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Intl. J. of Advances in Medicine     Open Access  
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Intl. J. of Contemporary Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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International Journal of Scientific Reports
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2454-2156 - ISSN (Online) 2454-2164
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine acceptance, associated factors and
           perceived barriers among Dire Dawa university students, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Aminu Mohammed, Adissu Sertsu, Mikiale Hailu, Henok Legesse
      Pages: 348 - 355
      Abstract: Background: Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a family of severe acute respiratory infection first detected in 2019 in China. It has made high morbidity and mortality across the world. Currently, most countries including Ethiopia have taken preventive measures including vaccine. However, there is still limited evidence in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and perceived barriers among some subgroups like university students. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess it and fill the information gap to enable intervention.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 01 to 30 2022 at Dire Dawa university and 337 students were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using structured, self-administered questionnaire, entered and cleaned by Epi DATA (Version 3.1) and analyzed using SPSS (Version 22). A p<0.2 at Bivarate to select variables for multivariable and <0.05 at multivariable with 95% CI was considered as statistical significance.  Results: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 26.7% (95% CI: 22-31.5%). Urban resident (AOR: 3.13, CI: 1.61-6.10), mothers’ education (AOR: 3.48, CI: 1.44-8.43), knowledge (AOR: 2.23, CI: 1.21-4.11) and favorable intention towards COVID-19 prevention (AOR: 2.21, CI: 1.11-4.38) were independent factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance.Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was lower than national average in Ethiopia. The predictors were residence, mothers’ education, knowledge and intention towards COVID-19 prevention. Major barriers were misconceptions, uncertainty on effectiveness, concern on side effects and a need to know more about the vaccine. Integrated health education campaign on vaccine’s misconception was recommended. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of quality of life of Syrian refugees in Jordan: a
           questionnaire survey

    • Authors: Safaa Alwedyan
      Pages: 356 - 361
      Abstract: Background: The civil war in Syria resulted in a massive wave of refugees out of Syria into many safer countries in the world. Many aspects of their lives have been affected, hence affecting their overall quality of life. There is a scarcity of information on the quality of life and factors influencing it for Syrian refugees. The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life among Syrian refugees residing outside camps in Jordan.Methods: A survey questionnaire was distributed to target Syrian refugees during a campaign "warmth and peace" to distribute winter needs to Syrian and Palestinian refugees organized by Qatar charity in cooperation with the Jordanian Hashemite Charitable Organization during the month of 12/2021. 239 questionnaires were collected. Quality of life was assessed using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire.  Results: Most of the study population were females (57.3%). it was also observed that most of the study population were in the age group of 31−45 years (56.5%). (90.4%) of the study population were married. More than half of them have studied up to the primary level (63.6%). (44.8%) of households consisted of 4−6 person. With regard to monthly household income, most of them (87%) earned <300 JD. The Syrian refugees had a higher mean score in the psychological domain, followed by physical, environmental, and social.Conclusions: Despite the support provided to Syrian refugees, it appears that they still suffer from poor physical, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental domains, with scores below 50 on a scale (0-100).
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Disease profile of Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome among Indian patients
           receiving intravenous immunoglobulin: a real-world observational study

    • Authors: Anil Rajani, Lav Patel, Shreekant Sharma
      Pages: 362 - 365
      Abstract: Background: Objectives of the study were to evaluate the real-world usage pattern of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) for the treatment of patients with Guillain‐Barré syndrome (GBS), and to understand the disease characteristics and demographic patterns of these patients.Methods: This real-world, retrospective, analysis included data of patients with GBS who received IVIg treatment at various centers across India. The study data was collected between April 2021 and March 2022.  Results: A total of 3064 patients with GBS who received IVIg treatment were included. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 48.97 (14.97) years, and majority of the patients were men (68.8%). Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) was the most common subtype of GBS (60.5%), followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN; 11.6%), and acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN; 3%). The majority (>94%) of patients received IVIg therapy as first-line treatment. A large proportion of the patients (n=2402, 78.4%) were given the standard dose of 2 g/kg bodyweight (given over 5 days) and 97.1% (n=2974) of the total study population received IVIg regimen over the standard protocol of 5 days.Conclusions: In the clinical spectrum of GBS, AIDP was the most common subtype. IVIg was used at generally recommended dose and duration in patients with GBS.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223001
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Actual use puffing topography and mouth level exposure to aerosol and
           nicotine for an evolving series of electronic nicotine delivery systems

    • Authors: Krishna Prasad, Adam Gray, Lauren Edward
      Pages: 366 - 376
      Abstract: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have evolved substantially in the past 10 years from disposable “cig-a-likes” to rechargeable devices with refillable tanks or disposable cartridges. It is less clear whether users’ puffing behaviour and exposure to aerosol emissions has similarly altered. Here we evaluate changes in the puffing topography and mouth level exposure (MLE) of users to aerosol and nicotine for a series of commercially available ENDS. In five separate consumer studies conducted from 2014 to 2019, eight Vuse ENDS including cig-a-likes, tanks, pen- and pod-style e-cigarettes were evaluated among ENDS users (total n=221) for puff duration, puff volume, inter-puff interval and MLE to aerosol and nicotine. Puff volumes varied two-fold (35.7-84.8 ml) with the lowest volumes for early ENDS and highest volumes for more recent pod style and tank systems. The variation in puff duration across the devices was smaller (1.70-2.39 s), especially for the five most recent devices (2.13-2.39 s). MLE to aerosol (1.9-6.4 mg/puff) tended to increase with evolution of the ENDS. MLE to nicotine, which depends on the nicotine concentration of the e-liquid as well as device design, was also highest for more recent devices. These data indicate that evolving device characteristics, such as more powerful batteries and aerosolisation technology, influence user puffing topography and the values obtained from one product might not apply to others. Continuing to evaluate ENDS consumer behaviour is important to understand further the factors that affect users’ puffing topography and nicotine uptake from these products.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Scientific review committee-an experience from the desk of
           member-secretary

    • Authors: Shobha Misra
      Pages: 377 - 381
      Abstract: Writing a proper research proposal is the most important step in conducting a scientific study. Whether the researcher intends to submit the proposal to an ethical committee, research body or funding organization, it is vital that the proposal clearly states why the study is planned, how it is proposed to be conducted and the researcher’s commitment to its principles. The current study was carried out to find out common errors committed while submission of research protocol to the scientific review committee (SRC). In 2015, based on feedback and experience of experts in the field and to improve the scientific and technical content of the proposals received, institutional ethical committee for human research was divided into two sub-committees; SRC and institutional ethics committee. This article reports analysis of 100 proposals based on a checklist for submission and discussion during SRC meetings on errors committed. Top ten errors observed were: Incomplete annexure and missing permissions; imprecision and lack of scientific validity in aims and objectives; inappropriate or incomplete statistics; inappropriate; suboptimal instrumentation; lack of clarity on predictor and outcome variables; data collection procedures and analysis lacked completeness; title lacked accuracy and clarity; inappropriate study design; ethical requirements incomplete and sample too small or biased. All errors were reviewed and rectified. Constitution of a separate SRC was found to be effective in providing independent, competent and timely review of all the protocols submitted to it for their scientific merits and feasibility.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Dens evaginatus: a cause of periapical pathology in caries-free teeth

    • Authors: Sosham John
      Pages: 382 - 385
      Abstract: There are morphological variations reported in both primary and permanent dentition. This case report describes the presentation of dens evaginatus causing periapical pathology in a caries-free mandibular second premolar. The tubercle-like presentation of dens evaginatus interferes with the occlusion of posterior teeth. Occlusal wear caused exposure of the pulp within the cusp resulting in pulpal necrosis and, eventually, periapical pathology. Proper diagnosis and management by root canal treatment resulted in the resolution of the symptoms and complete healing.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Management challenges of sinonasal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in
           infanthood: case report and literature review

    • Authors: Samuel Oluyomi Ayodele, Bashir Mohammed, Adam Shuaib
      Pages: 386 - 391
      Abstract: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignant neoplasm. It’s not known to occur often in the sinonasal region of an infant when compared with other histological types. And due to its aggressive nature in deep-seated locations, it’s often difficult to manage efficiently, thus associated with worse prognosis. In this article, a rare case of an infant with right sided sinonasal aRMS was reported. Eight month old child with two month history of right sided nasal blockage, watery discharge and a growth in the right nose. There was no epistaxis, palatal or neck swelling. On examination, a polypoid mass was completely occupying the right nasal cavity. There were no palpable cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of allergic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis was made. The mass progressed with associated ipsilateral cheek swelling extending to the nasal bridge. A greyish white, friable mass was biopsied and was diagnosed histologically as aRMS. The child had a debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. She later developed tumour lysis syndrome and died. Management of infanthood sinonasal aRMS is challenging especially in low socioeconomic region like ours. A multi-disciplinary approach with intensified multimodality therapy is crucial to improving the management outcomes and quality of life. In all, it is advisable to take closer look at any swelling in the paediatric age group by carefully evaluating it with high degree of suspicion, early diagnosis and individualized treatment. 
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Supernaturalism and oral health: a case report

    • Authors: Aravindh Swamy, Angelinteena .
      Pages: 392 - 395
      Abstract: Superstitious beliefs have frequently been observed among patients in our daily procedures. A belief that is not supported by scientific information is considered superstitious. Superstition is frequently used by traditional healers to treat human health issues and diseases, which puts them at odds with the medical community's use of evidence-based treatment methods. Dental and medical experts agree that this type of practice is risky since it is carried out by unskilled individuals using unsterilized devices in unclean settings. Certain customs that go against the advice of conventional medical professionals are harmful to the public's health. Depending on the sort of practice used, they may have an impact on the affected population's oral and overall health. Treating oral health requires thorough knowledge of oral cavity and any home remedies cannot cure it. This case report highlights a case of such misconception in treating tooth pain at home, which resulted in a tragedy that reported to the department of oral medicine diagnosis and radiology of Sree Balaji dental college and hospital.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Oral verrucous leukoplakia progression to malignancy: a case report with
           review of literature

    • Authors: T. Sarumathi, S. Angelinteena, Aravindhswamy .
      Pages: 396 - 399
      Abstract: Oral leukoplakia is one of most prevalent oral potential malignant disorders caused due to smoking. Non homogenous forms of leukoplakia have the higher rates of malignant transformation. Clinical diagnosis of these lesions is essential to avoid the fatality. Hereby, we report a case of verrucous leukoplakia which was histo-pathologically diagnosed as verrucous leukoplakia with moderate dysplasia and managed with surgical excision.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • The sudden vestibular abnormalities among people with the COVID-19
           infection or improved people of the COVID-19: a literature review

    • Authors: Mahbubeh Sheikhzadeh, Mohsen Monadi, Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi, Maryam Kavyani, Fereshteh Bagheri
      Pages: 400 - 404
      Abstract: The aim of this review study was to overview articles available from 2019 to 2021 to answer the question: "Is the COVID-19 associated with sudden vestibular abnormalities among people with COVID-19 infection or improved peopleof the COVID-19'" Articles included in this review were searched through the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases from 2019 to 2021. We have utilized the search terms vertigo, dizziness, vestibular neuritis, and C0VID-19. According to the 33 available articles, the total number of patients was 363. The 95 patients (26.1%) reported dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance during the COVID-19 infection or after of the recovery. The 12 patients (12.6%) showed the vestibular neuritis, 2 patients (2.1%) indicated the cerebellitis, 2 patients (2.1%) demonstrated the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, 2 patients observed (about 1%) with the labyrinthitis, and 1 patient (about 1%) depicted the intra-labyrinthine hemorrhage. Several studies have been reported the relationship between the COVID-19 and the vestibular system. Although more comprehensive studies are needed to investigate this matter but the evidence suggests that the COVID-19 is a neuroinvasive virus, and it is the most likely hypothesis for the cause of sudden vestibular abnormalities in the infected patients.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • The use and impact of contraceptives in women: a critical review

    • Authors: Success C. David, Shadrach C. Eze, Catherine C. Eleje, Evaristus C. Odoh, Faith O. Omotayo, Onyinyechi L. Kalu, Cynthia C. Eze
      Pages: 405 - 413
      Abstract: Around 40% of the 210 million human conceptions occurring globally each year are unplanned. Contraception involving the use of devices, medications, and sexual techniques have been the bail out. This has empowered women to make positive decisions about their life and sexual health. Various methods of contraception in use today include the barrier method, the fertility awareness method, hormonal method and permanent contraception. In the United States and in most parts of the world, oral contraceptives (OC) have been the most used contraceptive method. Their use however comes with its pros and cons. OC failure is already an issue of concern in the reproductive health of women. More serious concerns are the impact of the use of these OC's on the woman's quality of life. Women all over the world are becoming increasingly conscious of the ability of OC to either aid or interfere with their health and overall well being. There is paucity of data in recent times looking critically at how OC has been a factor in altering the quality of life of women. Hence this review highlights contraceptive preferences of women, Success and failures of OC use, perception of women towards OC and how the use of OC has impacted their quality of life. Overall, contraceptives have a positive impact on the quality of life of women due to many other benefits it offers apart from contraception including relief of menstrual blood loss, dys-menorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Expert consensus on the diagnosis and management of alcoholic liver
           disease

    • Authors: Prashant Solanki
      Pages: 414 - 418
      Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a spectrum of liver injuries caused due to harmful use of alcohol. It is the primary cause of liver disease and is responsible for around 4% of mortality worldwide. ALD progresses from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis depending upon risk factors, such as continued alcohol consumption or comorbid liver diseases. Screening and diagnosis are suggested for patients with histological symptoms and in high-risk populations. Management of ALD includes strategies such as abstinence from alcohol consumption, nutrition therapy, pharmacological therapy, and liver transplantation, with alcohol abstinence being the most beneficial to reverse fatty liver conditions. Various novel treatment approaches having distinct mechanisms of action are also developed besides conventional corticosteroid therapy, which include microbiota-based precision medicine, monoclonal antibody therapy, hepatocyte regeneration therapy, epigenetic modulators, liver degeneration boosters, and targeting the gut-liver axis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has shown to benefit ALD patients with cholestasis by exerting biochemical improvements; hence, it can be considered as an adjunct therapy. National and regional advisory board meetings were conducted to discuss the current diagnostic and management techniques, including existing and novel pharmacological treatments available for ALD along with current clinical practices in India.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20222990
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
  • Gut microbiota in human health: insights and discussion on the role of
           probiotics

    • Authors: Sudhanshu Patwari
      Pages: 419 - 424
      Abstract: Gut microbiota remains stable and individualized throughout life, but there are inter-species or intra-species variations that may be controlled by various environmental factors. Several diseases may be associated with dysbiosis like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, diabetes mellitus, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gastric and colon cancer, and sometimes colorectal polyps, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and liver cirrhosis, because of the gut-derived neurotoxins. There is a 10% to 30% risk of development of post-infectious IBS despite the beneficial effects of a low FODMAP diet on IBS symptoms. This diet reduces the luminal concentration of one of the most common bacteria that is the Bifidobacterium. Therefore, probiotics help in the restoration of normal gut microbiota, are a valuable tool in the treatment of certain diseases and help in recovering microbial balance in the gut. Bifidobacterium W11 is a novel probiotic with certain special characteristics that can be of benefit in dysbiosis. This review evaluates gut microbiota dysbiosis, associated complications of dysbiosis, and benefits of treatment with probiotics based on focused group discussions of various experts from India, followed by guidance statements based on analysis of published literature. The beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium longum W11 (B. longum W11) in the management of IBS, IBD, and liver diseases have been elaborated. The proposed management strategy can effectively aid the management of gut dysbiosis in several gastrointestinal conditions and help in understanding the judicious use of probiotics.
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.18203/issn.2454-2156.IntJSciRep20223040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 12 (2022)
       
 
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