. The forefoot was predominantly involved part in 56% followed by dorsal aspect alone of the foot. Scaly plaque was the predominant morphological pattern seen in 25 (50%). Maximum number of patients (24%) showed positive reactions to potassium dichromate and the minimum (2%) to neomycin sulphate.  Conclusions: Though rubber and rubber chemicals were the common sensitizers causing foot eczema worldwide, our study found potassium dichromate to be the most common sensitizer which is one the components used in leather tanning and is a constituent of cement, soaps and detergents.  
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210581
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Comparative study of efficacy of minoxidil versus minoxidil with platelet
           rich plasma versus minoxidil with dermaroller in androgenetic alopecia

    • Authors: Adarsh Gowda, Sana Mariam Sankey, Sharath Kumar B. C.
      Pages: 279 - 284
      Abstract: Background: Androgenetic alopecia is characterized by progressive hair loss and is recognized as having significant psychological effects on affected patients with a negative impact on QOL. Drug therapies specifically approved by FDA for treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are limited to minoxidil and finasteride. There are limited three arm studies comparing treatment modalities in AGA, hence we undertook this study to compare the 3 most common, affordable therapeutic modalities used currently in AGA and their effects.Methods: This is a prospective comparative parallel group interventional study. 90 subjects recruited into 3 groups, group A treated with minoxidil alone, group B with minoxidil and dermaroller and group C with minoxidil and platelet rich plasma (PRP).Results: At the end of 5 months 50% patients in group C showed moderate improvement which was found to be superior to the other treatment groups. On the basis of global photographs secondary efficacy analysis was done and all arms were found to have slight improvement. Dermoscopic analysis done at baseline and 5 months showed that group C showed maximum improvement. Pain was the most common side effect noted in group C while pruritus and seborrheic dermatitis was seen more in group A.  Conclusions: Our study showed best results in patients treated with PRP and minoxidil. They have emerged as new non-surgical treatment modalities for AGA, with minimal side effects, good safety profile and patient satisfaction. There are limited three arm studies comparing the efficacy and side effect profile of these 3 modalities in AGA.   
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210582
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Hailey Hailey-a blooming disease

    • Authors: Ilakkia P. Sadasivam, Govardhan Jagadeeshkumar, Oudeacoumar Paquirissamy, Jude E. Dileep, Rajkiran Takharya, Lisa J. D'souza
      Pages: 285 - 288
      Abstract: Hailey Hailey disease (HHD) is a rare genetic disorder which is more common in summers. It involves intertriginous areas of the body. Axilla, abdomen, back, nape of neck are the common sites involved. We hereby present three patients of HHD from same geographical area with no blood relation. Two of them had other family members also involved with the similar complaints. One of the patients is 50 years of age. Diagnosis was done both by clinical and histopathological examination. It showed epidermis with intraepidermal bulla and acantholytic keratinocytes giving dilapidated brick wall appearance. Treatment mainly used was topical steroids &antihistamines and patients responded well.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Merkel cell carcinoma associated with chronic treatment with hydroxyurea:
           a case report

    • Authors: Saulo Esteves Saraiva, Virgínia Mareco, André Florindo, Diogo Delgado, Maria Filomena de Pina
      Pages: 289 - 292
      Abstract: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumour of the skin, that shows a quickly and aggressive behaviour and carries a poor prognosis. Surgery is the standard primary treatment modality, while radiotherapy plays a role in postoperative treatment. Radiotherapy is also an alternative to unresectable lesions or patients who are unfit to surgery. Here we report a 90-year-old male with polycythemia vera that was chronically treated with hydroxyurea for about 30 years. The patient presented a purple and exophytic frontal scalp lesion, which had recurred after primary wide excision. This recurrence had been considered inoperable and the patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy to the lesion and locoregional lymph nodes, showing a complete clinical response after 12 weeks. However, disease progressed rapidly, and the patient died from distant metastasis 4 months later. This report is the second described case in literature of Merkel cell carcinoma as complication of chronic hydroxyurea and highlights the need for these patients to undergo regular and close dermatological evaluation.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210538
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Adult-onset eccrineangiomatous hamartoma treated with excision and skin
           grafting: a case report

    • Authors: Yogesh Devaraj, Ranga Swaroop Mukunda, Priyanka Yogananda Yadav, Shaila Shree Devendra, Premika Meenakshi Sundaram
      Pages: 293 - 296
      Abstract: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a rare benign tumour like malformation characterized by intradermal proliferation of eccrine and vascular components. It usually arises before puberty but can occur at any age. It typically presents as a solitary or multiple reddish or brownish plaque or nodule that progressively enlarges in size. Symptoms such as pain and hyperhidrosis may be associated. Lesions are commonly located over distal extremities. We report a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with a gradually enlarging solitary reddish plaque over the left retro-auricular region of the scalp since the last 12 years and associated with occasional pain. Histopathology revealed pproliferation of eccrine sweat glands and thin-walled blood vessels in the dermis. Additional ultrasound and MRI contrast studies were done to assess the vascular component and involvement of underlying structures. The patient was treated successfully with complete excision of the lesion followed by split thickness skin grafting. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210583
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Young lady with acral pustulosis and psoriatic arthritis

    • Authors: Mary Nnenda Amaewhule, Chidinma Wekhe
      Pages: 297 - 299
      Abstract: Psoriasis is uncommon in this part of the world, and the pustular variety is even rarer. It is for this reason that the patients are frequently misdiagnosed by their health care providers and presentat late to the dermatologists when complications have already set in. We report a case of a 33 year old female who presented to us with a two year history of pustular eruptions on her hands and feet, pain and swelling of joints in the affected areas and subsequent development of deformities. Prior to her presentation, she has been misdiagnosed as having tuberculosis of the skin as well as leprosy in different hospitals and treated as such with no improvement. On presentation to us, a skin biopsy was done and the specimen sent for histopathology. A diagnosis of pustular psoriasis was made and she was placed on oral methotrexate. She responded to treatment and the lesions resolved in a few weeks except for the joint deformities. This case illustrates the challenges encountered by patients with psoriasis in a resource poor setting like ours as well as the importance of availability of affordable drugs like methotrexate in their management. This is so considering the high cost and non-availability of more modern biologic agents in this part of the world.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210584
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Familial leiomyoma: a case report

    • Authors: Swetha Gutha, Shalini Sampath
      Pages: 300 - 302
      Abstract: Cutaneous leiomyomas are benign tumors that can be exquisitely painful. Comprise three distinct types such as piloleimyoma, angioleiomyoma, and genital leiomyoma. Piloleiomyomas, derived from arrector pili muscle, are solitary or multiple firm papulonodules located mostly on the extremities and trunk; genital leiomyomas, derived from dartoic, vulvar, or mammary smooth muscle, are solitary or papulonodules located on the scrotum, vulva, or nipple; and angioleiomyomas, include solid, cavernous, or venous subtypes, are derived from the tunica media of small arteries and veins and typically present on the extremities. Excisional biopsy is required for diagnosing all cutaneous leiomyomas Histology shows interlacing fibers of spindle cells with moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm and a blunt-ended, elongated nucleus with perinuclear halos. Surgical excision is curative for cutaneous leiomyomas, with other management options including medical or destructive therapy. A 36-year-old male patient presented with a 13 years history of painful, multiple lesions over the back. Based on the histopathological examination, imaging, and past medical records, a diagnosis of familial leiomyoma was made. His brother had similar disease. The patient was started on tab gabapentin 300mg at night. Patient advised for carbon dioxide laser excision. The present case report has been reported for its interesting clinical presentations and rarity.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210585
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Familial median canaliform dystrophy of heller affecting multiple nails: a
           rare clinical entity

    • Authors: Chandni Jain, Harris Ishtiyaq Shaafie, Mustaqueem Farooque, Zarin Wahab
      Pages: 303 - 305
      Abstract: Median canaliform dystrophy (MCD); first described by Heller in 1928 is characterized by a midline or paramedian split in the nail plate. Mostly idiopathic, some identifiable causes include habitual picking of the nails, oral isotretinoin use and positive family history. The familial occurrence of MCD has rarely been described. Till date, no therapy has proven to be consistently successful in effectively managing the condition. Commonly utilized treatments have been intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injections into the dystrophic nail, topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment and topical tazarotene 0.05% ointment. Despite available treatment options, the condition has a tendency to recur. Here; we report a case of a 14‑year‑old male presenting with familial MCD affecting multiple finger and toe nails.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210586
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Trachyonychia in a child with concomitant alopecia areata and lichen
           planus

    • Authors: Abhinav David, Inderpreet Kaur
      Pages: 306 - 309
      Abstract: Trachyonychia of nails has been found to be associated with dermatoses such as lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata etc. When involving all the finger and toe nails bilaterally, it is referred to as ‘twenty nail dystrophies. We, hereby, report a case of trachyonychia in an 8-year-old boy, with concomitant lichen planus and alopecia areata. He was successfully treated with biweekly pulse systemic corticosteroid therapy for duration of 6 months. Significant response was noted at the end of 6 months in terms of hair re-growth; improvement of nail texture, thickness and subungual hyperkeratosis; and resolution of skin lesions.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210587
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Purpura fulminans secondary to indian tick typhus: a case report

    • Authors: Yogesh Devaraj, M. Ranga Swaroop, Rashmi R. Mallya, Aneesa Sajeed, K. Yashwanth Reddy
      Pages: 310 - 313
      Abstract: Purpura fulminans is a rare and commonly fatal syndrome that consists of hemorrhagic infarction of the skin and intravascular thrombosis. Purpura fulminans is commonly associated with streptococcal, staphylococcal and meningococcal infection. Indian tick typhus is a rare cause of purpura fulminans. One of the rare causes of purpura fulminans is Indian tick typhus, which is a type of rickettsial spotted fever caused by Rickettsia conorii and transmitted to humans by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (also called the dog tick). Clinical features of Indian tick typhus include fever, maculopapular rash that begins on the extremities with a centripetal spread, and constitutional symptoms including headache, malaise and conjunctival congestion. Severe cases can progress to multi-organ disease including pulmonary edema, meningoencephalitis, renal failure and cardiogenic shock can occur. Current report present a case of a 48 year old male patient who presented with features of Indian tick typhus which progressed to purpura fulminans and necrotizing fasciitis. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210588
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 in pediatric patients: literature
           review

    • Authors: Ghadah Alhetheli
      Pages: 314 - 320
      Abstract: Cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are neglected during the early period of the spread of the pandemic. Moreover, the rational that children are immune against COVID-19 infections, allowed unnoticeable spread of the disease among children and adolescents. This review article aimed to shed light on the different cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 among pediatric age group, its related pathogenesis and histopathological features. Review of literature published since the release of the details about the disease was conducted to examine various cutaneous manifestations related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Review of 35 articles concerned with COVID19-related skin manifestations in pediatrics showed that it was varied and included chilblain-like, maculopapular, urticarial, vesicular, targetoid, erythema multiforme-like and COVID-19 Kawasaki disease-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which is serious health condition. Despite of the previously documented higher production of interferon-α in children and adolescents, children are not immune against SARS-CoV-19 infection. Cutaneous manifestations in children are usually asymptomatic and are curable unless they are drug-related side effects during the course of treatment of COVID-19. This literature review and photo atlas provide a mini-analysis of COVID-19-related skin manifestations among pediatrics with reference to their tissue histopathological changes.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210537
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Management of androgenetic alopecia: a review

    • Authors: Deepa Dev Chhetri, Xin Huang
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Androgenetic alopecia is a patterned hair loss disorder affecting approximately 73% of men and 57% of women in their lifetime, this affection can cause psychological effects like low self-stem and depression diminishing the quality of life. Currently, finasteride and minoxidil are the only two drugs approved by the food and drug administration (FDA), and devices of low-level laser therapy are FDA cleared. Alternative therapies for androgenetic alopecia treatment include a drug like dutasteride, botulinum toxin A, cell-based therapies like adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium and platelet-rich plasma protocols. A combination of two or more therapies can be found in the literature, the general consent indicates that any combination has higher efficiency than a single therapy. Finasteride is in less use due to the related sexual side effects, some adjuvant techniques have emerged to improve the delivery and effectiveness of minoxidil, i.e. micro needling. The surgical approach is mainly focused on hair transplant surgery, which offers relatively less invasive procedures and is a more suitable option for long time results, however, it is expensive. Recently, drug-assisted delivery techniques have emerged to improve the efficiency of conventional drugs; transdermal drug delivery through ultrasound pressure waves means creating diffusion channels, increasing skin permeability and stimulating cell differentiation and growth factor utilization along with minoxidil absorption. Another approach for drug-assisted delivery is the embodiment of finasteride in polymer-based microspheres aiming for a sustained and controlled delivery, which can be beneficial to reduce the regular doses decreasing adverse effects.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Literature review: manifestation of skin lesion on COVID-19

    • Authors: Yohanes Firmansyah, Sukmawati Tansil Tan, Jessica Elizabeth, Christopher Lauren
      Pages: 327 - 335
      Abstract: New cases of pneumonia, which spread rapidly and are deadly, have spread throughout the world. This disease is known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a viral etiology in the form of novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV). This disease has extensive clinical manifestations starting from the lungs, hematology system, heart, nerves, reproduction, and the skin. The thing to be aware of is that the skin manifestations in the form of atypical lesions are often found in COVID-19. Common skin manifestations on COVID-19 are erythema-edema with vesicles or pustules (pseudo-chilblain), vesicular eruption, maculopapular rash, urticaria, and livedo lesion. This literature review discusses comprehensively what kind of skin lesions can be suspected of being part of a COVID-19 infection. This literature review is useful for increasing the awareness of doctors about COVID-19 infection and may help in early diagnose of COVID-19 infection and prevent further transmission. 
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210589
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Consensus on management of acne-induced post-inflammatory
           hyperpigmentation: an Indian perspective

    • Authors: Jayakar Thomas, Krupa Shankar, Sudhir Pujara, Rajeev Sharma, David Pudukadan, Maleeka Sachdev, Satish Udhare, Vikrant Saoji, D. M. Mahajan, Anchala Parthasaradhi
      Pages: 336 - 345
      Abstract: Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a multifactorial disorder linked to alterations in melanin pigment because of inflammatory skin condition or any injury. Acne-induced PIH is one of the common presentations observed in dermatological consultations in India, especially in females of younger age group. A wide range of topical depigmenting agents are available for effective clearance of hyperpigmentation in patients affected with acne. Besides, chemical peels and cosmetic procedures like lasers and light therapies are commonly employed. However, treatment of acne-induced PIH is challenging in Indian clinical settings for multiple reasons such as relapsing of the condition and long-standing nature of the disease; the tendency of treatment to cause pigmentation; insufficient clinical data on natural ingredients; and lack of clinical practice guidelines, exclusively for the management of PIH in Indian patients. An experts’ panel discussion involving dermatologists all over India was conducted to review the evidence-based concept of acne-induced hyperpigmentation, and to obtain expert opinions on effective and practical management of acne-induced PIH in Indian settings. This article outlines consensus expert opinions aimed at identifying, diagnosing, and managing acne-induced PIH using topical depigmenting agents in Indian patients. It also highlights effective preventive strategies, the role of patient counselling and education regarding awareness about the disease and its treatment strategies.  
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20205923
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 and its therapies: a review

    • Authors: Heena Singdia, Rachita Mathur, Shivi Nijhawan, Neha Rani, Deepika Kothari, Rohit Garg, Puneet Bhargava, Deepak K. Mathur
      Pages: 346 - 353
      Abstract: In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic when we were still getting used to the rising cases every day and limited resources to deal them with, the focus was to get a hold of the situation as quickly as possible. Seven months into the pandemic, the cases are still on the rise but we have gathered some knowledge through the researches getting published every day, most of which are focused on the involvement of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system. Dermatological manifestations have not been given their due importance. Lately, many patients have started presenting with dermatological manifestation sometimes preceding or sometimes during COVID-19 infection with or without involvement of other systems. This may be beneficial to clinicians all over the world, to determine potential dermatological signs in COVID-19 and also help in earlier suspection of the COVID-19 infection. Many cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADR) to drugs advocated in COVID-19 treatment are also being reported every day, which are discussed in this review.Here we attempt to review dermatological manifestations of COVID-19 infections and drug reactions by the drugs advocated for its treatment and an understanding in its path mechanisms reported thus far. This will help clinicians to get an insight into what to expect and when to expect in terms of dermatological manifestation of COVID-19 and its drugs.
      PubDate: 2021-02-22
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20210590
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2021)
       
 
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