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International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2394-6032 - ISSN (Online) 2394-6040
Published by Medip Academy Homepage  [12 journals]
  • Presence of circulatory autoantibodies against glycated histones in
           diabetic patient in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Daheeya Alenazi, Sadia Arjumand, Sana Alqarni, Ali Aljohi, Manal Abudawood, Majed Alanazi, Khalid Alanazi, Shibli Sayeed, Aminah Alzailai, Meyad Alkarni
      Pages: 4527 - 4534
      Abstract: Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic patients can trigger several autoimmune responses. This article aims to assess the presence of circulating autoantibodies against glycated histones and their role in complications in diabetic patients in the Saudi population. Methods: A total of one hundred twenty samples were collected from diabetic patients with different age groups and healthy individuals as control. All serum samples were collected from Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC) in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia. Glycated H2A was prepared and characterized using different physiochemical techniques. Then, ELISA was performed to assess the presence of circulating autoantibodies against glycated histones in diabetic patients’ samples compared with control healthy individuals in the Saudi population. Results: The glycation of H2A under our experimental conditions appears to be completed in 14 days. also, our data showed high circulating autoantibodies were detected against glycated H2A in all diabetic patients’ plasma with different dilutions. Remarkably, diabetic patients’ group 1 (under 20 years old group) showed highly significant binding activity values in each dilution. However, diabetic patients in groups 2 and 3 showed less binding but still significant values when compared to control healthy individuals. Conclusions: This finding provides novel perspectives into existing of circulating autoantibodies against glycated histones in diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, these circulating autoantibodies might be used as valuable tools for understanding the glycation mechanisms in diabetic patients in addition to providing diagnostic and prognostic knowledge. However, their roles in diabetic complications need further investigation.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233548
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Determinants of cord care practices among caregivers in a level 5 facility
           in Kenya

    • Authors: Penina Muia Mulwa, Ruth Gathoni Mbugua, Jane Karonjo
      Pages: 4535 - 4543
      Abstract: Background: Globally, in the year 2020, 2.4 million children died with the likelihood of a child in Sub-Saharan Africa to die in their first month after birth being ten times higher compared to that in developed countries. Infection is a leading cause of mortality among infants with a significant number being attributed to umbilical cord infections. The aim of the study was to assess cord care practices and the associated factors among mothers and care givers at the Mombasa County referral hospital in Kenya. Methods: This was a facility-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the maternal child health/family planning clinic at a level 5 public health facility in Mombasa County, Kenya. Systematic random sampling was employed to select study respondents. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. The association of the dependent and independent variables was assessed using Pearson Chi-square statistics. A p<0.05 was considered significant at 95% CI. Results: Slightly below half (43.6%) of the respondents had practiced inappropriate cord care. Inappropriate cord care practices reported included the use of breast milk (24.3%), herbal substances (17.8%), warm salty water (16.4%), saliva (15.1%), soot (11.2%), black soil (7.9%) and coconut oil (7.2%). Socio-cultural beliefs regarding cord care were prevalent among the respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics, facility-related factors, and socio-cultural factors were associated with cord care practices (p<0.05). Conclusions: There is a need to enhance health education regarding cord care among women in the health facilities and community. Strategies to enhance scale- up of chlorhexidine use should be explored.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233547
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Prevalence of burnout among medical students in Saudi Arabia universities

    • Authors: Zayed Alnefaie, Rawan A. Alhazmi, Eilaf S. Alahmadi, Wafa M. Almuallim, Zainab I. Aljurfi, Samirah M. Kouki
      Pages: 4544 - 4549
      Abstract: Background: Burnout is a psychological condition that results from an excessive workload and a perfectionism-driven obsession. Prolonged exposure to these conditions can create physical symptoms, resulting in various diseases. Due to their demands and obligations, medical students and healthcare professionals are particularly at risk of burning out. The study aimed to calculate the prevalence of burnout among Saudi medical students. Methods: A total sample of 278 participants was taken. MBI was adapted and translated into Arabic in this study to find the prevalence of burnout. Data was analyzed on IBM statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), and descriptive and chi-square tests were applied. Results: 33.4% of participants were males and 66.6% were females. Only 12.35 students were recorded to be smokers. The overall prevalence of burnout among students was 215, while 80.2% of students had low PA; in the case of emotional exhaustion, 21.2% fell to a high degree, and 28% had high degree depersonalization. Conclusions: The most common type of burnout among Saudi medical students is because of low personal accomplishment. Further studies should be conducted to understand better the problem prevailing in medical students so policies can be formed accordingly.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233527
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A cross-sectional study on breast cancer awareness among female students
           in Al-Rayan colleges in Al Medina Al Munawara

    • Authors: Lobna Mohamed Saber, Adeebah Ayedh Alharbi, Ghadah Yousef Aljohani, Lamyaa Abdulrahman Alanazi, Maryam Abdulmonem Alnakli, Mona Bdh M. Almahdi, Rehab Turki Al Saleemi
      Pages: 4550 - 4559
      Abstract: Background: This study aims to evaluate breast cancer awareness among AL-Rayan colleges female students in Al Medina Al Munawara Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 291 female students from Al-Rayan medical colleges in Al Medina Al Munawara, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through an Arabic version of the modified breast cancer awareness measure (Breast CAM) version 2 which is a validated and reliable then administered online and distributed via social media platforms. Analysis was done by IBM SPSS version 28 and involved descriptive statistics, including frequency distributions and percentiles, while factors associated with awareness levels were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test Results: The participants' mean awareness level was 17.2±7.5 out of 31, out of the total participants 52.6% had a poor awareness level. Out of the participants surveyed, only 42.6%, accurately understood the recommended frequency of conducting self-examinations each month, as secondary prevention only 33% of participants were aware of the best time to start mammography. Only a limited percentage of participants (37.8% and 47.1% respectively) demonstrated knowledge of early menopause and late menopause as potential contributing factors. There was a significant relationship between awareness level and age (p=0.001) and academic year (p=0.001). Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of continued efforts to educate and raise awareness about breast cancer and its early detection methods among young women. the study demonstrated varying levels of understanding among participants. The overall knowledge assessment indicated that a considerable proportion of participants had moderate knowledge of breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233528
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Prevalence and factors of vocal symptoms amongst school teachers in the
           United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Priyanka Naryani, Sakina Khuzhaima, Javairia Jamil, Joudi Sharaf, Safa Ubaid, Anusha Sreejith
      Pages: 4560 - 4565
      Abstract: Background: Teaching is an occupation that mainly relies on one to use one's voice as a tool. Hence, teachers are at a greater risk than most for developing a voice disorder. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of vocal symptoms among schoolteachers. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 318 teachers and a self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data over six months. The chi-square test was used to assess the association. Logistic regression was used to determine the degree of association. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Informed consent was taken from all participants, and ethics approval was obtained from the International Review of Boards Committee. Results: 77.4% of the teachers suffered from vocal difficulties during their teaching careers. Years of teaching, class size, and behavioral factors such as stress, exerting extra muscular pressure while talking, speaking in a loud tone, weather conditions, and health conditions such as tonsillitis were significantly associated with the prevalence of vocal symptoms in teachers. Conclusions: The prevalence of vocal symptoms was found to be very high. It was directly proportionate to the number of years of teaching; behavioral factors such as talking loudly, being stressed while teaching, and applying extra pressure on the neck muscles and weather conditions all impacted acquiring vocal symptoms.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233746
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Weight gain in low-birth-weight newborns and associated factors in Central
           Benin settings

    • Authors: Charles Sossa Jerome, Donelle Agossadou, Colette Azandjeme, Clemence Metonoou, Marius Kedoté N.
      Pages: 4566 - 4574
      Abstract: Background: There is an association between low birth weight (LBW) and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to identify associated factors with low 4-week weight gain among low-birth-weight newborns benefiting from the "optimized mother-newborn care model" within Bohicon health district in Benin. Methods: This was a retrospective, analytical study of 124 low-weight newborns benefiting from the "optimized mother-newborn care model", monitored for four weeks, and their mothers. Data on newborns and mothers as well as on the healthcare system were gathered through documentary review and interviews. Logistic regression was used to investigate associated factors with weight gain. Results: Of the 124 newborns monitored, more than half (54.84%) were female, their average birth weight was 2110.24±217.05 grams, and 103 (83.06%) reached the weight threshold of 2500 grams after four weeks. The mean age of the 101 mothers surveyed was 23.47±5.23 years. High household size (OR=5.65; CI95%: [1.04-30.71]), absence of home visits by community health workers (OR=10.93; CI95%: [1.54-77.14]), breastfeeding by expressing milk directly from the breast into baby’s mouth (OR=13.90; CI95%: [2.57-74.97]) and non-consumption of hindmilk by the newborn (OR=10.93; CI95%: [1.72-47.08]), were associated with weight gain in these low-weight newborns. Conclusions: The "optimized mother-newborn care model" appears to improve weight gain in low-birth-weight newborns. Taking into account the factors associated with low weight gain in low-weight newborns could improve the effectiveness of the implemented model in this health district.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233747
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Comparison of the effect of vaginal misoprostol alone and in combination
           with evening primrose capsules on the course of labor in pregnant women
           candidates for termination of pregnancy

    • Authors: Noushin Mobaraki, Shervin Tabrizian, Khatereh Isazadehfar, Shahrzad Ghorbani
      Pages: 4575 - 4580
      Abstract: Background: Induction of labor at any time before the spontaneous onset of labor is indicated when the benefits of termination of pregnancy for the mother and fetus outweigh the benefits of continued pregnancy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of vaginal misoprostol alone and in combination with evening primrose capsule on the course of labor in pregnant women candidates for termination of pregnancy. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 30 pregnant women were candidates for termination of pregnancy. At the time of referral, the examination was performed to calculate the bishop score (primary outcome) and the partograph was recorded and plotted once every hour until the end of labor. Length of active phase of labor (from dilatation 3-6 cm to birth), type of labor, Apgar score of the first and fifth minute of the baby and volume of postpartum hemorrhage and pain intensity every 30 minutes was recorded in two groups for up to 2 hours using a ruler. Results: The mean length of the latent labor phase in the misoprostol and evening primrose groups was 9.07±0.96 and in the misoprostol group was 10.13±0.83 hours and this difference was significant. There was no significant difference in bishop score between the two groups at the beginning of the study but after the intervention was significant. Conclusions: Our study showed that using evening primrose oil capsule instead of misoprostol is effective in induction of labor.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233748
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment of work environment factors influencing job satisfaction among
           mortuary staff in Nairobi City County, Kenya

    • Authors: Dosila A. Ogira, Peterson N. Warutere, Andre Yitambe
      Pages: 4581 - 4586
      Abstract: Background: Job satisfaction has been widely studied as a key factor that influences efficiency and effectiveness among healthcare workforces. However, one notable category that has been largely overlooked by researchers are the mortuary staff in part because of the stigma surrounded in the topic of death leading to them working in deplorable work environments. This study sought to address this gap by examining work environment factors influencing job satisfaction among mortuary staff in selected public and private mortuaries in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methods: Cross sectional study design, adopting qualitative and quantitative data collection was used in this study. A sample size of 193 respondents were selected from public and private mortuaries. Key Informant interviews were used to provide additional qualitative data. Results: The study revealed that the overall satisfaction level was 44.7%. Chi-square analysis revealed significant relationship between; marital status (p=0.033) and solidarity among employees in the department (p=0.024). However, other factors such as provision of the right tools and equipment (p=0.061), appropriateness of daily working hours (p=0.265) and level of staffing (p=0.264), were not statistically significant in this study. Conclusions: The study revealed a suboptimal job satisfaction level among mortuary staff in Nairobi County. This research calls for a better understanding of the dynamics of job satisfaction among mortuary staff by facility administrators as well as policy makers. Such information is integral to future policy development and decisions about appropriate strategies for intervention.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233749
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Awareness and knowledge of endo-perio lesions among fifth year students
           and interns at King Saud Dental College: a questionnaire-based study

    • Authors: Khalid Hamad Almadi, Abdulrahman Ibrahim Bin Akresh, Hisham Fahad Abushaqqaf, Yazeed Ahmed Assiry, Musaad Ibrahim Almefyaz, Ayoub Abdullah Alghamdi, Abdulrahman Abdullah Alnutaifi
      Pages: 4587 - 4592
      Abstract: Background: This study aims to assess the diagnostic knowledge and understanding of endo-perio lesions among senior dental students and interns enrolled at King Saud College of Dentistry. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted using Google Forms. The questionnaire included two radiographic case images and assessed participants' experience with endo-perio lesions, confidence in diagnosis, and familiarity with treatment approaches. The study included 200 participants, consisting of 140 interns and 60 5th-year students. Results: The majority of participants (61%) reported encountering endo-perio lesions in their clinics. Among the participants, 50% expressed confidence in diagnosing these lesions. Intern students demonstrated higher knowledge and awareness of endo-perio lesions compared to 5th-year students. Statistically significant differences were observed in the awareness of endo-perio lesions and confidence in diagnosis between the two groups. However, both groups showed room for improvement in their diagnostic and treatment capabilities. Conclusions: The findings indicate a need for enhanced education and training in this area, particularly for 5th-year students. Incorporating comprehensive theoretical education, clinical case management, and continuing education courses may help improve students' diagnostic skills and treatment outcomes for endo-perio lesions.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233750
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Psychological, socioeconomic burdens and coping mechanisms of caregivers
           of children with bronchoasthma in Kakamega County, Kenya

    • Authors: Lucy Ruth W. Mwangi, Dickens S. Omondi Aduda, Catherine V. Mbagaya
      Pages: 4593 - 4601
      Abstract: Background: Childhood bronchoasthma consistently pose diverse caregiving burdens yet, magnitude of these and coping mechanisms adopted by caregivers are infrequently assessed during routine care only focused on index patients. Methods: A partially mixed descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted for a minimum of 408 respondents. The results were presented in form of tables and text. Results: A total of 408 caregivers were surveyed, with a mean age of 33 years (SD=9.86). Majority (78.7%) were actual parents of whom 73.5% were married. Primary-level education was the highest attained by 64% of caregivers while those earning <10,000 KES per month were 76% with about 3 out 4 being self-employed. Significant psychological concerns include sleep disturbance on the night previous to the interview, caregivers’ concern about the child's asthma medication and side effects. Work absenteeism; reduced total annual income; lost job; discontinued child schooling and delayed family investment/cut budgets were significant social/economic burdens. Most caregivers used escape-avoidance coping mechanisms with a significant majority being involved in substance abuse (72.3%); feeling helpless or downplayed the severity of symptoms because of myths and stigma. Young age (p=0.002); being widowed (p=0.040), and being of low level of education (p<0.001) were associated with poor coping mechanisms. Conclusions: There was considerable prevalence of psychological burden and socio-economic status among caregivers with significant majority using adversarial coping mechanisms, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233751
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Machine learning algorithms for predicting the determinants of minimum
           dietary diversity among Bangladeshi children

    • Authors: Esmotara Eva, Shajida Akter, Tareq Rahman
      Pages: 4602 - 4609
      Abstract: Background: In developing countries, the minimum dietary diversity (MDD) measure of dietary quality is widely used to define the dietary habits of infants between the ages of 6 and 23 months. However, the particular situation in Bangladesh shows that just 34% of kids have access to a food that complies with the bare minimum acceptable norms. The main aim of this study was to predict the determinants of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) among Bangladeshi children. Methods: This study was based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (2017-2018 BDHS). Statistical analysis involving a χ2 test alongside machine learning (ML) algorithms was employed to identify the factors associated with MDD and to predict the factors influencing MDD outcomes within the context of Bangladesh. Results: The random forest (accuracy =0.854, specificity =0.639, sensitivity =0.927, precision =0.883, F1-score = 0.905, area under the curve: AUC = 0.711) show the best performance than others machine learning model. The random forest model shows the “division”, “mother age”, “wealth index”, “partner education”, “total number of children” and “mother education” play an important role to predict the determinants of MDD in Bangladesh. Conclusions: To enhance newborn and young child feeding practices, it is strongly advised to boost women’s empowerment and mother’s education. To protect the health of infants, government healthcare authorities should implement public education programs and awareness campaigns in addition to enforcing the appropriate laws and regulations.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233752
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Uptake of HIV and AIDS services among lesbian, gay and bisexual
           identifying youths aged 18 to 35 years in Nairobi city county, Kenya

    • Authors: John Lanyo, Alloys Orago, Judy Mugo
      Pages: 4610 - 4617
      Abstract: Background: The study assessed the general uptake of HIV&AIDS care among the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LBG) identifying youths in Nairobi County. The focus was on sexual orientation and not gender identity. This research unpacked the depth in which socio-cultural, religious, systemic, personal attitudes and perceptions base contribute to the uptake of HIV&AIDS care and interventions to be scaled up. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional design, involving qualitative and quantitative methods. The sample size was n=84 determined through the formula n=z2(1 –α/2)(1- P)/ɛ2P due to unknown nature and number of the target population in Nairobi. Used snowball sampling technique and a virtual snowball sampling to reach the population. Purposive sampling was applied to reach key informants. Descriptive statistical analysis was utilized reinforced by cross tabulation. Results: The uptake of HIV&AIDS services was 86% among the lesbian, gay and bisexual youths in Nairobi. The majority access HIV prevention and care services from government/public health facilities followed closely by NGO led facilities. Personal attitude and perception base play a significant role in utilization; 57% engaged in risky sexual activities. A majority (87%) of the respondents experienced injustices while accessing HIV&AIDS services attributed the experiences to their sexual orientation. Conclusions: The health care providers should be adequately trained to provide comprehensive, inclusive, non-judgmental services; policies evaluated to provide non-discriminatory services to eliminate stigmatization of the population. The findings intend to inform programming of HIV&AIDS for this subset of key population and bridge the knowledge gap.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233753
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Perspectives of telemedicine: a cross-sectional study among health care

    • Authors: Adel M. Aboregela, Abdullah A. Hashish, Masoud M. Alqahtani, Anas Alqarni, Abdullah N. Almuawi, Mohannad S. Alamri
      Pages: 4618 - 4624
      Abstract: Background: Telemedicine is the remote delivery of medical services. There has yet to be sufficient data in our community on perspectives on telemedicine. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the perception and attitude of physicians and medical students in Bisha region toward telemedicine. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among physicians in ten hospitals and primary health care centers in Bisha and medical students at the College of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered online questionnaire with optional participation was distributed. Results: 239 responses were received with diverse distribution among different ages, genders, nationalities, occupations, and frequencies of daily technology use. The participants showed 60.3% acceptance of telemedicine, especially its helpfulness in transferring information among sectors. Various sociodemographic-dependent debates were retrieved regarding the viability of telemedicine approach, its integration ability, time and money saving, and flexibility. The frequency of personal computer use correlated positively with the participants’ perceptions and attitudes (p=0.001 and 0.003). A positive attitude was retrieved from 79.1% of participants, with readiness to obtain telemedicine training for better professional growth, especially in non-Saudi personnel. The lack of suitable equipment, patient satisfaction and compliance, weakness of the doctor-patient relationship, familiarity with technology, and extra load for physicians were the most prominent barriers mentioned by the participants. Conclusions: Meetings, training, and orientation programs still need to be scheduled for the general population, healthcare personnel, and information technologists to override the weaknesses in community awareness and telemedicine deficiencies and to get the benefit of this technology.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233754
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment of predictors of unskilled delivery among women seeking
           immunization services in Kitui County, Kenya

    • Authors: Zipporah W. Mbuthia, John G. Kariuki, Atei Kerochi
      Pages: 4625 - 4634
      Abstract: Background: Globally, maternal mortality was the second leading cause of mortality among women of reproductive age in 2016 after HIV/AIDS. In 2017, global and Africa maternal mortality rate (MMR) was 211 and 547 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births respectfully. Unskilled delivery is one of the underlying causes of maternal mortality. Methods: The study assessed the predictors of unskilled delivery among women in Kitui County, Kenya. The facility-based study was cross-sectional with mixed method of data collection. Facilities were selected through simple random sampling and systematic sampling for participants. A structured questionnaire was administered among 380 women seeking immunization services and analysed using Stata. Twelve key informant interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Results: The level of unskilled delivery was 29.21%. On inferential analysis income [p=0.023], education [p=0.002], ANC visits [p=0.014], birth preparedness (BP) [p=0.042] and maternal complications [p=0.027], time taken to health facility [p=0.030] and quality of care [p=0.001] were statistically associated with unskilled delivery, p<0.05, C.I.=95%. On logistic regression low income (AOR=4.8356), low education (AOR=4.3169), few ANC visits [aOR=2.6444], lack of BP [aOR=5.0499], history of maternal and child complications [aOR=6.0237], longer time to health facility [aOR=0.1652] and poor quality of care [aOR=0.5615] were positively associated with unskilled delivery. Conclusions: The level of unskilled delivery in Kitui county was 29.21%. Predictors of UBA were low income, low education, fewer ANC visits, lack of BP, history of maternal and child complications, longer time to health facility and poor quality of care.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233755
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The influence of family function and structure on depression in middle
           aged women

    • Authors: Eloho J. Orji, Stephen O. Ilesanmi, Adekunle O. Adesokan, Olubankole O. Akinboboye, Adeagbo L. Ahmed, Akintunde O. Akinyugha, Ede B. Edo-Osagie, Charles O. Atimoh, Abiodun J. Kareem, Olajumoke M. Aiyeku
      Pages: 4635 - 4643
      Abstract: Background: Depression is both a mood disorder and a chronic illness of public health importance that accounts for a great socioeconomic burden worldwide. The family influences the health beliefs and health related behavior and it is supposed to provide emotional, financial, physical and emotional support during this period. Aim of the study was to assess the influence of family function and structure on depression in middle-aged women. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study. Three hundred and two (302) middle-aged women were recruited by simple random sampling method. Relevant data were collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire that incorporated family structure, family APGAR and major depression inventory (MDI). Results: More than half (56%) of the participants had a functional family, 66.2% of them were in a monogamous marriage while 64.7% were from a nuclear family. The prevalence of depression was 5.3%; 31.3% of these were from functional family while 68.7% were from dysfunctional family. There was a significant association between family functionality, spousal characteristics such as wife beating and spousal alcohol use with depression. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression was low amongst married middle-aged women currently living with their spouses while no relationship was noted between family structure and depression. Family assessment especially family functionality is highly recommended in assessing depression.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233756
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Child sexual abuse (rape) in Anambra state: South Eastern Nigeria

    • Authors: Obinna C. Ajaegbu, Chinelo N. Madubuike, Bertila U. Ezeonwu, Bernadette U. Uchendu, Afam Obidike, Faith N. Ajaegbu
      Pages: 4644 - 4648
      Abstract: Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) which is an infringement of the child’s fundamental human right has assumed a public health importance due to increasing prevalence globally and Nigeria in particular. This problem not only possess immediate complications like unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and others, but the long term impact on the child’s mental-health is enormous. This study is aimed at documenting the burden of this problem in Anambra state and interventions to mitigate it. Methods: This was a prospective study of all the children who presented to the Ntasi Sexual Assault Reference Center (SARC), Anambra State with history of sexual abuse from September 2019 to August 2020. Results: A total of 820 children were seen during the study period, 81 (9.8%) were diagnosed to have been sexually abused. There were 69 (85.3%) female and 12 (14.8%) male giving a female to male ratio of 5:1. The incidence of the abuse increased with increasing age of the subjects and peaks at those aged 11-15 years, 28 (34.6%). Sixty-nine (85.2%) were abused once while 12 (14.8%) were abused multiple times. Most of the abuse took place in the perpetrators home 47 (38.8%) followed by uncompleted building 14 (11.6%). Vaginal penetration 69 (85.2%) was the commonest form of sexual abuse seen followed by anal penetration 12 (14.8). Conclusions: Child sexual abuse remains a major public health problem with high rate of under-reporting. Heath education, free medical care to victims and government strong political will are needed in curbing this menace.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233757
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Severity grade of complaints from X-ray imaging on the elderlies with knee

    • Authors: Citra Puspa Juwita, Rita Damayanti, Besral, Djohan Aras, James Manik
      Pages: 4649 - 4653
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of osteoarthritis with disorder or problem experienced by elder osteoarthritis patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the period of October until December 2022 in one of the regions in the capital of Indonesia. Data was collected through knee X-ray examination according to Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) classification and direct interview on the elderlies with knee arthritis by using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Data analysis was performed with Spearman rank. Results: From a total of 102 elderly participants who were diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis, it was found out that on average, as the osteoarthritis grade increased, the pain also increased. The stiffness and functional ability experienced by the participants were not according to the grade of the osteoarthritis. There was a weak correlation between severity with disorder or problem in the elderlies with osteoarthritis (p=0.030, R=0.214). Differences are only found in the severity of pain between grade 2 and grade 4, and in the severity of functional disorder between grade 1 and grade 3. Conclusions: Complaints of osteoarthritis in the elderlies are not specific for each severity grade.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233758
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Spatial analysis and risk factors of dengue hemorrhagic fever in
           Yogyakarta city, 2017-2018

    • Authors: Sulistyawati Sulistyawati, Atin Nur Fatimah, Nurma Aqmarina
      Pages: 4654 - 4659
      Abstract: Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a public health problem with high morbidity and mortality rates. These diseases are caused by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Yogyakarta City is one of the endemic areas of DHF in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of DHF incidents and determine the risk factors associated with DHF incidence in Yogyakarta in 2017-2018. Methods: This was a descriptive quantitative with an ecological study design and using secondary data. Data was analyzed using statistical analysis and spatial analysis. Results: Spatial analysis shows that the DHF distribution does not follow the distribution of population density, house density, and larva-free rate. We found the population density (p value= 0.010, r = -0.661), house density (p value= 0.059, r = -0.516), and larva-free rate (p value= 0.907, r= -0.034). Conclusions: Spatially, there is no relationship between population density, house density, and larva-free rate to the DHF incidence in the City of Yogyakarta in 2017-2018. There is a relationship between population density and the incidence of DHF. In contrast, house density and larva-free rate have no association with the incidence of DHF in Yogyakarta in 2017-2018. The higher the population density, house density, and larva-free rate, the tendency for the incidence to decrease.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233759
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Impact of food hygiene and safety training on knowledge, attitude, and
           practices of food hygiene and safety practices among food handlers in
           boarding schools of Embu County, Kenya

    • Authors: Rosaline W. Kaugi, John G. Kariuki, Alfred O. Odongo, Maureen J. Koech, Harrison C. Njoroge
      Pages: 4660 - 4668
      Abstract: Background: The reduction of foodborne illnesses depends on the adoption and evaluation of effective food handling procedures in the food service industry. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of food hygiene and safety training on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers in boarding schools in Embu County, Kenya. Methods: A longitudinal nonequivalent quasi-experimental survey design was utilized. A sample size of 198 study respondents was generated, Magnani formula was used. Multistage sampling was applied to select the study participants. STATA version 17 was employed for data analysis. Results: The knowledge score changed from 71% at baseline to 90% at the end line compared to the control arm which did not significantly change. Attitude score changed from 71% at baseline to 89% at endline compared to the control arm which did not significantly change (64% to 63%). This corresponds to a DID change of 19 percent increase in the attitudes scores (p<0.001). Lastly, practices score changed from 63% at baseline to 93% at endline. This corresponded to a 34 percentage point increase in the practice scores (p<0.001). Conclusions: Overall, Knowledge, attitude and practices were low at baseline than at the endline survey. Statistically, the study revealed that knowledge, attitude, and practices were associated with adherence to food safety and hygiene standards. The Government through the Ministries of health and education should consider training of food handlers on food safety and hygiene for improved knowledge, attitude, and practices.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233760
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Socio-cultural practices and experiences of menstruation among adolescents
           and women of Kurichiya tribe of Wayanad: an ethnographic study

    • Authors: Adithya Shibu, Anekal C. Amaresha
      Pages: 4669 - 4676
      Abstract: Background: Menstruation and related cultural practices are widespread in Indian communities, particularly in tribal settlements. Past studies have highlighted the negative impact of these practices on women's mental health and well-being. However, there remains a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the specific effects of these practices on women's lives. Methods: This study utilised an urban ethnographic research design to explore cultural practices and lived experiences within urban settings. It focused on Kurichiya settlements in Wayanad's Chennalode area, part of Kalpetta municipal town in Kerala's Wayanad district. Fourteen participants, women and adolescent girls aged 15 to 50, were involved in the study. Results: The qualitative analysis identified three core themes: cultural practices of menstruation, women’s menstrual experiences, and perspectives on menstrual practices. The examination of cultural practices revealed subthemes: menarche celebration and monthly period rituals. Women's menstrual experiences encompassed emotional experiences during menarche and each monthly period. Perspectives on menstrual practices highlighted effects on mental well-being and participant’s advocacy for change. Conclusions: The study portrayed how traditional practices affect daily life for Kurichiya women, causing emotional disruption. Despite some liberalisation, a full shift in these customs remains elusive in current times.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233761
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A retrospective analysis of electrical burn injuries

    • Authors: Pravin B. Kamble, Hemant S. Kshirsagar
      Pages: 4677 - 4683
      Abstract: Background: Our life is running at a fast pace holding hands of the hi-tech innovations in this ever-developing scenario. Electricity runs the show of the whole technology is potentially dangerous commodity to handle in daily life. Hence, electric burn injuries have been a public health threat. Electrical burns are less prevalent but are the most disastrous. Electrical burn injuries are considered as a unique form of trauma where in morbidity and mortality rates are much higher compared to the other thermal burns. This study is a retrospective analysis of electrical burn injuries that provides an insight to all facts regarding the electric burn injuries. Methods: This paper is structured upon the patients with electrical burn injuries who were admitted to the hospital. The medical data of all burn patients admitted to our hospital between March 2011 to January 2023 were evaluated for inclusion. Incusion criteria were age 18 years old and above. The patients were divided into two age groups: 18-45 years as younger age and above 45 years old as elder age. Results: Out of 82 occurrences of electrical burns caused by workplace dangers, 80 involved men. Male patients ranging age from 18 to above 45 years were present, 12 adults above the age of 45 years were there. Accidental electric shocks caused by low-voltage home appliances struck two elderly patients and two female patients. Conclusions: The cause of electrical burn incidences was work related. The common patient population was consisted of electrical- mechanical workers, industrial workers, agriculture field worker, and construction workers.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233762
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A study of sleep duration, body mass index and blood pressure in an adult
           Kashmiri population

    • Authors: Masood Tanvir, Mir Abida, Masarat Nazeer
      Pages: 4684 - 4689
      Abstract: Background: Sleep is influenced by the circadian rhythms (regular body changes in mental and physical characteristics that occur in the course of about 24 hours). Lack of a good night’s sleep results in a variety of negative health and cognitive issues, which makes it critical to study the prevalence of sleep deficiency and its effects on an individual’s physical and mental health. Aim of study was to access the association of sleep duration with body mass index and blood pressure in an adult Kashmiri population. Methods: The present study was done in the Postgraduate Department of Physiology, Government Medical College and Associated Hospitals, Srinagar. This study was done on 500 subjects and it was an observational, cross sectional study. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obese among short sleepers was quite high at 34.4% as compared to 11.7% and 15.2% among normal sleepers and long sleepers respectively. Among short sleepers 0% participants were hypotensive 47.5% were normotensive, 52.4% were prehypertensive/hypertensive. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and overweight/obese subjects among short sleepers. There was an inverse relationship of prevalence of overweight/obesity and elevated blood pressure with short sleep duration. Our study also showed a statistically significant increase in the percentage of prehypertension/hypertension among overweight/obese people with a p value of <0.001 and CHI square of 43.964.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233763
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Vaccination coverage against COVID-19 among adults of rural field practice
           area, tertiary-care hospital: cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Kamuni Madhuri Reddy, M. A. M. Pasha, Afsar Fatima
      Pages: 4690 - 4693
      Abstract: Background: As the spread of COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown has been implemented and as a preventive measure to reduce the occurrence of disease vaccination has been conducted throughout the country level. Methods: A Community based Cross Sectional study was conducted during September 2022 to October 2022 (2months) in RHTC field practice area of Santhiram Medical College, nandyal among adults (25-45) years of age group by convenient sampling method with sample size 300, study tool was pre-designed, semi structured questionnaire. Data was collected by interview method and analysed by SPSS 22 version. Ethics committee clearance was obtained before conducting the study. Results: In this study population, (48%) completed 3 doses of COVID vaccine with booster dose, (48.3%) got vaccinated for 2 doses and (3.7%) are vaccinated for 1st dose and (15%) of them got COVID infection after vaccination. Conclusions: Out of 300 participants 53% were males and 47% were females, 4% with one dose, 48% with two doses and 48% with two doses with booster dose of vaccination, about 36% had comorbidities. About 35% vaccinated by covaxin and 65% is with covishield vaccine, in which 9% had COVID infection after vaccination. Therefore, along with regular monitoring and surveillance, health education regarding the advantages of vaccination to the people can improve the vaccination status in rural area.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233764
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Study of morphometric changes of cornea in cases of pterygium

    • Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Shaheen Farooq, Nabab A. Khan, Anju Kochar, Prinyanka Sunda
      Pages: 4694 - 4698
      Abstract: Background: Pterygium is a benign, wing-shaped, fibrovascular growth that originates on the bulbar conjunctiva and can spread to the limbus and beyond, causing morphometric changes in the cornea and affecting visual status. Aim of study was to study the morphometric changes in the cornea in patients with pterygium. Methods: Prospective hospital-based analytical study conducted on 100 consecutive patients with unilateral pterygium for two years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including evaluation of visual acuity refraction, corneal curvature, corneal endothelial cell density (CECD), central corneal thickness (CCT), coefficient of variation (CV) and hexagonality. Necessary demographic data and variables like age, smoking status and occupation were also determined. The healthy eye was considered as a control. Results: Majority of the study population, i.e. 43%, belonging to the 21-40 years of age group; socioeconomically, maximum cases (61%) were found in class IV with a male preponderance of 53%. 56% of patients hailed from rural areas, and regarding occupation, it was found that 37% of patients were farmers. This study found that the majority of patients (60% of cases) had multiple ocular complaints. There was a significant association between pterygium grade and keratometric astigmatism. Our study found a significant difference between ECD, hexagonality and CV in the normal and diseased eye. CCT was found more in diseased eyes but was significant only in grade IV pterygium. Conclusions: Pterygium leads to deterioration of visual performance by causing refractive and keratometric changes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233765
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Nursing students' perceptions of resilience, social support, and coping
           strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-center study

    • Authors: Kathyayani Bidadi Veerabhadraiah, Sai Yathin Reddy, Vijayalakshmi Poreddi, Sreelatha Mynampati, Sadananda Reddy Annapally, Narayana Manjunatha, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Suresh B. Math
      Pages: 4699 - 4705
      Abstract: Background: Resilience found to be an important factor in protecting the nursing students against the stress during coronavirus outbreak. Aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships between resilience and perceived social and organizational support and coping strategies among nursing students. Methods: This web-based survey carried out among nursing undergraduates (n=1017) across the country. Data was collected using self-reported questionnaires in May 2021. Results: Majority of the students had a normal level of resilience, perceived a high level of social and organizational support and used effective coping strategies. Also, the variables of resilience, social support, organization support and coping strategies were positively correlated (p<0.001). While ag e was positively correlated with resilience, younger (t=4.647, p<0.001) and females (t=-0.3620, p<0.001) perceived a higher level of social support than others. Conclusions: The results suggest that strengthening resilience and improving coping skills and social support may promote psychological wellbeing for nursing undergraduates during the coronavirus pandemic.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233766
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Epidemiological study of animal bite cases attending a tertiary care
           hospital in Tripura: North-East India

    • Authors: Manish Acharjee, Goutam Saha
      Pages: 4706 - 4711
      Abstract: Background: This research article presents an epidemiological study in Tripura, North-east India, investigating animal bite cases at a tertiary care hospital. Animal bites pose significant public health concerns, including potential zoonotic disease transmission. The study aims to assess animal bite incidence, envenoming, and treatment-seeking behaviours among victims. Data from individuals over one year old will reveal the burden of animal bites on healthcare facilities, guiding effective prevention and management strategies for this pressing health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional study at AGMC and GBP Hospital, Tripura, assessed animal bite patterns referred to the ARV centre (2018–2021). Included animal-related bites and excluded incomplete data. Collected age, gender, socio-economic status, biting animal, and bite category. Staff ensured nationwide surveillance. Categorised subjects by age. Results: The cross-sectional study investigated animal bite patterns at AGMC and GBP Hospital, Agartala, Tripura, from 2018 to 2021. Analysis revealed male adults (20-39 years, 41.7%) were most affected, predominantly by dogs (57.58%). The APL category showed the highest frequency (70.79%). Missing category bites decreased, while third category bites increased over time. The winter months had higher frequencies of animal bites. Continued surveillance and targeted interventions are vital for effective prevention. Conclusions: This study highlights male adults (20–39 years old) as being most affected, predominantly by dog bites. The APL category showed higher susceptibility. Continued surveillance and targeted interventions are crucial for effective prevention.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233767
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A descriptive study to assess the knowledge and practices related to cough
           and sneeze etiquette among health care providers, respiratory patients and
           their attendants in a tertiary care centre

    • Authors: Arjun Kumar, Ashok Kumar Janmeja, Rohit Manchanda, Balbir Singh, Ankit Lakra, Rahul Gupta
      Pages: 4712 - 4717
      Abstract: Background: The emergence of respiratory infections including Tuberculosis, COVID-19, influenza A and B viruses have a significant impact on health worldwide. Cough and sneezing etiquette including respiratory hygiene have been recommended as most cost-effective preventative tool to reduce such transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among health care providers, respiratory patients and their attendants admitted in the Respiratory Medicine department at a tertiary care hospital for 6 months duration i.e., from December 2022 to May 2023, aiming to assess the knowledge and practices related to cough and sneeze etiquette. A total of 200 study subjects were interviewed with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The study findings were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 200 subjects, most 95 (47.5%) of subjects belonged to the age group between 40 to 60 and 109 (54.5%) were females and 91 (45.5%) were male. Majority of the participants were medical students; 62 (31%) followed by paramedical staff; 49 (24.5%), laborers and doctors; 26 (13%). Only 88 (44%) participants had heard about cough etiquette. Most common source of information regarding the proper cough and sneeze etiquette among the participants was television or internet;112 (61%). The patients and their attendants were having poor knowledge regarding the proper cough and sneeze etiquette. Conclusions: The knowledge and practice of cough and sneezing etiquette was not satisfactory especially among the general population. There is the utmost need for awareness regarding the knowledge and correct practice of cough etiquette.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233768
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Impact on quality of life among health care workers: a case-control study
           of COVID-19 pandemic situation

    • Authors: Surendra Babu, Khadervali Nagoor, Mood Narayana, Sudha Bala, Venkatesham Animalla
      Pages: 4718 - 4722
      Abstract: Background: Quality of Life (QoL) as an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. Methods: A Case-control study was conducted to assess the QoL among health care workers (HCW) during the Covid-19 Pandemic and to compare QOL in cases and controls among HCW. The sample size was calculated to be 98 in each group comes around 196. QOL was assessed by using WHOQOL-BREF scale. The QoL comparison in both Covid-19 positive and negative and its association was done by mean and standard deviation with correlation coefficient using unpaired T test. Results: Among 196, majority 157 (79.2%) were doctors and 39 (19.8%) were other health care providers like lab technicians and nursing staff. The health care workers with COVID-19 positive were had low QoL than the negative with respect to physical (46.90±9.60 vs 59.01±15.60), psychological (44.51±7.44 vs 51.13±15.68), social (39.82±15.98 vs 56.11±23.92), and environmental (48.33±10.28 vs 57.57±20.22) domains and all the domains showing highly statistically significant result with the P-value <0.001. The correlation coefficient between four domains was statistically significant and with overall QOL and satisfaction on health. Conclusions: The QoL was poor among COVID-19 positive patients compared to negative with respect to physical, social, psychological, and environmental and age, marital status and occupation during the covid-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233769
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Prevalence and risk factor of diabetes and hypertension in northeastern
           and south Indian region in India: insights from large scale survey data

    • Authors: Akanksha Verma, Sunita, Alok Kumar Yadav, Charan Singh, Anjali Saxena, Gajraj Singh
      Pages: 4723 - 4732
      Abstract: Background: Hypertension and diabetes, two of the major global risks for mortality are on a rapid rise in developing nations and leading risk factors for a hero sclerosis and its complications, including heart attacks and strokes. It is predicted that by 2030, India’s diabetes burden will be almost 87 million people. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factor of diabetes and hypertension in northeastern and south Indian region in India. Methods: This study utilised the fourth wave of the national family health survey (2015-16). Bivariate, multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to meet the aim of the paper. Results: Analysis shows that the highest prevalence of prehypertension is higher in Sikkim state whereas the prevalence of hypertension men is higher in also Sikkim state. Prevalence of women is prehypertension in Sikkim state and hypertensive women is higher prevalence in Nagaland and Assam state. Conclusions: Diabetes is developing with multi-morbidity like hypertension. Thus, there is need to provide the health education to diabetic people by public and private health care services and increase the health awareness in the society at grass root level. The main reason behind diabetes is heredity, less physical activity, higher body mass index, and increased cholesterol level in that group of south India and northeastern region. There is need that people should change their lifestyle and government should build the structure of city with health perspective.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233770
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The health landscape of central Kerala: insight into adult physical
           activity, obesity and awareness among rural adults

    • Authors: John G. Aiyankovil, Sharon Baisil, Paul Daniel
      Pages: 4733 - 4738
      Abstract: Background: Body mass index is a widely used index for assessing weight in relation to height, categorizing individuals as underweight, overweight, or obese. Obesity is a pervasive form of malnutrition globally, and Kerala ranks second in India for the highest prevalence of obese individuals, following Punjab. This reflects a growing preference for unhealthy lifestyles, contributing to rising comorbidities and overall ill-health. This study aims to assess the prevalence and relationship between overall physical activity and Body Mass Index among adults in a rural population. It also investigates the attitudes and awareness of the participants regarding obesity and physical activity. Methods: A sample of 204 individuals aged 18 to 64, from 125 households in the rural area of Kunnackal, participated in this study. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 204 participants, 196 (96.07%) reported adequate physical activity, with 124 of them having a normal BMI. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in the low physical activity group. Most participants demonstrated an understanding of the causes of obesity and the role of physical activity in maintaining a healthy life. Conclusions: Our study found that 96.07% of participants had adequate physical activity, and the majority (124) had a normal BMI. No significant association was observed between BMI and age, gender, or occupation. Most participants showed awareness of the causes of obesity and the importance of physical activity in promoting health.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233771
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Enhancing blood safety: the utility of NS-1 antigen capture ELISA for
           detecting acute dengue infections among blood donors during peak
           transmission periods and the potential to curtail dengue spread

    • Authors: Preethika Ravi, Deepa S., Manjunath B. S.
      Pages: 4739 - 4742
      Abstract: Background: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and affects millions of people worldwide. It can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, particularly during peak transmission periods. Methods: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted over a two-month period (June 2022 to July 2022) at a tertiary hospital blood bank. A total of 180 nonrepetitive serum samples were collected from voluntary blood donors and analyzed using the dengue NS-1 Ag Microlisa ELISA kit. Results: Among the 180 samples two samples tested positive for the dengue virus NS-1 antigen using the NS-1 antigen capture ELISA, indicating a prevalence of acute dengue virus infection among blood donors during the peak transmission period of 1.2% (2/180). Conclusions: The use of NS-1 antigen testing was shown to be useful for dengue virus detection. Routine screening of blood donors for dengue virus is not universally implemented in many countries, partly due to the lack of sensitive and specific screening tests. However, the use of serological tests, such as ELISA for dengue antibodies or NS-1 antigen, can effectively detect dengue virus in blood donors. Interventions made during peak transmission periods can help in curtailing the spread of dengue infections.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233772
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Prevalence and determinants of anemia among school going children in the
           state of Tamil Nadu, India: applications of two-level logistic regression

    • Authors: Anil C. Mathew, Sharon Mathew P. R., Krishna Nair, Kamakshi Priya K., Ramesh S.
      Pages: 4743 - 4750
      Abstract: Background: Anemia still remains as one of the major public health problems in India despite implementing preventive measures. The objective was to find the prevalence and determinants of anemia among school going children in Tamil Nadu. Methods: We used the data from the fourth round of district level household survey (DLHS-4) for Tamil Nadu pertaining to the year 2012-13. Our analysis included 23997 children. Descriptive statistics, Random intercept and empty models of two-level logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.4% (95% CI: 40.77%-42.02%). We observed a district level variation on anemia (District level variance=0.1, p<0.001) and the intra class correlation coefficient was 0.0295. The prevalence of anemia was more in coastal districts as compared to non-coastal districts (43.85% vs. 40.18%, p<0.001). Variables that are found to have significant association with anemia on multilevel analysis were younger age (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.343, 95% CI: 1.270-1.420), female children (AOR=1.462, 95% CI: 1.387-1.541), more than eight family members in the household (AOR=1.120, 95% CI: 1.008-1.245), rural residence (AOR=1.103, 95% CI: 1.038-1.172) and lower standard of living (AOR=1.203, 95% CI: 1.084-1.334). Conclusions: Half of school going children were anemic in the state. Geospatial distribution of anemia varied significantly. Governments and regional health centres should take adequate measures to avert the consequences of anemia in school going children considering these factors.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233773
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment of learning preferences among medical students

    • Authors: Malavika Krishnan, Bhargav P. Sawant Dessai, Hemangini K. Shah
      Pages: 4751 - 4754
      Abstract: Background: Facilitating learning, or the development of knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs, and habits, is what education is all about. The learning style of an individual refers to how they prefer to gather, process, memorize, and recall information. One student may adopt one or many modes of knowledge acquisition. Academics consider learning style as a factor influencing students’ learning as a result of personal preferences for physical, social, and environmental components during the learning process. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September 2022, at Goa Medical College. The student’s preferred method of learning was ascertained using the VARK questionnaire which consisted of 16 questions in the VARK questionnaire. Each question offers 4 options, which correlate to the preferences for the 4 sensory modalities. The students were told to select the response that best reflected their preferences. Results: A total of 867 medical students completed the questionnaire. Among the students 368 (41%) preferred unimodal learning style (either visual, auditory, reading/writing, or kinesthetic), 173 (20%) preferred usage of bimodal learning style, 126 (15.8%) trimodal and 200 (23.2%) quadrimodal learning style. Conclusions: There is a variety of learning styles present in the classroom, and there are some students who are not addressed by the standard lecture format. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that students prefer multimodal methods. It is the responsibility of the instructor and the student to be aware of student learning style preferences to improve learning. As instructors, we need to assess and understand how to reach all students by understanding how to present information in multiple modes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233774
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Food consumption behavior and lifestyle changes among rural older adults
           before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in northern India: a
           cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ashish Kumar Verma, Annapurna, Richa Panchgaur, Alok Kumar
      Pages: 4755 - 4761
      Abstract: Background: Due to COVID-19, the lockdown was imposed throughout the nation on 24 march 2020 and COVID-19 is not over yet, cases are still coming. Food insecurity was already a problem but it became even more challenging during the pandemic. Especially rural older adult people have had to deal with the problem of food and health-related issues due to the pandemic. This study aimed to assess food consumption behavior and lifestyle changes among rural older adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study has been conducted in rural areas of the Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh through personal interviews; a multistage random sampling technique was used to select the participants. 450 participants were taken aged 60 and above for final analysis. The McNemar and Wilcoxon sign rank tests were used to examine differences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, adopting the statistical significance of p<0.05. Results: 66.0% of people faced a shortage of food. 40.9% of people reported that they had reduced their food intake. 27.6% of participants reported a reduction in body weight. There was a significant percentage decrease in consumption of milk products, pulse, and green vegetables (p<0.001), a percentage decrease in initiating and maintaining sleep (p<0.001), and worse health conditions (p<0.001). Conclusions: Food consumption behavior and lifestyles have changed significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic among rural older adults.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233775
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment of the patient satisfaction level with outpatient department
           services in a tertiary care hospital of Jammu region

    • Authors: Rakesh K. Sharma, Riya Gupta, Anuj Kapoor, Imran Zaffer, Zahidul Hassan, Ritika Chalotra, Amandeep Singh, Rajiv K. Gupta
      Pages: 4762 - 4766
      Abstract: Background: Outpatient department (OPD) is that section of the hospital which is staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative care to those patients who are not registered as inpatients while receiving the services during scheduled working hours. Objective of the study was to assess the patient satisfaction level with OPD services in a tertiary-care hospital of Jammu region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients visiting the OPD of the SMGS hospital GMC Jammu from January to March 2023. Exit interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire among patients availing the services from OPD. Results: Average percentage of total satisfaction score among sampled OPD patients has come out to be 68.13% whereas total average dissatisfaction score was 20.87% and the total average mild dissatisfaction score as 11.00%. Conclusions: This study suggests that patients were satisfied to a larger extent with OPD services except a few which are least satisfied especially with waiting time at registration counter.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233776
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Frequency of high risk behaviour in patients with alcohol dependence
           syndrome: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Ashwitha Melrine Carl, Safeekh A. T.
      Pages: 4767 - 4773
      Abstract: Background: Alcohol use and high-risk behaviour has been shown to have an association. Severity of alcohol dependence has an association with frequency of risk-taking behaviour. Objectives were to evaluate the frequency of high risk behaviour in alcohol dependence syndrome and to find any correlation between psychosocial variables and high risk behaviour. Methods: 100 individuals with ICD 10 diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were studied using semi structured interview. High risk behaviour was assessed using violent risk appraisal guide and deliberate self-harm inventory. The age of onset of initiation of alcohol use and dependence and severity of alcohol dependence syndrome were assessed and analyzed by frequency and Chi square test. Results: In 100 subjects with alcohol dependence syndrome, 4 (17.4%) and 7 (30.4%) of subjects with severe dependence had road traffic accidents and risky sexual and violent behaviour respectively. There was a statistically significant association between age of onset, age of dependence and high-risk behaviour. Conclusions: The present study concluded that most individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome had high risk behaviour. Road traffic accident was the most common followed by risky sexual and violent behaviour. There was a significant association between severity of alcohol dependence and high risk behaviour.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233777
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Role of faith healers in the treatment of severe mental illness in India

    • Authors: Surat Ram Kudi, Kusum Lata
      Pages: 4774 - 4780
      Abstract: Background: The cultural diversity has influenced the beliefs of people regarding health and illness. An aim of the study was to assess the role of faith healers in the treatment of severe mental illness. Methods: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling technique was used, on 123 caregivers of patients with severe mental illnesses using standardized tools like MINI, BPRS, and YMRS. Results: 41.5% participants firstly contacted faith healer while 86% visited faith healer anytime during the course of illness. 47.2% took treatment from faith healer for <6 months, 21.1% took 6-12 months and 17.9% more than 13 months. 22.8% circulated between faith healer to faith healer, 18.7% from psychiatrist to faith healer and 27.6% from medical professional to faith healer. Conclusions: There is an immense need to create awareness regarding mental illness and treatment options available.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233778
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Evaluating the impacts of lockdown duties on mental health of male police
           personnel in Eluru City, Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: Anjali Mediboina, Naidana Partha Sarathy, Vemuri Reshma Sri, Makaraju Sree Lakshmi
      Pages: 4781 - 4787
      Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic placed immense demands on frontline workers, including police personnel, who bore the responsibilities of maintaining public order during lockdowns. This study focused on male police officers in rural India, examining the mental health impact of their post-lockdown duties, which included enforcing pandemic-related measures. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among police personnel in Eluru, Andhra Pradesh. Data was collected through interviews, using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess mental health. Demographic variables (age, marital status) and stimulant use (tea, coffee, and cigarettes) were analyzed for associations with mental health scores via ANOVA. Results: Among 70 participants, the majority were aged 25-30 (37%), married (61.4%), and consumed stimulants, primarily tea (84.3%). Overall, participants reported moderate stress (mean =8±4.1), while anxiety levels varied (mean =2.73±3.34), and depression was generally low (mean =0.17±0.66). Age, marital status and stimulant use were found to be significantly associated with subscale scores, 36-40 age groups more likely to report anxiety and stress. Married individuals were more likely to report depression and anxiety. Stimulant use was associated with all three subscales. Conclusions: This study revealed the mental health of rural male police personnel after COVID-19 lockdown duties. It emphasizes generational stress differences and the influence of stimulants. Stigma, masculine norms, and rural challenges may suppress depression and anxiety reporting. Policymakers should act on these insights, fostering mental health awareness and interventions for this vital workforce. Longitudinal studies are crucial for deeper understanding.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233779
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Adherence to tuberculosis treatment among patients attending national
           tuberculosis elimination centre in tertiary care hospital, Bangalore

    • Authors: Julie K. John, B. G. Parasuramalu
      Pages: 4788 - 4794
      Abstract: Background: Annually ten million cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.8 million mortalities are recorded. Adherence to TB treatment not only reduces death outcomes but prevents prolonged sickness, transmission to others and development of multi drug resistant TB. This study was aimed at determining the rate of treatment adherence and possible factors influencing adherence to TB treatment in the NTEP Centre at Rajarajeswari medical college and hospital, Bangalore. Methods: It was a cross sectional study design. A validated 8 item Morisky medication adherence scale was used to obtain data from respondents. Adherence to TB treatment was assessed. Chi square test was used to determine the variables that were associated with treatment adherence. Results: Out of 60 patients, majority i.e. 18 (30%) were in the age group 25-34 years, males were more compared to females. Majority i.e. 21 (35%) were studied up to post high school diploma, 31(51.67%) were unemployed, majority i.e. 48 (80.00%) were married, 42 (70.00%) were from nuclear family. Out of 60 patients, majority 54 (90.00%) were Hindus 24 (40.00%) were from lower middle class. Conclusions: The adherence rate for TB treatment in this study was 68.33%. There was no significant association between socio demographic variables, personal habits, health status, current TB status, type of TB, and common symptom with treatment adherence. An intensified health education on the adherence of TB treatment therefore recommended.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233780
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Usage of new-age digital technology on the day-to-day health practices: a
           cross-sectional study in urban area of central Gujarat

    • Authors: Bhumika Damor, Pritesh Patel, Vipulkumar Taviyad, Priyash Sheth
      Pages: 4795 - 4800
      Abstract: Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are becoming a larger concern for individuals and the healthcare system. Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are becoming more prevalent. Digital technologies have the potential to be useful tools for managing NCDs and altering health-related behaviours. Objectives were to estimate the proportion of users of digital technology for health, to know the type of digital devices use for health and to know the reasons and barriers of using and non-using it for health. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 303 people whose age more than fourteen year residing at one area of Ektanagar urban health centre of central Gujrat by doing house to house survey from July 2022 to August 2022. Data was collected by using semi-structured questionnaire in local language based on socio-demographic characteristics, various types of digital technology and reasons and barriers of using and non-using digital technology. Data was entered in MS excel sheet and was analysed using Medcalc software. Results: Around 55% were male, mean age was 42.2 year. Only 33% were using digital technology. Among them more than half around 62% were using it because they were health conscious. Among users not having time and non-affordability to use digital devices are an important reason for non-usage. Conclusions: Majority were not using digital technology for improving their health. Health consciousness was the main reason behind usage. Main barriers of usage are non-affordability and not having time to use the devices.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233781
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Correlates of substance misuse among college-going male students in

    • Authors: Gurdeep Singh, Dinesh K. Walia, Manoj K. Sharma
      Pages: 4801 - 4807
      Abstract: Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines substance misuse as “consistent or occasional use of a drug inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice”. The implementation of evidence-based policies, rules, and interventions targeted at preventing substance abuse and promoting healthier campus settings can result from an understanding of the specific issues associated with substance mis-use among children, particularly college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 college students in Chandigarh, selected through stratified multi-stage random sampling. A self-administered, semi-structured, and validated questionnaire was used for collecting data. The data was analyzed using SPSS-26.0. Results: Out of 256 respondents, 157 (61.3%) reported not using any substance. The prevalence of substance use among them was found 38.7%. Among substance users, smoking was the most commonly used (82.8%) followed by drinking (75.7%) and chewing (26.2%). Inhaling was also emerging as substance misuse (4.0%). Prevalence rates among different disciplines varied significantly, law students (100.0%) followed by arts (40.0%), commerce (36.4%), medical (34.9%), and engineering (32.3%). Students irrespective of socio-demographic factors were at equal risk of substance misuse based on the logistic regression. Conclusions: Based on the study’s findings in demographics, it was determined that age, discipline, mother’s educational level, and current living situation have a significant association with substance misuse.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233782
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Factors influencing acceptance of family planning methods among women
           coming to immunization OPD: a cross sectional study

    • Authors: Sneha A. Wasekar, Uzma A. Shaikh
      Pages: 4808 - 4813
      Abstract: Background: Family planning is one of the most cost-effective interventions. Therefore, different factors influencing reasons behind non acceptance of family planning are necessary to be known in order to formulate good plans and policies. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study conducted at immunization clinic of urban area. Systematic random sampling method was used. A pre-determined questionnaire was administered. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. Results: Only 42.63% women adopted family planning methods. The statistically significant predictors for uptake of family planning services are knowledge of contraceptives (p=0.000), school education (p=0.002), prior use of contraceptives (p=0.001) and age of mother. The reasons for non-acceptance of family planning practices were fertility related (21.2%), lack of knowledge (19.7%), opposition from family members (16.9%), breastfeeding (14.5%), not having intercourse (12%), method related side effects (8.5%) and preference to specific gender (2.1%). Conclusions: According to age group and number of children to women should be motivated by the health worker for the appropriate contraception choice and reasons for non-acceptance of family planning methods form the basis for the qualitative research studies.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233783
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Barriers of blood donation practices during the pandemic- KAP study on
           voluntary blood donation during the COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduate
           students in Karnataka

    • Authors: Subhiksha Kumar, Shreya Thadigotla, Sripradha Lakshmisha, Shraddha C. Sullad, Shivani B., Sobiya Taj, Stuti Dewan, Priyadarshini Chidambaram
      Pages: 4814 - 4819
      Abstract: Background: During COVID-19 outbreak there was a drastic reduction in voluntary blood donation and cancellation of blood camps. Students and youth constitute a huge pool of voluntary blood donors and can also educate others in the community. Aim was to assess voluntary blood donation practices and its barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduate students in Karnataka and assess knowledge and attitude towards blood donation. Methods: This was a retrospective record analysis of a 2021 online survey data collected as part of a student’s educational research exercise. Records of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of blood donation among undergraduate students were retrieved and analyzed. Results: Of the records of 232 undergraduate students, 64.2% (149) and 62.1% (144) were medical students and females. None of the participants had complete knowledge and there was significant difference in the knowledge of medical and non-medical students regarding blood donation. Satisfactory attitude towards blood donating procedure was seen among 64.2% students. Blood donation had been done by 19% and 4.7% of participants before and during the pandemic, respectively with majority being males and slightly more by non-medical students. Willingness to donate blood in the future was seen among 94.4%. Conclusions: The results suggest the need for awareness campaigns to address misconceptions and improve knowledge and attitude towards blood donation; also, to increase the number of voluntary blood donations as there was a high willingness to donate blood in the future. This could also be translated to other epidemics or pandemics that may arise in the future.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233784
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Effect of supplementation of purslane/Portulaca oleracea in hyperglycemic

    • Authors: S. Tarkergari, K. Waghray, S. Gulla
      Pages: 4820 - 4827
      Abstract: Background: Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) is an annual succulent medicinal plant grown all over the world containing diverse phytoconstituents. Several studies have reported its pharmacological effects like antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypotriglyceridemic, neuro, hepato and nephro protective effects. Methods: Dried Portulaca oleracea leaves were incorporated into common food adjunct popularly known as karampodi/spice powder in south India. This spice powder was used for supplementation studies for 90 days (3months) among hyper glycemic subjects after obtaining a written informed consent. Biochemical parameters such as fasting, post lunch blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, i.e., total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, kidney function test, liver function test were assessed. Baseline information, their medical history and 24-hour dietary recall was elicited from the subjects through a pretested schedule. Results: The results revealed that fasting, post lunch blood glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, the total cholesterol levels and its fractions along with triglycerides were significantly decreased and HDL-C increased significantly in the test groups from pre-supplementation to during-supplementation and was stable at post-supplementation period. Conclusions: The results indicated that the spice powder which was rich in several polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytochemicals/phytonutrients when supplemented to hyperglycemic subjects had a strong hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effect.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233785
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Stress and burnout among first year undergraduate medical students of a
           private medical college: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ngamba Akham, Soram Goutam, Toijam Gambhir Singh
      Pages: 4828 - 4834
      Abstract: Background: Stress can be considered as a double-edged sword. Various studies have provided evidence of stress amongst medical students. There have been no studies regarding prevalence of various stress factors among the medical students of the only private medical college in Manipur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Shija Academy of Health Sciences, Langol amongst the first MBBS Batch 2022. Convenience sampling method was adopted. medical students stress questionnaire was used for assessing Stress and Maslach burnout inventory-student survey was used for assessing Burnout of the medical students. Results: A total of 148 medical students participated. For stress predictor domains, the academic related stressor was found to have the highest mean score (2.30±0.65). There were statistically significant associations between the social related stressor score with location of home of students and academic related stressor with self-graded academic performance. There was also significant association between group activities related stressor and self-graded academic performance of students. for burnout domains, the employment/occupational exhaustion had the highest mean score (26.54±9.37). Statistically significant associations were found between depersonalization with gender and location of home of students, and occupational exhaustion with self-graded academic performance of students. Conclusions: This study reveals the need for stress management modules development for students with special focus on academic and social related stressors.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233786
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Roots of change: intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood in rural
           Jharkhand and Odisha

    • Authors: Bharath Jagadeesh, Rohit Ranjan Paul Minj, Anuj Bhatnagar
      Pages: 4835 - 4838
      Abstract: Background: Numerous studies have documented an intergenerational cycle of adolescent motherhood, wherein daughters of adolescent mothers are more likely to follow suit. This pattern may result from biological predisposition, heritable attitudes, or the socioeconomic environment influenced by early childbirth. Surprisingly, the same cycle among young fathers remains unexplored in India. This research paper seeks to enrich the existing body of knowledge by shedding light on the intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood in the rural Jharkhand and Odisha, possibly as a first of its kind study. Methods: A case control study was conducted between June 2023 to August 2023 amongst adolescent males residing in rural areas of Jharkhand and Odisha states with sample size of 228 using multi-stage sampling technique. Results: The study did not reveal statistically significant association between adolescent fathers of this generation and adolescent fathers or adolescent mothers of previous generation, unlike in the case of adolescent mothers. Conclusions: To address adolescent reproductive sexual Health challenges in rural Jharkhand and Odisha effectively, it is imperative to emphasize targeted educational campaigns with cultural sensitivity, actively involve adolescent males and maintain a steadfast long-term commitment to fostering cultural transformation.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233787
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Lifestyle and socio-economic disparities in the prevalence of diabetes
           among the elderly population (aged 60+) in India: a decomposition analysis
           using longitudinal aging study in India data

    • Authors: Paramjot Panda
      Pages: 4839 - 4848
      Abstract: Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of self-reported diabetes by sex and investigate the socio-economic, demographic, and lifestyle risk factors associated with diabetes. Additionally, it aimed to understand the coexistence of diabetes with other morbid conditions. Methods: The study design used in this research is a cross-sectional study design. This study utilized data from the longitudinal aging study in India (LASI), a nationally representative survey of older adults. The sample included 15,098 males and 16,366 females aged 60 years and above. Results: The prevalence of diabetes in India varies by state, zone, and rural/urban areas. Kerala has the highest prevalence among both men (33%) and women (28.5%). Urban areas have a higher prevalence (20%) compared to rural areas (8.5%). Hypertension and cancer are strongly associated with diabetes. Other morbid conditions like heart disease, high cholesterol, and vision problems also show significant links with diabetes. Conclusions: Diabetes in India is a significant health concern, with variations across regions and associations with comorbidities like hypertension, cancer, heart disease, high cholesterol, and vision problems. To address this, comprehensive preventive measures and health promotion campaigns are needed, targeting high-risk groups and improving healthcare access. Early detection, effective management, and promoting healthy lifestyles are crucial for diabetes prevention and control in India.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233788
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hearing assessment in mobile phone users

    • Authors: Dimple Sahni, Parvinder Singh, Puneet Sharma, Amandeep Kaur, Priya Sahni, Harshit Sahni
      Pages: 4849 - 4853
      Abstract: Background: Mobile phones have become an indispensable part of today's modern world. But with various day-to-day benefits, mobile phones also bring detrimental effects on the health of users. Ear being the closest organ in contact with phones, faces maximum effect of electromagnetic waves generated by them. Chronic exposure to these waves and sounds can result in permanent hearing loss. Hence, the present study was done to assess the association between hearing loss and duration of mobile usage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on mobile phone users between the age group of 20 and 40 years in the Department of ENT, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala over 6 months (1 August 2022 to 31 January 2023). 600 volunteers were involved and divided into three groups based on the duration of mobile phone usage. Pure tone audiometry and DPOAE were used to assess the hearing loss in these subjects. Results: A variable degree of hearing loss was observed on PTA and DPOAE in all three groups with a significant association between hearing loss and the duration of mobile phone usage. A higher proportion of sensorineural hearing loss was observed in the group with mobile phone usage of more than 1 hour per day for a minimum of 4 years as compared to those who used them for <1 hour per day for a minimum of 4 years and control group (p=0.001) which was significant statistically. Conclusions: People using mobile phones for long hours are at higher risk of developing hearing loss, especially in the dominant ear.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233789
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Psychological distress and its predictors among hospital admitted COVID-19
           patients in India

    • Authors: Renjith R. Pillai, Abhishek Ghosh, Sumit Shrivasthava, Sanuj Muralidharan, Krishan Kumar, Saranya S. Kumar
      Pages: 4854 - 4861
      Abstract: Background: Limited evidence is available on the psychological distress among patients hospitalized with COVID -19. We assessed the incidence of psychological distress, posttraumatic symptoms and substance use among patients hospitalized with COVID-19; and perceived stress, coping, and social support experienced by distressed and non-distressed patients and the predictors of psychological distress. Methods: Ours was a hospital-based cross-sectional study, conducted in a Union Territory of India. Patients were assessed (August – September, 2020) at the time of admission (within two days) with standardized instruments (N=250). Results: More than 19 percent of respondents had experienced significant psychological distress (probable cases) and nearly 9% reported post-traumatic stress symptoms. The cases and non-cases differ in terms of active coping (5.51±0.87 versus 5.06±1.06; t=3.10, p<0.01), emotional support (5.21±0.87 versus 4.86±0.79; t=2.57, p<0.01), behavioural disengagement (5.18±0.92 versus 4.55±1.15; t=3.56, p<0.001), venting (5.42±0.96 versus 4.80±1.24; t=3.30, p<0.01), acceptance (5.75±1.24 versus 5.29±1.50; t=2.23, p<0.05), religion (5.43±1.41 versus 6.06±1.46; t=-2.76, p<0.01) and self-blame (5.65±1.00 versus 4.82±1.39; t=3.95, p<0.001). Symptoms of post-traumatic stress (OR: 2.058; 95% CI: 1.49-2.84) was the only significant predictor of the psychological distress. Conclusions: Nearly one in five hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experience psychological distress. Screening and treatment for trauma and psychological distress should be an integral component of care for patients with COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233790
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Analysis of road accident mortality based on time of occurrence for
           Kerala, India

    • Authors: Divyashree N., Stavelin Abhinandithe K., Vidya R., Sridhar Ramachandran, Prerana M.
      Pages: 4862 - 4868
      Abstract: Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) pose a significant socio-economic burden and global public health concern. Monitoring road safety initiatives' efficacy necessitates analysing RTA incidence. This study examines time zone-specific RTA mortality in Kerala state, India, from 2016 to 2021. Methods: Utilizing compiled secondary-level time series data, the study encompasses total RTA fatalities in Kerala from 2016 to 2021. Data includes fatalities per year in nine consecutive three-hour time periods. Exploratory data analysis, time series regression, and exponential smoothing were employed for analysis. Results: Data reveals fluctuating trends in road accident (RA) fatalities, peaking in 2018 with a notable decrease in 2020. 18:00 to 21:00 recorded the highest and lowest fatalities, total 901 deaths. Disproportionate RA fatalities occurred from 06:00 to 09:00 (527 deaths) and 15:00 to 18:00 (697.5 deaths). The study employs Holt-Winters exponential smoothing for short-term forecasting, with a mean absolute scaled error (MASE) less than 1 signifying accurate predictions. Conclusions: The analysis highlights temporal patterns, emphasizing 18:00 to 21:00 as critical. Holt-Winters exponential smoothing proves vital for accurate short-term forecasting, with MASE reflecting precision. Urgency is stressed in adopting targeted measures for time-specific road accidents. Government intervention is pivotal, advocating for improved infrastructure, enhanced driver education, efficient vehicle management, and sustained traffic enforcement. Tailoring traffic laws to time zones, coupled with forecasting techniques, aligns with the overarching goal of enhancing road safety and reducing RA mortality rates.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233791
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Nutritional status and key factors among vagrants at Government Shelter
           Home Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Nasir Uddin Sarker, A. F. M. Shahedul Huda, Taslima Khatun, Ripon Chandra Shil
      Pages: 4869 - 4875
      Abstract: Background: Nutritional status and others related determinants among vagrants are important issues even in developing countries like Bangladesh. Exploring the current situation it terms of magnitude of people would be a good resource for the policy makers in considering the malnutrition, health care and other supports for the shelter less population. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was done. A total of 106 vagabonds form government shelter home were included. The nutritional statuses of the respondents were assessed using measured BMI and dietary pattern was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The data were processed to undergo statistical analysis using SPSS 23 windows program. Results: The overall mean age of of the respondents 35.3±9.86 years and 42 (39.7%) were in 18-20 years age group and 62% were female. About 62% were correctly married and 22% were single life lead. Less than half (47.1%) of the respondents non-educated, on the other hand 40(37.7%) of the respondents were primary level educated. 22.6% vagrants were abandoned by their family due to certain problems. Association of age group with BMI most respondents were in underweight that gain highly significance where (p=0.0001), there had no association was found between educational status and BMI except non-educated (p=0.025). Most respondents were significant Hand washing before eating, daily bath taken and Suffering from disease Last 1 month with nutritional status where (p=0.020), (p=0.010) and (p=0.0001). Conclusions: Special attention to be given for improving vagabonds care, Attention to improve service quality with special attention to identified areas (balanced diet, treatment etc).
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233792
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A descriptive study to assess the awareness, knowledge, and practices
           among government senior secondary school students on household waste
           management in the Gohar block of District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Heena Thakur, Salman Khan, Neelam Kaur
      Pages: 4876 - 4885
      Abstract: Background: Proper household waste management is crucial for environmental sustainability and public health. This study aimed to assess the awareness, knowledge, and practices of household waste management among 400 students and explore the associations with socio-demographic variables. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire covered aspects of awareness, knowledge, and practices related to household waste management. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests to determine associations. Results: Among students, 67.8% were aware of household waste management, 84.3% knew waste separation, but only 26.3% and 35% were aware of waste minimization and e-waste. While 92.8% recognized the local government's role, almost half remained unconvinced. 65.3% knew about household waste, and 71% knew disposal methods. However, only 79.3% knew solid waste reuse, and 94.8% knew 'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.' Practices varied: 92.5% segregated waste, 57.5% composted kitchen waste, and 70.8% disposed outside. A minority (15.3%) disposed of outdoors. Diverse waste collection methods included 29.8% using bins, 28.2% using tin cans, and 15.3% using plastic bags. Socio-demographics influenced awareness, knowledge, and practices. Conclusions: Comprehensive waste management education is needed, focusing on waste minimization and e-waste. Addressing teacher knowledge gaps is essential. Tailored education accounting for socio-demographic factors is crucial. Improved waste disposal infrastructure is required to reduce improper waste disposal. Continuing government initiatives can enhance awareness and responsible waste management.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233793
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A study of morbidity profile and health seeking behaviour of inmates of
           selected old age homes of Bangalore city

    • Authors: Sreedhara K. C., Raghuram V.
      Pages: 4886 - 4888
      Abstract: Background: Assessment of the morbidity profile will help in the application of interventions, to improve the health status and the quality of life of the elderly Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of selected old age homes of Bangalore city between November to December 2019 using complete enumeration with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to assess morbidity profile and health seeking behaviour. Results: Majority of the study population (54.5%) was in the age group of 60-69 years followed by 80 years and above (25.5%) and 66.7% of were female. Most common morbidity identified among the elderly were Musculoskeletal disorders 100 (30.3%) followed by Diabetes 70 (21.2%), Hypertension 58 (17.6%), respiratory diseases 38 (11.5%), and Eye problems 34 (10.3%),) respectively. Majority of them 208 (63.0%) relied on Government health facilities citing free services as the common reason; whereas 122 (37.0%) approached the private sector for health assistance owing to the ease of access. Conclusions: Findings of the present study further reiterates the growing burden of chronic morbidities in the geriatric age group. It calls for programmes for creation of awareness among the elderly regarding regular medical checkups to ensure prevention and early detection of the chronic diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233794
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Gap between awareness and practices of cosmeceuticals among young adults
           of Panjab University

    • Authors: Mitali, Dinesh Kumar Walia, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Savita Prashar
      Pages: 4889 - 4894
      Abstract: Background: Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products that contain bioactive ingredients with pharmaceutical properties. These products are designed to improve skin health and appearance by providing functional benefits beyond traditional cosmetics. However, there exists a noticeable gap between the awareness of these specialized formulations and their practical application by consumers. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 171 students. The data was collected by conducting personal interviews using an interview /survey schedule designed specifically for this study. Descriptive and analytical statistics were utilized to get the necessary results. Results: The study included 171 participants, with (24.6%) males and (75.4%) females. Notably, a high level of awareness (100%) and utilization (60.8%) was observed for essential skincare products where females tend to use cosmeceuticals more frequently. Also, the cleansers (100%), moisturizers (100%), and sunscreen (100%) were most valued and were daily incorporated into skincare routines. Conclusions: The findings revealed the prevalence of cosmeceutical awareness and usage, with cleansers, moisturizers, and sunscreen being the most recognized and adopted products. However, a notable gender discrepancy in the usage of certain products suggests variations in preferences and concerns among males and females. Overall, this research contributes to the understanding of cosmeceutical usage patterns, and knowledge gaps. Future efforts should focus on exploring these gaps and promoting responsible and well-informed consumer practices, ultimately fostering a healthier approach to skincare and cosmeceutical products.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233795
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Critical period for better nutrition among severely acute malnourished
           children up to two years of age: a hospital-based case-control study,
           Gujarat, Western India

    • Authors: Harsha M. Solanki, Vibha V. Gosalia, Rujal D. Bhitora
      Pages: 4895 - 4900
      Abstract: Background: Nutrition in the first two years of life is important for growth and development among children. To tackle undernutrition during this period, timely initiation of breastfeeding and quality of complementary feeding practices are essential. So, this study was planned to determine feeding practices associated with severe acute malnutrition children. Methods: This was hospital-based case-control study with 1:1 ratio of cases (77) and controls (77). Cases and controls were matched for age and sex. Cases were selected from Nutritional Rehabilitation Centre and controls from Immunization clinic. Mothers were interviewed about feeding practices, immunization status and illness of their child. Weight and height of children were also measured. Results: Children who received pre-lacteal feeding were associated with SAM. Most of cases (62.3%) and controls (70.1%) had received breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth. Among children of <7 months age, 71.4% cases breast-fed <8 times in 24 hours. Among children of 7 months to 2 years, SAM was associated with children who were not received complementary feeding (CF) at correct age, not received semi-solid/solid diet, CF not added with ghee/oil and feeding frequency <5 times in day. Among cases 18.2% and only 1.3% controls had >3 ARI episodes in last 6 months. Conclusions: Among identified independent risk factors (p<0.05), type of CF, not adding ghee/oil in CF and feeding frequency (BF+CF) <5 times were associated with SAM among 7 months to 2 years. Hospitalization history and >3 ARI episodes in last 6 months were also associated with SAM.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233796
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Prevalence and socio-demographic causal factors associated with use of
           various psychoactive substances in patients seeking treatment from a
           deaddiction centre of a tertiary-care hospital in North India

    • Authors: Ashish Narvariya, Dinesh Dutt Sharma, Surbhi Batra
      Pages: 4901 - 4906
      Abstract: Background: Substance abuse is a quiet, slowly expanding epidemic in any community. We sought to analyze the patterns among substance users seeking treatment from the community. Aim was to determine the sociodemographic causal factors and prevalence of substance use of those seeking treatment in the deaddiction centre of tertiary care hospital for one year. Methods: 670 patients of all age groups with substance dependence enrolling for treatment during 1 year period for the first time in a deaddiction centre of a tertiary-care hospital in north India were retrospectively evaluated. Data was coded and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: Male subjects (97.3%) were predominant; with substance use being most prevalent among 31-40 years (31.6%). 43.9% subjects were educated upto higher secondary level. Tobacco (76.4%), alcohol (73.9%), cannabis (30%), opium (13.3%), volatile solvents (5.1%), and sedatives-hypnotics (4%) were the most prevalent substances used. 5.8% subjects were actively injecting drugs and had multiple high-risk behaviors. One-tenth subjects were found positive out of 9.4% that were screened for human immunodeficiency virus. Co-morbid mental illnesses like bipolar disorder (6.11%), Schizophrenia (5.8%), depression (2.8%), and somatoform disorder (2.8%) & medical illnesses like Hypertension (12.1%) and alcoholic liver disease (4.32%) were also seen. History of previous treatment and prior hospitalization for deaddiction was present in 26.3% and 11.6% subjects respectively. Conclusions: Among the at-risk population in the community, the parameters and causal factors associated with psychoactive substance users presenting to a deaddiction centre in tertiary care, need to be prioritized.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233797
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A cross sectional study on morbidity pattern in two primary health centers
           of Bishnupur District, Manipur

    • Authors: Khangembam Sonarjit Singh, Micky Singh Laisram, Gayatri Thangjam, T. Gambhir Singh
      Pages: 4907 - 4910
      Abstract: Background: PHCs and PHSCs are the grass-root level of the health care system of India which deals directly with the majority of the population as they live in rural areas and have no access to proper health care systems. This study was conducted due to the scarcity of studies and limited health care services amongst people in rural populations of Manipur to determine the morbidity pattern of patients attending OPD in 2 PHCs of Bishnupur District under RHTC, RIMS, Imphal, Manipur for the year 2021. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on previous records was conducted from 1 January to 31 December 2021 among the newly registered outpatients attending the OPD of Oinam and Leimapokpam PHCs in Bishnupur District. Secondary data from the two PHCs were collected. Data analysis was done by using SPSS software version 21. Results: The study found that almost half (46.4%) of patients attending OPD are 15-49 years followed by <15 years (38.7%). Out of total morbidity, respiratory diseases (24.8%) followed by GIT (15.9%), OBG, skin diseases and NCD constitute major morbidity among the study population. Conclusions: The study gives an outline of the morbidity pattern of patients attending OPD in two PHCs of the Bishnupur district in one year which could help healthcare providers and administrators to plan, practice and deliver quality services as per community needs.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233798
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Formative research on parenting practices and community support for early
           childhood development among caregivers in Telangana

    • Authors: Janani S. Chary, Seema M. Gafurjiwala, Srinath Nagapurkar, Nanda Kishore Kannuri, Rajan Shukla, Samiksha Singh
      Pages: 4911 - 4919
      Abstract: Background: Early Childhood Development refers to the overall development of children from conception until 5 years of age across various domains such as physical, emotional, social and cognitive development. Empowering caregivers by providing information regarding ECD and early stimulation, play and communication activities from birth will help ensure all-round child development and reduce risk of developmental delays. Methods: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted in May-July 2022 in two districts of Telangana, India. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess KAP among 218 primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two focused group discussions among secondary caregivers and 18 In-Depth Interviews among frontline workers (AWWs and ASHAs) were conducted to study about current ECD practices, sources of information and communication channels. Results: More than 80% parents had good knowledge regarding brain development, but 15 to 25% did not know that activities like talking or playing with their child could improve intelligence. Less than 50% parents associated routine activities like telling stories, being sensitive to the child, playing and protecting the child with their child’s cognitive or emotional development. Even though fathers engaged their children in play and learning activities, most felt the mother was the primary caregiver. Most participants received information regarding Health and Nutrition from Anganwadi workers, but topics like sanitation, child rearing and early stimulation were not regularly covered. Conclusions: Empowering caregivers on early learning and stimulation activities by frontline workers is crucial for ensuring overall growth and development of children into productive adults.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233799
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Practice of junk food consumption among college students: an observational
           study in Northern Karnataka

    • Authors: Kavimalar T., Muttappa R. Gudadinni
      Pages: 4920 - 4923
      Abstract: Background: Globalisation and urbanisation have significantly changed peoples eating patterns and forced many individuals to eat foods which have high calorie and low nutritional value foods called junk foods. Excessive consumption of fast food is often associated with increased risk of non-communicable diseases, presenting a public health challenge. India’s fast-food industry is expanding at the rate of 40% every year. India ranks 10th in the Fast-food per capita spending figures with 2.1% of expenditure in annual total spending. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice of junk food among college students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among college students in Vijayapura city, during June to July 2022. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire, convenience sampling of 683 students were the participants of the study. Results: Out of 683 participants, 25.9% doesn’t care about the harmful effects of consuming junk. Around 61.8% of respondents are influenced by the taste and flavour of the junk. And 64.9 % of the respondents were aware enough to check mostly, whereas 29.3 percent were never had the habit of checking the nutrient fact label. Conclusions: As majority of the students consume junk, the adequate knowledge about the junk among them were relatively low, along with public health awareness, nutritional counselling can also be given to the students. And they are influenced mostly by the taste and easy availability.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233800
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • A cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of road
           safety measures among medical students at GIMS-Kalaburagi, Kalyana,

    • Authors: Meenakshi M. Dhadave, Manjunatha V. K., G. Ajay Kumar
      Pages: 4924 - 4930
      Abstract: Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an accident is defined as an “unpremeditated event resulting in recognizable damage”. The eighth leading cause of death in the world. Most common among children and young ages. Being the young generation in the community, medical students will be able to communicate better regarding precautions related to road safety measures which helps to prevent RTA hence current study was taken. Objectives were to determine the sociodemographic profile of undergraduate medical students at GIMS Kalaburagi. To find the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards road safety measures among medical students. Methods: Undergraduate medical students of GIMS Kalaburagi were selected as study participants. By using convenience sampling, a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire in the form of Google forms was circulated among all medical students out of which 405 responded. Results: A total of 405 students were interviewed, among them 63.2% were males,32.1% majority belonged to phase-3 part-1 95.8% of students had 2-wheeler vehicles whereas only 40% were present with a permanent license. Knowledge about traffic signal and road safety measures were 90.4% and 85.7% respectively. Only 10.6% had a good attitude related to no use of horns in no horn zone areas. The majority 84.2% use PUC-certified vehicles whereas 83.7% always use indicators while taking turns and 77.5% always the use rear mirror while driving. Conclusions: Road traffic accidents are avoidable by proper sense of road safety measures like wearing a helmet, wearing a seatbelt, following all traffic signal rules, avoiding drink and driving which should be encouraged, and also providing IEC and awareness programs among medical students and common people.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233801
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Georgia - the
           specifics of his manage in 2019-2022

    • Authors: Gulnara A. Gabaidze, Lali Khurtsia, Mishiko Gabaidze, Salome Abashidze
      Pages: 4931 - 4936
      Abstract: This research paper aims to assess the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Georgia from 2019 to 2022 and evaluate the management methods used in different regions. The research methodology involved analyzing reports and statistics published by the Ministry of Health of Georgia and the Center for Disease Control. The study is based on data from 2019 to the present. Research methodology is a mixed method that combines both qualitative and quantitative methods-meta-analysis. The findings indicate that the spread of COVID-19 in Georgia was not uniform across different regions. Tbilisi had the highest cases, followed by West Georgia and East Georgia. The government of Georgia implemented a range of measures to manage the pandemic, including social distancing, the use of face masks, and restrictions on movement. A combination of factors, including public health measures and regional differences, influenced the spread of COVID-19 in Georgia. The research paper provides insights into managing the COVID-19 pandemic in Georgia and highlights the importance of evidence-based strategies for controlling the spread of infectious diseases.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233802
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Effectiveness of soft tissue augmentation using subepithelial connective
           tissue graft in comparison with free gingival graft and no graft for
           increasing the width of keratinized mucosa around dental implants: a

    • Authors: Vinita Krishna, Rashika V., Neelamma A. Shetti, Abhishek N. Zingade, Ayesha Khan
      Pages: 4937 - 4945
      Abstract: The soft tissues around dental implants are important to prevent inflammatory peri-implant diseases and ensure the long-term survival of a dental implant. Periodontal plastic surgery has evolved from traditional mucogingival surgery, according to Zuhr et al as a result of the development of subepithelial connective tissue grafts/free gingival grafts. So, the aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of soft tissue augmentation using subepithelial connective tissue graft in comparison with free gingival graft and no graft for increasing the width of keratinized mucosa around dental implants. The review was according to PRISMA protocol. A comprehensive search of the specialized databases was performed to include the studies. Quality assessment and meta-analysis were carried out. 10 articles included. Two articles evaluated KTW with FGG and SCTG; FGG and no graft (3); SCTG and no graft (5). All the included studies assessed either primary or secondary outcome measures. In the end, it was concluded that for soft tissue volume augmentation, SCTG is a treatment choice for an increase in KTW at implant sites.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233803
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Review on corneal perforation among mentally disabled patients in a
           tertiary center in Melaka, Malaysia

    • Authors: Khavigpriyaa Kalaichelvam, Shao Yin Yeoh, Juliana Jalaluddin
      Pages: 4946 - 4948
      Abstract: Corneal perforation is an ocular emergency arising from various causes of infectious and non-infectious disease. Its management could range from temporising measures to various surgical intervention. This study was done to evaluate the causes and management of corneal perforation among mentally disabled patients in Melaka. Retrospective review was done using the ward admission records from 2019 to 2022. Data gathered from cases with corneal perforation was reviewed. There were total of 15 patients with 8 (53.4%) males and 7 (46.6%) females. Out of these, 10 (66.6%) patients are mentally disabled. Majority of the patients (73%) were more than 50 years old. The visual acuity at presentation was poorer than 3/60 in 12 (80%) patients, out of which 10 (83%) patients are mentally disabled. There was a high proportion of perforation, 12 (80%) caused by infective keratitis which is also the main cause of perforation among disabled patients. Among the mentally disabled patients, 5 patients (50%) underwent evisceration, 4 patients (40%) underwent conjunctival flap and 1 patient (10%) was managed conservatively. Comparing with the patients without disability, 2 (40%) patients underwent tectonic keratoplasty, 2 (40%) patients underwent evisceration and 1 (20%) patient underwent conjunctival flap. People with disabilities experience worse health and poorer access to health care compared to people without disability. The presenting visual acuity in the disabled group is poorer. The main cause of corneal perforation among mentally disabled was infection and the options of treatments mainly were conjunctival flaps and evisceration.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233804
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Tuberculosis, neck abscess a case report and literature review

    • Authors: Tanvir Hussain, Mudassar Malik, Abdul Matin, Sarwar Attique, Enas Alaqeab, Tark Shrayyef, Muhammad Aaqil Khan
      Pages: 4949 - 4953
      Abstract: This case report discusses the diagnosis and management of TB in a 35-year-old male patient of Asian origin living in Ireland. The patient presented with neck abscess, fatigue, and low energy levels. Clinical examination revealed a neck lump with a discharging wound. Further investigations, such as imaging, blood tests, and histopathology, led to the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The tests further showed pulmonary nodules and enlarged lymph nodes. The patient's QuantiFERON test was positive, indicating latent TB infection. Various diagnostic tests were conducted to rule out other infections and autoimmune conditions. Treatment involved incision and drainage of the neck abscess and a combination of anti TB drugs such as isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol. Providing a significant focus and conducting comprehensive diagnostic evaluations is crucial for effectively treating extrapulmonary TB. It is imperative to quickly identify, manage, and take preventative measures in order to achieve the optimal patient outcome when dealing with TB.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233805
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Rare ovarian tumor in post hysterectomized status: case report

    • Authors: Banumathy Manikkam
      Pages: 4954 - 4956
      Abstract: Ovarian tumors are known for their silent nature, non-availability of definitive screening methods and varied clinico pathological variations. Conservation of normal looking ovaries macroscopically during hysterectomy is recommended to benefit the future health of the woman. Still the development of new issues related to ovaries need to be counseled to the patient and stringent vigilance by the clinician is mandatory. Steroid cell tumor is rare ovarian tumor and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. Any patient with high testosterone levels should be investigated meticulously to define the origin adrenal/ovarian with an awareness about this rare entity with malignant potential. Lifetime follow up of the ovaries in women are crucial at all ages. Here we report a case of rare ovarian tumor in post hysterectomized patient.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233806
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Breastfeeding in children with cleft lip and palate and its effect on
           surgical outcomes

    • Authors: Alabbas Abdulghani Jar, Adel Shabib Alotaibi, Hussain Ali Alqahtani, Ghaida Ali Alshaqaqeq, Hosam Ibraheem Alandanoosi, Sultan Rubayan Alsulami, Latifa Abdulrahman Alosaimi, Awatef Sliman Alyahya, Musab Abdullah Alsulami, Abdulrhman Awad Almohammadi, Saud Obaid Aljaghthami
      Pages: 4957 - 4961
      Abstract: Breastfeeding is a fundamental aspect of infant nutrition and development. However, children born with cleft lip and palate face unique challenges in breastfeeding due to structural anomalies in their facial and oral regions. This study explores the intricate landscape of CLP, covering its epidemiology, complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors, and the specific challenges breastfeeding children with CLP and their mothers encounter. This review emphasizes the critical role of surgical interventions in CLP management, discussing the timing, techniques, and outcomes of these procedures. While surgical repair of CLP can enhance breastfeeding outcomes, it may also introduce temporary complications, including feeding difficulties, pain, and discomfort. Addressing these challenges requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, specialized feeding equipment, emotional support, and targeted interventions. Moreover, the emotional well-being of mothers of infants with CLP is highlighted as an essential component of breastfeeding success. Maternal stress and emotional distress can hinder breastfeeding, emphasizing the importance of emotional support and counseling services. Successful breastfeeding in children with CLP is achievable with the right strategies and support systems, like comprehensive care, which acknowledges the complexity of CLP and emphasizes the need for a collaborative healthcare approach to ensure that children with CLP receive optimal nutrition and care during their critical early developmental stages.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233522
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessment and management of thyroid disorders in primary care

    • Authors: Marwah Yakoop Abdullah, Roaa Ali Alkanderi, Abdulelah Mohammed Alqahtani, Alhassan Ibrahim Alsayed, Sara Talal Alnafisi, Manayir Fayez Alorabi, Sahar Salman Alismail, Mohammed Saud Aljaber, Shyma Abdulaziz Alshabeeb, Salem Waleed Bin Jabal, Mohammed Saad Almalki
      Pages: 4962 - 4966
      Abstract: Thyroid disorders are clinical conditions that affect and are common to millions of individuals worldwide. Thyroid disorders can lead to symptoms and complications such, as tiredness, changes in weight, shifts in mood, heart related issues and difficulties with fertility. Healthcare practitioners who specialize in care have a role in identifying, treating and overseeing patients, with thyroid disorders. This review covers several aspects, such as the clinical complications, diagnostic approaches, and treatment choices for types of thyroid disorders. it's crucial to recognize multiple signs to identify thyroid dysfunction. Different management plans are introduced. Additionally, it explores the challenges and debates surrounding the management of these disorders, such as the screening strategies to adopt the potential use of new biomarkers for diagnosis purposes, the benefits of combination therapy, and how to manage cases with mild or borderline thyroid dysfunction. To sum up, this review offers insights for healthcare professionals to enhance the level of care for patients who have been diagnosed with thyroid disorders.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233531
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Oral manifestations found among illicit drugs users

    • Authors: Nizar Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Ahmad Daifallah Alghamdi, Sanad Safir Alotaibi, Turki Abdullah Alzahrani, Nouf Saeed Albeshri, Nahar Nasar Albarakati, Ali Jelan Najei
      Pages: 4967 - 4971
      Abstract: Illicit drug use is an intricate challenge that currently affects an individual's health and overall well-being. This review study provides insight into the availability of information regarding the examination of the signs, treatment approaches, and broader consequences related to health problems among individuals who use drugs. The clinical indicators of drug consumption on oral health encompass issues such as dry mouth (xerostomia), gum problems, teeth grinding (bruxism), and dental cavities. These manifestations contribute to immediate discomfort and elevate the risk of long-term dental complications, underscoring the pressing need for intervention and care. Effective management strategies involve a comprehensive approach, incorporating preventive measures, timely treatment, and a compassionate understanding of the unique challenges faced by drug users. Preventive efforts, such as education and regular dental check-ups, serve as critical components in mitigating the clinical manifestations. Treatment strategies, including restorative procedures and periodontal therapy, play a pivotal role in addressing immediate oral health concerns. However, the management of oral health issues extends beyond the dental chair. Acknowledging the hurdles faced by individuals who use drugs, including economic factors and social prejudice, underscores the significance of adopting a comprehensive approach to providing support and assistance. Integrating oral health services with substance abuse treatment presents a promising avenue for comprehensive healthcare. This collaborative approach addresses oral health issues and acknowledges the bidirectional relationship between substance abuse and oral health. In summary, it is essential to comprehend the relationship between illicit drug use and oral health. By implementing management strategies, we can potentially reduce suffering, improve quality of life, and enhance health for individuals affected by substance abuse. This holistic approach emphasizes the significance of acknowledging and addressing these population’s health requirements within a broader healthcare framework.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233514
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Approach to diagnosis and treatment to urologic emergencies

    • Authors: Fahad Ahmed Alzahrani, Hatim Osama Alhelali, Khalid Itran Alismail, Khaled Soud Alraddadi, Mohammed Saeed Alghamdi, Khalid Hassan Alzhrani, Muhammad Abdulrahman Alahmadi, Bader Abdullah Alzahrani, Saleh Ali Alshehri, Nourhan Sulaiman Basyouni, Jawad Najeeb Almarzooq
      Pages: 4972 - 4976
      Abstract: Acute urinary retention, which is an emergency presents a significant challenge, for healthcare providers especially among elderly men. This condition often leads to dysfunction and genital pain causing distress and anxiety for those affected. The likelihood of experiencing acute urinary retention increases with age, with men in their 70s facing a 10% risk that escalates to, over 30% in their 80s. Dealing with both dysfunction and acute pain adds complexity to the clinical management of these cases. This summary highlights the role played by emergency physicians in the management of this troubling urologic emergency. The initial approach involves conducting an evaluation that includes assessing medical history performing physical examinations and conducting relevant diagnostic tests. Promptly identifying the causes, which can range from prostatic hyperplasia and urethral strictures to infections or neurogenic conditions is crucial. Pain relief is an immediate concern, prompting the administration of analgesics to alleviate patient discomfort. Concurrently, urinary catheterization, skillfully performed by the emergency physician, effectively resolves the urinary obstruction, providing substantial relief. Referral to urologists ensures a comprehensive etiological assessment and the formulation of an individualized management plan. In summary, effectively managing retention, with associated erectile dysfunction and genital pain, requires a collaborative effort between emergency physicians and urological specialists. By identifying the cause, providing skilled pain management and expertly performing urinary catheterization emergency physicians play a crucial role in relieving patient discomfort.
      PubDate: 2023-11-06
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233515
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Restorative approaches for managing dental anomalies

    • Authors: Waleed Abdulrahim Aljehani, Nouf Abdullah Alsultan, Abdulaziz Ali Altwirki, Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibrahim, Mohammed Saud Almutarrid, Lama Abdullah Alshahrani, Mayada Fahad Alolayan, Manar Ali Assiri, Naif Awdhah Alzahrani, Afaf Saleh Bu Essa, Renad Ahmed Faden
      Pages: 4977 - 4982
      Abstract: Dental anomalies, which stem from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors during the phases of tooth development, can have multifaceted effects on the appearance, function, and alignment of teeth within the upper and lower jaw. These anomalies are primarily categorized into four main types based on the variations in the number, size, shape, and eruption timing of teeth. They manifest in diverse forms, such as missing teeth, supernumerary teeth, malformed teeth, and irregular tooth positioning. Restorative dentistry serves as a crucial avenue to rectify these anomalies, aiming to not only enhance the functionality but also the aesthetics of affected teeth, thus bolstering the overall oral health and quality of life of patients. It is of particular significance to consider temporary restorative treatments for children with dento-facial abnormalities, not only to address physical concerns but also to mitigate potential psychological trauma and bullying. Additionally, dental anomalies can heighten the susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal diseases, and occlusal irregularities, potentially necessitating intricate and costly dental interventions over time. The research project, initiated on October 12th, 2023, stems from a comprehensive exploration of existing academic literature, encompassing databases such as PubMed, web of science, and Cochrane. Restorative treatment options in modern dentistry offer a comprehensive approach to addressing structural, functional, and aesthetic irregularities in teeth. Prosthodontic solutions, including crowns, bridges, dental implants, and veneers, restore form and function while enhancing aesthetics. Endodontic and operative procedures, such as root canal therapy and dental fillings, preserve teeth, alleviate discomfort, and prevent complications. Orthodontic treatments like braces and Invisalign correct misalignments, improving both function and aesthetics. Surgical approaches, such as orthognathic surgery and impacted tooth removal, are reserved for severe cases. Treatment choices depend on the specific anomaly, emphasizing early intervention for improved oral health and overall well-being.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233529
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Importance, indication and safety of maternal immunization

    • Authors: Shada Omar Baoum, Abdulqader Ali Sumayli, Rahaf Osama Algahtani, Aseel Mohammed Alshilash, Emtenan Ali Esmael, Ahmad Abdrabalamier Alfajri, Aisha Wasl Alharbi, Sarah Ali Alenezi, Amani Izzeldin Ahmed, Abdulaziz Saeed Al Arfaj, Haya Hamad Alshehri
      Pages: 4983 - 4987
      Abstract: Vaccination is a very important spectrum for building immunity to fight certain infections. Doing vaccination on the mother as well as the baby, which safeguards both of them, is known as maternal immunization. After childbirth, babies are prone to get infected by many diseases as their immunity is inferior during that time. Over the years, numerous studies have shown that vaccinating mothers can effectively reduce the risk of illnesses such as smallpox, polio, etc. This vaccination process helps strengthen the body's system and enables it to combat these diseases effectively when necessary. This approach works by boosting the transfer of antibodies from the person to the fetus through the placenta, providing passive immunity to the infant during their initial months of life until they become eligible for their own vaccines. In addition to protecting infants, maternal immunization can also help prevent complications for individuals caused by infections that could impact their health and pregnancy outcomes. This review focuses on discussing the significance, indications, and safety of immunization for diseases that pose a high risk to both pregnant individuals and their infants.
      PubDate: 2023-11-09
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233530
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Types, accuracy, and efficacy of salivary biomarkers in periodontal

    • Authors: Maha A. Munshi, Hanan A. Almozher, Fatimah A. Alqahtani, Mohamed M. Youssef, Abeer S. Almtere, Basel K. Alsadoon, Lubna S. Alotheem, Lama F. Alhowirini, Abdullah M. Alotaibi, Abdullah A. Almutairi, Ali H. Assiri
      Pages: 4988 - 4992
      Abstract: Periodontal diseases primarily occur due, to infections and inflammation that affect the gums and bone structures supporting the teeth. In the stage, known as gingivitis the gums may become swollen turn red and bleed easily. These health issues not impact health but also have broader implications for overall well-being, including tooth loss, discomfort, bad breath and an increased vulnerability, to chronic illnesses. The main objective of this review is to examine aspects pertaining to diseases encompassing clinical indications, methods, for diagnosis, available treatment choices, and preventive strategies. This research meticulously examines the types of these diseases, their stages, and their causes. It also discusses the approaches and criteria used to diagnose these conditions. Additionally, the paper provides an evaluation of treatment alternatives and strategic frameworks, for managing pathologies. This includes both surgical approaches, well as supportive therapies. The paper emphasizes the importance of measures. Maintaining oral health through consistent dental hygiene practices, regular dental checkups, and necessary lifestyle adjustments. In conclusion, while periodontal diseases pose challenges in practice they can be controlled and prevented through collaboration, between dental practitioners, dental hygienists, and active patient participation.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233523
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • An overview of analgesic methodologies in orthodontics

    • Authors: Jamal M. Alqahtani, Sarah A. Alzaid, Omar A. Aldhaban, Elaf D. Alshdokhe, Saleh A. Alhellal, Yazeed R. Alotaibi, Hassan A. Alyami, Salman S. Albalawi, Hassan M. Alharthi, Maram M. Hakami, Atheer A. Alblowi
      Pages: 4993 - 4997
      Abstract: Orthodontic treatments aim to enhance teeth functionality and aesthetics through various methods like permanent, removable, and functional appliances. These interventions may involve teeth removal, surgical procedures for alignment, and even jaw position adjustments. The treatment typically starts with the placement of an orthodontic device, followed by periodic adjustments. One major concern for patients is the associated pain, directly linked to the applied force. Various devices influence pain intensity, with fixed devices being more painful. Pain peaks after certain adjustments, like placing separators, and is attributed to decreased blood flow due to brace-induced force. Pain is the primary reason some patients consider discontinuing treatment. Pain management involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches, including the promising but still under-researched low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Dietary changes also play a role during treatment due to pain. Proper nutrition and oral hygiene guidance are essential from orthodontists and general dentists.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233525
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Management and outcomes of apexification procedures in traumatized
           immature teeth

    • Authors: Ainaa A. Alsharif, Faisal S. Masaud, Khalid A. Binjabaan, Naif M. Alwadai, Faisal A. Maroof, Ibrahim A. Shabel, Reham M. Daghriri, Reem M. Alsakr, Alrbab M. Aljeshi, Ali J. Alboori, Nadin S. Mulla
      Pages: 4998 - 5003
      Abstract: The oral health of pediatric patients is a significant concern, with dental injuries being a common occurrence in this vulnerable population. Traumatic injuries to immature teeth, characterized by incomplete root development and open apices, present unique challenges that require specialized clinical management. Understanding the anatomy and developmental characteristics of immature teeth is crucial for effective management. Historically, apexification procedures relied on calcium hydroxide, but advancements in dental pulp biology led to regenerative endodontics, a transformative approach that preserves pulp vitality while promoting apical closure. Contemporary techniques include calcium hydroxide apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apexification, and regenerative endodontics, each with its advantages and considerations. Patient selection, radiographic assessment, choice of biocompatible materials, and post-operative care are key components of contemporary apexification protocols. Advanced imaging modalities like cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) enhance diagnostic accuracy. Challenges in apexification procedures include infection control, the risk of root fractures, and dealing with resorption phenomena. Moreover, pediatric patients require special attention to address compliance and psychological factors. The long-term outcomes of apexification procedures extend beyond clinical and radiographic parameters and encompass growth and development as well as the quality of life of pediatric patients. Preservation of arch integrity, prevention of malocclusion, and maintaining oral health-related quality of life are vital considerations.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233526
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The critical role of diet and nutrition in managing inflammatory bowel

    • Authors: Khalid Mohammed Al Ghamdi, Husain Ali Alrahma, Faisal Abdulaziz Alkanhal, Faisal Twairesh Alhamazani, Ebtehaj Saud Aloraini, Nahed Ghazi Alqadiri, Mohammed Zakaria Alhawsawi, Atyaf Ali Thabet, Riyadh Jamil Ajzaji, Jamal Saeed Nasser, Hassan Mohammed Almarzooq, Rozana Bawareth
      Pages: 5004 - 5008
      Abstract: The persistent inflammation during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can severely harm the GI tract. There are several symptoms of IBD, which produce discomfort, frequent bowel movements, blood in stools, loss of weight, and tiredness, which have an impact on the lives of patients and their nutritional health. Managing IBD involves paying attention to diet and nutrition. It is important to identify trigger foods for each individual using methods like keeping food diaries or following plans recommended by dietitians that are low in residue or FODMAPs. Nutritional deficiencies, common in IBD, require attention to prevent malnutrition, muscle wasting, and complications. Having a proper dietary plan and accounting for disease characteristics and patient preferences is essential. Also, medication interactions are important during dietary monitoring. Dehydration, affecting many IBD patients, underscores the importance of maintaining fluid intake. An approach to managing IBD requires teamwork among healthcare professionals, dietitians, and patients. It involves customizing plans and combining them with medical treatments to achieve the best possible control over the disease.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233542
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Effect of patient education and healthcare campaigns on medication
           adherence in co-morbid patients

    • Authors: Marwah Yakoop Abdullah, Afrah Farhan Alanazi, Abdulaziz Amin Alandijani, Mazen Saleh Alshehri, Faris Saud Aljuaid, Noura Abdullah Bin Saab, Reem Ali Alshihri, Majed Hassan Ali, Mohammed Abdullah Alghamdi, Marwa Yusuf Hammad, Jameel Sami Althumali
      Pages: 5009 - 5013
      Abstract: Co-morbidities are characterized by the presence of multiple chronic diseases within a single individual. They pose an escalating healthcare challenge and managing this growing burden, particularly with non-communicable diseases, has become a major concern. However, a significant impediment to effective management lies in medication nonadherence. The importance of medication adherence has long been a focus of healthcare literature, yet many comorbid patients tend to underestimate its significance, leading to health deterioration. Research studies indicate alarmingly low adherence rates in comorbid patients. To address this issue, patient education and healthcare campaigns have become essential tools in enhancing adherence. The research, which commenced on October 19, 2023, was initiated after an exhaustive review of existing academic literature. Multiple databases, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane, were employed for this comprehensive literature review, utilizing a wide array of medical terminology combinations. The study aims to shed light on potential strategies and educational approaches to enhance medication adherence in comorbid patients. Findings from this research have the potential to influence healthcare policy, the design of tailored interventions, and overall healthcare delivery improvements for co-morbid patients, ultimately leading to enhanced health outcomes, reduced costs, and an improved quality of life.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233807
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • An overview of implant overdenture attachment systems

    • Authors: Razin Hassan Subahi, Nouf Abduallah Al Sultan, Raghdan Adel Hafiz, Abdullah Hussain Alasmari, Sabirin Habeeb Almahdi, Ali Obaid Al Harbi, Talal Suliman Alsobhi, Mohammad Abdulrahman Algamdi, Naif Fahhad Alshammari, Nora Mohammed Khashab, Haneen Ali Al-Qahtani
      Pages: 5014 - 5020
      Abstract: Implant-retained overdentures have revolutionized dental prosthetics, addressing the limitations of traditional removable dentures. These overdentures rely on attachment systems to anchor them to dental implants or abutments, improving stability, retention, and functionality. Common attachment systems include locator attachments, bar attachments, magnets, Hader clips, ERA attachments, telescopic crowns, and OT equator attachments. Each offers unique benefits and retention levels. Implant survival rates are influenced by various factors, including attachment type, but overall, attachment choice may not be the primary determinant of implant success. Attachment systems that evenly distribute forces, like bar attachments, contribute to implant stability. Marginal bone loss can affect implant stability and is influenced by attachment systems. Precision attachments, such as telescopic crowns, have shown reduced marginal bone loss in practice. Soft tissue complications, including inflammation and mucositis, vary by attachment but can be managed with proper oral hygiene. Retention, crucial for function, varies with attachment type and implant number. More implants generally improve retention, although it may decrease over time. Bar attachments typically provide superior retention. Maintenance is essential, with some debate over whether bar or stud designs entail more upkeep. Patient satisfaction is high with both bar and ball attachments, while magnets may pose retention issues. The choice of attachment depends on patient needs and clinical factors, with regular follow-up and maintenance essential for long-term success.
      PubDate: 2023-11-10
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233538
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Discontinuation strategies and long-term outcome of antidepressant

    • Authors: Mohammad A. Bakhiader, Ibrahim Alsultan, Abdulrahman Alelowi, Mohammed Aloufi, Saleh Almatrafi, Fahad Aljohani, Tariq Almuzaini, Hasan Shalaby, Zobaidah Abuhawi, Reyam Nassif, Shadi Showaihi
      Pages: 5021 - 5025
      Abstract: In terms of the treatment of depression, it is proven by many research that antidepressant drug has a significant impact on the treatment of depression patients. They can make them feel better and cope with their challenges. However, discontinuing these medications can be challenging due to concerns such as relapse, withdrawal symptoms, recurrence, and patient preferences. In this paper, we conducted a review of research on strategies for stopping antidepressants. Explored their long-term effects. By analyzing randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, we gained insights into discontinuation methods and the extended impact of antidepressant use. Findings from quality evidence suggest that abruptly stopping antidepressants increases the risk of relapse or recurrence compared to reducing dosage or continuing with medication. Similarly, reducing dosage gradually helps in decreasing the risk and severity of withdrawal symptoms when compared to discontinuation or continued use without tapering off. Furthermore, psychological interventions like therapy or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy are identified as a best protocol for preventing relapse or recurrence after discontinuing antidepressants. These interventions are found to be particularly effective for patients experiencing symptoms or having risk factors. Additionally, although there is evidence regarding the long-term outcomes of using antidepressants beyond two years, some studies suggest that additional interventions such as patient education, shared decision-making processes monitoring progress, and providing feedback can assist in supporting successful discontinuation by improving adherence and patient satisfaction. In summary, stopping antidepressant medication is a process that necessitates assessment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233549
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Dental stem cells and their applications in pediatric dentistry

    • Authors: Roaa M. Aldomyati, Hussain K. Alghamdi, Eman I. Alzahrani, Lama M. Alkhudhayr, Sultanah M. Binthabit, Jumana H. Subahi, Fawaz H. Alzahrani, Mawaddah N. Alsulaimani, Shihnaz M. Algarni, Mariam G. Abdulaziz, Othoob T. Almusayyab
      Pages: 5026 - 5030
      Abstract: Regenerative medicine has garnered significant attention due to its transformative impact on disease management and the restoration of optimal bodily functions. Stem cells, a cornerstone of regenerative medicine, are particularly renowned for their remarkable capacity to facilitate tissue regeneration and repair, revolutionizing modern healthcare by offering diverse treatment avenues for multiple conditions. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), a subset of postnatal stem cells, are especially noteworthy for their extensive proliferation and ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. In the realm of pediatric dentistry, there exists a pressing need for advancements in regenerative medicine. Thorough research in this domain has the potential to propel evidence-based pediatric dentistry, ensuring that children receive tailored, high-quality care. Stem cells hold immense promise in pediatric dentistry by offering less invasive and regenerative solutions for a range of childhood dental issues and congenital anomalies. This research, initiated on 04 October 2023, was instigated following an exhaustive review of existing literature utilizing databases like PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane. The literature search encompassed a wide array of medical terminologies. Dental stem cells are categorized into four major types: DPSCs, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Pediatric dentistry, encompassing endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics, and the treatment of craniofacial defects, stands to benefit significantly from the potential of dental stem cells. The preservation of dental pulp stem cells extracted from deciduous and permanent teeth through tooth banking offers a source for future regenerative therapies. The preservation process involves multiple comprehensive steps. In summary, dental stem cells present a promising avenue within pediatric dentistry, offering multifaceted applications ranging from pulpal regeneration and dentin repair to orthodontic support and the treatment of craniofacial anomalies.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233550
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The role of MRI in assessing cognitive impairment changes

    • Authors: Doha Jamal Ahmad, Ahmed Abdullah Alghamdi, Nada Aeydh Alshahrani, Fatimah Mofareh Albarrati, Sarah Ali Alshehri, Nouf Essa Talbi, Mohammed Fadhel Alshehri, Najla Juma Alomani, Israa Hamdan Alshehri, Hussain Hatim Al Hutaylah, Mohammad Dakhilalla Alghanmi
      Pages: 5031 - 5037
      Abstract: Aging brings about various changes in the brain, leading to cognitive alterations that are increasingly relevant with extended life expectancy. Dementia, characterized by chronic cognitive impairment, is on the rise due to longer life expectancy, imposing a substantial burden on healthcare systems. Dementia encompasses conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and frontotemporal dementia, each with its distinct symptoms and progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially 3T MRI, plays a crucial role in monitoring and diagnosing dementia, aiding in patient selection for emerging therapies. Study involves a comprehensive literature search without restrictions on date, language, age/publication type. Dementia can be divided into neurodegenerative and nondegenerative categories, with AD being the most prevalent. Diagnosis relies on clinical evaluation, supported by neuroimaging techniques like MRI. Various MRI findings, such as cerebral atrophy, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and strategic infarcts, offer insights into dementia-related brain changes. These findings facilitate early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring, with standardized assessment tools and volumetric analysis enhancing diagnostic accuracy. As life expectancy continues to rise, MRI's role in assessing cognitive impairment changes becomes increasingly vital in addressing the growing challenge of dementia.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233552
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome: a review of immunotherapy, rehabilitation,
           and long-term outcomes

    • Authors: Bayan M. Ali, Ahmed A. Alghamdi, Wadha R. Alanazi, Asma A. Alsamti, Abdulaziz F. Allahyani, Mohammed M. Altalhi, Ali A. Alghamdi, Shubaily F. Alareef, Ali H. Alsedrah, Mosaed S. Algarbo, Mohammed A. Alshehri
      Pages: 5038 - 5043
      Abstract: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by the rapid onset of motor weakness and sensory disturbances, often precipitated by preceding infections. GBS is considered a rare disorder, with an estimated annual incidence ranging from 0.6 to 4.0 cases per 100,000 individuals. It constitutes a medical emergency due to its potential for severe disability or mortality. The hallmark clinical features of GBS include progressive symmetric muscle weakness and sensory disturbances. Diagnosis relies on clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electrodiagnostic studies, with the Brighton criteria providing standardized diagnostic criteria. The hallmark clinical features include progressive symmetric muscle weakness, sensory deficits, and areflexia or hyporeflexia. The management of GBS primarily involves supportive care and immunomodulatory therapies. Plasmapheresis, or plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) are the mainstay treatments aimed at modulating the immune response and shortening the illness duration. Rehabilitation, encompassing physical and occupational therapy, is pivotal for restoring functionality and improving long-term outcomes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233808
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Hernia repair techniques: a comparative analysis of mesh types

    • Authors: Mohammed F. Qaffas, Ibrahim Y. Alnami, Mariam S. Barni, Ghadeer E. Tammam, Mohammed A. Alharthi, Abdulaziz K. Alharbi, Khaled H. Alnhas, Mutasem S. Kutbi, Abdulmohsen A. Almuhaysin, Hamed S. Alshamrani, Asma M. Asiri
      Pages: 5044 - 5048
      Abstract: A hernia is a condition characterized by the protrusion of an internal organ, often part of the intestine, through a weakened area in the surrounding muscle and tissue. Surgical intervention is the primary treatment option for most hernias, with procedures known as herniorrhaphy or hernioplasty. Traditional open surgery involves a sizable abdominal incision, granting direct access to the herniated tissue. Alternatively, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery utilizes small incisions and specialized instruments, including a camera, for repair. Synthetic or biological mesh is frequently employed to reinforce weakened muscle or tissue, reducing hernia recurrence risk. Mesh is integral to hernia treatment, providing critical reinforcement and enabling tension-free closure. This article's rationale lies in the necessity for a comprehensive comparative analysis of hernia repair techniques, with a particular focus on the influence of different mesh types in abdominal hernia surgery. This research, initiated on 17 October 2023, involved an exhaustive review of existing literature via databases like PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane, employing a broad range of medical terminology combinations. The management of hernias has evolved significantly, and open hernia repair, especially using the Shouldice technique, remains valuable when the mesh is unavailable or undesired. Modern tension-free repair techniques, such as Lichtenstein and plug and patch, provide similar outcomes. Laparoscopic hernia repair, despite the longer surgery duration, offers advantages in terms of recurrence, recovery, and postoperative discomfort. Mesh selection is vital, with options like polypropylene, polyester, composite, biological, and 3D offering tailored attributes. The choice should consider patient history, hernia type, and surgeon expertise, necessitating awareness of evolving techniques and materials for optimal outcomes in hernia repair.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233809
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Endodontic treatment considerations in patients with special healthcare

    • Authors: Ainaa Abdulmoeen Alsharif, Osama Abdulmohsen Almuqhim, Sliman Mohamad Alhowimel, Alanoud Sameer Alfarran, Rakan Nejer Alotaibi, Zahra Ahmed Alhuwayji, Faisal Mohammed Al-Bakri, Ibtisam Abdulaziz Almotairi, Lama Salman Alhazmi, May Awad Alanazi, Lama Abdullah Alshumaymiri
      Pages: 5049 - 5054
      Abstract: Individuals with special needs may have conditions that are either present from birth, arise from environmental factors, or are acquired later in life. These conditions can significantly restrict their ability to engage in everyday activities, such as self-care tasks and essential life activities. Special needs encompass a wide range of conditions, including physical, developmental, mental, sensory, behavioral, and emotional impairments. These individuals may face challenges in communication and cooperation during dental treatment. Various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, bleeding disorders, and pregnancy, also impact endodontic care. Management strategies include careful evaluation, the use of general anesthesia, and minimizing technical compromises. Dental professionals deal with individuals in their everyday routines who suffer from a variety of medical conditions and special circumstances The review further discusses considerations for patients with bleeding disorders, diabetes, lung disorders, HIV, and those undergoing cancer treatment. Finally, it highlights the unique challenges of providing endodontic care to elderly patients and COVID-19-positive individuals, emphasizing the importance of safety protocols during the pandemic.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233810
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Evaluation, treatment, complications, and prognosis of craniosynostosis

    • Authors: Ebtihal A. Sindy, Ebtehal M. Aloudah, Saud F. Alamani, Abdullah M. Alqahtani, Hussain R. Alawad, Abdullah A. Alteraigi, Faisal A. Alrawsaa, Mohammed S. Alharbi, Suzan I. Sangoura, Ahmad U. Shehatah, Reem M. Hakami
      Pages: 5055 - 5060
      Abstract: Craniosynostosis is a congenital craniofacial anomaly that typically presents at birth and affects the skull's shape. It is characterized by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in infants, which can impair brain development and function. While craniosynostosis is considered rare, it has a global prevalence of around three to six cases in 10,000 live births. This review article aims to synthesize the latest developments in diagnostic techniques, treatment strategies, and potential complications for the benefit of healthcare providers, researchers, and affected families. This review commenced on 31 October 2023, following a thorough examination of existing literature. Diverse databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane, were utilized for the literature review. Early diagnosis and evaluation involve a multidisciplinary approach, including clinical assessments, medical history reviews, and advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical intervention is the primary treatment option, with the goal of releasing or reshaping the fused sutures to allow for normal skull growth. While open surgical procedures like suturectomy have been prevalent, less invasive methods like minimally invasive endoscopic strip craniectomy are becoming more popular due to reduced complications. Untreated craniosynostosis can lead to complications such as increased intracranial pressure, developmental delays, vision and hearing problems, and psychosocial impacts, emphasizing the importance of timely intervention. However, surgical treatments carry their own risks, necessitating a well-planned and individualized approach. Overall, the prognosis for craniosynostosis is generally positive, and factors such as the specific type of craniosynostosis, the timing of treatment, and the quality of post-operative care all influence outcomes. Prenatal diagnosis and multidisciplinary care have emerged as valuable tools for improving prognosis.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233811
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Diabetes prevention in primary care: a review of lifestyle interventions,
           screening, and risk reduction

    • Authors: Marwah Y. Abdullah, Emtenan A. Esmael, Khalid M. Alqahtani, Kholoud H. Qahl, Naif A. Alanazi, Hashim W. Alshakhs, Fahad A. Alayyash, Yousef A. Almalki, Mohammed A. Alharbi, Ahmed I. Alharbi, Maram S. Alhamdan
      Pages: 5061 - 5066
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus, a global health crisis, necessitates effective prevention strategies. The prevalence of diabetes is on a relentless rise, leading to severe complications and imposing a substantial societal burden. Diabetes prevention has taken center stage in the public health arena. The imperative to develop effective strategies for preventing diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, has never been more apparent. The primary goal of diabetes screening is to identify individuals at risk of developing the disease, particularly type 2 diabetes. This paper explores the multifaceted landscape of diabetes prevention, emphasizing the role of lifestyle modifications, screening, and risk reduction. Lifestyle modifications encompass dietary changes, physical activity, and behavioral adjustments, forming the foundational approach. Screening, with various methods and risk assessment tools, identifies at-risk individuals, allowing for timely interventions. Risk reduction strategies target modifiable factors and are essential for both preventing diabetes onset and mitigating complications. These approaches empower individuals, healthcare professionals, and policymakers to combat diabetes's increasing prevalence and its associated health and economic consequences.
      PubDate: 2023-11-16
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233551
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The effect of dentures on oral health and the quality of life

    • Authors: Alabbas A. Jar, Abdullah A. Khormi, Norah A. Al-khamiss, Atheer A. Alnaim, Zainab F. Alharbi, Hesham A. Holba, Abdullah S. Alshamrani, Anwer A. Khormi, Amani S. Alharbi, Arwa M. Almutairi, Faisal A. Alhegbani
      Pages: 5067 - 5071
      Abstract: Dentures, as versatile dental prostheses, wield a multifaceted influence on individuals' lives, profoundly affecting both their oral health and overall quality of life. The clinical manifestations of denture-related concerns encompass a spectrum of physical, psychological, and functional dimensions. Physically, dentures restore masticatory function and address aesthetic concerns, bridging the gap between tooth loss and oral functionality. Psychologically, they elevate self-esteem and reduce social anxiety, facilitating enhanced self-confidence and improved social interactions. Functionally, dentures enhance articulation and speech clarity, enabling effective communication. Effective denture management, in the contemporary landscape of dental care, involves a comprehensive approach that combines precision, technology, hygiene, and patient education. Digital dentistry techniques ensure precise denture fitting, and advanced technologies facilitate regular check-ups, leading to well-fitting, comfortable dentures. Meticulous denture hygiene practices prevent oral health complications. Patient education empowers individuals to maintain their oral health effectively, while addressing psychosocial concerns remains a crucial empathetic dimension of patient care. In conclusion, dentures have evolved as transformative solutions for individuals facing tooth loss, addressing clinical manifestations related to impaired oral function, aesthetic concerns, and psychosocial challenges. Modern denture management embraces the latest dental technologies, hygiene practices, and patient-centered approaches to optimize outcomes. Staying current with advancements in denture care ensures that these dental prostheses continue to enhance oral health and overall well-being effectively, reaffirming their indispensable role in modern dentistry.
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233524
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Applying the socioecological framework as a methodological approach to
           combat chronic diseases challenges: a case-in-point illustration using a
           narrative review of factors for tuberculosis medication non-adherence in

    • Authors: Nirmal A. Ahuja, Norman Benjamin B. Fredrick
      Pages: 5072 - 5083
      Abstract: The “slow-moving disaster” of chronic diseases has wide-ranging social implications. While prevention of chronic diseases has shifted from individual behavioral interventions to broad socio-ecological interventions, an organizing framework for complex chronic disease situations could prove to be valuable. In this article, we proposed the socio-ecological framework as one solution to identify gaps at multiple levels and guide further research, intervention efforts, and policy direction for individual chronic diseases. We illustrate this through a case-in-point example in the form of a narrative review of factors of nonadherence to therapy for tuberculosis in India. A literature search was conducted within PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, and the Penn State Harrell Library Resources to identify peer-reviewed articles emanating from India describing factors associated with nonadherence to tuberculosis medications. The factors for non-adherence to tuberculosis medication were reported and described as individual (age, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, etc.), interpersonal (patients, family, & friends, stigma & discrimination, patient-provider relationship, etc.), organizational, community and policy levels of the socioecological model. Furthermore, gaps in the literature pertaining to these factors of nonadherence were also identified and categorized at each level of the socioecological model. The socio-ecological framework has the potential for broader and more comprehensive application to other chronic diseases and the problems associated. Integrating and conceptualizing these contributors organizes the complexities around chronic diseases that may, in turn, inform various policymakers, researchers, program implementation experts, and field personnel in formulating the desired strategy to combat the challenges.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233812
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Strength in struggle: unravelling the journey of national vector borne
           disease control programme India: a comprehensive SWOT analysis

    • Authors: Prabhjeet Kaur, Preet Verma
      Pages: 5084 - 5090
      Abstract: India, like many other regions, faces the substantial burden of vector-borne diseases. Initially confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions, vector-borne diseases are now spreading to new geographies due to increasing unplanned urbanization, changes in land use, growing international travel, and the impact of climate and environmental dynamics. To address these challenges, India implemented the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) in 2003-04, which targets the prevention and control of the six vector-borne diseases. Over the years, numerous initiatives have been undertaken to combat the challenges posed by vector-borne diseases in India. The successes, such as streamlined resource utilization and the introduction of effective tools, have led to substantial reductions in disease burden. Nevertheless, issues like manpower shortages, logistical hurdles, and a lack of research resources remain as challenges. Moreover, the program must confront emerging threats posed by urbanization, climate change, and resistance to treatments. NVBDCP's roadmap for the future includes embracing opportunities like vaccine development, and research, as well as fostering collaborations with partners. By addressing its weaknesses and effectively managing the threats at hand, the program can continue its vital mission of combatting vector-borne diseases in India. The implementation of these strategies is essential to ensure the sustained success of disease control and prevention efforts in the country.
      PubDate: 2023-11-14
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233543
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Unveiling the laws for doctors: a dire necessity

    • Authors: Vasudha Khanna, K. Madan Gopal
      Pages: 5091 - 5094
      Abstract: The Hon'ble supreme court of India and various high courts have repeatedly pointed out that every criminal offence is an offence against the state (The nation). In many such cases, a medical examination is required to ascertain the causes of injury/death so that an appropriate and timely legal action can be taken to impart justice. The high court of Allahabad has also observed that the medico legal report (MLR), if given clearly, can either endorse the incident as given by the eye witnesses or can disprove the incident to a great extent. But what if the medical practitioner conducting the medical examination pleads ignorance of the legal provisions and procedures, leading to non-accumulation of the essential medical evidence' Though bound by the legal principle of ‘ignorance of the law is no excuse,’ the Judiciary will not entertain such a plea; nonetheless, justice would be compromised. Further, the trusts of the patients would also be at stake. This manuscript attempts to address the said concerns and the ones accompanying it so that neither the medical practitioners nor the patient and, most importantly, the nation becomes the victim of oblivion, and thus, reaching the only resolution- ‘National medico-legal protocol’ as necessitated not only by the facts, but also the regulation - the criminal procedure (Amendment) act, 2005.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233813
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • Assessing prescribing practices in Indian health facilities: a
           comprehensive review

    • Authors: Danish Razdan, Shikha Yadav, Kavita Rajesh Gudibanda, Vibhor Dudhraj, Shailja Anand, Suneet Kaur, Arti Bahl
      Pages: 5095 - 5101
      Abstract: Prescription patterns play a critical role in healthcare delivery, affecting the efficacy of medication therapy and resource utilization. Rational prescribing practices are essential for safe and effective healthcare, necessitating comprehensive prescriptions containing medication details, prescriber information, and patient instructions. This review explores prescription completeness and rationality, utilizing WHO prescribing indicators and other completeness metrics, across Indian healthcare facilities. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar for original research articles published between 2013 and 2023, focusing on WHO-recommended prescribing indicators and completeness criteria. Inclusion criteria covered articles in English, spanning primary, secondary, or tertiary care settings. Data from selected articles were extracted and analysed. Data were synthesized from sixty-seven studies, depicting various prescribing practices. The assessment encompassed prescribing, patient care, and facility indicators. Findings highlighted challenges such as illegible prescriptions, incomplete details, polypharmacy, brand name dominance, and inappropriate antibiotic use. Despite WHO recommendations, generic prescribing was limited. This review reiterates the need for interventions to enhance prescription quality, patient safety, and cost-effectiveness. Recommendations include adopting electronic prescribing systems, standardizing prescription formats, conducting regular prescription audits, implementing educational programs, promoting generic drug use, and adhering to essential medicines lists. These multifaceted strategies can improve prescribing practices and ultimately contribute to enhanced healthcare outcomes in India.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233814
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
  • The impact of lockdowns or severe social restrictions during COVID-19
           pandemic on glycaemic control of adults suffering with type 2 diabetes
           mellitus: a review

    • Authors: Sanaulla Sheik, Samar Sultana, Shafia Haqh
      Pages: 5102 - 5111
      Abstract: Glycemic control in diabetes has shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce both microvascular and microvascular complications in diabetes mellitus. In 2020, with the globe facing COVID-19 pandemic the governments and authorities resorted to lockdowns to reduce the spread of infection. We aimed to find the impact of lockdowns during COVID-19 pandemic on glycaemic control of adults suffering with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (T2DM). We systematically searched 5 medical databases MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, web of science and Cochrane library up to 16th November 2021 using key terms. Total of 24899 articles were identified by the search, of which 17571 articles were excluded for duplication, 7303 were excluded after screening for title and abstract, and further 16 articles excluded after full text review. We analyzed the final 9 observational studies fulfilling the criteria. There are 2177 participants from final 9 observational studies, 5 studies showed worsening glycemic control during lockdown period, 2 reported improvement and 2 showed no significant change. We noticed that weight was correlating with glycated hemoglobin change. Studies with lockdown period >10weeks reported greater HbA1c deterioration and farther HbA1c when done from start of lockdown, the higher HbA1c values noticed. Glycemic control overall in type 2 diabetes has worsened due to lockdown measures which may be due to reduced physical activity, change in diet or psychosocial changes. There has also been increase in BMI (Body Mass Index) correlating with raise in HbA1c. More in-depth review is required into long term impact of lockdowns on diabetes.
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20233815
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 12 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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